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Berk, Ch 7, pp. 246-285: Be able to name and describe the first two stages in Eriksons psychosocial theory and the ages to which they apply . Basic Trust vs. Mistrust: infancy- When the balance of care is sympathetic and loving, the psychological conflict of the first year- basic trust versus mistrust- is resolved on the positive side. If the trusting infant feels confident about venturing out and exploring it, he emerges from this stage well-prepared for toddlerhood. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: toddlerhood- This conflict is resolved favorably when parents provide young children with suitable guidance and reasonable choices. Toddlers do best when they are not attacked for failing at new skills, like toilet training and putting away toys, and when his parents meet his assertions of independence with tolerance and understanding (ex: giving him an extra five minutes to finish playing before leaving for the grocery store). Both basic trust and autonomy grow out of warm, sensitive parenting and reasonable expectations for impulse control starting in the second year. If a child emerges from these stages without trust in caregivers and a sense of individuality, adjustment problems may occur later in life. When do infants begin social smiling; when do they begin laughing? Social smiling: between 6 and 10 weeks Laughing: 3-4 months What do we know about the development of the four basic emotions of happiness, anger, sadness, and fear in infants? The basic emotions are universal in humans and other primates and have a long evolutionary history of promoting survival. Sensitive, contingent caregiver communication helps infants construct emotional expressions. Around 6 months, face, gaze, voice, and posture form organized patterns that vary meaningfully with environmental events. By the middle of the first year, emotional expressions are well-organized and specific. What is stranger anxiety? Stranger Anxiety: A fear of unknown adults- the most frequent expression of fear What is social referencing? Social referencing: actively seeking emotional information from a trusted person in an uncertain situation. What are the self-conscious emotions and when do they begin to appear? Self-conscious emotions: a second, higher-order set of feelings, including guilt, shame, embarrassment, envy and pride. They are called self-conscious emotions because each involves injury to or enhancement of our sense of self. They appear in the middle of the second year (18-24 months) What is emotional self-regulation? Emotional self-regulation: the strategies we use to adjust our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals. (ex: reminding yourself that an anxiety-provoking situation will be over soon) Provide some examples of how infants manage self-regulation.... View Full Document

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