11intake output measurement module 11
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11intake output measurement module 11

Course Number: HEALTH 134, Spring 2012

College/University: Xavier LA

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MODULE # 11 INTAKE AND OUTPUT MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE To be able to measure correctly and keep accurate records of patients fluid intake and output. THE USE OF THIS SKILL Many illnesses cause changes in the bodys ability to maintain fluid balance. Intake can be decreased as a result of anorexia, nausea, vomiting and many other conditions. Output can be altered by various disease processes in the body, especially...

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# MODULE 11 INTAKE AND OUTPUT MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE To be able to measure correctly and keep accurate records of patients fluid intake and output. THE USE OF THIS SKILL Many illnesses cause changes in the bodys ability to maintain fluid balance. Intake can be decreased as a result of anorexia, nausea, vomiting and many other conditions. Output can be altered by various disease processes in the body, especially kidney and heart problems. Many health conditions require a careful measurement of both intake and output for proper patient assessment. A record of this measurement is maintained for the use of all health team members including caregiver. INITIATING MEASUREMENT A patients fluid intake and fluid output may be measured for a variety of reasons. This specific information may be important to a complete and accurate assessment. The physicians may order that intake and output be measured for any of these reasons or for diagnosis and treatment progress. Most post-operative patients and patients with indwelling catheters are routinely on intake and output measurement. ITEMS MEASURED: INTAKE Measure all items that are naturally fluid at room temperature. These include water, milk, juice, and all other beverages, as well as ice cream, gelatin, and soups. Do not measure pureed foods, this are simply solids that are prepared in a different OUTPUT- Urine is the major output item that is measured. In the healthy person, the volume or urine excreted is approximately equal to the volume of the oral fluid ingested, and water derived from solid food and from chemical oxidation in the body approximately equals the normal losses of water through the lungs and skin and in the stool. Vomitus, drainage from suction devices, wound drainage, and bleeding are abnormal losses of fluid. They should always be measured or estimated. KEEPING BEDSIDE RECORDS- A record must be kept at the patients beside or in the patients so room that measurements can be recorded immediately. A form is a open taped near the wash basin or in the door as a reminder to the health care team. Make a complete listing of the items measured and their quantities on this record. COLLECTING SPECIMENS OBJECTIVE To collect and handle specimens correctly, with emphasis on the needs and comfort of patient. USE OF THIS SKILL Specimens obtained by the nurse and caregiver a signed, with assistance of the Nurse, may be the key to the diagnoses and therapies of the patients concerned. To Handle the task well, the correct methods of obtaining and handling specimens, and how to care patients subsequently. When collecting specimens, wear clean gloves for protection from contact with body fluids. Collecting Urine- Most specimens needed for routine analysis are obtained by having the patient void into a receptacle after cleaning the perineum. These specimens are considered clean, not sterile. If the patient already has an Indwelling catheter in place, you may obtain a sterile specimen by using a sterile syringe and needle and extracting a small amount of urine through the port designed for that purpose. All urine specimens should be sent to the laboratory promptly to prevent deterioration of the specimen, which can alter the analysis. If a 24 hour specimen is ordered, t is time to begin in the morning. Before you begin the timing, the patient should void and not save this urine, for it is urine that has been in the bladder for some time. Collecting Stool A single stool specimen may be ordered, or on occasion, the physician may want specimens obtained from three subsequent and different defecation. Usually only a small amount of a stool needs to be collected from a bedpan. Stool can be tested for blood, pus, ova, and parasite determination. The specimen should go promptly to the laboratory before it cools, since cooling makes organism less detectable.

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