Test 1 Review
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Test 1 Review

Course Number: GEOG 250, Spring 2013

College/University: Arizona

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-natural geographic features that characterize the physiographic southwest: climate and geology, especially hydrographic basins (Rio Grande and Colorado River) high plateaus, deep canyons, rugged mountains, deserts, basin-and-range, low precipitation natural boundaries (hydrographic basins) ; Rio Grande and Colorado River Drainages define the Southwest Climate: air temp, temperature ranges, aridity, isolation...

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geographic -natural features that characterize the physiographic southwest: climate and geology, especially hydrographic basins (Rio Grande and Colorado River) high plateaus, deep canyons, rugged mountains, deserts, basin-and-range, low precipitation natural boundaries (hydrographic basins) ; Rio Grande and Colorado River Drainages define the Southwest Climate: air temp, temperature ranges, aridity, isolation ; areas where average july temp exceeds 90 degrees Rainfall: limited precip., and rarely from north, northeast, or east ; lots of areas with less the 12 inches of annual rainfall Geology: basin and range; orographic effect (rain shadows); altitude; tall mountains; deserts; intermediate grasslands -things that make the Southwest unique? physical geography, pluralistic ethnic makeup, unique cultural traditions prehistoric native peoples one of oldest recrods of human habitation on planet (evidence for more than 25,000 years lived in caves, hunted now extinct things) controlled by Spanish empire (16th-19th centuries) contemporary native americans largest number in US found in physiographic SW. -what did European (Spanish, mostly), domination of the Southwest entail? When did it begin and end? 1500s and 1600s : Expansion of European Domination systematic incorporation of indigenous people into trade and political systems attempt to supplant religious beliefs, worldviews, and life-ways with those of northern Europe (for SW, mostly Catholicolism) not straightforward process -types of Indian economies and social organization/settlement patterns seen in the southwest around 1600 (when the Spanish really began to colonize the region)? vast array of people, places, cultures, and language groups sedentary agriculturalists (corn, beans, squash) shared in common with Meso-America no large empires or state organization (except for Hohokam) little written tradition, no market system lack of state organization made conquest more difficult Four different Types of Economy and Social Organization o Rancheria Peoples: fixed settlements of scattered houses; substistence combination (wild foods and agriculture) o Village Peoples: intensive irrigated and dry farming (Rio Grande area of New Mexico) o Band Peoples: nomadic and semi-nomadic; Athapaskan speakers from Alaska and Canada (1300s); dog sleds; Apaches and Navajos o Non-agricultural bands: exceptional in the region; utilization of wild foods; roving bands e.g. the Seris on the coast of Sonora -know the basic dates of the Spanish, Mexican, and US (Anglo) periods of the Southwest Spanish Period : 1530s to 1820s Mexican Period: 1820s to 1848 US Period: 1848 (and 1854) to present -Spanish, Mexican, and US ideas about civilization for Native Americans? Spaniards Ideal of Civilizing Savages and Savage Places o missionaries, military captains, settlers, and colonial administrators o markers of civilization: Castilian Spanish; adobe/stone houses; mens pants; loyalty to King and Pope o urban settlement ; cattle/livestock Mexican Ideal of Civilization and Citizenship o Mexicanized Castilian Spanish, urbanization, mens pants, and rectangular houses o Differences: indiviudal (private) landholding, elective/representative govt; no king; equality and citizenship; public education Anglo-American Ideal of Civilization (post 1848; 1854) o civilization initially not seen as for Natives : reservations = spatial expression of this idea o as they encroached on Native lands, Anglos thought of themselves as bearers of civilization o English language; US agricultural tech; Indian schools; land titles; protestant variety of christianity Citizenship, Political Sovereignty, and Belonging o Spaniards: emphasis on loyalty to state rather than kin group or family o Mexican citizenship: more akin to that of the US today, through literacy, schooling and economic development; slow process; prompted resistance o Anglo-American citizenship: integration, schooling, and economic development rather than literacy (had means to establish schools); slow to develop formal citizenship Two Contrasting Offical Approaches to Southwests Indigenous People/Enclaves Emerged (over time, in the US and mexico) o Romantic / Idealist indigenous symbolically significant as reminders of a ruthless past and a lost, better, pre-industrial way of life o Practical conquest repackaged as political integration and cultural assimiliation o Effects of this Uncertainty: denied heterogeneity and created instability for Native America and its future -Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848): half of Mexicos territory becomes part of the US (most of this is the present-day Southwest) -Gadsden Purchase (1853): US purchases from Mexico what is now southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico (for a southern railroad passage) -Know the term physiographic province A physiographic province is a geographic region with a specific geomorphology and often specific subsurface rock type or structural elements. Southwest as one: deserts, mountains, grasslands, river basins, etc -Identify primary deserts that make up the Southwest as a more or less contiguous physiographic province colorado plateau (sedimentary rocks; canyonlands formed by erosion; rich in uranisum, coal, petroleum and natural gas), mogollon rim (defines SW edge of colorado plateau; limestone and sandstone escarpment; formed by erosion and faulting) mojave, chihuahuan, great basin (high and dry desert), sonoran, -Know the basics of basin and range geological processes: where they take place (see maps in PowerPoint); overall time period: when did basin and range formation begin? End? What are the basic features of basin and range as a processe.g. volcanism, stretching of the earths crust, etc.). physiography: broad, low-elevation valleys rimmed by long, thin, parallel mtn. ranges bounded by colorado plateau, sierra nevadas, columbia plateau, geology: series of events covering 40 million years o volcanism : 40 to 20 mil years ago ; creates several active volcanic (cone) centers ; now collapsed calderas (eg. Elegante Crater) o below surface (the intense heat softens continental crust) so as the pacific ocean plate moves northwest (away from continent) there is stretching (crust is hot and fluid so stretches up to 100% of original width) o 25 to 20 mil ago: stretching of crust produces north-south trending faults in areas where crust is weakest ancient granites (hot and buoyant) under crust move upward, resulting in series of aligned pimples on landscape (rocks above fault-lines moved as much as 10 miles west) o 12 to 6 mil ago : crust still shattering into thin shards, narrower shards sunk into taffy-life superheated crust, wider ones remained same height : this was the birth of the regions mtns (almost simultaneously) o 8 mil ago : pulling apart stopped; crust cooled; mtns and valleys stabilized o since : main geologic activity is rock debris moving downslope into valleys How?: hyrdaulics (big monsoons), wind erosion, gravity Result : alluvium deposits and alluvial fans, which are valleys filled with as much as 5000 ft of gravel, sand, and clay o 6 mil ago : basin range formation drawing to close, ripping action along pacific coastline (gigantic crack forms), Baja Peninsula pulls away from mainland Mexico, sea of cortez forms, san andreas fault (plates move inches/year extends from northern calif south into sea of cortezs midriff islands) o REDUX: 40-20m : volcanism (cones/calderas): intense heat softens crust; pacific plate heads west; crust begins to stretch 25-20m: crust stretching/weakening; faults develop in weakest spots; granite uplifting (aligned pimples) 12-6m: shattering; thin shards sink, wider ones retained 8m : region stabilizes/ cools; erosion sets in; alluvial fans develop 6m: severe westward ripping on pac coast; san andreas fault forms; baja leaves mex. -What does the term alluvial fan refer to, and what geological processes are involved in their making? What is the relationship between fans alluvial and human settlement? fan shaped deposit formed where a fast flowing stream flattens, slows, and spreads typically at the exit of a canyon onto a flatter plain agrictulure develops along with cities -What are the basic differences in climate and vegetation between the Sonoran Desert today and the Sonoran Desert during the Pleistocene epoch (refer to the slide on this from natural history PowerPoint). Pleistocene (past 1.2m years) : conifer forests, glaciers, pluvial lakes, boreal forests, alpine, subalpine woodlands, desertscrub, pygmy conifer woodlands Moder: Desert, Grassland, Woodland, Parkland Pine, Forest, Subalpine, Alpine, California Coastal and Montane -Know the basics of desert aridity (i.e. the orographic effect, why deserts are dry, etc). climate variability and the condition of aridity characterize the Tucson Basin orographic or rain shadow effect (mountain-induced cooling of rising moist air) o hot air rises, cool air sinks o rising air expands and cools, sinking air compresses and heats o warm air, holding more water vapor, forms clouds, hist mountain slopes and sheds water o on leeward side, air descends, warms, and dries -How do scientists know what they know about the paleo-climate (that is, the climate thousands of years ago)? What methods do they use to study it? packrat middens radiocarbon dating of plant and other material repeat / aerial photography, tree-ring dating, fire-scar histories -Finally, what are the primary indicator plant species of the Sonoran Desert? What is the Sonoran Deserts basic geography (i.e. the statesand portions of statesit covers, both in the US and in Mexico) SE corner of Cali, Baja Cali, SW AZ, and NW Mexico columnar cacti, legume (bean) trees, microphyllum (small leaves) many perennial species (plants/animals) derived from southern tropical thorn-scrub -Know what Pristine Myth refers to. The idea that pre-1492 the Americas hadnt been touched environmentally. It implies that settlers coming in caused the land to change, whereas it may have been far better than it had been. -At the time of Europeans arrival, landscapes in the Americas appear to have been far more reflective of human intervention than once believed. Why would knowledge of this intervention be controversial (e.g. to the modern environmental movement)? The modern environmental movement is gauged at returning lands to pre-1492 conditions. -What were the most transformative things (ideas, technologies, etc) that Spaniards and other Europeans brought with them to the present-day Southwest? winter wheat : year-round farming, larger permanent settlement horses: animal traction, raiding, new animal economy disease: americas bio isolation: no herd animals, exposure led to 66 to 95% decline in Indian pops. -Understand the Columbian Exchange: What things were moving between Europe and the New World, and back again (important: the exchange wasnt just from Europe to the Americas; it also went in the reverse: what would Italian food be without the tomato? What were the main things the Columbian exchange brought to the Southwest? Winter Wheat, Horses, Disease. Corn went out. -What were some of the myths propelling the earliest Spanish expeditions into the Southwest (i.e. what were they seeking)? Seven Cities of Gold (Cibola) Legend Cabezas Myth (great kingdoms in the north) Fray Marcos de Nizas lies fuel Spanish lust for God, glory and gold -Who was Alvar Nez Cabeza de Vaca, and what is significant about his story? Conquistadore : shipwrecked and wandered southwest (florida to texas to sonora) for 7 or 8 years (1528 1536) ; left w/o Spanish stuff; bare; gained apprec for native ways, changed worldview -Who launched the first systematic exploration of the Southwest? When? Francisco Vazquez de Coronado (1540) SW big and empty zone in conclusion -Who were the Athapaskans? Where did they come from? Where did they settle? What two main indigenous groups are their present-day descendents? Forerunners of Navajos and Apaches Alaska,westernCanadaandcoastalCalifornia. Latecomers (1100s) from northern Canada Dispersed across Colorado Plateau Western Apaches (White Mtns) : fused with pueblo culture: matrilineal clans; masked dancers Chiricahua Apaches (Chiricahua Mtns of So. Az) : No clans, less pueblo influence settled in southwest, four corners -What were the two primary dimensions of Spanish conquest/colonization? Sacred Catholic Religious orders, jesuits and franciscans most important in New Spains NW Secular mines, presidios (military), bureaucracy -Who was Father Eusebio Francisco Kino? What is his significance to the region that was known as the Pimera Alta during the time of Spanish rule? What did he bring with him? Jesuit missionary, charismatic and energetic, Pimas responded to his warmth and his drive brought fruit trees, grains, vegetables, God and a new vision of space and geography reduccion: religious catechism and social control, versus nomadism and paganism of natives formed allies out of the Oodham, allowing Hispanic Arizona to survive -What does the term Pimera Alta refer to? Was Tucson a part of the Pimera Alta? site of spanish missions in the sonoran desert, tucson was part of it -What is a presidio? a military fort (Spanish) -What is the Apachera? Why was it troublesome for Spaniards? raiding and blood vengeance, tormented Spaniards and vice versa, vastly limited range of Spanish settlement homeland and refuge for apaches: consisted of twisted upthrust of mountain ranges and river gorges -What were the primary differences between Spanish and Apache societies? Apaches did not think of themselves as a nation or empire : small, independent bands, raiders, warfare united them. Apache society: extremely fluid, free alliances Spanish society: hierarchical, bureaucratized, ethnically rigid -What were relations between Spaniards and Apaches like, particularly towards the end of the Spanish empire in the Southwest? used divisions among Indians themselves to defeat; took 20 years of intense military pressure before achieved a fragile peace; made them dependent, rations -Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821. What effect did this have on Apaches relations with non-Apaches? renewed cycles of violence, firearms shifted balance of power. -What was the nature of Apache/Mexican relations? Who were Geronimo and Cochise? tenous at best. attack and counter-attack (bloody cycle) tucson had a good relationship Geronimo: leader of apache, fought mexico and US ; 1858 to surrender in 1886 Cochise: Chiricahua war chief leader of an uprising that began in 1861- friendship with Tom Jeffords ended wars 1872 -What was the Camp Grant Massacre? Who was John Joel Glanton (chapters 3/4)? attack on apaches who surrendered to US at Camp Grant, AZ. 1871 , near tucson john joel glanton : US Army, then soldier of fotune and mercenary, later glanton gang of scalp hunters in SW. 1849, scalped civilians for more money. glanton massacre, took over fairy, scallped in retaliation. Chapter 4 -This chapter focuses on copper extraction and the relationships between labor, technology, and peoples ethnic backgrounds (ethnicity). Most laborers in copper mines with Mexican or Mexican-American, and they often at odds with their most Anglo (white, European descent) bosses. Mine laborers could be Native American as well, but usually the result was the same: ethnic/racial tensions. -What was the Copper Queen? Who owned/ran it? Walter Douglas copper mine in chocise county az, gave birth to bisbee -What were labor relations like in Arizonas copper mines around the end of the 19th century/early 20th? In particular, what role did ethnicity play in those relations (i.e. relations between Mexican and Anglo-American mine workers, the wobblies, etc.)? wage disparities, economic pecking order; increase in white collar workers; unskilled work force broke strikes, worked for lower wages, and endanger other workers (language)

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