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-natural geographic features that characterize the physiographic southwest: climate and geology, especially hydrographic basins (Rio Grande and Colorado River) high plateaus, deep canyons, rugged mountains, deserts, basin-and-range, low precipitation natural boundaries (hydrographic basins) ; Rio Grande and Colorado River Drainages define the Southwest Climate: air temp, temperature ranges, aridity, isolation ; areas where average july temp exceeds 90 degrees Rainfall: limited precip., and rarely from north, northeast, or east ; lots of areas with less the 12 inches of annual rainfall Geology: basin and range; orographic effect (rain shadows); altitude; tall mountains; deserts; intermediate grasslands-things that make the Southwest unique? physical geography, pluralistic ethnic makeup, unique cultural traditions prehistoric native peoples one of oldest recrods of human habitation on planet (evidence for more than 25,000 years lived in caves, hunted now extinct things) controlled by Spanish empire (16 th-19 th centuries) contemporary native americans largest number in US found in physiographic SW.-what did European (Spanish, mostly), domination of the Southwest entail? When did it begin and end? 1500s and 1600s : Expansion of European Domination systematic incorporation of indigenous people into trade and political systems attempt to supplant religious beliefs, worldviews, and life-ways with those of northern Europe (for SW, mostly Catholicolism) not straightforward process -types of Indian economies and social organization/settlement patterns seen in the southwest around 1600 (when the Spanish really began to colonize the region)? vast array of people, places, cultures, and language groups sedentary agriculturalists (corn, beans, squash) shared in common with Meso-America no large empires or state organization (except for Hohokam) little written tradition, no market system lack of state organization made conquest more difficult Four different Types of Economy and Social Organization o Rancheria Peoples: fixed settlements of scattered houses; substistence combination (wild foods and agriculture) o Village Peoples: intensive irrigated and dry farming (Rio Grande area of New Mexico) o Band Peoples: nomadic and semi-nomadic; Athapaskan speakers from Alaska and Canada (1300s); dog sleds; Apaches and Navajos o Non-agricultural bands: exceptional in the region; utilization of wild foods; roving bands e.g. the Seris on the coast of Sonora-know the basic dates of the Spanish, Mexican, and US (Anglo) periods of the Southwest Spanish Period : 1530s to 1820s Mexican Period: 1820s to 1848 US Period: 1848 (and 1854) to present-Spanish, Mexican, and US ideas about civilization for Native Americans?... View Full Document

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