Bio 120 oct22nd
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Bio 120 oct22nd

Course Number: BIO 120, Fall 2012

College/University: University of Toronto

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Bio 120 Lecture 11: Species Interactions in Subalpine meadows oct22nd Theme: Glacier lily: morphological and ecological characteristics Environmental variables in correlational studies An explanation along with the data on rocks, lilies, gophers Zooming out the evolutionarily via the comparative method: loss of elaisomers Rock refuge hypothesis (ecologically) Regional differences in systems...

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120 Bio Lecture 11: Species Interactions in Subalpine meadows oct22nd Theme: Glacier lily: morphological and ecological characteristics Environmental variables in correlational studies An explanation along with the data on rocks, lilies, gophers Zooming out the evolutionarily via the comparative method: loss of elaisomers Rock refuge hypothesis (ecologically) Regional differences in systems (biogeographically) Glacier Lily: similar to garden Tulips It grows without flowering for number of years, going through a long resource accumulation state Observation: flowering plants seemed to be most numerous where soil surface is very rocky Primary seeds dispersal distance experiment: Primary dispersal is around 23cm. Secondary dispersal: elaiosome have chemicals that are attracted by ants. -gradiflorum has no elaisomers; therefore, ants are not interested Seed Germination Experiment: buried organic soil has the best chance to survive Exposed organic soil, Bury graved soil, Exposed graved soil don't work Ecology summary Long lived, iteroparous: grows as a vegetative plant for years before flowering Resource storage organ is underground corn Seeds subject to desiccation unless in moist conditions Seed dispersal distance minimal Experiment explanations: -Desiccation: should find more plants away from the thin soil around rock outcrops (we thought we saw the opposite) -weak dispersal: should find most seedlings near flowering plants -Need to gather data on plant abundance and environmental factors Set up a 32m squared data Factors trying to measure: -flowering plants -Vegetative plants -seedlings (subsample) -soil moisture -rockiness -predation risk How do we quantify Gopher activity? -flowering plants and seedlings displaced not as expected -prominent diagonal rock outcrop, rockiness and moisture are inversely related because gophers avoid rocks. Patterns: -seeds are produced in rocky areas but most desiccate and die. -only the seeds that can reach the moist, deep soil can survive and reproduce -However, that seedlings are established in deep-soil areas can be killed by gophers before they could flower -Rock-refuge hypothesis Elements that involved in this patterns: Abiotic conditions and stress: desiccation Age structure and life history: delayed iteroparity makes the seed more vulnerable Species interactions: predation Lily realized niche< potential niche Evolutionary ecology of dispersal: no elaiosome Landscapes are patchy and heterogeneous exerting heterogeneous pressures What makes the aspen-meadow matrix? -gophers removed from plot will increase aspen growth -allows aspen to invade the meadow Cantor and Whitham's conclusions: -aspens grow better in deep-soil areas but only when they are protected from gophers. -Rock refuge hypothesis: aspens are centered on rock outcrops. Outward expansion is limited by gophers cutting roots Elements that involved in this pattern: Pocket gophers are keystone species-their existence affects other organisms Indirect effects: gophers hurt lilies directly, but they help them indirectly by acting as a disturbance that prevents succession from turning meadows into forest Climate Change: Increased concentration in the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane) traps more solar heat. Greenhouse gases are essential for the life on earth but not too much As the atmosphere warm, it contains more water. Hadley cells (atmospheric circulation) are driven by heat engine. While the heat goes up, the process goes faster. It makes the Hadley cells bigger and more powerful and descends at higher latitude. -Big belt of Earth is moved. Organisms will have problem with their current habitats Result: Polar bear will extinct- hybrid bears (polar bear mother, grizzly father) are produced Pikas will be in danger because it has nowhere to migrate to (can't go further up on the mountain nor go down the mountain) -sky islands are good high mountains for pikas to live in. However, they are finding decreasing number of pikas (7/25 mountain ranges found disappearing pikas)

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