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recent Most update: Ingrid Splettstoesser, August 10, 6 pm [note tracked changes] AP/ADMS 2511 - Management Information Systems, FINAL EXAMINATION, August 10, 2011 Answer Guide Question 1 (MediHelp) A) In addition to helping doctors decide whether a patient needs MRI testing, provide two other advantages of the MediHelp expert system. (2 marks) Doctors can be more productive with the help of the ES, increase output Doctors can make higher quality decisions; ES can provide consistent advicee and reduce errors in not identifying MRI tests The ES can help to capture and share expertise within the hospital as well as outside to other healthcare providers The ES is more reliable; it does not become tired or bored, call in sick, or go on strike. For marginal or unusual patient cases, the ES can still work with incomplete or uncertain information The ES can be used to train other doctors Enhancement of decisionmaking and problemsolving capabilities ES integrates expert judgement into the medical diagnoses Decreases decisionmaking time Reduces downtime, can assess more patients Source, Ch 11, Section 11.4, p. 322-323, Unit 9/Session 11 Overheads #22, plus tailored examples B) Provide two disadvantages of the MediHelp expert system. (2 marks) Development and use of such systems discourages the acquisition of extensive human knowledge Expensive to develop and maintain well-functioning systems Decisions may be incorrect, especially with incomplete data or at the edges of the expertise of the system Source, Ch 11, Section 11.4, p. 322-323, Unit 9/Session 11 Overheads #23, plus tailored examples C) Why do doctors and hospital managers need IT (information technology) support to help them make decisions? (2 marks) Number of alternatives to be considered is constantly increasing Most decisions must be made under time pressure Increased uncertainty in the decision environment Decisions are becoming more complex Need to rapidly access remote information, consult with experts, or conduct a group decisionmaking session Source, Ch 11, Section 11.1, p. 307 (Session 11) 1 D) For each of the three cost-benefit analysis methods below, describe the method and explain why (or why not) it would be suitable in assisting MidPrairie Regional Hospital in deciding how to acquire the software. (6 marks) Describe the following method of conducting a cost-benefit analysis Net Present Value (NPV) method: Explain why (or why not) this method would be suitable in assisting MidPrairie Regional Hospital in deciding how to acquire the software Commonly used and well known method Can demonstrate to sponsors that the benefits exceed the costs Converts future values of benefits to their present value equivalent by discounting them at the organization's cost of funds or at current interest rates. Does not work when costs and benefits cannot be are well defined Difficult to convert intangible benefits into monetary values Used to compare the present value of future benefits to the cost, to determine whether the benefits exceed costs Break even analysis: Point at which the cumulative dollar value of the benefits from a project equals the investment. Business case approach: A written report (business case) to request and justify funding for one or more specific applications or projects. Relatively simple to calculate and understand Used to assess risk within an investment; earlier the system breaks even the better Short term focus, it ignores value of system benefits after break even Useful for justifying funding and the investment Useful for management to prioritise different applications or projects Can assess alignment of an IT project or investment to the business strategy Helps to provide detailed information about the system benefits to decision makers No disadvantage to this approach: no marks awarded for a disadvantage Source, Ch 12, Section 12.2, p. 340 (Session 12) 2 E) The test scheduling and payment processing systems are standard packaged software systems. Provide three reasons why MidPrairie Regional Hospital would purchase such standard packaged software systems rather than purchasing modified or custom software. (3 marks) Many different types of offtheshelf software are available Software can be tried out before purchase. Time can be saved by buying rather than building (faster implementation) Know what it is getting before it fully invests The company is not the first and only user, so software has been tested Can avoid the need to hire personnel specifically dedicated to a project Lower purchase cost for both purchase and maintenance Source, Ch 12, Section 12.3, p. 341, Table 12.1 (Session 12) F) What should MidPrairie Regional Hospital do successfully manage the system implementation project and help to prevent a project failure? (3 marks) Ensure sufficient project planning Assess potential difficulties in integrating new technology with existing systems Ensure full commitment by management in providing the necessary resources Scope the project fully Allocate sufficient time, staff and resources to complete the project Insist on project management disciplines, e.g. project manager assigned, project reporting, steering committee, etc. Source, Ch 12, Section 12.1, p. 338, (Session 12) items under project management failure, but also points with respect to how to manage projects effectively, etc., a wide variety of responses possible 3 Question 2 (Tasty Pubs) A) What is the difference between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 technologies? (1 mark) Web 1.0, as first generation of the WWW, provided information, but allowed minimal user interaction. (Web 1.0 sites are places to visit.) Web 2.0, as a loose collection of information technologies and applications, enriches user experience, by encouraging participation, social interaction and collaboration. (Web 2.0 sites are services to get something done, usually with other people.) Source: Session 4, Ch 5, Section 5.2, p. 154 B) For each of the following Web 2.0 techniques, describe the technique and clearly describe how Tasty Pubs could use the technique. (4 marks) Note that many examples are possible. Describe the following Web 2.0 technique Tagging: -Allows users to place information in multiple, overlapping associations, rather than in rigid categories -a tag is a keyword that describes a piece of information, that can be used to retrieve web pages, photos, videos and other web content Aggregators: -websites that provide collections of content from the Web Clearly describe how Tasty Pubs could use the technique - Tasty Pubs TBQ site could allow Tastyfans to tag menu items, then use this information to obtain feedback on how customers like the menu selections - tastyfans could tag comments provided by other fans to indicate their concurrence or alternate impressions, thus allowing Tasty pubs to collect rich feedback from many customers -Tasty Pubs could provide, on their TBQ site, collections of news and blogs about new and popular beer varieties, pub foods etc. to entice customers to visit the pub - they could provide in-pub access to news content of interest to pub customers Source: Session 4, Ch 5, Section 5.2, p. 156, 161 4 C) All organizations are subject to the three different categories of business pressures: market pressures, technology pressures and societal/legal/political pressures. For each of these three categories of pressures, provide a clear description of an example of the pressure, and then explain how Tasty Pubs can effectively respond to (or deal with) the pressure. (6 marks) Provide a clear description of an example for each of the following business pressures Market pressure: a). generated by global economy and strong competition, made up of regional agreements, common currency cost of labour (production moving to cheaper labour countries), b). changing nature of the workforce more and more people are working including women, single parents, members of visible minorities and people with disabilities are capable of working in many job positions, c).from power customers increased sophistication & expectations of consumers knowledge of the availability, prices and quality of products and services available .to be purchased in many ways (conventional and electronic methods) Technology pressure: made up from: a).Technology innovation and obsolescence improved technology rapidly create or support substitutions for products, alternative services, and better quality of goods and services. Make new products quickly obsolete. b). Information overload amount of information available to be used today the information on the internet doubles very year. Too much information is now available to managers to make decisions but cannot since there is so much information and need to know how to find it Societal/Political/Legal pressure: a). Social responsibility social issues that affect businesses and individuals. Businesses today are supporting social and community projects by offering money of their employee services for the cause. Businesses are being known in the communities they are located in b). Government regulation businesses are reacting to government regulation in health, environmental, employment, equity and safety issues. Governments are deregulating and reducing taxes for businesses to remain competitive c). Social programs businesses are supporting social program for the community and the world d). Protection against terrorism and fraud business are to prevent these type against the company or the public e). Ethics- are very important for businesses today, if handled poorly organizations images can be damaged or destroyed for good Explain how Tasty Pubs can effectively respond to (or deal with) the pressure that you described. Note that this must specifically address the business pressure that you have described. Keeping costs down by purchasing labour intensive products from Mexico (NAFTA) Any example of using cheap labour from afar The hiring of disabled persons , perhaps with assistive technology. Any example of hiring minorities, women, and single parent in jobs at the pub Keeping ahead of the customers needs and wants since menu items, atmosphere and electronic items like 3DTVs for special events New cooking devices to speed up cooking of food orders. Any technology that can be used in a restaurant The amount of information and detail of from the restaurant itself can be too much to handle. Having charity events at the restaurant where all profit go to that have food drives where people will bring in a food donation for s free tasty plate Green earth projects or purchasing of solar power instead of fossil fuel Any type of responsible social activity Making sure the company follows the government food regulations and safety. Fair pay to employees Become a Foster parent, adopt a park or road in the community Make sure that the computer systems are safe and cannot be tampered with. Keeping of customer information private and credit card information.; Be totally honest and ethical in doing business in the community 5 Source: Session 1, Ch 1, Section 1.5, p. 16-23, plus an applied example D) To help ensure effective privacy protection of consumer data, Tasty Pubs has implemented privacy policy guidelines. Write four statements that are examples of privacy policy guidelines that Tasty Pubs should implement. (4 marks) Note that other examples are possible. TABLE 3.2 PRIVACYPOLICYGUIDELINES:ASAMPLER Data Collection Data should be collected on individuals only for the purpose of accomplishing a legitimate business objective. Data should be adequate, relevant, and not excessive in relation to the business objective. Individuals must give their consent before data pertaining to them can be gathered. Such consent may be implied from the individual's actions (e.g., applications for credit, insurance, or employment). Data Accuracy Sensitive data gathered on individuals should be verified before they are entered into the database. Data should be kept current where and when it is necessary. The file should be made available so the individual can ensure that the data are correct. If there is disagreement about the accuracy of the data, the individual's version should be noted and included with any disclosure of the file. Data Confidentiality Computer security procedures should be implemented to ensure against unauthorized disclosure of data. These procedures should include physical, technical, and administrative security measures. Third parties should not be given access to data without the individual's knowledge or permission, except as required by law. Disclosures of data, other than the most routine sorts of data, should be noted and maintained for as long as the data are maintained. Data should not be disclosed for reasons incompatible with the business objective for which they are collected. Source: Session 2, Ch 3, Section 3.1, p. 75, Table 3.2 6 E) For each of the following three types of user interfaces, clearly describe the nature of the interface and provide an example of how Tasty Pubs could use the interface. (3 marks) Clearly describe the following types of interfaces(1/2 mark) Graphical user interface (GUI): -allows users to control visible objects / icons and actions that replace the need to enter complex commands Social interface: -guides the user through computer applications by using cartoon-like characters (e.g. Avatars), graphics, animation and voice commands Haptic interface: -allows the user to feel a sense of touch by applying forces, vibrations and/or motions to the user (e.g. Wii video game console) Provide an example of how Tasty Pubs could use the interface (1/2 mark) -Used by pub waiting staff to quickly and accurately enter customer orders to the system for food and preparation and billing -Customers could enter their own orders using handheld devices -On TBQ site customers can easily navigate and access or add information -TBQ site could use attractive / entertaining social interfaces to help users navigate the site, offer feedback and interact with other users -provide touch-enabled gesture-control interfaces to allow TBQ website users, or pub patrons, to browse through menu items and rank their preferences -or select to their choices to order Source: Session 6, TG2, Section TG2.2, p. 395 F) Describe three examples of secondary storage devices that Tasty Pubs could use. (3 marks) Magnetic storage devices: - Magnetic tape cheap but slow, high capacity, sequential access, old technology such as open reel or cassette could be used for archiving infrequently needed data - Hard drive- low cost, high speed, large capacity, permanently mounted, commonly used mass storage -- for storing customer order information in the pubs - RAID groups of hard drives linked to a microcontroller that coordinates them to appear as a single logical drive, providing high capacity storage of enterprise data, duplicating data in multiple places for corporate storage of aggregated data from and accessible to all pub locations - SAN a special dedicated network allowing rapid and reliable access to storage devices by multiple servers, providing high capacity storage of enterprise data for corporate storage of data accessed regularly by all pub locations - NAS special purpose server providing file storage to users who access the device over a network, providing high capacity storage of enterprise data for corporate storage of data accessed regularly by all pub locations - Memory cards small, durable electronic / flash memory storage devices, more expensive than hard drives suitable for use in hand held devices used by pub waiting staff to take customer orders - Thumb drives extremely portable flash memory devices could be used by pub or corporate managers to transport files for use offsite Optical storage devices: CD-ROM slower than magnetic hard drives, but less fragile or susceptible to damage from contamination could be used instead of hard drives or flash memory devices when durability is an important factor (such as in hand held order entry devices used by pub waiting staff); DVD same characteristics and use as CD-ROM Source: Session 6, TG1, Section TG1.7, p. 382-386 (ANY of the items on Table TG1.4) 7 G) To record restaurant sales, Tasty Pubs uses a transaction processing system. Describe three important characteristics of transaction processing systems that must be present to make sure that the sales transactions are properly recorded in the Tasty Pubs databases. (3 marks) Ability to: - Monitor, collect, store and process data generated from business transactions - Efficiently handle high volumes and large variations in data - Avoid errors and down time - Record results accurately and securely - Maintain privacy and security Source: Session 8, Ch 8, Section 8.1, p. 240 (second full paragraph) Question 3 (Ink King Company) A) Ink King Company provides customer support using a customer interaction centre (CIC). Describe two methods for customer interactions that could be used at a CIC and the benefits of these types of interactions to Ink King Company. (4 marks) Describe two methods for customer interactions that could be used at a customer interaction centre Web interactions - Online product knowledge base or lists of known problems - Social networking services such as user groups, friends, help forums/bbs, membership sites. -Email services and Automate reply systems -Live Chat or IM systems Telephone Outbound telesales, Customers and sales staff collaborate in discussion of products /services -Inbound telesales, Customers communicate directly with the CIC to initiate orders, make inquires about products or prior transactions Fax Similar to telephone service with the additional ability to send/receive printed materials. Face-to-Face Walk-in center for customer queries Explain the benefits of these types of interactions at the customer interaction centre for Ink King Company -Enable self-help for customers -Provide a means of segregating customers ( by product/interest) -Automated systems enable greater efficiency in the CIC - Allows customers a forum to post their own product experiences. -IM systems can also transmit documents. -Generate sales -Satisfy customer needs -Respond to inquiries with pre-approved scripts -Provide a means of human interaction with the company (as an alternative to automated systems) See telephone; Also -ability to send/receive detailed documents such as pictures (for service needs) -Enables unsophisticated customers to receive better quality assistance (using paper copies) - Enables human interaction between customers and staff - Provides an additional comfort level for customers who desire personal service. - Enables trained staff to professionally deal with customers Source: Session 10, Ch 9, Section 9.2, p. 268 8 B) Explain how four different customer-touching applications can be used by Ink King Company. (4 marks) 1) Search and compare Enable web-based search and compare facilities for different ink cartridges 2) Technical (and other info) services Provide detailed specifications for recycled cartridges 3) Customized products and services Allow (corporate) customers to put company logos on cartridges or allow requests for custom ink colours 4) Personalized web pages Enable personalized billing/usage tracking on web pages for (on-line) customers. 5) FAQs Provide an FAQ on the Ink King website answering common questions about the products. 6) Email/Auto-response Send automatically generated reminder notices when cartridges are getting low or autoreply to email based orders. 7) Loyalty Programs Track usage of loyalty club members, offer them exclusive discounts. NOTE: There is a wide variety of possible applications for the different categories listed above. Responses should indicate a valid application for Ink King Co. Source: Session 10, Ch 9, Section 9.2, p. 271-272 C) Why would Ink King Company use interorganizational information systems as part of its supply chain management process? (1 mark) - Reduce costs of routine business transactions Improve the quality of the information flow by reducing errors Compress the cycle time to fulfill transactions Eliminate paper processing and its inefficiencies/errors/costs Make the transfer/processing of info easier for users Source: Session 10, Ch 10, Section 10.3, p. 292; any reasonable advantage of IOSs is acceptable. Note: Definitions are not required and are not rewarded a mark. 9 D) For each of the following problems along the supply chain or their solutions, describe the nature of the problem or solution and explain how it could apply to Ink King Company. (6 marks) Describe the nature of the following supply chain problem or solution Bullwhip effect - Erratic shifts in orders up (and down) the supply chain. -Reluctance to share accurate forecasts with supply chain partners Push model a.k.a Make-to-Stock - Production begins with a forecast which must predict the quantity and type of product customers will want. Product is then made to forecasted amount and is pushed to market Pull model a.k.a Make-to-Order -Production begins with customer order. Product is made to amount ordered and sold to customer order Explain how it could apply to Ink King Company -Suppliers of used cartridges having excess inventory for disposal -Forecast customer demand changes before Ink King can apply the new info to its ordering process. -Ink King would use this model when deciding which cartridges to purchase in appropriate quantities. -Ink King would use this model when deciding how much refill ink to purchase for upcoming cartridge refills -If forecasts are incorrect then Ink King will experience a glut/excess of stock -Ink King could provide refills on a make-toorder basis -Ink King could limit purchases of empty cartridges to amounts on order -If suppliers are willing, vendor-managed inventory of used cartridges may be implemented. Source: Session 10, Ch 10, Section 10.2, p. 289-291 10 E) Describe RFID (radio-frequency identification) tags and technology and describe ways that Ink King Company could use RFID to manage its inventory. (6 marks) [Note: To obtain six marks you need to say six different things: either about the RFID tags and technology, or provide multiple ways of use.] RFID tags/tech: - Contain computer chips (that hold a small amount of info) and Radio antennae - Rely on Radio signals to transmit data - Active tags contain an on-board power source (battery) and constantly transmit a signal - Passive tags obtain power from the RFID readers - Because of costs, Active tags are used for more expensive items, Passive tags for less expensive items. - Costs of tags can be prohibitive but this issue is changing, costs are being reduced and tags are becoming reusable. - Must be in the nearby vicinity of a reader to be useful for tracking product or transmitting info RFID use at Ink King: - Tracking product through a facility (either production or retail) - Prevent theft of cartridges - Uniquely identifying a specific product (of a batch) - Can be used to interface with a wired environment (to open locks, or enable restricted access) - Automatic interfacing with production/packaging machines Note1: Examples of use is not an exhaustive list, any valid application will suffice. Note2: not valid - embedded under the skin of pets (not applicable to ink king) Source: Session 7, Ch 7, section 7.4, p. 226-228, slides 36-38 11 Question 4 (Retail data) A) What is business intelligence (BI) and how can it help retail organizations work with their information? (3 marks) [Note: Provide three applicable points.] What is BI - refers to applications and technologies for consolidating, analyzing, and providing access to vast amounts of data to help users make better business and strategic decisions. - BI applications provide historical, current, and predictive views of business operations. - organizations are using BI applications to improve their performance in a number of different ways. - BI is often called corporateperformancemanagementbecauseBI applications allow managers and analysts to analyze data to obtain valuable information and insights concerning the organization's key performace indicators - two basic types of business intelligence applications: (1) those that provide data analysis tools (multidimensional data analysis, data mining, and decision support systems), and (2) those that provide easily accessible information in a structured format (digital dashboards). - multiple examples possible, for example analysis of sales to decide what products to purchase for inventory NOTE THAT EXAMPLES MUST BE DIFFERENT FROM PART B Source: Session 11, Ch 11, Section 11.2, p. 310-314 B) What are decision support systems and how do they help retail managers make decisions? (3 marks) [Note: Provide three applicable points.] What are DDS system that combines models and data in an attempt to solve semi-structured and some unstructured problems - organizationaldecisionsupportsystem(ODSS) focuses on an organizational task or activity that involves a sequence of operations and decision makers. (Points any type of What if analysis type model ) - Sensitivityanalysis is the study of the impact that changes in one (or more) parts of a decision making model have on other parts. - What if analysis attempts to predict the impact of a change in the assumptions (input data) on the proposed solution. - Goal seeking analysis represents a backward solution approach. It attempts to find the value of the inputs necessary to achieve a desired level of output. - also valid discussion of how each of these types could be used at the retail organization, for example to decide on the impact of providing raises to employees NOTE THAT EXAMPLES MUST BE DIFFERENT FROM PART A. Source: Session 11, Ch 11, Section 11.2, p. 314-315 12 C) Describe three benefits that voice technology applications can provide to retail organizations. (3 marks) - First, it is easy to use. Many more people can speak than can type. As long as communication with a computer depends on typing skills, many people will not be able to use computers effectively - In addition, voice recognition is faster than typing. Even the most competent typists can speak more quickly than they can type. It is estimated that the average person can speak twice as quickly as a proficient typist can type. - A final advantage is manual freedom. Obviously, communicating with a computer through typing occupies your hands. There are many situations in which computers might be useful to people whose hands are otherwise engaged, such as product assemblers, airplane pilots, busy executives, and drivers. - Speech recognition also enables people with hand related physical disabilities to use computers. - because it is faster and easier to use, this should result in organizational cost savings (less employee time used and less training time needed) Source: Session 11, Ch 11, Section 11.4, p. 323-325 D) There are three major system implementation conversion strategies: direct, pilot, and phased. For each of these strategies, state an important advantage or disadvantage to using the strategy. (3 marks) NOTE: no marks for definitions, only for advantages and disadvantages Conversion strategy Direct Pilot Phased State an important advantage or disadvantage of using this conversion strategy. Remember to identify whether your point is an advantage or disadvantage. Disadvantages; Very risky and in most cases there is no point of returning back to the old system in the event of failure. Problems are found on a massive scale and must be fixed quickly Advantage everyone is on the system and working in the same database and working on one system - least costly of all of the conversion methods (assuming everything works well) Advantage safe and easy install in small easily managed groups, problems encountered effect one of the groups that is implemented. Disadvantage it is slow and the implementation can get expensive since it is being installed over a long period of time with expensive consultants wages Advantage implementing by module start off with finance / accounting once completed move into the next department. This way a section is done and the next is implement once everything is working. Disadvantage can take too long to do - cost of making interfaces for the old system of other modules to the new software. Source: Session 12, Ch 12, Section 12.4, p. 348 13 ... View Full Document

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