Solution manual ECO
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Solution manual ECO

Module Code: ECON 101, Spring 2013

University or Institution: Havering College

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Chapter 1Chapter 1 Ten Principles of Economics 1 TEN PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS WHAT'S NEW: The discussions of Principle #4, "People respond to incentives," Principle #7, "Governments can sometimes improve market outcomes," and Principle #10, "Society faces a shortrun tradeoff between inflation and unemployment" have been shortened. A definition for the term "business...

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1Chapter Chapter 1 Ten Principles of Economics 1 TEN PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS WHAT'S NEW: The discussions of Principle #4, "People respond to incentives," Principle #7, "Governments can sometimes improve market outcomes," and Principle #10, "Society faces a shortrun tradeoff between inflation and unemployment" have been shortened. A definition for the term "business cycle" has been added. A new FYI box on "How to Read This Book" has been added and provides students with tips on studying. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: By the end of this chapter, students should understand: that economics is about the allocation of scarce resources. that individuals face tradeoffs. the meaning of opportunity cost. how to use marginal reasoning when making decisions. how incentives affect people's behavior. why trade among people or nations can be good for everyone. why markets are a good, but not perfect, way to allocate resources. what determines some trends in the overall economy. 1 2 3 Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics CONTEXT AND PURPOSE: Chapter 1 is the first chapter in a threechapter section that serves as the introduction to the text. Chapter 1 introduces ten fundamental principles on which the study of economics is based. In a broad sense, the rest of the text is an elaboration on these ten principles. Chapter 2 will develop how economists approach problems while Chapter 3 will explain how individuals and countries gain from trade. The purpose of Chapter 1 is to lay out ten economic principles that will serve as building blocks for the rest of the text. The ten principles can be grouped into three categories: how people make decisions, how people interact, and how the economy works as a whole. Throughout the text, references will be made repeatedly to these ten principles. KEY POINTS: 1. The fundamental lessons about individual decisionmaking are that people face tradeoffs among alternative goals, that the cost of any action is measured in terms of forgone opportunities, that rational people make decisions by comparing marginal costs and marginal benefits, and that people change their behavior in response to the incentives they face. 2. The fundamental lessons about interactions among people are that trade can be mutually beneficial, that markets are usually a good way of coordinating trades among people, and that the government can potentially improve market outcomes if there is some sort of market failure or if the market outcome is inequitable. 3. The fundamental lessons about the economy as a whole are that productivity is the ultimate source of living standards, that money growth is the ultimate source of inflation, and that society faces a short run tradeoff between inflation and unemployment. CHAPTER OUTLINE: I. Introduction Begin by pointing out that economics is a subject that students must confront in their everyday lives. Point out that they already spend a great deal of their time thinking A.about economic issues: prices, buying decisions, use of their time, etc. The word "economy" comes from the Greek word meaning "one who manages a household." Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 3 3 B. This makes some sense since in the economy we are faced with many decisions (just as a household is). Fundamental economic problem: resources are scarce. C. You will want to start the semester by explaining to students that part of learning economics is understanding a new vocabulary. Economists generally use very precise (and sometimes different) definitions for words that are commonly used outside of the economics discipline. Therefore, it will be helpful to students if you D.follow the definitions provided in the text as much as possible. Definition of scarcity: the limited nature of society's resources. E. Definition of economics: the study of how society manages its scarce resources. Because most college freshmen and sophomores have limited experiences with viewing the world from a causeandeffect perspective, do not underestimate how challenging these principles will be for the student. As you discuss the ten principles, make sure that students realize that it is okay if they do not grasp each of the concepts completely or find each of the arguments fully convincing. These ideas will be explored more completely throughout the text. II. How People Make Decisions Table 1 A. Principle #1: People Face Tradeoffs 1. "There is no such thing as a free lunch." Making decisions requires trading off one goal for another. Examples include how a student spends her time, how a family decides to spend its income, how the U.S. government spends tax dollars, how regulations may protect the environment at a cost to firm owners. A special example of a tradeoff is the tradeoff between efficiency and equity. a. Definition of efficiency: the property of society getting the most it can from its scarce resources. 2. 3. 4 3 Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics b. Definition of equity: the property of distributing economic prosperity fairly among the members of society. c. For example, tax dollars paid by wealthy Americans and then distributed to those less fortunate may improve equity but lower the return to hard work and therefore reduce the level of output produced by our resources. This implies that the cost of this increased equity is a reduction in the efficient use of our resources. d. 4. Recognizing that tradeoffs exist does not indicate what decisions should be made. B. Principle #2: The Cost of Something Is What You Give Up to Get It 1. Making decisions requires individuals to consider the benefits and costs of some action. What are the costs of going to college? a. We cannot count room and board (at least all of the cost) because the person would have to pay for food and shelter even if he was not in school. We would want to count the value of the student's time since he could be working for pay instead of attending classes and studying. 2. b. 3. Definition of opportunity cost: whatever must be given up to obtain some item. One of the hardest ideas for students to grasp is that "free" things are not truly free. Thus, you will need to provide students with numerous examples of such "free" things with hidden costs, especially the value of time. C. Principle #3: Rational People Think at the Margin 1. Many decisions in life involve incremental decisions: Should I remain in school this semester? Should I take another course this semester? Should I study an additional hour for tomorrow's exam? Definition of marginal changes: small incremental adjustments to a plan of action. 2. Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 3 5 3. Example: You are trying to decide how many years you should stay in school. Comparing the lifestyle of an individual with a Ph.D. to that of an individual who has dropped out of grade school would be inappropriate. You are likely deciding whether or not to remain in school for an additional year or two. Thus, you need to compare the additional benefits of another year in school (the marginal benefit) with the additional cost of staying in school for another year (the marginal cost). Another example: Suppose that flying a 200seat plane across the country costs the airline $100,000, which means that the average cost of each seat is $500. Suppose that the plane is minutes from departure and a passenger is willing to pay $300 for a seat. Should the airline sell the seat for $300? In this case, the marginal cost of an additional passenger is very small. 4. D. Principle #4: People Respond to Incentives 1. Because people make decisions by weighing costs and benefits, their decisions may change in response to changes in costs and benefits. a. When the price of a good rises, consumers will buy less of it because its cost has risen. When the price of a good rises, producers will allocate more resources to the production of the good because the benefit from producing the good has risen. b. 2. Sometimes policymakers fail to understand how policies may alter incentives and behavior. Example: Seat belt laws increase use of seat belts and lower the incentives of individuals to drive safely. This leads to an increase in the number of car accidents. This also leads to an increased risk for pedestrians. 3. III. If you include any incentivebased criteria on your syllabus, discuss it now. For example, if you reward class attendance (or penalize students who do not attend class), explain to students how this change in the marginal benefit of attending class How People Interact can be expected to alter their behavior. A. Principle #5: Trade Can Make Everyone Better Off 1. Trade is not like a sports competition where one side gains and the other side loses. 6 3 Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 2. Consider trade that takes place inside your home. Certainly the family is involved in trade with other families on a daily basis. Most families do not build their own homes, make their own clothes, or grow their own food. Just like families benefit from trading with one another so do countries. This occurs because it allows for specialization in areas that countries (or families) can do best. Activity 1--Getting Dressed in the Global Economy 3. 4. Type: Inclass assignment Topics:Specialization, interdependence, selfinterest, consumer choice, international trade Materials needed: Time: 20 minutes Class limitations: None Works in any class size Purpose The advantages of specialization and division of labor are very clear in this example. The worldwide links of the modern economy are also illustrated. We depend on thousands of people we don't know, won't see, and don't think of in order to get dressed each morning. Selfinterest follows naturally from interdependence. Wages, profits, and rents give people the incentive to perform these varied tasks. We depend on them to clothe us and they depend on our purchases for their incomes. Instructions Ask the class to answer the following questions. Give them time to write an answer to each Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 3 7 assignment and takes several minutes. Ask them to list as many categories of workers as possible. The third question introduces demand concepts; most of the determinants of demand can be introduced during this discussion. For the fourth question, ask the class to look at the countryoforigin tags sewn in their garments. 1. 2. 3. 4. Where did your clothes come from? Who worked to produce your clothes? What things do you consider when buying a garment? Where were your clothes produced (what countries)? Common Answers and Points for Discussion 1. Where did your clothes come from? There are many possible ways to answer, but many students will say "the mall" or another retail outlet. Some may say "a factory," "a sweatshop," or "a foreign country." Mention the importance of markets here (this can be emphasized by asking "Is anyone wearing something made by themselves, a friend, or a relative?") and discuss distribution versus production. 2. Who worked to produce your clothes? There is no end to the possible answers; garment and textile workers are obvious but most students will also list workers dealing with raw materials, transportation, management, design or machinery. Some may think more broadly to investors, road crews, bankers, engineers, or accountants. 3. What things do you consider when buying a garment? Most answers focus on preferences (fit, style, quality, color). Price is cited less frequently. Ask about the importance of price until someone volunteers that income is important. Prices of substitute goods should also be discussed. Expectations of price changes may also be mentioned. Few students mention complementary goods and most students reject the idea of choosing a sweater to match a particular outfit. 4. Where were your clothes produced (what country)? 8 3 Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics B. Principle #6: Markets Are Usually a Good Way to Organize Economic Activity 1. Many countries that once had centrally planned economies have abandoned this system and are trying to develop market economies. Definition of market economy: an economy that allocates resources through the decentralized decisions of many firms and households as they interact in markets for goods and services. 3. Market prices reflect both the value of a product to consumers and the cost of the resources used to produce it. Therefore, decisions to buy or produce goods and services are made based on the cost to society of providing them. 2. Explain to students that when households and firms do what is best for themselves, they often end up doing what is best for society, as if guided by market forces--or an invisible hand. Spend some time and emphasize the magic of the market. Use numerous examples to show students that the market most often allocates resources 4. When a government interferes in a market and restricts price from adjusting to their highest valued use. decisions that households and firms make are not based on the proper information. Thus, these decisions may be inefficient. 5. Centrally planned economies have failed because they did not allow the market to work. FYI: Adam Smith and the Invisible Hand a. Adam Smith's 1776 work suggested that although individuals are motivated by selfinterest, an invisible hand guides this self interest into promoting society's economic wellbeing. Smith's astute perceptions will be discussed more fully in the chapters to come. 6. b. C. Principle #7: Governments Can Sometimes Improve Market Outcomes 1. There are two broad reasons for the government to interfere with the economy: the promotion of efficiency and equity. Government policy can be most useful when there is market failure. 2. Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 3 9 a. Definition of market failure: a situation in which a market left on its own fails to allocate resources efficiently. 3. Examples of Market Failure a. Definition of externality: the impact of one person's actions on the wellbeing of a bystander. b. Definition of market power: the ability of a single economic actor (or small group of actors) to have a substantial influence on market prices. c. Because a market economy rewards people for their ability to produce things that other people are willing to pay for, there will be an unequal distribution of economic prosperity. 4. Note that the principle states that the government can improve market outcomes. This is not saying that the government always does improve market outcomes. IV. How the Economy as a Whole Works A. Principle #8: A Country's Standard of Living Depends on Its Ability to Produce Goods and Services 1. 2. 3. Differences in living standards from one country to another are quite large. Changes in living standards over time are also great. The explanation for differences in living standards lies in differences in productivity. Definition of productivity: the quantity of goods and services produced from each hour of a worker's time. High productivity implies a high standard of living. Thus, policymakers must understand the impact of any policy on our ability to produce goods and services. 4. 5. 6. B. Principle #9: Prices Rise When the Government Prints Too Much Money 10 3 Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 1. Definition of inflation: an increase in the overall level of prices in the economy. 2. When the government creates a large amount of money, the value of money falls. Examples: Germany after World War I (in the early 1920s), the United States in the 1970s. 3. C. Principle #10: Society Faces a ShortRun Tradeoff between Inflation and Unemployment 1. Definition of Phillips curve: a curve that shows the shortrun tradeoff between inflation and unemployment. 2. 3. 4. 5. This is a controversial topic among economists. This tradeoff is only temporary but it can last for several years. The Phillips curve is important for understanding the business cycle. Definition of business cycle: fluctuations in economic activity, such as employment and production. 6. Policymakers can exploit this tradeoff by using various policy instruments, but the extent and desirability of these interventions is of continuing debate. D. FYI: How to Read this Book 1. 2. Economics is very useful to understand, but it can be a difficult subject to grasp. There are five tips to make reading and understanding the material in the book easier. a. b. c. Summarize, don't highlight. Test yourself. Practice, practice, practice. Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 3 11 d. e. Study in groups. Don't forget the real world. Activity 2--So Many Things to Do, So Little Time Type: Inclass assignment Topics:Tradeoffs, opportunity cost, thinking at the margin, incentives Materials needed: Time: 10 minutes Class limitations: None Works in any class size Give students a list of activities corresponding with time requirements: sleep, 8 hours; sleep, 6 hours; eat breakfast, 30 minutes; ride a bike, 1 hour; go hiking, 2 hours; study, 3 hours; study, 2 hours; go to class, 4 hours; go to class, 6 hours; watch TV, 2 hours; watch TV, 6 hours; take a nap, 1 hour; work, 8 hours; work, 4 hours; etc. Make sure that there are many choices and that there are many pleasurable experiences-- too much for a 24hour period. Ask students which Principle of Economics this illustrates. If they do not say 1, 2, 3, and 4, help them see that this exercise has tradeoffs in the choices 12 3 Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics SOLUTIONS TO TEXT PROBLEMS: Quick Quizzes 1. The four principles of economic decisionmaking are: (1) people face tradeoffs; (2) the cost of something is what you give up to get it; (3) rational people think at the margin; and (4) people respond to incentives. People face tradeoffs because to get one thing that they like, they usually have to give up another thing that they like. The cost of something is what you give up to get it, not just in terms of monetary costs but all opportunity costs. Rational people think at the margin by taking an action if and only if the marginal benefits exceed the marginal costs. People respond to incentives because as they compare benefits to costs, a change in incentives may cause their behavior to change. The three principles concerning economic interactions are: (1) trade can make everyone better off; (2) markets are usually a good way to organize economic activity; and (3) governments can sometimes improve market outcomes. Trade can make everyone better off because it allows countries to specialize in what they do best and to enjoy a wider variety of goods and services. Markets are usually a good way to organize economic activity because the invisible hand leads markets to desirable outcomes. Governments can sometimes improve market outcomes because sometimes markets fail to allocate resources efficiently because of an externality or market power. The three principles that describe how the economy as a whole works are: (1) a country's standard of living depends on its ability to produce goods and services; (2) prices rise when the government prints too much money; and (3) society faces a shortrun tradeoff between inflation and unemployment. A country's standard of living depends on its ability to produce goods and services, which in turn depends on its productivity, which is a function of the education of workers and the access workers have to the necessary tools and technology. Prices rise when the government prints too much money because more money in circulation reduces the value of money, causing inflation. Society faces a shortrun tradeoff between inflation and unemployment that is only temporary and policymakers have some ability to exploit this relationship using various policy instruments. 2. 3. Questions for Review 1. Examples of tradeoffs include time tradeoffs (such as studying one subject over another, or studying at all compared to engaging in social activities) and spending tradeoffs (such as whether to use your last ten dollars on pizza or on a study guide for that tough economics course). The opportunity cost of seeing a movie includes the monetary cost of admission plus the time cost of going to the theater and attending the show. The time cost depends on what else you 2. Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 3 13 might do with that time; if it's staying home and watching TV, the time cost may be small, but if it's working an extra three hours at your job, the time cost is the money you could have earned. 3. The marginal benefit of a glass of water depends on your circumstances. If you've just run a marathon, or you've been walking in the desert sun for three hours, the marginal benefit is very high. But if you've been drinking a lot of liquids recently, the marginal benefit is quite low. The point is that even the necessities of life, like water, don't always have large marginal benefits. Policymakers need to think about incentives so they can understand how people will respond to the policies they put in place. The text's example of seat belts shows that policy actions can have quite unintended consequences. If incentives matter a lot, they may lead to a very different type of policy; for example, some economists have suggested putting knives in steering columns so that people will drive much more carefully! While this suggestion is silly, it highlights the importance of incentives. Trade among countries isn't a game with some losers and some winners because trade can make everyone better off. By allowing specialization, trade between people and trade between countries can improve everyone's welfare. The "invisible hand" of the marketplace represents the idea that even though individuals and firms are all acting in their own selfinterest, prices and the marketplace guide them to do what is good for society as a whole. The two main causes of market failure are externalities and market power. An externality is the impact of one person's actions on the wellbeing of a bystander, such as from pollution or the creation of knowledge. Market power refers to the ability of a single person (or small group of people) to unduly influence market prices, such as in a town with only one well or only one cable television company. In addition, a market economy also leads to an unequal distribution of income. Productivity is important because a country's standard of living depends on its ability to produce goods and services. The greater a country's productivity (the amount of goods and services produced from each hour of a worker's time), the greater will be its standard of living. Inflation is an increase in the overall level of prices in the economy. Inflation is caused by increases in the quantity of a nation's money. Inflation and unemployment are negatively related in the short run. Reducing inflation entails costs to society in the form of higher unemployment in the short run. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Problems and Applications 14 3 Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 1. a. A family deciding whether to buy a new car faces a tradeoff between the cost of the car and other things they might want to buy. For example, buying the car might mean they must give up going on vacation for the next two years. So the real cost of the car is the family's opportunity cost in terms of what they must give up. For a member of Congress deciding whether to increase spending on national parks, the tradeoff is between parks and other spending items or tax cuts. If more money goes into the park system, that may mean less spending on national defense or on the police force. Or, instead of spending more money on the park system, taxes could be reduced. When a company president decides whether to open a new factory, the decision is based on whether the new factory will increase the firm's profits compared to other alternatives. For example, the company could upgrade existing equipment or expand existing factories. The bottom line is: Which method of expanding production will increase profit the most? In deciding how much to prepare for class, a professor faces a tradeoff between the value of improving the quality of the lecture compared to other things she could do with her time, such as working on additional research. b. c. d. 2. When the benefits of something are psychological, such as going on a vacation, it isn't easy to compare benefits to costs to determine if it's worth doing. But there are two ways to think about the benefits. One is to compare the vacation with what you would do in its place. If you didn't go on vacation, would you buy something like a new set of golf clubs? Then you can decide if you'd rather have the new clubs or the vacation. A second way is to think about how much work you had to do to earn the money to pay for the vacation; then you can decide if the psychological benefits of the vacation were worth the psychological cost of working. If you are thinking of going skiing instead of working at your parttime job, the cost of skiing includes its monetary and time costs, which includes the opportunity cost of the wages you are giving up by not working. If the choice is between skiing and going to the library to study, then the cost of skiing is its monetary and time costs including the cost to you of getting a lower grade in your course. If you spend $100 now instead of saving it for a year and earning 5 percent interest, you are giving up the opportunity to spend $105 a year from now. The idea that money has a time value is the basis for the field of finance, the subfield of economics that has to do with prices of financial instruments like stocks and bonds. The fact that you've already sunk $5 million isn't relevant to your decision anymore, since that money is gone. What matters now is the chance to earn profits at the margin. If you spend another $1 million and can generate sales of $3 million, you'll earn $2 million in marginal profit, so you should do so. You are right to think that the project has lost a total of $3 million ($6 million in 3. 4. 5. Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 3 15 costs and only $3 million in revenue) and you shouldn't have started it. That's true, but if you don't spend the additional $1 million, you won't have any sales and your losses will be $5 million. So what matters is not the total profit, but the profit you can earn at the margin. In fact, you'd pay up to $3 million to complete development; any more than that, and you won't be increasing profit at the margin. 6. Harry suggests looking at whether productivity would rise or fall. Productivity is certainly important, since the more productive workers are, the lower the cost per gallon of potion. Ron wants to look at average cost. But both Harry and Ron are missing the other side of the equation revenue. A firm wants to maximize its profits, so it needs to examine both costs and revenues. Thus, Hermione is right it's best to examine whether the extra revenue would exceed the extra costs. Hermione is the only one who is thinking at the margin. a. The provision of Social Security benefits lowers an individual's incentive to save for retirement. The benefits provide some level of income to the individual when he or she retires. This means that the individual is not entirely dependent on savings to support consumption through the years in retirement. Since a person gets fewer aftertax Social Security benefits the greater is his or her earnings, there is an incentive not to work (or not work as much) after age 65. The more you work, the lower your aftertax Social Security benefits will be. Thus the taxation of Social Security benefits discourages work effort after age 65. When welfare recipients who are able to work have their benefits cut off after two years, they have greater incentive to find jobs than if their benefits were to last forever. The loss of benefits means that someone who can't find a job will get no income at all, so the distribution of income will become less equal. But the economy will be more efficient, since welfare recipients have a greater incentive to find jobs. Thus the change in the law is one that increases efficiency but reduces equity. 7. b. 8. a. b. 9. By specializing in each task, you and your roommate can finish the chores more quickly. If you divided each task equally, it would take you more time to cook than it would take your roommate, and it would take him more time to clean than it would take you. By specializing, you reduce the total time spent on chores. Similarly, countries can specialize and trade, making both better off. For example, suppose it takes Spanish workers less time to make clothes than French workers, and French workers can make wine more efficiently than Spanish workers. Then Spain and France can both benefit if Spanish workers produce all the clothes and French workers produce all the wine, and they exchange some wine for some clothes. 16 3 Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 10. a. Being a central planner is tough! To produce the right number of CDs by the right artists and deliver them to the right people requires an enormous amount of information. You need to know about production techniques and costs in the CD industry. You need to know each person's musical tastes and which artists they want to hear. If you make the wrong decisions, you'll be producing too many CDs by artists that people don't want to hear, and not enough by others. Your decisions about how many CDs to produce carry over to other decisions. You have to make the right number of CD players for people to use. If you make too many CDs and not enough cassette tapes, people with cassette players will be stuck with CDs they can't play. The probability of making mistakes is very high. You will also be faced with tough choices about the music industry compared to other parts of the economy. If you produce more sports equipment, you'll have fewer resources for making CDs. So all decisions about the economy influence your decisions about CD production. Efficiency: The market failure comes from the monopoly by the cable TV firm. Equity Efficiency: An externality arises because secondhand smoke harms nonsmokers. Efficiency: The market failure occurs because of Standard Oil's monopoly power. Equity Efficiency: There is an externality because of accidents caused by drunk drivers. If everyone were guaranteed the best health care possible, much more of our nation's output would be devoted to medical care than is now the case. Would that be efficient? If you think that currently doctors form a monopoly and restrict health care to keep their incomes high, you might think efficiency would increase by providing more health care. But more likely, if the government mandated increased spending on health care, the economy would be less efficient because it would give people more health care than they would choose to pay for. From the point of view of equity, if poor people are less likely to have adequate health care, providing more health care would represent an improvement. Each person would have a more even slice of the economic pie, though the pie would consist of more health care and less of other goods. When workers are laid off, equity considerations argue for the unemployment benefits system to provide them with some income until they can find new jobs. After all, no one plans to be laid off, so unemployment benefits are a form of insurance. But there's an efficiency problemwhy work if you can get income for doing nothing? The economy isn't operating efficiently if people remain unemployed for a long time, and unemployment benefits encourage unemployment. Thus, there's a tradeoff between equity and efficiency. The more generous are unemployment benefits, the less income is lost by an unemployed person, but the more that person is encouraged to remain unemployed. So greater equity reduces efficiency. b. 11. a. b. c. d. e. f. a. 12. b. Chapter 1/Ten Principles of Economics 3 17 13. Since average income in the United States has roughly doubled every 35 years, we are likely to have a better standard of living than our parents, and a much better standard of living than our grandparents. This is mainly the result of increased productivity, so that an hour of work produces more goods and services than it used to. Thus incomes have continuously risen over time, as has the standard of living. If Americans save more and it leads to more spending on factories, there will be an increase in production and productivity, since the same number of workers will have more equipment to work with. The benefits from higher productivity will go to both the workers, who will get paid more since they're producing more, and the factory owners, who will get a return on their investments. There is no such thing as a free lunch, however, because when people save more, they are giving up spending. They get higher incomes at the cost of buying fewer goods. a. If people have more money, they are probably going to spend more on goods and services. If prices are sticky, and people spend more on goods and services, then output may increase, as producers increase output to meet the higher demand rather than raising prices. If prices can adjust, then the higher spending of consumers will be matched with increased prices and output won't rise. 14. 15. b. c. 16. To make an intelligent decision about whether to reduce inflation, a policymaker would need to know what causes inflation and unemployment, as well as what determines the tradeoff between them. Any attempt to reduce inflation will likely lead to higher unemployment in the short run. A policymaker thus faces a tradeoff between the benefits of lower inflation compared to the cost of higher unemployment.

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Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter9 Application:InternationalTrade9APPLICATION: INTERNATIONALTRADEWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:Somediscussionhasbeenaddedconcerningwhytradeiscontentiousandwhythegovernmentimposes tariffsandquotaseventhoughtheyarenotefficient.TherearetwonewIntheNewsb
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter10 Externalities10EXTERNALITIESWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:Thesectiononexternalitiesissimplified,withanemphasissolelyonthedistinctionbetweenpositiveand negativeexternalities.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES:Bytheendofthischapter,studentsshouldunderstand: wha
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter11 PublicGoodsandCommonResources11PUBLICGOODSAND COMMONRESOURCESWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:Therehavebeennosubstantialchangestothischapter.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES:Bytheendofthischapter,studentsshouldunderstand: thedefiningcharacteristicsofpublicgood
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter12 TheDesignoftheTaxSystem12THEDESIGNOFTHETAX SYSTEMWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:Amoredetailedexplanationofthecalculationofmarginaltaxrateshasbeenadded.Therearetwonew IntheNewsboxes:HowTaxesAffectMarriedWomenandTheCaseAgainstTaxingCapitalIncome. I
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter13 TheCostsofProduction13THECOSTSOFPRODUCTIONWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:Theconnectionbetweentheshapeofthetotalcostcurveandtheshapeoftheproductionfunctionis moreexplicit.ThereisalsoanewIntheNewsboxonTrueProfitvs.FictitiousProfit.LEARNINGOBJECTIV
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter14 FirmsinCompetitiveMarkets14FIRMSINCOMPETITIVE MARKETSWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:Therehavebeennosubstantialchangestothischapter.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES:Bytheendofthischapter,studentsshouldunderstand: whatcharacteristicsmakeamarketcompetitive. how
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter15 Monopoly15MONOPOLYWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:Anewsummarytablecomparingperfectcompetitionandmonopolyhasbeenadded.Thereisalsoanew IntheNewsboxon"WhyPeoplePayMorethanDogs.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES:Bytheendofthischapter,studentsshouldunderstand: whyso
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter16 Oligopoly16OLIGOPOLYWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:TwonewIntheNewsboxeshavebeenadded:TheGrowthofOligopolyandAntitrustintheNew Economy.ThediscussionsofOPECandMicrosofthavealsobeenupdated.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES:Bytheendofthischapter,studentsshouldund
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter17 MonopolisticCompetition17MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITIONWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:Anewsummarytablehasbeenaddedthatcomparesmonopolisticcompetitiontomonopolyandperfect competition.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES:Bytheendofthischapter,studentsshouldunderstand: c
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter18 TheMarketsfortheFactorsofProduction18THEMARKETSFORTHE FACTORSOFWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:Theconceptofmarginalrevenueproductisintroducedanddefined.ThereisanewFYIboxon Monopsony.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES:Bytheendofthischapter,studentsshouldundersta
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter19 EarningsandDiscrimination19EARNINGSAND DISCRIMINATIONWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:ThesectiononComparableWorthhasbeenremoved.ThereisanewIntheNewsboxonAreElite CollegesWorththeCost?AnewFYIbox,LookingforTrueLove?GotoSchool,hasalsobeenadded.LEARNI
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Chapter20 TheDistributionofIncome20THEDISTRIBUTIONOF INCOMEWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:ThesectiononU.S.IncomeInequalityhasbeenrewrittenforclarity.ThereisanewIntheNewsboxon SchoolVouchers.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES:Bytheendofthischapter,studentsshouldunderstan
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter21 TheTheoryofConsumerChoice21THETHEORYOF CONSUMERCHOICEWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:Therearenosubstantialchangestothischapter.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES:Bytheendofthischapter,studentsshouldunderstand: howabudgetconstraintrepresentsthechoicesaconsumerca
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter22 FrontiersofMicroeconomics22FRONTIERSOF MICROECONOMICSWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:Thisisanentirelynewchapter.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES:Bytheendofthischapter,studentsshouldunderstand: howtoexamineproblemscausedbyasymmetricinformation. themarketsoluti
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter23Chapter10 MeasuringANationsIncome WHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:MoredetailhasbeenaddedonTheComponentsofGDP.ThereisalsoanewCaseStudyonWho WinsattheOlympics?LEARNINGOBJECTIVES:Bytheendofthischapter,studentsshouldunderstand: whyaneconomystotalincomee
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter24Chapter24 MeasuringtheCostofLivingWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:Therearenosubstantialchangestothischapter.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES:Bytheendofthischapter,studentsshouldunderstand: howtheconsumerpriceindex(CPI)isconstructed. whytheCPIisanimperfectmeasure
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter25Chapter25 ProductionandGrowthWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:ThesectiononpopulationgrowthhasbeenrewrittenandnowcontainsmaterialonMalthusandKremers studyoftherelationshipbetweenpopulationgrowthandtechnologicalprogress.TheCaseStudyonThe ProductivitySlo
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter26Chapter13 Saving,Investment,andtheFinancialSystemWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:TheCaseStudyon"TheHistoryoftheU.S.GovernmentDebt"hasbeenupdated.ThereisanewInthe Newsboxon"FinanceinChina."LEARNINGOBJECTIVES:Bytheendofthischapter,studentsshouldunder
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter27Chapter27 TheBasicToolsofFinanceWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:Thisisanentirelynewchapter.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES:Bytheendofthischapter,studentsshouldunderstand: therelationshipbetweenpresentvalueandfuturevalue. theeffectsofcompoundgrowth. howriskavers
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter28Chapter28 UnemploymentandItsNaturalRateWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:Anewtableon"AlternativeMeasuresofLaborUnderutilization"hasbeenadded.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES:Bytheendofthischapter,studentsshouldunderstand: thedatausedtomeasuretheamountofunemploymen
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter29Chapter29 TheMonetarySystemWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:Therehavebeennosubstantialchangestothischapter.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES:Bytheendofthischapter,studentsshouldunderstand: whatmoneyisandwhatfunctionsmoneyhasintheeconomy. whattheFederalReserveSyste
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter30Chapter17 MoneyGrowthandInflationWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:Therehavebeennosubstantialchangestothischapter.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES:Bytheendofthischapter,studentsshouldunderstand: whyinflationresultsfromrapidgrowthinthemoneysupply. themeaningofthecl
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter31Chapter18 OpenEconomyMacroeconomics:BasicConceptsWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:Theterm"netforeigninvestment"hasbeenreplacedwith"netcapitaloutflow."TheIntheNewsboxon "HowtheChineseHelpAmericanHomeBuyers"hasbeenmovedtothischapter.TheCaseStudy,"Is the
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter32Chapter32 AMacroeconomicTheoryoftheOpenEconomyWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:Theterm"netforeigninvestment"hasbeenreplacedwith"netcapitaloutflow."ThereisanewIn theNewsboxon"TheU.S.TradeDeficit."LEARNINGOBJECTIVES:Bytheendofthischapter,studentsshoul
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter33Chapter20 AggregateDemandandAggregateSupplyWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:ThereisanewIntheNewsboxon"TheTrashIndicator"andanewCaseStudyon"The2001 Recession."TheCaseStudyon"OilandtheEconomy"hasbeenupdated.AnewFYIboxon"The OriginsofAggregateDemandandAg
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter34Chapter34 TheInfluenceofMonetaryandFiscalPolicyonAggregateDemandWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:TheCaseStudyon"WhytheFedWatchestheStockMarket(andViceVersa)"hasbeenupdated.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES:Bytheendofthischapter,studentsshouldunderstand: thetheoryo
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter35Chapter35 TheShortRunTradeoffBetweenInflationandUnemploymentWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:ThereisanewIntheNewsboxon"TheCaseforInflationTargeting."LEARNINGOBJECTIVES:Bytheendofthischapter,studentsshouldunderstand: whypolicymakersfaceashortruntrade
Havering College - ECON - 101
Chapter36Chapter23 FiveDebatesOverMacroeconomicPolicyWHATSNEWINTHETHIRDEDITION:Thedebateonreducingthegovernmentdebthasbeenrecasttobeadebateaboutbalancingthefederal budget.ThereisanewIntheNewsboxonAlanGreenspanversusthePC."LEARNINGOBJECTIVES:Bytheendof
Havering College - ECON - 102
Test Bank, Fundamentals of Corporate Finance, 2eFormat: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: Easy 1. The financial manager is responsible for making decisions that are in the best interest of the firm's owners. A) True B) False Ans: A
Havering College - ECON - 102
Chapter 2 Test BankFormat: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: Easy 1. The role of the financial system is to gather money from people and businesses that have funds to invest and to channel money to those that need it. A) True B) Fa
Havering College - ECON - 102
Chapter 3 Test BankFormat: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: Easy 1. GAAP represents a set of rules and procedures that define accounting practice at a particular point in time. A) True B) False Ans: A Format: True/False Learning O
Havering College - ECON - 102
Format: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: Easy 1. Financial statement analysis can help us determine why a firm's cash flows are increasing or decreasing A) True B) False Ans: AFormat: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of D
Havering College - ECON - 102
Format: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: Easy 1. Time value of money is based on the belief that people have a positive time preference for consumption. A) True B) False Ans: AFormat: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of D
Havering College - ECON - 102
Format: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: Easy 1. Calculating the present and future values of multiple cash flows is relevant only for individual investors. A) True B) False Ans: BFormat: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level
Havering College - ECON - 102
Format: True/False Learning Objective: LO 3 Level of Difficulty: Easy 1. Whenever the outcome of an event has a number of different possibilities that have equal probability of occurrence, then the expected value of the outcome is equal to the simple aver
Havering College - ECON - 102
Format: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: Easy 1. A security's true value is the price that reflects investors' estimates of the value of the cash flows they expect to receive in the future. A) True B) False Ans: AFormat: True/Fals
Havering College - ECON - 102
11.Format: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: Easy Equity securities are certificates of ownership of a corporation. a. True b. False Ans: A Format: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: Easy Householdsown about
Havering College - ECON - 102
Format: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: Easy 1. The term incremental in the context of incremental after-tax free cash flows refers to the fact that the firm's total after-tax free cash flows will change if the new project is adop
Havering College - ECON - 102
Format: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: Easy 1. Total variable costs for a firm do not vary directly with the number of units sold. A) True B) False Ans: BFormat: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: Easy 2. A
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Format: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: Easy 1. Unique risk is the only risk that investors require compensation for bearing. A) True B) False Ans: AFormat: True/False Learning Objective: LO 3 Level of Difficulty: Easy 2. Utilizi
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Format: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: Easy 1. The appropriate mix of current assets is not a working capital management decision. A) True B) False Ans: BFormat: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: Easy 2. N
Havering College - ECON - 102
Format: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: Easy 1. Most businesses are started when an entrepreneur is given a vision for a new business or product by institutional investors. A) True B) False Ans: BFormat: True/False Learning Objec
Havering College - ECON - 102
Format: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: Easy 1. Increasing a firm's outstanding equity will increase firm leverage. A) True B) False Ans: B Format: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: Easy 2. Minimizing the co
Havering College - ECON - 102
Format: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: Easy 1. When a company distributes dividends to stockholders, the amount of equity capital invested in the firm is reduced. A) True B) False Ans: AFormat: True/False Learning Objective: LO
Havering College - ECON - 102
Format: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: Easy 1. Starting a business is less risky than buying and growing a business that someone else has already established. A) True B) False Ans: BFormat: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Le
Havering College - ECON - 102
Format: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: Easy 1. Financial planning deals with establishing sales forecasts for a time horizon set by a firm's management. A) True B) False Ans: BFormat: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of
Havering College - ECON - 102
Format: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: medium 1. A put option with a strike price of $20 is expiring today. The stock is currently selling at $25. Based on this information, the put option should not be exercised. A) True B) Fals
Havering College - ECON - 102
Format: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Level of Difficulty: Easy 1. Globalization refers to the removal of barriers to free trade and the closer integration of national economies. A) True B) False Ans: AFormat: True/False Learning Objective: LO 1 Le
UT Arlington - BIOLOGY - 3444
BIOL 3444-001 Spring 2012 (General Microbiology)Chapter 1. Microorganisms and MicrobiologyI. Introduction to Microbiology What is Microbiology? 1.1 MicrobiologyMicrobiology revolves around two themes (1) Understanding basic life processes (2) Applicati
UT Arlington - BIOLOGY - 3444
Chapter 2. A Brief Journey to the Microbial WorldCopyright 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin CummingsI. Seeing the Very Small What is the essential equipment to study microbiology?Copyright 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publis
UT Arlington - BIOLOGY - 3444
Chapter 3 Chemistry of Cellular ComponentsCopyright 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin CummingsI. Chemical Bonding, Macromolecules, and Water 3.1 Strong and Weak Chemical Bonds 3.2 An Overview of Macromolecules and Water as the