This preview has intentionally blurred parts. Sign up to view the full document

View Full Document

Unformatted Document Excerpt

CHOICE. Exam Name___________________________________ MULTIPLE Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The ancestors of land plants were probably ________ that lived in ________. A) green algae similar to charophytes . . . the open ocean B) green algae similar to charophytes . . . coastal marshes or lake fringes C) cyanobacteria . . . moist soil crust communities D) cyanobacteria . . . coastal marshes or lake fringes 2) Gas exchange in most land plants occurs through structures called A) stomata. B) gas pores. C) spiracles. 1) D) cuticles. 2) 3) A growth- producing region of cell division, known as a(n) ________, is found near the tips of stems and roots. A) lignin B) sporangium C) apical meristem D) cuticle 3) 4) In plants, the vascular tissue made of dead cells that transport water and minerals from the roots is called A) transport tissue. B) xylem. C) meristem. D) phloem. 4) 5) In plants, the vascular tissue that consists of living cells that distribute sugars throughout the plant is called A) phloem. B) meristem. C) transport tissue. D) xylem. 5) 6) In all plants, the zygote and earliest stages of the developing embryo are A) able to disperse in a tough- walled spore. B) enclosed within a seed. C) enclosed within a pollen grain. D) attached to and nourished by the parent plant. 6) 7) Mosses belong to the group of plants known as the A) gymnosperms. B) vascular plants. C) angiosperms. D) bryophytes. 7) 8) Which of the following statements regarding ferns is true? A) Ferns have well- developed vascular tissue, roots, and stems. B) Ferns do not have lignified cell walls. C) Ferns produce seeds. D) Ferns produce pollen. 8) 9) The majority of plant species today are A) seedless vascular plants. C) bryophytes. 9) B) gymnosperms. D) angiosperms. 1 10) Which of the following characteristics tends to limit bryophytes and seedless vascular plants to habitats that are relatively moist? A) presence of lignified vascular tissues B) absence of cuticle C) presence of flagellated sperm D) presence of free- living, independent zygotes and early embryos 10) 11) Which of the following options correctly represents the most likely sequence of the evolution of plants, from earliest to most recent? A) bryophytes, gymnosperms, seedless vascular plants, angiosperms B) bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, angiosperms, gymnosperms C) bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, gymnosperms, angiosperms D) seedless vascular plants, bryophytes, angiosperms, gymnosperms 11) 12) The type of life cycle seen in plants is called A) alternation of generations. C) gametophyte production. 12) B) haplodiploidy. D) sporophytic regeneration. 13) Which of the following statements correctly describes the alternation of generations in a plant life cycle? A) Diploid sporophytes that produce gametes by meiosis alternate with haploid sporophytes that produce gametes by mitosis. B) Diploid gametophytes that produce gametes by meiosis alternate with haploid sporophytes that produce spores by mitosis. C) Diploid sporophytes that produce spores by meiosis alternate with haploid gametophytes that produce gametes by mitosis. D) Diploid gametophytes that produce spores by mitosis alternate with haploid sporophytes that produce gametes by meiosis. 13) 14) The dominant stage of the moss life cycle is the A) pollen. B) gametangium. 14) C) gametophyte. D) sporophyte. 15) Ferns and mosses are similar because both A) have sporophytes that produce diploid spores. B) have flagellated sperm. C) have dominant sporophytes. D) produce drought- resistant seeds. 15) 16) In a moss, most of the plants that we see are ________, while in a fern the most dominant stage is the ________. A) gametophytes . . . gametophyte B) sporophytes . . . gametophyte C) gametophytes . . . sporophyte D) sporophytes . . . sporophyte 16) 17) Which of the following organisms has a dominant sporophyte generation and a free-living gametophyte generation? A) mushroom B) fern C) moss D) conifer 17) 2 18) About 95% of all modern plant species A) have a gametophyte adapted to house a sporophyte stage. B) have a dominant sporophyte in their life cycle. C) have no gametophyte. D) have flagellated sperm. 18) 19) During the Carboniferous period, photosynthesis in immense swamp forests removed ________ from the atmosphere, which produced a drier, cooler global climate and promoted the success of ________. A) carbon dioxide . . . seed plants B) oxygen . . . ferns C) oxygen . . . seed plants D) carbon dioxide . . . lycophytes 19) 20) The incomplete decay of dead plants during the Carboniferous period led to A) the formation of coal. B) the formation of tropical swamps. C) global warming. D) the thinning of the ozone layer. 20) 21) Which part of the life cycle does a pollen grain represent? A) a sperm cell B) a spore C) a male sporophyte D) a male gametophyte 21) 22) Which of the following represents the male gametophyte of a conifer? A) sperm B) pollen cone C) tree D) pollen grain 22) 23) Which of the following plants has a dominant sporophyte generation and a seed, but no fruit? A) moss B) tulip C) pine tree D) fern 23) 24) The ________ represents the sporophyte generation of a conifer, and the ________ produces gametophytes. A) seed . . . tree B) cone . . . tree C) tree . . . pollen D) tree . . . cone 24) 25) Two characteristics shared by gymnosperms and angiosperms that are absent from earlier plant groups and represent key adaptations to life on dry land are A) flowers and fruits. B) pollen and seeds. C) a vascular system and lignin. D) flagellated sperm and gametangia. 25) 26) The ________ is the protective chamber that houses the ovule and later matures to become the fruit. A) ovary B) carpel C) stigma D) sepals 26) 27) In angiosperms, pollen grains develop in the ________ and are trapped by the ________. A) carpel . . . stamen B) anther . . . ovary C) stigma . . . anther D) anther . . . stigma 27) 28) To cross-fertilize flowers A and B, one would first remove flower A's immature ________ and later transfer pollen from flower B to flower A's ________. A) stigma . . . style B) carpel . . . ovule C) anthers . . . stamen D) stamens . . . stigma 28) 3 29) The angiosperm plant we see represents the ________ generation, and the flower produces ________. A) gametophyte . . . sporophytes B) sporophyte . . . gametophytes C) gametophyte . . . bryophytes D) sporophyte . . . bryophytes 29) 30) Some of the unique adaptations of angiosperms include their beneficial relationships with ________ and their relatively ________. A) fungi . . . well- developed vascular system B) animals . . . large sporophyte C) animals . . . rapid fertilization and seed production D) animals . . . well-developed vascular system 30) 31) The ripened ovary of a flower, which is adapted to disperse seeds, is called a(n) A) sporangium. B) ovule. C) casing. D) fruit. 31) 32) Which structure is found in angiosperms but not gymnosperms? A) seeds B) spores C) fruit 32) D) ovule 33) A cocklebur is dispersed by ________, whereas most fleshy, edible fruits are eaten by animals that ________. A) wind . . . fully digest the fruits, including the seeds, which are killed B) hitching rides on animals . . . defecate the intact seeds C) water currents . . . defecate the intact seeds D) hitching rides on animals . . . fully digest the fruits, including the seeds, which are killed 33) 34) Corn, rice, wheat, fleshy fruits such as apples and berries, and many spices are all produced by A) seedless plants. B) ferns. C) angiosperms. D) gymnosperms. 34) 35) Corn, peppers, tomatoes, and cucumbers all contain seeds and are derived from the ovary of a flowering plant. Therefore, in botanical terms, they are ________. A) fruits. B) sporophytes. C) vegetables. D) seeds. 35) 36) Red maples and other wind- pollinated plants invest relatively little in producing ________, but must invest a great deal in producing ________ to achieve good pollination rates. A) seeds . . . massive amounts of pollen B) showy or scented flowers . . . massive amounts of pollen C) pollen . . . showy or scented flowers D) floral scents . . . showy petals 36) 37) Which of the following features would you expect to see in the flowers of wind- pollinated grasses? A) petals with UV- absorbing "nectar guides" B) very large, fragrant, white flowers C) red flowers with long nectar tubes D) very simple flowers that produce massive quantities of pollen 37) 38) Plants dependent on nocturnal pollinators typically have flowers that A) are large, light- colored, and highly scented. B) absorb UV light. C) are small. D) are located close to the ground and smell of rotting flesh. 38) 4 39) One of the factors that help animal- pollinated flowering plants transfer pollen to plants of the same species is A) pollinators are able to rapidly extract nectar from any species of flower, regardless of the pollinators' past or recent experience with a given flower type. B) most pollinators broadly use many different types of flowers. C) each species of pollinator typically visits flowers of one and only one plant species. D) many pollinators have limited learning capacities and are most successful at obtaining food if they continue to visit the same type of flower after learning how to extract its nectar. 39) 40) Many flower traits are specifically attractive to a certain type of pollinator. For example, the scent of rotting flesh is attractive to certain flies and beetles, but not to most other pollinators. What adaptive purpose is served by this kind of "niche marketing" of flowers to specific pollinators? A) This adaptation reduces pollinator traffic so that flowers have a chance to develop pollen fully their before it is spread. B) This adaptation works to reduce pollinator traffic at a flower. Therefore flowers do not have to produce as much nectar to feed big crowds of pollinators. C) This adaptation helps to assure that pollen will be delivered to another flower of the same species. If less specialized pollinators are used, the odds are greater that pollen will wind up on the stigma of a different species. D) This targeting is done because the wrong kind of pollinator might eat all the pollen instead of delivering it to another flower. 40) 41) The main causes for the loss of plant biodiversity include A) plant diseases and herbivory. B) clearcutting of forests to create farmland and logging. C) herbivory, logging, and air pollution. D) plant diseases and clearcutting of forests to create farmland. 41) 42) The loss of plant biodiversity, including the wild relatives of crop species, is harmful because these wild relatives A) are a source of genetic diversity that could be used to modify or bolster existing crops. B) feed most of the world's population. C) are often tastier than existing crops. D) may be suitable for domestication and regional production. 42) 43) Heterotrophic eukaryotes that digest their food externally and absorb the small molecules are referred to as A) multicellular algae. B) bacteria. C) fungi. D) plants. 43) 44) The intimate, mutually beneficial association formed between a fungus and the root of a plant is called a(n) A) mycorrhiza. B) mycelium. C) hypha. D) ingrowth. 44) 45) Fungi are found associated with the earliest plant fossils. Fungi may have helped plants become terrestrial by A) killing the bacterial enemies of plants. B) stocking the soil with organic matter. C) providing simple organic compounds in return for sugars. D) forming mycorrhizal associations with plants and by decomposing organic matter. 45) 5 46) Threadlike fungal filaments are called A) mold. B) mycelia. C) root hairs. D) hyphae. 46) 47) A mushroom A) is specialized to obtain most of the nutrients for the fungal mycelium. B) is an above-ground reproductive structure connected to a mycelium. C) is an independent stage in the alternation of generations of the fungal life cycle. D) is composed of many threadlike filaments called mycorrhizae. 47) 48) Fungi contact and absorb food through the ________, a branching network of ________. A) hyphae . . . mycelia B) mycorrhiza . . . mushrooms C) mycelium . . . hyphae D) mushroom . . . hyphae 48) 49) Which of the following structures is an essential part of most fungal reproductive systems? A) spores B) cellulose C) seeds D) gametangia 49) 50) The heterokaryotic phase of a fungal life cycle is A) a stage in which the hyphae contain only one type of haploid nucleus. B) a stage in which hyphae contain two, genetically different, diploid nuclei. C) a triploid stage formed by the fusion of a diploid nucleus with the haploid nucleus of a compatible hypha. D) a stage in which hyphae contain two, genetically different, haploid nuclei. 50) 51) Which type of reproduction is typical in molds? A) asexual reproduction through the production of spores B) sexual reproduction through mating of two diploid parent mycelia C) asexual reproduction through budding D) sexual reproduction through fusion of two haploid parent mycelia and subsequent production of haploid spores 51) 52) The last common ancestor of animals and fungi was probably ________, like the spores of ________ fungi. A) flagellated . . . chytrid B) nonflagellated . . . yeast C) flagellated . . . mold D) multicellular . . . chytrid 52) 53) About 90% of plants have mycorrhizae linking them to A) ascomycetes (sac fungi). B) glomeromycetes. C) basidiomycetes (club fungi). D) chytrids. 53) 54) Most familiar types of mushrooms, along with puffballs and shelf fungi, are A) zygomycetes (zygote fungi). B) ascomycetes (sac fungi). C) chytrids. D) basidiomycetes (club fungi). 54) 55) Most zygomycetes and ascomycetes reproduce ________ when conditions are ________. A) sexually . . . favorable, as in the spring of the year B) sexually . . . constantly moist and food is abundant C) asexually . . . favorable, as in the spring of the year D) asexually . . . harsh, as in the fall of the year 55) 6 56) Which of the following occurs in a mushroom, that is, in the reproductive structure of a basidiomycete? A) Heterokaryotic cells separate to re- create the original haploid hyphae. B) Hyphae of two different mating types fuse. C) Spores germinate and form a haploid mycelium. D) Diploid nuclei form, undergo meiosis, and produce haploid spores. 56) 57) Fungal diseases common in ________ include ________ and ________. A) animals . . . smuts . . . chytrids B) plants . . . ringworm . . . coccidioidomycosis C) humans . . . rusts . . . vaginal yeast D) plants . . . smuts . . . rusts 57) 58) Gangrene, hallucinations, temporary insanity, and even death can result when humans consume grain infested with A) corn smut. B) coccidioidomycosis. C) ergots. D) chytrids. 58) 59) An experimental forest ecosystem is enclosed in a sealed greenhouse. The entire ecosystem, including the air and soil, is treated with an extremely potent fungicide that kills all fungal life stages including spores. What will probably happen next? A) Dead organic matter will accumulate on the forest floor; plant growth will decline because of a lack of nutrients and the loss of mycorrhizal partners. B) A few animals will go extinct due to loss of their fungal food sources, but otherwise the forest will be largely unchanged. C) Plants will enjoy a long- term increase in growth and survival because of the removal of fungal pathogens. D) Tree growth will increase because the dead fungi will act as a fertilizer. 59) 60) Which of the following statements regarding fungi is false? A) The first antibiotic discovered came from a fungus. B) Fungi can only break down plant material. C) The distinctive flavor of certain cheeses is due to fungi. D) Fungi are important decomposers in ecosystems. 60) 61) What kind of entity is a lichen? A) an association between a fungus and cyanobacteria or green algae B) an association between a bryophyte and a fungus C) an association between a fungus and a brown alga D) an association between a multicellular protist related to the brown algae and a bacterium 61) 62) You enjoy learning about history by traveling throughout North America studying gravestones. You notice that gravestones from 1900 and earlier usually host many types of lichens. But in one cemetery, lichens are entirely absent, even from old gravestones. Given what is known about lichens, the cemetery without lichens probably A) is close to a source of air pollution. B) is subject to extremely cold winter temperatures. C) gets a great deal of rain, which favors the growth of competing bacteria. D) has an unusually dry climate. 62) 7 63) According to this figure, at what time in the evolutionary history of plants did vascular systems likely first evolve? A) 425 mya B) 460 mya C) 360 mya D) 475 mya 64) Which part of this figure represents the anther? A) structure A 63) 64) B) structure B C) structure C 8 D) structure D After reading the paragraph, answer the question(s) that follow. Scientists believe that a shift from pollination by insects to pollination by birds occurred several times over the course of angiosperm evolution. Two researchers designed an experiment to investigate how these shifts might evolve using two species of monkey flower (Mimulus spp.). M. lewisii has violet- pink flowers and is pollinated by bumblebees. M. cardinalis has orange- red flowers and is pollinated by hummingbirds. The researchers switched flower- color genes between the two species. As a result of the gene transfer, they produced a variation of M. cardinalis with dark pink flowers (instead of the original orange- red). The new variety of M. lewisiis had orange flowers (instead of the original violet- pink). Plants of both genetically altered varieties were placed in their original habitats and observed. The genetically altered variety of M. cardinalis was visited by bumblebees 74 times more often than plants with the original color flowers. The genetically altered variety of M. lewisii was visited by hummingbirds 68 times more often than plants with the original color flowers. 65) Based on the results of this study, you can conclude that A) gene mutations affecting petal color can contribute to speciation through a shift in pollinator species. B) petal color won't contribute to speciation, since pollinators will select familiar plant species regardless of petal color. C) gene mutations that affect petal color will also affect nectar production. D) flower color doesn't appear to be an important factor in the speciation of flowering angiosperms. 65) 66) The evolution of easily modified flower colors that can make plants attractive to animals was an important factor in angiosperm evolution because A) plants have no way to cross- pollinate without the intervention of animals. B) flower color attracts animals that can disperse the seeds of the plant. C) animals are more effective at delivering pollen to other flowers than is the wind. D) successful evolution requires interactions between plants and animals. 66) 9 Answer Key Testname: UNTITLED7 1) B 2) A 3) C 4) B 5) A 6) D 7) D 8) A 9) D 10) C 11) C 12) A 13) C 14) C 15) B 16) C 17) B 18) B 19) A 20) A 21) D 22) D 23) C 24) D 25) B 26) A 27) D 28) D 29) B 30) C 31) D 32) C 33) B 34) C 35) A 36) B 37) D 38) A 39) D 40) C 41) B 42) A 43) C 44) A 45) D 46) D 47) B 48) C 49) A 50) D 10 Answer Key Testname: UNTITLED7 51) A 52) A 53) B 54) D 55) C 56) D 57) D 58) C 59) A 60) B 61) A 62) A 63) A 64) A 65) A 66) C 11 ... View Full Document

End of Preview

Sign up now to access the rest of the document