Music_111[1]
25 Pages

Music_111[1]

Course Number: AAAS MUS111, Spring 2008

College/University: Binghamton

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Music 111: Culture of the Far East Asia E-mic (Phenemic): How people within their own country think of their culture vs. E-tic (Phenetic): Outsiders perspective Shelemay Framework that can be used to describe music; Standardizes music throughout the world Timbre Acoustical properties of the instrument itself based on the overtones Pitch Based on frequency/vibration Duration Rhythm and meter Setting Where the...

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111: Music Culture of the Far East Asia E-mic (Phenemic): How people within their own country think of their culture vs. E-tic (Phenetic): Outsiders perspective Shelemay Framework that can be used to describe music; Standardizes music throughout the world Timbre Acoustical properties of the instrument itself based on the overtones Pitch Based on frequency/vibration Duration Rhythm and meter Setting Where the music takes place Significance Meaning behind the music and how it affects people Listening ex. Silk and Bamboo (Sizho) "Autumn moon over Han Palace" Yang qin (hammered dulcimer) Erhu (bowed luk) Pipa (plucked luk) Dongxia (bamboo flute) Zhou Jie lun (Jay Chou) Mandarin Chinese "Second year third class" Ping Pong sound Important Trading Networks Silk Road Trading route system Included the exchange of musical instruments Significant to China, India, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Rome... Extension of Mongol Empire (1206-1368) Led to widespread exchange of information The Persian Santur Improvisation on melodic mode Mahur (same as the major scale) Accompanied by zarb drum goblet shaped drum [6 beats] Chordophones 1. Lutes 2. Zithers * Does not have a neck * Often in a shape of trapezoid * Striking with a hammer or plucking a string 1 The North Indian Santoor Rag Jogiya played at Daybreak for yogis doing meditation Shiu Kumar Sharma (snatoor) accompanied by tabla drum The Chinese Yangqin Xiu hebao (Embroidered Purse) Similar techniques with other instruments above Satar Bowed instrument From Turkey here found in Xinjiang China amongst the Uygur "Woy Bala" Does not get played by hand Press against the string Strings underneath the main string Sympathetic string gives instrument a rich quality Tar Frame drum often accompanied by satar North Indian Sarangi Rag Nat Bhairon by Sultan Khan 1. Alap Opening of solo improvisation 2. Composition accompanied by tabla (talla) Do not push the strings against the neck Sliding of the strings Most vocal instrument Sympathetic strings produce rich sound due to vibration Indus Valley Beginning of large settlements and civilization (3,000 B.C.~18,000 B.C.) Period of cultural contact Cave paintings, pottery... Ruins of Moheno Daro Invasions of Aryans * Brought new religion and language * Language of Sankrit mostly Greek and Latin * Vedic religion formed by Vedas now called Hinduism Hindu religion * Idea of music being spiritual (representing the sound of God Ned Bhramin) * Sound transmitted through meditation * Most know: Om 2 Hindustani Classical Music Music considered as sacred sound Shisya parampara System of training Guru Purely religious teachers Gharana Schools maintained by family lineages (stylistic schools) Each guru is part of gharana traditions Would live with teachers and become an errand boy for several years Religious devotion 1. Dharma Set of duties/obligations that you must fulfill in your life 2. Samsara Idea of cyclical reincarnation/rebirth 3. Karma Law of cause and effect 4. Moksha Realizing divinity in oneself Liberation of death/rebirth Establishment of Mughal Dynasty Destroy all the temples Built Taj Mahal Created distinct difference in music of North and South (South preserved Hindu tradition) Raga That which colors the mind A series of pitches (svara) for ascending (arohi) and descending (avrohi) A set of musical rules governing the primary pitch (vadi) and secondary pitch (samvadi) as well as a dissonant pitch (vivadi) melodic system An extra-musical association of mood Scale SA RE GA MA PA DHA NI SA can be natural Re, Ga, Da, Ni can be lowered (komal) Ma can be raised (tivra) Bhatkhande (18601936) created a system of 10 THAT or scales from ragas in use at the time. Rasa: the moods of Raga Consists of translation, color and deity Drone (svara) Tanpura 4 or 5 strings tuned to the fundamental and usually the 5 th above it (Pa) * Pitches have characteristics easier to distinguish Used to continue the fundamental pitches throughout the music Sruti Microtones Monophonic Single voice hard to distinguish the pitches 3 Rag Bilaval Late morning Raga 912am Uses the same scale as a major scale Ragamala painting Represents the feelings of departed love 1. Alap Opening of improvisation 2. Bandish Composition (drums enter) Gamak Different ornaments that can be used for vocalist Tala Rhythmic cycle of a certain number of beats, which may be subdivided in different ways. The beats are further grouped into clusters. Externalized by using clap (tali) and waves (khali) Tintal Rhythmic cycle of 16 beats X 2 3 4 X 2 3 4 O 2 3 4 X 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Sam Emphasis on beat one; Theka Rhythmic drumming beat Ends on beat one makes easier to find tala of composition 1 2 3 4 Dha dhin dhin dha 5 6 7 8 Dha dhin dhin dha 9 10 11 12 Dha tin tin ta 13 14 15 16 Ta dhin dhin dha These syllables used for drum (tabla) beats The Mughal Empire Ruled Northern India Began to inject Persian music as well as other styles Courts supported for musicians transformed later into stage-musicians Very rich upper class prostitutes danced and sang The Taj Mahal Completed 1648 Was built for commemorating his wife 3 15 4 16 4 Amir Khusro Amir Khusro with Nizamuddin Aliya of Delhi Lived 12351325 Started cahali music founder of Hidustani music Gwalior Palace Man Singh Tomar (14861517) Maharaja of Gwalior Emperors power being weighed by the local rulers Dhrupad at the Palace of Gwalior Swami Haridas Lived 15061589; considered 9 jewels of court Court composer Akbar, Tansen and Haridas Dhrupad (words of truth) Rare genre; held as a state of awe Pakhawaj Oldest drum * Lower head in the back * Higher head in the front Tanpura String instrument Devotional songs Nasir Moinduddin and Nasir Aminuddin Dagar Instrumental genre also encountered as vocal genre Rag Darbari Kanada The raga of kings and the kings of raga Many songs composed for Akbar Represented the mood of victory Unique scale * Regular ascending pattern but crooked descending pattern * Pitches must be embellished through vibration * Main note: D Dhammar tal (14 beats) X 2 3 4 X 2 3 O 2 3 X 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1. Alap Musical rules beats and rhythm Establishes mood 2. Composition Beginning/Entrance of a drummer Played deep in the night. Conveys a feeling of valor associated with victorious kings. Attributed to Tansen, and many songs composed for Akbar. 5 Muhammad Shah Reigned 17191748 Khyal Imagination of fantasy Tabla, tanpura and melodic accompaniment Usually the Harmonium or Sarangi Much expanded ensemble Much expanded rage of improvisation Qawwal Khyal Performance Alap Metered or unmetered Bada Khyal Bandish (composition) in slow (vilambit) Tala Chota Khyal Bandish (composition) in fast (drut) Tala "climax" exciting end (1.52 hours) Rag Puriya Dhanashri Evokes peace, pathos, joy, power Ashwin Bhide Deshpande (vocal) Wishwanath Shirodkar (tabla) Seema Shirodkar (harmonium) Bada Khyal in Tintal X 2 3 4 X 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Alap my go on to 20~30 minutes 4 8 O 9 2 10 3 11 4 12 X 13 2 14 3 15 4 16 Origins of Thumri Wajid Ali Shan Nawab of Awadh (18471856) Governor of India Lucknow Capitol city of Awadh Intervention of British Exchange of trade 6 Courtesans (Tawaifs) Thumri sung by Courtesans (Tawaifs) High class prostitues dancing and singing (performance) girls Radha and Krisna Very famous love affair Krisna God who lived in Earth, seducing cow herding girls Known for dark-skinned Thumri in Rag Khamaj Late night raga (123am) expresses love and sensuality Sarangi, Tabla, Pandit Chanula Mishra, Harmonium, Tanpura Pandit: a master of renowned knowledge Tintal (16 beats) Bol technique used for improvisation Tan rapid melodic Hindustani Instrumental Music Ravi Shankar Revolutionized the Hindustani music Brought them to west Tanpura 4 or 5 strings tuned to the fundamental (Sa) and usually the 5 th above it (Pa) Articulates the same pitches Plucking the strings Sitar 18 or 19 strings with 6 or 7 playing strings and 12 sympathetic strings Sympathetic strings resonate rich sound Difficult to tune Pitches can be raised or lowered frets movable Sitar Ancestry South Indian Veena * Frets stuck on to the neck Persian Sitar * 3 strings [All the Hindustani instruments are made to imitate human voice] 7 Sitar Technique Right hand plucks the strings using a pick (mezrab) worn on the index finger and the wall of the pinky. Left hand frets strings and executes gamakas (ornamentals) by bending, sliding, and vibrating strings. Frets are movable. The top 3 strings are drone strings (chikan) and plucked with pinky (to fill in during slower sections) and the mezrab (strummed during faster section) climax sections Prominent Sitarists Shahid Parvez (1950 ) Pandi Ravi Shankar (1920 ) more international reputation Ustad Vilayat Khan (19282004) innovator of sitar; more appreciated in India Sitars in the West Brian Jones (Rolling Stones) George Harrison (The Beatles) Calvin Broadus (,,Snoop Dogg) Sarod 25 strings: 4 playing strings changes the pitches 3 drone strings play opened 18 sympathetic strings (tarbs) Fretless neck, craved wooden resonator covered with goat skin Sarod Ancestry Afghani Rebab Ancestors of Amjad Ali, Khan developed Sarod Sarod Technique Right hand plucks the strings using a triangular pick (java) made of coconut shell, held between the thumb and forefinger. Left hand stops the strings using the fingernails. The smooth fingerboard allows extensive gamakas (ornaments) through bending, sliding, and vibrating the strings. No frets or markings requires perfect intonation The top 3 strings are drone strings (chikan) and are plucked with the pick (to fill in during slower sections). The Prominent Sarodists Ustad Amjad Ali Khan (1945 ) Vasant Rai (1942 ) 8 Ustad Ali Tabla Right hand plays the smaller drums Tabla Technique The tabla is constructed with goat skins and tuned using wooden blocks and by tapping the rims. Both heads have a paste (syahi) made of rice and iron fillings. This allows a variety of tones to be produced. Each sound has a corresponding vocal (bol). X 1 2 2 X 3 2 4 3 O 5 6 Jhaptal (10 beats 2 7 X 8 2 9 3 10 Dhrupad Most ancient surviving style of Hindustani music Tanpura, veena, and pakhawaj (double-headed drum) 1. Alap - Alap * Slow * Introduces the raga - Jor * Sense of pulsation * Medium speed - Jhala * Consistent use of drone strings * Fast climatic section 2. Composition (Bandish) Dhrupad Performance Ustad Asad Ali Khan Raga Desh Late Night (12-3am) X 2 O 1 2 3 2 4 X 2 5 6 Sultal (10 beats) O 7 2 8 X 9 2 10 Scale On the way up Natural On the way down Flat Performance of Sarod By Ustad Amjad Ali Khan Senia Bangash Gharana Family tradition of music playing 9 Gayaki ,,Vocal Style Ustad Hafiz Ali Khan Gat Instrumentalist playing with their own composition Hafiz Ali Khan went further to imitate vocal Rag Darbari Kanada The raga of kings and the kings of ragas Musical Features of Darbari Kanada Arohana (ascending) * Ga E * Dha A * Ga and Dha singing notes not on the piano Avarohana (descending) * Ga E * Dha A * Ga and Dha singing notes not on the piano Ragas Darbari Kanada & Adana Raga Darbari Kanada 1. Alap a. Alap Slow, in free rhythm b. Jor Medium tempo, suggestion of rhythm c. Jhala Fast, dynamic; heavy use of drone string 2. Slow (Vilambit) composition 3. Medium (Madhya) Gat in Tintal composition Raga Adana 4. Fast (Drut) Gat in Tintal Performance (Sarod) Ustad Amjad Ali Khan Ustad Shafaat Ahmed Khan Karnatic Music South Indian Classical Music South India Rise and fall of many empires Came from different language families Believed that South India represents indigenous, racial component 10 South was shielded from the invasions More of Hindu influence Vindhya Range Western and Eastern Gats History Term Karnatic comes from Kamad (black country). Dravidian speaking people who migrated from the north during the Aryan invasions something during first millennium BCE First written evidence shows the Chola, Pandya, and Chera kingdoms were already established by 300 BCE. Maintained varying degrees of autonomy from the Muslim dominated north. Dravidian Languages Four main language families: Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada Distinct from the Indo-European languages of the North, such as Hindi and Sanskrit. However, they have borrowed from 30-70% of vocabulary from Sanskrit. Sanskrit in turn borrowed grammar and structure from Dravidian languages. Distinct from each other. Dialects within each language family used to be tied to caste membership. Karnatic vs. Hindustani Music Both employ concepts of raga and tala, but with different construction and realizations. Performance genres are different. Karnatic music is primarily based upon fixed vocal compositions with less improvisation. Instruments and techniques are different. Karnatic music uses a greater variety of shruti (microtones) in the construction of scales and in improvisation. Saraswati Goddess South uses more ornamentations of gamaka. Devadasi Female dedicated to sacred dancing to god Purandara Dasa One of the founders of the Bhakti movement, which seeks to surrender oneself to the divine energy (bhakti). Composed songs in local Kannada language so the masses could understand them. Created the Kriti composition form. Created a training method for singers making use of vocal and rhythmic exercises. The Musical Trinity Tyagaraja 11 * Born in 1767 * Most prolific among the composers * Perfected in a kriti genre * Composition less technical; easy to understand most popular * Sangati Improvisational style * Pallavi first section of composition that artist constantly returns to Listening ex. "Rama nannu brovara" Sung by M.S. Subbulakshmi vocals, T.K. Murthy, Mridangam * names reflect the place of origin and caste standing Muttuswami Dishitar * Influenced by Northern Indian Hindustani music * Used Sanskrit language * Most complex composition Syama Sastri * Composed about 300 compositions * Also used kriti form Karnatic Raga North Based on scales or that (10 common) South Mela Karta (72 scales) SA (fixed), RI, GA (primary pitch), MA (can only be raised), PA (fixed), DA, NI, SA Veena S. Balachander (1927-1990) Veena Dhanamimal (1867-1938) * Pioneer female musician * Founder of new style of performance Mridangam Similar shape to pakahawj Larger number of sound, different strokes Primary drum of accompaniment in the south Vadyam Pancha Nagaswaram and Tavil 12 Karnatic Vocal Music Tiger cave 8th century A.D. natural auditorium for drama, dance, and performance Ascribed to Pallava Dynasty Tabla in South India Three main types of tala: modern, used in contemporary performances; didactic; from Purandara Dasas lessons; scholarly, rare varieties that result from systematic study Use 4 gestures (kriya) to represent the structure of a tala cycle: 1. laghu, a clap and finger counts (x) 2. drutam, a clap and wave (o) 3. andrutam, a single clap (u) 4. single wave (w) Use jati rhythmic syllables to vocalize various tala patterns Each count can be subdivided into 3,4,5,6,7 or 9 sub-units (gati) Each tala can be conceived of in different speeds (kala) X 1 2 2 3 3 4 O 4 5 Adi Tala 6 O 7 8 W 1 W 2 U 3 4 5 Capu Tala U 6 7 X O 1 2 3 Rupaka Tala U 1 U U 2 3 4 5 Khanda Capu Tala Three speed exercise in Adi Tala 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 X 2 3 4 O O Ta Ka Di Mi Ta Ka Jo Nu Taka Dimi Taka Jonu Taka Dimi Taka Jonu Takadimi Takajonu Takadimi Takajonu Takadimi Takajonu Takadimi Takajonu Famous Vocalists 13 Semmangudi Srinivas Iyer (1908-2003) [Iyer = caste name; priest tradition] * Distinctive voice * Improvisational style Sudha Ragunathan (1959) * Drew attention to North India also Madurai Mani Iyer (1912-1968) M.S. Subbujakshmi (1916-2004) Kriti Creation, composition, enchantment 1. Alap Un-metered melodic improvisation 2. Kriti Composition (a) Sangati Embellishment using various gamaka techniques (b) Niraval Improvisation of melodic variations on a line of the kriti (c) Svara kalpana Rhythmic/melodic improvisation using solfege syllables 3. Tani avarttanam Improvised percussion solo (optional) Niraval always returns to idam ,,the place; where the line of text starts Svara kalpana imagining, creating Kaligiyunte "If it was to happen" Compoer: Tyagaraja/Raga kiravani adi talai Uses flat ga and dha Dedicated to Hindu deities, Rama King of ancient India Kriti has three basic structures: Pallavi Anupallavi Caranam mukra-sign 4 O O 4 5 6 7 8 8 beat Tala Kriti sung by: T. Brinda (1912-1996) - pioneer vocalist T. Viswanathan (1927-2002) - brought Karnatic to the west T. Ranganathan (1925-1987) - brought Karnatic to the west X 1 2 2 3 3 In-Class Performance 14 Gopal Kumar Saraswati Veena Sruti Box Karnatic Music in Performance Kriti "E Tarunara" - Written for Lord Krishna (Govinda) - Reflects the flirting with cow-herding girls Govinda Aspect of god born on Earth to help human beings Swara-Kalpana: sa ri ga ma pa da ni sa X 2 3 4 O O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Raga Kalyani 1 raised/sharpened degree Rest is the regular scale Alap vocal violin Kriti improvisation Tani Avortanam (drum solo) End. Musicians Semmangudi Srinivas Iyer - Leading vocalist of 20th century - Nasal voice - Virtuoso improviser G. Harishankar Kanjira - Played frame drum that has a skin around it (Frame drum able to raise / lower the pitch through the membrane) T.K. Murthy - Mridangam player Dr. M. Balamurali Krishna - Violin player Classical Dance in India Shiva Nataraja The Lord of the Dance Cosmic dance dance of creation, nurturing, and destruction Shiva dancing on back of a dwarf * Dwarf represents the ignorance Damaru drum that brings the cosmic sound Bharata Natyam 15 Theory of dance-drama (natya goes back to the sage Bharata Muni c.200 B.C.) whose surviving text Natyashastra delineates its basic aspects: * Song (gita) * Drama (natya) * Dance (nritta) Devadasi Devadasi: dasi servants of deva gods Female temple servants that were married to a particular Hindu deity Performed special temple rituals Sang and danced in praise of deity Many accepted the affections of wealthy patrons. During the British colonial period decline of patronage sends many into prostitution. Their dances form the basis of Bharata natyam Elements Nritta, pure dance movements with no definite meaning - Accompanied by sung syllables (sargam sa ri ga ma etc.) - Or jati, rhythmic syllables that mimc drum strokes - Adavu, dance movement combinations set to sargam or jati syllables Nritya, symbolic movement that dramatizes the lyrics of a song Each has a definite meaning. Mudra Chandrakala Shivas crown Kapota Puspaputa giving an offering Simha Nattuvanar (Dance master) Conducts the performance and directs the dance movement Keeps the timing on the talam finger cymbles Recites dance syllables, known as jati or solkattu In the past, only men could serve this function now open to men and women Devotional Dance for Shiva Ekambareshvara temple 1509 Namaskara gesture of welcome to Shiva - Features pancha vadyam style reminiscent of temple festivals - Bows to Shiva and audience 16 Tirmanam - Nritta (pure dance) section that features several adavu combinations on both sides of the body Invocation to Lord Shiva - Alternates between nritta and nritya - Vocal composition with pallavi and anupallavi sections set to nritya - Interspersed with jati syllables set to nritta Indian Music meets the West Burning of in scents, psychedelic drums, etc. Rabindranath Tagore Awarded Nobel Prize for literature in 1913 Traveled widely throughout the world, spreading knowledge about Indian culture. Composed several songs that drew on India, Scottish, and English popular tunes. Promoted Indian music in the West. Inayat Khan & Ruth St. Denis (Inayat Zither prayer) Khan toured the US in 1910 Following this he and St. Denis performed throughout the US. Presented Indian music as an exotic dance. Uday Shankar Older brother of Ravi Moved to London to study art Impressed Russian Ballerina Anna Pavlova with his dancing. They created a Krishna-Radha act that fused Indian dance with ballet. Ravi eventually toured with their act, playing sitar and other instruments. Ravi Shankar & Yehudi Menuhin Met in 1951, resulting in Yehudi becoming interested in Indian music. Yehudi arranges a series of concerts for Ravi Shankar in Europe and America. In 1961, Ravi begins a series of historic tours to the US., spreading the authentic sounds of Hindustani music. Composed several works together in 1960s-1970s Composition in Raga Piloo Commemorating UN Human Rights Day 1967 Yehudi Menuhin, Ravi Shankar, Alla Rakha 1960s Psychedelia Timothy Leary 17 Alan Watts Alan Ginsburg Ravi plays Monterey Pop Festival (June 1967) Raga Bhimpalas Part I Part II Sawal-Jawab Raga Rock Brian Jones Rolling Stones George Harrison The Beatles Fusions and Collaborations Shakti (1970s) "Mind Ecology" Members: John McLaughlin, guitar Zakir Hussain, tabla T.H. Vinayakaram, ghatam Innovative collaboration between jazz musicians and Indian musicians McLaughlin virtuoso guitarist of 1970s Zakir Hussain from North India L. Shankar from South India Reflected time of India when Indian religions become popular Hindu Devotional Music Music considered as a sacred activity Positive qualities of sound Music also identified with Hindu deities Core of religious expressions Divine Music Shiva-Damaru Krishna-Bansuri Saraswati-Veena Believed that God enjoys music and emotional pleasure Bhakti movement Devotion and love to God Believed that if you devote music to God, you receive divine Braj Region 18 Bhajans traditional music from Braj region Several of Hindu deities were believed to live here Hindi national language of India originated from this religion Krisna at Vrindaben Krisna lived at Vrindaben Shiva at Benaras Shiva lived at Benaras on Ganges River sacred river Rama at Ayodhya Rama lived at Ayodhya Bhajans Hindu devotional songs Still growing today Sikh one of the main religions of India heavy emphasis on these songs Very simple to sing and learn Sung in a temple during religious worship Call and response format Some based on ragas but not bounded by the rules of raga Melodic system free Harmonium kind of pump organ that plays the melody Tabla often used to keep up the rhythm Pakhawaj often used to keep up the rhythm Tanpura Sruti Govinda Jaya Jaya Gopala another name for Krisna Nrsingadera incarnation of Krisna Song dedicated to the victory of Krisna Swami Haridas c. 1486-1575 "Subhaga Varana Tana" (Your Beautiful Color) Founder of Hindustani Classical Music Lived in a simple, plain life Haridasi songs composed by Haridas Lyrics in northern dialect Love and devotion to Krisna at the center of Bhakti movement Shyama another name for Krisna "dark one" 19 Janjh hand cymbals Saint Mirabai 1498-1547 Faced a lot of persecutions at that time Was the princess of Rhajastan Renowned poet Arranged marriage and fulfilled her duty as a wife but wanted to devote herself to Krishna and Govinda Husband got killed in a battle and had to go through widowhood Rejected widowhood and composed and praised for God o wandered with common people o visited shrines o addressed social ills in her music Revolutionary Mira Bhajan ("maine lino Govinda") Sung by Anup Jalota Bhajan singer Bollywood Film music in India Came from the City of Bombay Plots very formulaic and stereotypical No subtitles Creation of national pop culture for the first time Features of Filmi git Simple tala cycle taken from music such as kaherva (8 beats) or dadra (6 beats) Use of western melodies, harmony and scales Playback singers sing the songs, which are lip-synched by the actors Vocal timbre has become standardized based upon the sound of a few key singers Most in Hindi-Urdu language, with many songs coming from the ghazal tradition Melodrama Lavish costume Lata Mangeshkar (Born 1929) From a family of classical musicians and actors Recorded over 12,000 songs (world record) Still active today Established a trademark sound that is often imitated Andaz (1949) 20 First major performance for Lata Mangeshkar launches her career. She voices the songs for the female lead. Showcases two stars of the period: Dilip Kumar (male lead) and Nargis (female lead) Also features Mukesh singing the male lead for Dilip Critiques the problems brought by western culture in India Music director: Naushad Lyrics: Majrooh Sultanpuri Director: Mehboob Khan Actors: Dilip Kumar & Nargis Song: "Somebody came into my heart" The Jewel Thief (1967) "Hothon Pe Aisi Baat" Sung by Lata Mangeshkar Music director: S.D. Burman Lyrics: Majrooh Sultanpuri Director: Vijay Anand Actors: Dev Anand, Vyjayantimala, Ashok Kumar, Tanuja and Helen Asha Bhosle (Born 1933) Junior sister of Lata, and sometimes rival Got her start singing the role of bad characters, outcasts, and other unpopular roles Still active today Married composer R.D. Burman Hare Rama, Hare Krishna (1917) Portrays drug and hippie culture of the 1960s and 1970s Music director: R.D. Burman Lyrics: Anand Bakashi Director: Dev Anand Actors: Zeenat Aman & Dev Anand Song: "Dum Maro Dum" Khal Nayak (1993) The Villain Created a huge controversy in India due to obscenity of one of the dance scenes Parallels the story of Rama and Sita from the Hindu epic Ramayana Sanjay Dutt accused of terrorism for Bombay bombings Features the voice of Alka Yagnik for Madhuri 21 Music director: Laxmikant-Pyarelal Director: Subhash Ghai Actors: Sanjay Dutt & Madhuri Dixit Alka Yagnik Born in to a family of classical musicians, but could not pursue a career in classical music. Took over the mantle from Lata and Asha, and become the most popular singer in the 1990s. Like Lata and Asha, she had voiced the most important female leads of her generation. Chlie Ke Piche "What is under your blouse?" Sung by Alka Yagnik Lagaan (2001) Historical epic set during British colonial period (c. late 1800s) Nominated for Academy Award for Best Foreign Language film. One of the first Bollywood films to receive mainstream distribution in the U.S. Nearly 4 hours long! Cost a great deal of money ($6 million) which was unheard of for Bollywood films Features voices of Alka Yagnik, Asha Bhosle and Lata Mangeshkar Music director: A.R. Rahman Lyrics: Jared Akhtar Director: Ashutosh Gowariker Actors: Aamir Khan, Gracy Singh, Rachel Shelley, Paul Blackthorne Song: "Mitwa" (Loved One) Udit Narayan male lead Alka Yagnik female lead Bhangara folk dance Punjab Region petitioned between India and Afghanistan Huge agricultural central Sikh different from Hindu religion Guru Nanak founder of Sikh religion Bhangara Music Preferred by men Mela annual fair of Bhangara music 22 Dhol double-headed drum; sound very distinguishable Tumbi (ektara) single stringed lute Set dances wave names; not a free dance Harvest festival became a tradition Instruments (Bhangara Props) Dhole Sup (snake) Danda Gatka (martial arts) Costume 23 Qawwali Music Sufi Devotional Music - From Northern India - Sufi Seet of Islam Ali First ________ (First ;;) Urs festival commemorating anniversary of death Qawwali Music - harmoniums, primary drums are _______ ( ;;) mostly sung in Persian sung in Hindi & Urdu Amir Khusro - Nasrat Fateh Ali Khan - Ravi Shankar & Qawwali Music Asian Beat - Popular music in the Asian Diaspora - Indian music (Bhangra) and Western music (Reggae, etc) mix was popular in Britain Southall - in London - 90% of population is consisted of Indians & Pakistanis - Sikh Religion - Bizarre - Freedom to express (unlike New York City where there is pressure to conform) - School teaches Hindi language (open to various options) - By 1980s, Asian media club, radio, music shop, magazine was established - Hiphop is the latest style that is popular Alaap group of musicians (Bhangra) 24 - they mixed the sound of dhol (ex. Johnny Kalsi) & tumbi - main singer: Channi Bingh (Song: Bhabiye Ni Bhabiye) Punjabi MC - recent pioneering musician (rapper) - started in early 1990s - Punjabi rapping (influenced by American music) - Worked with Jay-Z (Song: Mundian to Bach Ke Beware of the Boys : tumbi used, dhol mixed with drum and base) Asian Dub Foundation - Group - Master D: very young singer, raps in English - Electric guitar, raga, drum, tabla, etc are mixed - Indian immigrants in London formed this group - Their songs are politically conscious (race relations in Britain) (Song: P.K.N.B) Talvin Singh - in 1970s - in East London - grew up learning Tabla & briefly went to India - dance music (Song: Soni one of the songs in the ,,OK album) "Kirwani" by Jolly Mukherjee - active in Bollywood films, commercials - King of Strings - Mixed Hindustani classical music and western music - Did lots of remix 25

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CHAPTER 9 REVIEW Important Properties and Formulas Square root property: For any real number k, if axb2k , then axbk .To solve a quadratic equation in x by completing the square: 1. Isolate the terms with variables on one side of the equa
Duke - PPS - 55
To: Speaker Joe Hackney CC: Josh DeBottis From: 1732 Re: House Bill 1749 is a boon for perceived safety and homeowners Date: 10/18/07 Word Count: 697 Assuming that calculated minimum correction and judicial-related costs are not underestimated, House
San Jose State - MATH - 006A
CHAPTER 10 REVIEW Important Properties and Formulas To solve an equation with a radical term: 1. Isolate the radical term on one side of the equation. 2. Use the principle of powers and solve the resulting equation. 3. Check any possible solution in
San Jose State - WOMS - 010
The Life & Times of Rosie the Riveter Study GuideGallardoDuring World War II, an unprecedented number of American women responded to government encouragement to enter the high-paying world of heavy war-production industry. Women who had worked at
San Jose State - WOMS - 010
Tough Guise Study GuideS. Gallardo WS10TO MAKE-UP THIS FILM: If you missed the video, you must make it up by watching it at the IRC. Go to DMH 112 on the first floor and ask for XS2090 or XD0210. They will either give you the video, or they will
Duke - BIO - 46
Kenyan Update: I have still been unable to establish contact with my partner at Egerton, but I received an e-mail today giving me a new partner. I have already sent him a message and hope to start a dialogue about the third topic. Biologically, women
Duke - PPS - 55
To: Senator Barack Obama CC: Josh DeBottis From: 1732 Re: Risk of alienating Senator Clinton makes aggressive campaign disadvantageous Date: 11/20/07 Word Count: 699 Given assumptions about the probabilities of events occurring during the presidentia
Duke - PPS - 55
To: Josh DeBottis From: 1732 Re: Global Warming Date: 8/30/07 The problem of global warming is multi-faceted, and as such, there is no quick or easy solution to its effects. It is undeniable that an increase in industrial activity and the use of foss
Duke - BIO - 46
39/3/07 genome sum of genetic information in a cell A-T, G-C only zips if all of the bases are complementary DNA helps make more proteins, which help make more cells Make more DNA- replication, make mRNA copy transcription (functional noncoding mo
Duke - BIO - 46
In my previous response to Bob, I argued that honesty in a monogamous relationship could effectively neutralize the risk of HIV/AIDS. In a perfect world where gender equality and modern medicine were a given for the entirety of the world's population
Duke - BIO - 46
In a world where many human beings have sexual relations with multiple partners, Bob's concerns about the spread of HIV are justified. When people choose to have many partners, the risk of the disease spreading multiplies at an extremely rapid rate.
Duke - BIO - 46
Note: I never received responses to e-mails I sent to two separate Kenyan students. Currently, the most scientifically supported hypothesis regarding the origin of HIV is that both HIV-1 and HIV-2 were first transferred between humans and chimpanzees
Duke - BIO - 46
Jason Meer Bio 46 Partners: Lauren Benning, Young Ha, Brett Toimil, Inington Kaberia (Egerton) Note: Inington has yet to respond to our e-mails. HIV is principally spread through sexual intercourse or the sharing of needles. As such, anyone who has e
Duke - BIO - 46
First Discussion topic with Kenyan students Both Duke and Egerton students have been given the same prompt (below). The goal of this assignment is to have a cross-cultural dialog about a common topic. In your response to me you need to write a 400 wo
Duke - BIO - 46
1. Human virus A. Simian virus B. Simian virus C. Any cluster that includes ONLY SIV or ONLY HIV strains (Multiple options). D. Yes: a. There are several places on the tree where different HIV and SIV strains have a common ancestor. b. The inter-digi
Duke - BIO - 46
Jason Meer Biology 46 World's Greatest AIDS Crisis Shifts to Far East Government Actions in China, India Reflect Prejudice, Poverty When Chinese newspapers chronicled the saga of "AIDS Boy" during the summer of 2007, they were not trumpeting the acco
Duke - BIO - 46
Jason Meer Biology 46 Media Madness and Emerging Diseases Threat of Avian Flu, Ebola Pandemics Overestimated When jovial celebrators brought in the Year of the Pig on February 18, little was probably on their minds besides the promises of a new year.
Duke - ECON - 55
Exercise 2A.2 Demonstrate how my budget constraint would change if, on the way into the store, I had lost $300 of the $400 my wife had given to me. Does my opportunity cost of pants (in terms of shirts) or shirts (in terms of pants) change? What if p
OKCU - ENGL - 1213
Kristyn Chalker Contrast Argument Composition II 3/10/2008 Taxes or Tacos? Amnesty or Integrity?: Why Illegal Immigrants Are Not Beneficial to The United States of America Nobody likes burglars. Obviously, breaking and entering a person's residence i
OKCU - ENGL - 1213
Kristyn Chalker Composition II Rogerian Argument 2/14/2008Mercy: The Necessary Practice Of EuthanasiaEuthanasia could carry some risk for error. Doctors are worried about lawsuits, malpractice, and things of that nature. People also are against i
OKCU - ENGL - 1213
Kristyn Chalker Causal Argument Composition II 2/20/08 The Right to Bear Arms and Then Some: A Comprehensive Look Into Why Handguns Should Not Be Federally Prohibited.If a person wants to cause another human being harm, then he or she will find a w
New Hampshire - BIOLOGICAL - NUTR 400
1.Cell membranes are composed of: water. protein. lipid and carbohydrate. a and b $b and c What are substances that dissolve in liquids called? $solvents acids bases solutes2.3. Homeostasis is a state of balance and may be maintained by a negat
Creighton - COM - 152
The Over-Consumption of EnergyBy Kevin PintauroWorldwide Power Usage and Fuel Type Share in TerawattsFossil Fuels RemainingWorld Emissions of CO2 From Fossil FuelsThe Kyoto ConferenceGlobal protocol agreed upon by over 160 countries to redu
New Hampshire - BIOLOGICAL - NUTR 400
1. Naturally, the large intestine is colonized with bacteria known as microflora or microbiota. $True False 2. Most peptic ulcers are caused by stress. True $False 3. The four major enteric hormones are gastrin, secretin, cholectystokinin and _. amyl
Creighton - COM - 152
Pintauro Kevin Pintauro February 28, 2007 COM 152 Dr. Shuler Informative Speech Men Landed on the Moon: Or Did They? INTRODUCTION 1. Attention Getter: On July 21, 1969, Neil Armstrong became the first person to walk on the moon. Or did he? 2. Listen
Creighton - COM - 152
Pintauro 1 Kevin Pintauro COM 152-Shuler April 19, 2007Energy Over-ConsumptionSpecific Purpose: Actuation Pattern:I will persuade my audience to reduce their energy consumption. Monroe's Motivated SequenceINTRODUCTION Attention Getter: Accord
Creighton - PHL - 107
Kevin Pintauro The Better Life of a Skeptic October 9, 2006Abstract PageSkepticism is appeals to me much more than stoicism because I believe that our lives should be valued and one should respectably fear death. It is a natural instinct to fear
Arizona - ENGL - 101
What We Talk About When We Talk About LoveLove can register to an individual in many different ways. As Shakespear once said; "Love is blind", for some that is true, for others love eventually fades or may be lost. Love may be something that takes
Arizona - ENGL - 101
James Ware Kyle Bishop Engl 102.116 24 March 2008 Iraqi War: Just or unjust? The Path to Destruction The Iraqi war, also known as Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation TELIC, the occupation of Iraq or the Second Gulf War, is an ongoing effort/conflict w
Arizona - ENGL - 101
Compare and Contrast Analysis Essay A popular article is an article meant to entertain the general public. Popular articles usually have embrace many characteristics such as, often easy to read and and comprehend, entertaining pictures, written by au
Arizona - ENGL - 101
Science refers to any systematic knowledge or practice, or more commonly stated, science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge based on the scientific method, as well as the organized body of knowledge gained through research. For many science is
Arizona - ENGL - 101
Historical Analysis: The Understanding of History of Sport and it's Evolution Through the Establishment of Modern Hockey Sport is something that has evolved for generations. It simply was not established overnight or easily. The establishment of spor
Creighton - PHL - 107
Kevin Pintauro August 27, 2006 Definitions of Piety/Socrates Objections1. Euthyphro's first definition is his prosecuting of his father for murder. Socrates' first objection is that it's only an example or instance of piety and not a definition. 2.
Creighton - ENG - 150
Pintauro Kevin Pintauro Dr. Haunton ENG 150 April 16, 2007-1-"The dogs gone, Kevin." My Dad said right as I walked through the door coming home from school on a Friday. The words froze my entire body and my heart sank. For a moment blinking didnt
University of Central Arkansas - FACS - 3370
Review for Advanced Nutrition Exam 2 Remember to keep for the final exam Question Topic Enteral nutrition Parenteral nutrition Hydrolyzed formulas Solutions with most kcals in smallest volume Isotonic formulas Pros of enteral nutrition Feedings with
Creighton - PHL - 250
Pintauro: The United States, at this point in time, should not take any military action against Iran because the U.S. does not have the social and moral support of its own people. After 9/11, the country and its legislatures were, for the majority, i
Creighton - PHL - 107
Kevin Pintauro1Kevin Pintauro God the Creator of Heaven and Earth, and the Conscious Free Will November 20, 2006 Creighton UniversityKevin Pintauro Abstract Page If there is one thing that humans know for certain it is that nothing is for certa
Creighton - PSY - 111
Dr. Stone Fall 2006Introductory Psychology 111 G Page 1 of 4 Writing Assignment Due: Tuesday October 10, 2006Grader: Kristin Jones, KristinJones@creighton.edu For this writing assignment, find a current event (since August 2006) by looking in ne
Creighton - PSY - 111
39290d503def300c7f6a902cfaa6c4918ea20684.doc-1-Running Head: SLEEP DEPRIVATIONSleep Deprivation: Understanding the Cause and Effects of Sleep Deprivation for Teenagers Kevin Pintauro Creighton University39290d503def300c7f6a902cfaa6c4918ea2068
Creighton - ENG - 150
Kevin Pintauro January 30, 2007 Final DraftThere were a few times in my life where I felt absolute joy. The difference between ordinary joy and absolute joy is that when one is experiencing absolute joy, they sometimes catch themselves, maybe at th
Creighton - ENG - 150
Kevin Pintauro February 18, 2007 Project 2 Final DraftMemories of FriendsThere are certain things in life that people greatly value. These things cannot be bought with money or be "obtained" in some way like a house or a car and are absolutely pr
Creighton - ENG - 150
Kevin Pintauro March 19, 2007 ENG 150 Project 3, Draft 2When Two Voices CollideIn my world, I hear many different voices all at once. To me, most of the voices that I hear are just background noise to what is being said, like a backdrop to what i
Creighton - ENG - 150
Kevin Pintauro January 15, 2007 Theme, Summary, ReflectionSuperman Theme: Superman is certainly not a human but is certainly not a god either. I see this picture and I see the physical purgatory between Heaven and earth. He is rising higher and hig
Creighton - ENG - 150
Kevin Pintauro February 21, 2007 ENG 150 Describing Someone in Terms/ImagesI would describe someone that I know really well (but maybe not well enough) as someone looking for purpose and meaning out of life. This person has many different personali
Creighton - ENG - 150
Kevin Pintauro February 13, 2007 Scenes from Project 2The scene takes place up the corner from my downhill, three housed dead-end street where I live. We are in the back yard of my two friends' grandmother's house, which is next door to their own h
Creighton - ENG - 150
Kevin Pintauro February 5, 2007 Scenes FromThey day was.well I actually can't remember the exact day, but the month was.well I actually can't remember the exact month either, but the year was 1996 and the spring and the baseball season had recently
Creighton - ENG - 150
Kevin Pintauro January 11, 2007 Pgs 73-76
Creighton - ENG - 150
Kevin Pintauro January 11, 2007 Pg 321-323Diane Ackerman writes about humans perceive and understand language in her short story "We Are Our Words". The purpose of this story is to illustrate the capabilities that words have and how complex languag
Creighton - ENG - 150
Kevin Pintauro February 10, 2007 TWP PG 43-48; 51-54The day after the attacks on 9/11, Adam Mayblum wrote an e-mail to himself and others entitled "The Price We Pay" to telling a first hand story of what happened to him on that day. The day starts
Creighton - ENG - 150
Kevin Pintauro March 23, 2007 TWP PG 55-59The letters that the soldiers in Iraq wrote to their loved ones back home really capture their overall attitude and mood from being there. Staff Sergeant Aaron Dean White writes that he felt like he was at
Creighton - ENG - 150
Kevin Pintauro January 11, 2007 Pg 73-76The author, Sherman Alexie, explains in his short story, The Joy of Reading and Writing: Superman and Me, how learning to read helped define who he is as a person. Alexie explains to the reader that no matter
Creighton - ENG - 150
Kevin Pintauro January 29, 2007 P 158-162Edward Hoagland, the author of "On Stuttering" introduces his story by comparing the same speech impediment to "trying to run with loops of rope around your feet". He describes what it is like to carry out a
Creighton - ENG - 150
Kevin Pintauro January 30, 2007 P 166-171The author, Zora Neale Hurston, sets up the scene by describing her home town in "How It Feels to Be Colored Me". Her town is outside of Orlando and is in between the towns of others that commute back and fo
Creighton - ENG - 150
Kevin Pintauro March 11, 2007 TWP Pg 283-289Brent Staples's "Just Walk on By: A Black Man Ponders His Power to Alter Public Space" is an essay that discusses other works of literature about the passive racism that black people receive from others;
Creighton - ENG - 150
Kevin Pintauro January 22, 2007 P 324-334The author of "How to Tame a Wild Tongue", Gloria Anzaldua, uses both the English and Spanish languages to translate her thoughts in to the story. She opens with a bit about a visit she has with the dentist
Creighton - ENG - 150
Kevin Pintauro March 23, 2007 TWP 723-727Dr. King's famous and inspirational speech "I Have a Dream" really speaks of the essence that is freedom; American freedom. It gives people hope in a time of desperation. He goes from saying he dreams of peo