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111: Music Culture of the Far East Asia E-mic (Phenemic): How people within their own country think of their culture vs. E-tic (Phenetic): Outsiders perspective Shelemay Framework that can be used to describe music; Standardizes music throughout the world Timbre Acoustical properties of the instrument itself based on the overtones Pitch Based on frequency/vibration Duration Rhythm and meter Setting Where the music takes place Significance Meaning behind the music and how it affects people Listening ex. Silk and Bamboo (Sizho) "Autumn moon over Han Palace" Yang qin (hammered dulcimer) Erhu (bowed luk) Pipa (plucked luk) Dongxia (bamboo flute) Zhou Jie lun (Jay Chou) Mandarin Chinese "Second year third class" Ping Pong sound Important Trading Networks Silk Road Trading route system Included the exchange of musical instruments Significant to China, India, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Rome... Extension of Mongol Empire (1206-1368) Led to widespread exchange of information The Persian Santur Improvisation on melodic mode Mahur (same as the major scale) Accompanied by zarb drum goblet shaped drum [6 beats] Chordophones 1. Lutes 2. Zithers * Does not have a neck * Often in a shape of trapezoid * Striking with a hammer or plucking a string 1 The North Indian Santoor Rag Jogiya played at Daybreak for yogis doing meditation Shiu Kumar Sharma (snatoor) accompanied by tabla drum The Chinese Yangqin Xiu hebao (Embroidered Purse) Similar techniques with other instruments above Satar Bowed instrument From Turkey here found in Xinjiang China amongst the Uygur "Woy Bala" Does not get played by hand Press against the string Strings underneath the main string Sympathetic string gives instrument a rich quality Tar Frame drum often accompanied by satar North Indian Sarangi Rag Nat Bhairon by Sultan Khan 1. Alap Opening of solo improvisation 2. Composition accompanied by tabla (talla) Do not push the strings against the neck Sliding of the strings Most vocal instrument Sympathetic strings produce rich sound due to vibration Indus Valley Beginning of large settlements and civilization (3,000 B.C.~18,000 B.C.) Period of cultural contact Cave paintings, pottery... Ruins of Moheno Daro Invasions of Aryans * Brought new religion and language * Language of Sankrit mostly Greek and Latin * Vedic religion formed by Vedas now called Hinduism Hindu religion * Idea of music being spiritual (representing the sound of God Ned Bhramin) * Sound transmitted through meditation * Most know: Om 2 Hindustani Classical Music Music considered as sacred sound Shisya parampara System of training Guru Purely religious teachers Gharana Schools maintained by family lineages (stylistic schools) Each guru is part of gharana traditions Would live with teachers and become an errand boy for several years Religious devotion 1. Dharma Set of duties/obligations that you must fulfill in your life 2. Samsara Idea of cyclical reincarnation/rebirth 3. Karma Law of cause and effect 4. Moksha Realizing divinity in oneself Liberation of death/rebirth Establishment of Mughal Dynasty Destroy all the temples Built Taj Mahal Created distinct difference in music of North and South (South preserved Hindu tradition) Raga That which colors the mind A series of pitches (svara) for ascending (arohi) and descending (avrohi) A set of musical rules governing the primary pitch (vadi) and secondary pitch (samvadi) as well as a dissonant pitch (vivadi) melodic system An extra-musical association of mood Scale SA RE GA MA PA DHA NI SA can be natural Re, Ga, Da, Ni can be lowered (komal) Ma can be raised (tivra) Bhatkhande (18601936) created a system of 10 THAT or scales from ragas in use at the time. Rasa: the moods of Raga Consists of translation, color and deity Drone (svara) Tanpura 4 or 5 strings tuned to the fundamental and usually the 5 th above it (Pa) * Pitches have characteristics easier to distinguish Used to continue the fundamental pitches throughout the music Sruti Microtones Monophonic Single voice hard to distinguish the pitches 3 Rag Bilaval Late morning Raga 912am Uses the same scale as a major scale Ragamala painting Represents the feelings of departed love 1. Alap Opening of improvisation 2. Bandish Composition (drums enter) Gamak Different ornaments that can be used for vocalist Tala Rhythmic cycle of a certain number of beats, which may be subdivided in different ways. The beats are further grouped into clusters. Externalized by using clap (tali) and waves (khali) Tintal Rhythmic cycle of 16 beats X 2 3 4 X 2 3 4 O 2 3 4 X 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Sam Emphasis on beat one; Theka Rhythmic drumming beat Ends on beat one makes easier to find tala of composition 1 2 3 4 Dha dhin dhin dha 5 6 7 8 Dha dhin dhin dha 9 10 11 12 Dha tin tin ta 13 14 15 16 Ta dhin dhin dha These syllables used for drum (tabla) beats The Mughal Empire Ruled Northern India Began to inject Persian music as well as other styles Courts supported for musicians transformed later into stage-musicians Very rich upper class prostitutes danced and sang The Taj Mahal Completed 1648 Was built for commemorating his wife 3 15 4 16 4 Amir Khusro Amir Khusro with Nizamuddin Aliya of Delhi Lived 12351325 Started cahali music founder of Hidustani music Gwalior Palace Man Singh Tomar (14861517) Maharaja of Gwalior Emperors power being weighed by the local rulers Dhrupad at the Palace of Gwalior Swami Haridas Lived 15061589; considered 9 jewels of court Court composer Akbar, Tansen and Haridas Dhrupad (words of truth) Rare genre; held as a state of awe Pakhawaj Oldest drum * Lower head in the back * Higher head in the front Tanpura String instrument Devotional songs Nasir Moinduddin and Nasir Aminuddin Dagar Instrumental genre also encountered as vocal genre Rag Darbari Kanada The raga of kings and the kings of raga Many songs composed for Akbar Represented the mood of victory Unique scale * Regular ascending pattern but crooked descending pattern * Pitches must be embellished through vibration * Main note: D Dhammar tal (14 beats) X 2 3 4 X 2 3 O 2 3 X 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1. Alap Musical rules beats and rhythm Establishes mood 2. Composition Beginning/Entrance of a drummer Played deep in the night. Conveys a feeling of valor associated with victorious kings. Attributed to Tansen, and many songs composed for Akbar. 5 Muhammad Shah Reigned 17191748 Khyal Imagination of fantasy Tabla, tanpura and melodic accompaniment Usually the Harmonium or Sarangi Much expanded ensemble Much expanded rage of improvisation Qawwal Khyal Performance Alap Metered or unmetered Bada Khyal Bandish (composition) in slow (vilambit) Tala Chota Khyal Bandish (composition) in fast (drut) Tala "climax" exciting end (1.52 hours) Rag Puriya Dhanashri Evokes peace, pathos, joy, power Ashwin Bhide Deshpande (vocal) Wishwanath Shirodkar (tabla) Seema Shirodkar (harmonium) Bada Khyal in Tintal X 2 3 4 X 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Alap my go on to 20~30 minutes 4 8 O 9 2 10 3 11 4 12 X 13 2 14 3 15 4 16 Origins of Thumri Wajid Ali Shan Nawab of Awadh (18471856) Governor of India Lucknow Capitol city of Awadh Intervention of British Exchange of trade 6 Courtesans (Tawaifs) Thumri sung by Courtesans (Tawaifs) High class prostitues dancing and singing (performance) girls Radha and Krisna Very famous love affair Krisna God who lived in Earth, seducing cow herding girls Known for dark-skinned Thumri in Rag Khamaj Late night raga (123am) expresses love and sensuality Sarangi, Tabla, Pandit Chanula Mishra, Harmonium, Tanpura Pandit: a master of renowned knowledge Tintal (16 beats) Bol technique used for improvisation Tan rapid melodic Hindustani Instrumental Music Ravi Shankar Revolutionized the Hindustani music Brought them to west Tanpura 4 or 5 strings tuned to the fundamental (Sa) and usually the 5 th above it (Pa) Articulates the same pitches Plucking the strings Sitar 18 or 19 strings with 6 or 7 playing strings and 12 sympathetic strings Sympathetic strings resonate rich sound Difficult to tune Pitches can be raised or lowered frets movable Sitar Ancestry South Indian Veena * Frets stuck on to the neck Persian Sitar * 3 strings [All the Hindustani instruments are made to imitate human voice] 7 Sitar Technique Right hand plucks the strings using a pick (mezrab) worn on the index finger and the wall of the pinky. Left hand frets strings and executes gamakas (ornamentals) by bending, sliding, and vibrating strings. Frets are movable. The top 3 strings are drone strings (chikan) and plucked with pinky (to fill in during slower sections) and the mezrab (strummed during faster section) climax sections Prominent Sitarists Shahid Parvez (1950 ) Pandi Ravi Shankar (1920 ) more international reputation Ustad Vilayat Khan (19282004) innovator of sitar; more appreciated in India Sitars in the West Brian Jones (Rolling Stones) George Harrison (The Beatles) Calvin Broadus (,,Snoop Dogg) Sarod 25 strings: 4 playing strings changes the pitches 3 drone strings play opened 18 sympathetic strings (tarbs) Fretless neck, craved wooden resonator covered with goat skin Sarod Ancestry Afghani Rebab Ancestors of Amjad Ali, Khan developed Sarod Sarod Technique Right hand plucks the strings using a triangular pick (java) made of coconut shell, held between the thumb and forefinger. Left hand stops the strings using the fingernails. The smooth fingerboard allows extensive gamakas (ornaments) through bending, sliding, and vibrating the strings. No frets or markings requires perfect intonation The top 3 strings are drone strings (chikan) and are plucked with the pick (to fill in during slower sections). The Prominent Sarodists Ustad Amjad Ali Khan (1945 ) Vasant Rai (1942 ) 8 Ustad Ali Tabla Right hand plays the smaller drums Tabla Technique The tabla is constructed with goat skins and tuned using wooden blocks and by tapping the rims. Both heads have a paste (syahi) made of rice and iron fillings. This allows a variety of tones to be produced. Each sound has a corresponding vocal (bol). X 1 2 2 X 3 2 4 3 O 5 6 Jhaptal (10 beats 2 7 X 8 2 9 3 10 Dhrupad Most ancient surviving style of Hindustani music Tanpura, veena, and pakhawaj (double-headed drum) 1. Alap - Alap * Slow * Introduces the raga - Jor * Sense of pulsation * Medium speed - Jhala * Consistent use of drone strings * Fast climatic section 2. Composition (Bandish) Dhrupad Performance Ustad Asad Ali Khan Raga Desh Late Night (12-3am) X 2 O 1 2 3 2 4 X 2 5 6 Sultal (10 beats) O 7 2 8 X 9 2 10 Scale On the way up Natural On the way down Flat Performance of Sarod By Ustad Amjad Ali Khan Senia Bangash Gharana Family tradition of music playing 9 Gayaki ,,Vocal Style Ustad Hafiz Ali Khan Gat Instrumentalist playing with their own composition Hafiz Ali Khan went further to imitate vocal Rag Darbari Kanada The raga of kings and the kings of ragas Musical Features of Darbari Kanada Arohana (ascending) * Ga E * Dha A * Ga and Dha singing notes not on the piano Avarohana (descending) * Ga E * Dha A * Ga and Dha singing notes not on the piano Ragas Darbari Kanada & Adana Raga Darbari Kanada 1. Alap a. Alap Slow, in free rhythm b. Jor Medium tempo, suggestion of rhythm c. Jhala Fast, dynamic; heavy use of drone string 2. Slow (Vilambit) composition 3. Medium (Madhya) Gat in Tintal composition Raga Adana 4. Fast (Drut) Gat in Tintal Performance (Sarod) Ustad Amjad Ali Khan Ustad Shafaat Ahmed Khan Karnatic Music South Indian Classical Music South India Rise and fall of many empires Came from different language families Believed that South India represents indigenous, racial component 10 South was shielded from the invasions More of Hindu influence Vindhya Range Western and Eastern Gats History Term Karnatic comes from Kamad (black country). Dravidian speaking people who migrated from the north during the Aryan invasions something during first millennium BCE First written evidence shows the Chola, Pandya, and Chera kingdoms were already established by 300 BCE. Maintained varying degrees of autonomy from the Muslim dominated north. Dravidian Languages Four main language families: Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada Distinct from the Indo-European languages of the North, such as Hindi and Sanskrit. However, they have borrowed from 30-70% of vocabulary from Sanskrit. Sanskrit in turn borrowed grammar and structure from Dravidian languages. Distinct from each other. Dialects within each language family used to be tied to caste membership. Karnatic vs. Hindustani Music Both employ concepts of raga and tala, but with different construction and realizations. Performance genres are different. Karnatic music is primarily based upon fixed vocal compositions with less improvisation. Instruments and techniques are different. Karnatic music uses a greater variety of shruti (microtones) in the construction of scales and in improvisation. Saraswati Goddess South uses more ornamentations of gamaka. Devadasi Female dedicated to sacred dancing to god Purandara Dasa One of the founders of the Bhakti movement, which seeks to surrender oneself to the divine energy (bhakti). Composed songs in local Kannada language so the masses could understand them. Created the Kriti composition form. Created a training method for singers making use of vocal and rhythmic exercises. The Musical Trinity Tyagaraja 11 * Born in 1767 * Most prolific among the composers * Perfected in a kriti genre * Composition less technical; easy to understand most popular * Sangati Improvisational style * Pallavi first section of composition that artist constantly returns to Listening ex. "Rama nannu brovara" Sung by M.S. Subbulakshmi vocals, T.K. Murthy, Mridangam * names reflect the place of origin and caste standing Muttuswami Dishitar * Influenced by Northern Indian Hindustani music * Used Sanskrit language * Most complex composition Syama Sastri * Composed about 300 compositions * Also used kriti form Karnatic Raga North Based on scales or that (10 common) South Mela Karta (72 scales) SA (fixed), RI, GA (primary pitch), MA (can only be raised), PA (fixed), DA, NI, SA Veena S. Balachander (1927-1990) Veena Dhanamimal (1867-1938) * Pioneer female musician * Founder of new style of performance Mridangam Similar shape to pakahawj Larger number of sound, different strokes Primary drum of accompaniment in the south Vadyam Pancha Nagaswaram and Tavil 12 Karnatic Vocal Music Tiger cave 8th century A.D. natural auditorium for drama, dance, and performance Ascribed to Pallava Dynasty Tabla in South India Three main types of tala: modern, used in contemporary performances; didactic; from Purandara Dasas lessons; scholarly, rare varieties that result from systematic study Use 4 gestures (kriya) to represent the structure of a tala cycle: 1. laghu, a clap and finger counts (x) 2. drutam, a clap and wave (o) 3. andrutam, a single clap (u) 4. single wave (w) Use jati rhythmic syllables to vocalize various tala patterns Each count can be subdivided into 3,4,5,6,7 or 9 sub-units (gati) Each tala can be conceived of in different speeds (kala) X 1 2 2 3 3 4 O 4 5 Adi Tala 6 O 7 8 W 1 W 2 U 3 4 5 Capu Tala U 6 7 X O 1 2 3 Rupaka Tala U 1 U U 2 3 4 5 Khanda Capu Tala Three speed exercise in Adi Tala 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 X 2 3 4 O O Ta Ka Di Mi Ta Ka Jo Nu Taka Dimi Taka Jonu Taka Dimi Taka Jonu Takadimi Takajonu Takadimi Takajonu Takadimi Takajonu Takadimi Takajonu Famous Vocalists 13 Semmangudi Srinivas Iyer (1908-2003) [Iyer = caste name; priest tradition] * Distinctive voice * Improvisational style Sudha Ragunathan (1959) * Drew attention to North India also Madurai Mani Iyer (1912-1968) M.S. Subbujakshmi (1916-2004) Kriti Creation, composition, enchantment 1. Alap Un-metered melodic improvisation 2. Kriti Composition (a) Sangati Embellishment using various gamaka techniques (b) Niraval Improvisation of melodic variations on a line of the kriti (c) Svara kalpana Rhythmic/melodic improvisation using solfege syllables 3. Tani avarttanam Improvised percussion solo (optional) Niraval always returns to idam ,,the place; where the line of text starts Svara kalpana imagining, creating Kaligiyunte "If it was to happen" Compoer: Tyagaraja/Raga kiravani adi talai Uses flat ga and dha Dedicated to Hindu deities, Rama King of ancient India Kriti has three basic structures: Pallavi Anupallavi Caranam mukra-sign 4 O O 4 5 6 7 8 8 beat Tala Kriti sung by: T. Brinda (1912-1996) - pioneer vocalist T. Viswanathan (1927-2002) - brought Karnatic to the west T. Ranganathan (1925-1987) - brought Karnatic to the west X 1 2 2 3 3 In-Class Performance 14 Gopal Kumar Saraswati Veena Sruti Box Karnatic Music in Performance Kriti "E Tarunara" - Written for Lord Krishna (Govinda) - Reflects the flirting with cow-herding girls Govinda Aspect of god born on Earth to help human beings Swara-Kalpana: sa ri ga ma pa da ni sa X 2 3 4 O O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Raga Kalyani 1 raised/sharpened degree Rest is the regular scale Alap vocal violin Kriti improvisation Tani Avortanam (drum solo) End. Musicians Semmangudi Srinivas Iyer - Leading vocalist of 20th century - Nasal voice - Virtuoso improviser G. Harishankar Kanjira - Played frame drum that has a skin around it (Frame drum able to raise / lower the pitch through the membrane) T.K. Murthy - Mridangam player Dr. M. Balamurali Krishna - Violin player Classical Dance in India Shiva Nataraja The Lord of the Dance Cosmic dance dance of creation, nurturing, and destruction Shiva dancing on back of a dwarf * Dwarf represents the ignorance Damaru drum that brings the cosmic sound Bharata Natyam 15 Theory of dance-drama (natya goes back to the sage Bharata Muni c.200 B.C.) whose surviving text Natyashastra delineates its basic aspects: * Song (gita) * Drama (natya) * Dance (nritta) Devadasi Devadasi: dasi servants of deva gods Female temple servants that were married to a particular Hindu deity Performed special temple rituals Sang and danced in praise of deity Many accepted the affections of wealthy patrons. During the British colonial period decline of patronage sends many into prostitution. Their dances form the basis of Bharata natyam Elements Nritta, pure dance movements with no definite meaning - Accompanied by sung syllables (sargam sa ri ga ma etc.) - Or jati, rhythmic syllables that mimc drum strokes - Adavu, dance movement combinations set to sargam or jati syllables Nritya, symbolic movement that dramatizes the lyrics of a song Each has a definite meaning. Mudra Chandrakala Shivas crown Kapota Puspaputa giving an offering Simha Nattuvanar (Dance master) Conducts the performance and directs the dance movement Keeps the timing on the talam finger cymbles Recites dance syllables, known as jati or solkattu In the past, only men could serve this function now open to men and women Devotional Dance for Shiva Ekambareshvara temple 1509 Namaskara gesture of welcome to Shiva - Features pancha vadyam style reminiscent of temple festivals - Bows to Shiva and audience 16 Tirmanam - Nritta (pure dance) section that features several adavu combinations on both sides of the body Invocation to Lord Shiva - Alternates between nritta and nritya - Vocal composition with pallavi and anupallavi sections set to nritya - Interspersed with jati syllables set to nritta Indian Music meets the West Burning of in scents, psychedelic drums, etc. Rabindranath Tagore Awarded Nobel Prize for literature in 1913 Traveled widely throughout the world, spreading knowledge about Indian culture. Composed several songs that drew on India, Scottish, and English popular tunes. Promoted Indian music in the West. Inayat Khan & Ruth St. Denis (Inayat Zither prayer) Khan toured the US in 1910 Following this he and St. Denis performed throughout the US. Presented Indian music as an exotic dance. Uday Shankar Older brother of Ravi Moved to London to study art Impressed Russian Ballerina Anna Pavlova with his dancing. They created a Krishna-Radha act that fused Indian dance with ballet. Ravi eventually toured with their act, playing sitar and other instruments. Ravi Shankar & Yehudi Menuhin Met in 1951, resulting in Yehudi becoming interested in Indian music. Yehudi arranges a series of concerts for Ravi Shankar in Europe and America. In 1961, Ravi begins a series of historic tours to the US., spreading the authentic sounds of Hindustani music. Composed several works together in 1960s-1970s Composition in Raga Piloo Commemorating UN Human Rights Day 1967 Yehudi Menuhin, Ravi Shankar, Alla Rakha 1960s Psychedelia Timothy Leary 17 Alan Watts Alan Ginsburg Ravi plays Monterey Pop Festival (June 1967) Raga Bhimpalas Part I Part II Sawal-Jawab Raga Rock Brian Jones Rolling Stones George Harrison The Beatles Fusions and Collaborations Shakti (1970s) "Mind Ecology" Members: John McLaughlin, guitar Zakir Hussain, tabla T.H. Vinayakaram, ghatam Innovative collaboration between jazz musicians and Indian musicians McLaughlin virtuoso guitarist of 1970s Zakir Hussain from North India L. Shankar from South India Reflected time of India when Indian religions become popular Hindu Devotional Music Music considered as a sacred activity Positive qualities of sound Music also identified with Hindu deities Core of religious expressions Divine Music Shiva-Damaru Krishna-Bansuri Saraswati-Veena Believed that God enjoys music and emotional pleasure Bhakti movement Devotion and love to God Believed that if you devote music to God, you receive divine Braj Region 18 Bhajans traditional music from Braj region Several of Hindu deities were believed to live here Hindi national language of India originated from this religion Krisna at Vrindaben Krisna lived at Vrindaben Shiva at Benaras Shiva lived at Benaras on Ganges River sacred river Rama at Ayodhya Rama lived at Ayodhya Bhajans Hindu devotional songs Still growing today Sikh one of the main religions of India heavy emphasis on these songs Very simple to sing and learn Sung in a temple during religious worship Call and response format Some based on ragas but not bounded by the rules of raga Melodic system free Harmonium kind of pump organ that plays the melody Tabla often used to keep up the rhythm Pakhawaj often used to keep up the rhythm Tanpura Sruti Govinda Jaya Jaya Gopala another name for Krisna Nrsingadera incarnation of Krisna Song dedicated to the victory of Krisna Swami Haridas c. 1486-1575 "Subhaga Varana Tana" (Your Beautiful Color) Founder of Hindustani Classical Music Lived in a simple, plain life Haridasi songs composed by Haridas Lyrics in northern dialect Love and devotion to Krisna at the center of Bhakti movement Shyama another name for Krisna "dark one" 19 Janjh hand cymbals Saint Mirabai 1498-1547 Faced a lot of persecutions at that time Was the princess of Rhajastan Renowned poet Arranged marriage and fulfilled her duty as a wife but wanted to devote herself to Krishna and Govinda Husband got killed in a battle and had to go through widowhood Rejected widowhood and composed and praised for God o wandered with common people o visited shrines o addressed social ills in her music Revolutionary Mira Bhajan ("maine lino Govinda") Sung by Anup Jalota Bhajan singer Bollywood Film music in India Came from the City of Bombay Plots very formulaic and stereotypical No subtitles Creation of national pop culture for the first time Features of Filmi git Simple tala cycle taken from music such as kaherva (8 beats) or dadra (6 beats) Use of western melodies, harmony and scales Playback singers sing the songs, which are lip-synched by the actors Vocal timbre has become standardized based upon the sound of a few key singers Most in Hindi-Urdu language, with many songs coming from the ghazal tradition Melodrama Lavish costume Lata Mangeshkar (Born 1929) From a family of classical musicians and actors Recorded over 12,000 songs (world record) Still active today Established a trademark sound that is often imitated Andaz (1949) 20 First major performance for Lata Mangeshkar launches her career. She voices the songs for the female lead. Showcases two stars of the period: Dilip Kumar (male lead) and Nargis (female lead) Also features Mukesh singing the male lead for Dilip Critiques the problems brought by western culture in India Music director: Naushad Lyrics: Majrooh Sultanpuri Director: Mehboob Khan Actors: Dilip Kumar & Nargis Song: "Somebody came into my heart" The Jewel Thief (1967) "Hothon Pe Aisi Baat" Sung by Lata Mangeshkar Music director: S.D. Burman Lyrics: Majrooh Sultanpuri Director: Vijay Anand Actors: Dev Anand, Vyjayantimala, Ashok Kumar, Tanuja and Helen Asha Bhosle (Born 1933) Junior sister of Lata, and sometimes rival Got her start singing the role of bad characters, outcasts, and other unpopular roles Still active today Married composer R.D. Burman Hare Rama, Hare Krishna (1917) Portrays drug and hippie culture of the 1960s and 1970s Music director: R.D. Burman Lyrics: Anand Bakashi Director: Dev Anand Actors: Zeenat Aman & Dev Anand Song: "Dum Maro Dum" Khal Nayak (1993) The Villain Created a huge controversy in India due to obscenity of one of the dance scenes Parallels the story of Rama and Sita from the Hindu epic Ramayana Sanjay Dutt accused of terrorism for Bombay bombings Features the voice of Alka Yagnik for Madhuri 21 Music director: Laxmikant-Pyarelal Director: Subhash Ghai Actors: Sanjay Dutt & Madhuri Dixit Alka Yagnik Born in to a family of classical musicians, but could not pursue a career in classical music. Took over the mantle from Lata and Asha, and become the most popular singer in the 1990s. Like Lata and Asha, she had voiced the most important female leads of her generation. Chlie Ke Piche "What is under your blouse?" Sung by Alka Yagnik Lagaan (2001) Historical epic set during British colonial period (c. late 1800s) Nominated for Academy Award for Best Foreign Language film. One of the first Bollywood films to receive mainstream distribution in the U.S. Nearly 4 hours long! Cost a great deal of money ($6 million) which was unheard of for Bollywood films Features voices of Alka Yagnik, Asha Bhosle and Lata Mangeshkar Music director: A.R. Rahman Lyrics: Jared Akhtar Director: Ashutosh Gowariker Actors: Aamir Khan, Gracy Singh, Rachel Shelley, Paul Blackthorne Song: "Mitwa" (Loved One) Udit Narayan male lead Alka Yagnik female lead Bhangara folk dance Punjab Region petitioned between India and Afghanistan Huge agricultural central Sikh different from Hindu religion Guru Nanak founder of Sikh religion Bhangara Music Preferred by men Mela annual fair of Bhangara music 22 Dhol double-headed drum; sound very distinguishable Tumbi (ektara) single stringed lute Set dances wave names; not a free dance Harvest festival became a tradition Instruments (Bhangara Props) Dhole Sup (snake) Danda Gatka (martial arts) Costume 23 Qawwali Music Sufi Devotional Music - From Northern India - Sufi Seet of Islam Ali First ________ (First ;;) Urs festival commemorating anniversary of death Qawwali Music - harmoniums, primary drums are _______ ( ;;) mostly sung in Persian sung in Hindi & Urdu Amir Khusro - Nasrat Fateh Ali Khan - Ravi Shankar & Qawwali Music Asian Beat - Popular music in the Asian Diaspora - Indian music (Bhangra) and Western music (Reggae, etc) mix was popular in Britain Southall - in London - 90% of population is consisted of Indians & Pakistanis - Sikh Religion - Bizarre - Freedom to express (unlike New York City where there is pressure to conform) - School teaches Hindi language (open to various options) - By 1980s, Asian media club, radio, music shop, magazine was established - Hiphop is the latest style that is popular Alaap group of musicians (Bhangra) 24 - they mixed the sound of dhol (ex. Johnny Kalsi) & tumbi - main singer: Channi Bingh (Song: Bhabiye Ni Bhabiye) Punjabi MC - recent pioneering musician (rapper) - started in early 1990s - Punjabi rapping (influenced by American music) - Worked with Jay-Z (Song: Mundian to Bach Ke Beware of the Boys : tumbi used, dhol mixed with drum and base) Asian Dub Foundation - Group - Master D: very young singer, raps in English - Electric guitar, raga, drum, tabla, etc are mixed - Indian immigrants in London formed this group - Their songs are politically conscious (race relations in Britain) (Song: P.K.N.B) Talvin Singh - in 1970s - in East London - grew up learning Tabla & briefly went to India - dance music (Song: Soni one of the songs in the ,,OK album) "Kirwani" by Jolly Mukherjee - active in Bollywood films, commercials - King of Strings - Mixed Hindustani classical music and western music - Did lots of remix 25 ... View Full Document

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