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Multiple Chpt.1 Choice Questions 1.1. Why study groups? A. Individuals actions are shaped by the groups to which they belong. B. Human behavior tends to be group behavior: few people are isolated from others. C. Groups are the basic building blocks of society. D. Cultural processes influence individuals by influencing the groups they belong to. E. All of the above are reasons to study groups. (preface, p. xv) 1.2. An aggregate of individuals is, by definition, a group if its members: A. have the potential to know one another personally. B. share some characteristic, such as eye color or gender. C. have the same personal goals. D. are connected to one another by and within social relationships. E. all like each other a great deal. (p. 3) 1.3. Which statement is true? A. Aggregations can be easily classified into two categoriesgroup and nongroup. B. Two-person groups have so many unique characteristics that they are not considered to be groups. C. Very large collectives, such as mobs, crowds, or congregations, have so many unique qualities that they are not considered to be groups. D. As groups increase in size, they tend to become more formally structured. E. Groups, by definition, must include at least three members but they cannot have more than 20 members. (p. 3) 1.4. Some aggregates have relatively few of the basic features of a group, whereas others have many. Which one of the following has the FEWEST group characteristics? A. four people playing bridge B. two people talking C. a mob D. all males who have blue eyes E. students dining at the same table in the cafeteria (pp. 5-9) 1.5. Groups can range in size, however research found the average group size tends towards: A. 2 B. 3 C. 4 D. 6 (p. 3) 1.6. When researchers carefully recorded the size of groups in public places, such as parks, sidewalks, cafeterias, and offices, they discovered that most of these groups were A. small in size, including only 2 or 3 members. B. large in size, ranging from 10 to 20 members. C. short-lived, lasting for less that 30 seconds on average. D. crowded together rather than well-spaced. (p. 3) 1.7. Individuals who live in Virginia are called Virginians. Virginians are A. a norm. B. a planned group. C. a category. D. an emergent group. E. an interaction. (p. 4) 1.8. What is the maximum number of two-way dyadic relationships in a 40 person group? A. 40 B. 140 C. 480 D. 780 E. more than 1000 (p. 4) 1.9. What word is critically important to remember when distinguishing between a group and a network? A. interaction B. boundary C. relations D. ties E. identity (p. 4) 1.10. Network is to relational ties as group is to A. interaction. B. boundary. C. identity. D. task. E. cohesion. (p. 4) 1.11. Which is true? A. People who communicate with one only using computers and the Internet are not a true group. B. Networks establish membership, but groups usually do not. C. Social identity is the perception of oneself as a member of a group or social category. D. Dyads, because they include only two individuals, are not considered groups. (pp. 2-5) 1.12. Which one is task-focused rather than relationship-focused? A. feeling anger toward a coworker B. complimenting a group member after a presentation C. asking the group members if they are happy with the decision D. offering a good solution to the problem the group faces (p. 6) 1.13. Which one is NOT one of the four basic group goals identified by McGraths circumplex model of group tasks? A. discussing B. generating C. choosing D. negotiating E. executing (p. 7) 1.14. Which one is NOT one of the core conceptual dimensions in McGraths circumplex model of group tasks? A. choosing vs. executing B. generating vs. negotiating C. conflict vs. cooperation D. conceptual vs. behavioral E. judging vs. perceiving (p. 7) 1.15. Emily passes to Sondra because she knows she is better at scoring, Melinda provides emotional support for team members, and the coach organizes players positions. The team members are ______ because if one member fails, the team fails. A. organized B. interdependent C. goal-oriented D. cohesive E. socialized (p. 8) 1.16. You note that Don is the leader, LaDelle complies with the groups norms, and Don is well-liked by LaDelle but not by Gregory. You are describing the groups A. structure. B. entitativity. C. interaction. D. goals. E. cohesiveness. (p. 9) 1.17. Which one is highest in entitativity? A. the class of 2013 B. cheerleaders cheering C. African Americans in Virginia D. lawyers E. all network members on Facebook (p. 10) 1.18. Entitatively speaking, which of the following is the least groupy? A. a mob B. this class at this moment in time C. the students at this university D. all males in this state E. the members of the Republican Party (p. 10) 1.19. Which one is NOT a perceptual cue that is frequently used by people when distinguishing between categories and true groups? A. bonds between members B. interaction among members C. clear boundaries D. pursuing common goals E. presence of leader (p. 10) 1.20. The idea of entitativity suggests a cluster of people will be referred to as a group if the aggregate A. is structured in some way. B. is passive rather than dynamic. C. has very few members. D. has only one goal. E. is perceived to be a single, unified whole. (p. 10) 1.21. Which one was NOT identified by Campbell in his analysis of entitativity? A. common fate B. groupmind C. similarity D. proximity (p. 10) 1.22. Which is NOT one of the key characteristics of a group? A. interaction among members B. a degree of unity C. group structure D. a leader is present E. shared goals (pp. 6-10) 1.23. Which is a key characteristic of most groups? A. The group possesses a groupmind. B. Members respect one another. C. The group does not change over time. D. Members are pursuing common goals. E. The role of leader has been assigned. (pp. 6-10) 1.24. Which of the following best summarizes the basic idea behind the Thomas Theorem? A. A group that is thought to be real will have real effects on its members. B. Seeing a process increases the likelihood of believing in the process. C. For every individual action there is an equal, and correlative, group-level action. D. All groups are created equal in the minds eye. E. Principles arent principles until they are tested in the context of group interaction. (p. 11) 1.25. Who developed the concept of the primary group? A. Charles H. Cooley B. mile Durkheim C. Norman Triplett D. Floyd A. Allport E. Gustave Le Bon (p. 12) 1.26. Shannon takes her family to church on Sunday. She makes sure that her family sits quietly during mass. She believes that religion will teach her children strong moral values. Shannons family is a(n) A. primary group. B. social group. C. self-organizing group. D. essential group. E. category. (p. 12) 1.27. Audiences, bystanders and crowds are to __ as coworkers, sports teams, and study groups are to __. A. primary groups; collectives B. collectives; categories C. collectives; social groups D. social groups; personal groups E. secondary groups; primary groups (p. 14) 1.28. Which is NOT one of the four basic types of groups identified in the text and verified by studies of laypersons perceptions of groups (Lickel et al., 2000)? A. primary groups B. collectives C. personal groups D. categories E. social groups (p. 14) 1.29. Which is true? A. Studies of entitativity find that crowds are viewed as more group-like than teams. B. Primary groups tend to larger but less cohesive than social groups. C. Groups influence members social identities, but social categories do not. D. Interdependence in groups is mutual rather than unilateral. E. Creativity tasks and planning tasks are similar in that both call for generating ideas and/or plans. (pp. 6-14) 1.30. The study of group behavior is called group dynamics because A. the term underscores the importance of psychological processes. B. the impact of the leader is a major topic of study. C. the term notes the interdependency of people in evolving groups. D. groups, once formed, rarely change. (p. 15) 1.31. The ___ for group dynamics includes certain assumptions that help advance the field. For example, groups are real, influential, and even shape society. A. paradigm B. hypothesis C. interaction D. level of analysis (p. 15) 1.32. Who wrote the book Psychology of Crowds in 1895? A. Charles Horton Cooley B. mile Durkheim C. Norman Triplett D. Floyd A. Allport E. Gustave Le Bon (p. 16) 1.33. The individualistic perspective is to the group perspective as ___ is to ___. A. sociology; psychology B. group dynamics; sociology C. psychology; sociology D. sociology; group dynamics E. social psychology; political science (p. 16) 1.34. Which theorist argued that people in groups are sometimes linked by a unifying groupmind or collective consciousness? A. Charles H. Cooley B. mile Durkheim C. Norman Triplett D. Floyd A. Allport E. Kurt Lewin (p. 16) 1.35. When Allport wrote, The actions of all are nothing more than the sum of the actions of each taken separately, he was championing the ___ approach groups. A. to multi-level B. individual-level C. sociological D. group-level E. collective consciousness (p. 16) 1.36. Allports psychological perspective in the reality of groups debate argued that A. people join groups so rarely that their influence on behavior is minimal. B. groups can be understood in terms of the psychology of the individual members. C. groups possess a collective conscious in some cases. D. suicide is caused by anomie rather than group processes. E. only primary groups are important to study. (p. 16) 1.37. According to the psychological perspective on groups, as proposed by researchers such as Allport, A. the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. B. groups sometimes undergo such dramatic experiences that they develop a unified, collective conscious. C. to understand a group you must understand the individuals in that group. D. it is easier, in many cases, to change people who are in a group rather than each individual separately. E. psychological problems are caused, in most cases, by social problems. (p. 17) 1.38. In Lewins formula B = f(P,E), P stands for ___ and E stands for ___. A. person; environment B. personality; external factors C. past; environment D. person; evolution E. personality; entitativity (p. 17) 1.39. Lewins concept of interactionism assumes that A. group behavior depends on the interaction among members. B. personal characteristics interact with environmental factors to determine behavior. C. problems are best solved through mutual interaction. D. groups are not real, but individuals are. (p. 17) 1.40. Lewins Gestalt approach to group dynamics argued a group A. is the summation of individual members. B. is less than the sum of the individual members. C. can be best studied by focusing on individual group members. D. must be studied as a unit that is greater than the individual members. E. cannot be studied scientifically. (p. 18) 1.41. Sherif demonstrated that norms A. disappear when the individual leaves the group. B. are social standards that exist apart from each member. C. rarely develop in groups. D. follow no systematic pattern of development. E. are not real, for they exist only in the eye of the beholder. (p. 18) 1.42. Tripletts 1898 study of competition is significant because it A. lent strong support to the groupmind hypothesis. B. explained how people perceive groups. C. confirmed that individuals respond differently when other people are present. D. studied primary rather than secondary groups. (p. 18) 1.43. Milgrams study on malevolent authority and group influence suggested that A. most people will resist authority if it causes harm to another person. B. individuals exert their individuality when they feel pressured by a group. C. individuals blindly obey authority when in a powerful group. D. people act based on their individual norms regardless of group members. E. people will obey the authority only if nobody else is harmed. (p. 19) 1.44. Which of the following supports the idea that groups shape society? A. Students learning in a classroom instead of at home. B. Individuals reaffirming their morals in organized religious groups. C. A collection of individuals deciding on a criminal sentence. D. Congress discussing, developing, and voting on federal funding. E. All of the above. (p. 19) 1.45. The stages in Tuckmans group development model are, in order, A. storming, forming, norming, conforming, adjourning. B. forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning. C. forming, norming, storming, performing, adjourning. D. forming, storming, conforming, performing, adjourning. (p. 19) 1.46. Which factor(s) helped resolve the reality of groups debate? A. The discovery of groupminds. B. The development of methods for measuring collective consciousness. C. Studies of the mental unity of crowds and mobs. D. Sherifs laboratory creation and manipulation of norms. E. All of the above. (pp. 17-21) 1.47. Which is the best example of multi-level analysis? A. Studying not only the members of the group but also the groups leader. B. Examining how different roles in the groups effect performance. C. Studying how a norm influences different groups and each group member. D. A study that examines an individuals thoughts, feelings, and actions. (p. 20) 1.48. According to a multi-levels approach to groups (as suggested by Hackman), A. it is more important to understand group-level processes than individual-level processes. B. most processes that seem to be group-level processes are actually determined by psychological mechanisms. C. researchers should pinpoint the source of the process at its most basic level. D. group processes depend on individual, group, and cultural factors. (p. 20) 1.49. The study of group process is relevant to A. psychology. B. sociology. C. political science. D. anthropology. E. all of the above (p. 22) 1.50. Philosophers and researchers have found that A. groups can be harmful to both the individual and society. B. individuals derive a sense of identity from groups. C. groups accomplish goals that individuals could not. D. individuals perform behaviors in group they would never perform alone. E. All of the above are true. (p. 24) 1.51. Most would agree that the an aggregate of individuals is a group if its members A. have the potential to know one another personally. B. share some characteristic, such as eye color or gender. C. have the same personal goals. D. are unified. E. are connected to one another by social relationships. (p. 3) 1.52. A mother tells her oldest, Matt, to clean the dishes. Matt then bribes the middle child Samantha, to do it for him. Samantha, in turn tricks the youngest, Alicia into washing the dishes. This demonstrates ___ interdependence. A. social B. unilateral C. sequential D. mutual E. multilevel (p. 8) 1.53. The field of group dynamics is best defined as A. a therapeutic perspective that argues psychological well-being can be insured through participation in small groups. B. a discipline devoted to teaching people to work well in groups. C. the scientific study of groups. D. all of the above. (p. 14) 1.54. The sociological perspective in the reality of groups debate argued that A. groups, but not individuals, are real. B. concepts like norm, role, and leadership are unscientific. C. group-level processes have a significant effect on human behavior. D. groups have a negative influence on human behavior. E. a group is the summation of psychological processes operating in each individual member. (p. 16) 1.55. Which statement is true? A. Group dynamics, as a science, is as old as biology. B. Aggregates of individuals can be unambiguously classified into one of two categories: group and nongroup. C. Group dynamics is best defined as the improvement of groups through research. D. Group dynamics has roots in both the psychological and the sociological tradition. E. Group dynamics is based on Freudian psychology. (p. 16) 1.56. Which statement is true? A. Researchers study individuals in groups, but not groups themselves. B. Group dynamicists do only basic, theory-testing research. C. Group dynamics is relevant to all the social sciences except anthropology. D. Lewin organized the field of group dynamics in the mid-1970s. E. None of the above is true. (pp. 19-24) 1.57. Which is NOT a question currently studied by groups researchers? A. When does a groupmind develop and what impact does it have on members? B. Why are some groups more productive than others? C. How does the physical environment shape the groups dynamics? D. Are groups more competitive than individuals? E. When is an aggregate of individuals perceived to be a group? (pp. 24-25) 1.58. Which statement is NOT true? A. The distinction between what is a group and what is not a group is sometimes a fuzzy one. B. Two-person collectives have many unique characteristics, but they are nonetheless groups. C. Large collectives, such as mobs, crowds, or congregations, have many unique qualities, but they are nonetheless groups. D. Few groups ever achieve a state of cohesiveness. E. Groups tend to be dynamic rather than static. (pp. 10-18) 1.59. You are listening to people talk about groups. They all say a number of things, and you are asked if you agree with their statements. Given your knowledge of groups, which statement will you accept? A. People often define themselves in terms of their groups, but not the categories to which they belong. B. Some groups are so powerful that they develop a collective conscious. C. Group cohesion and entitativity are virtually the same thing. D. Dyads are not groups. E. It is typical for a group to move through a period of conflict. (pp. 10-18) 1.60. Which statement is true? A. Groups dont influence individuals; rather, individuals influence groups. B. Groups, like individuals, possess central nervous systems. C. The four basic types of groups are primary groups, social groups, collectives, and categories. D. The self is one of the few individual qualities that is not influenced by group processes. E. All of the above. 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