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2--ETHICS CHAPTER AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 30 http://www.flashcardmachine.com/r110-final-review.html http://quizlet.com/1756769/quizes-1-514-flash-cards/ http://wenku.baidu.com/view/0e74570003d8ce2f006623fa.html http://wenku.baidu.com/view/39d5d6a00029bd64783e2c0c.html http://jeopardylabs.com/play/jeopardy7316 http://wenku.baidu.com/view/208ecd40336c1eb91a375dfa.html Chapter 1 Graded Quiz This assessment is worth 10 points. 1. Which of the following strategies is least likely to help you deal with nervousness in your speeches? (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. thinking positively concentrating on your stage fright working especially hard on your introduction making eye contact with members of your audience using visual aids 2. According to your textbook, when you employ the power of visualization as a method of controlling stage fright, you should (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. decrease the time necessary for preparing your speech. keep your mental pictures from becoming too vivid. focus on the positive aspects of your speech. all of the above. a and b only. 3. As you present your speech, you notice that many of your listeners have interested looks on their faces and are nodding their heads in agreement with your ideas. According to your textbook, these reactions by your listeners are called (1 point) a. b. c. interference. cognitive cues. feedback. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 31 d. e. audience cues. indicators. 4. As Benita approached the podium, loud voices from the hallway filled the room. Before beginning her speech, she asked someone in the back of the room to close the door. In this case, Benita was dealing with (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. stage fright. interference. nonverbal communication. audience attitudes. feedback. 5. What, according to your textbook, is the term for anything that impedes the communication of a message? (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. divergence blockage intrusion avoidance interference 6. Someone coughing in the audience or walking in late during a presentation are examples of what element in the speech communication process? (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. channel message feedback interference disturbance CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 32 7. In the midst of a speech about volcanoes, a speaker notices quizzical expressions on the faces of her listeners. In response, she says, "Let me explain that point again to make sure it's clear." When this happens, the speaker is (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. building her credibility. adapting to feedback. compensating for the situation. interpreting the audience's frame of reference. adjusting the channel. 8. The tendency to see the beliefs, values, and customs of one's own culture or group as "right" or "natural" is called (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. ethnicity. egocentrism. ethnocentrism. exclusivity. essentialism. 9. Rene is a U.S. college student who was asked to speak at an end-ofthe-year banquet sponsored by the International Student Association. When Renee suggested in her speech that all students should behave like people in the United States, she was reflecting (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. effective audience analysis. a sensitivity to cultural diversity. the environmental dictates of the situation. an ethnocentric point of view. her listeners' frame of reference. 10. Sridhar is from India and has decided to give his informative speech on Indian marriage customs. Because he will be getting married back home the next summer, he is very excited about the topic. He is concerned, however, that his classmates, all of whom are from the CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 33 United States, may think he is saying that marriage traditions in India are better than those in the United States. Sridhar's concern indicates that he is sensitive to the problem of (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. egocentrism. ethical relativism. ethnocentrism. all of the above. a and b only. Chapter 1: Speaking in Public 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. T F Experts believe that being fully prepared for a speech can reduce stage fright by up to 75 percent. Research has shown that for most speakers anxiety decreases significantly after the first 30 to 60 seconds of a speech. As your textbook explains, the speaker's message consists only of what the speaker says with language. Although language changes from culture to culture, the meaning of nonverbal signals is consistent across cultures. T F T F T F As discussed in your textbook, conversation and public speaking share at least four similarities, including: a. b. c. d. organizing one's thoughts logically tailoring a message to one's audience telling a story for maximum impact adapting to listener feedback 6. What are the three primary differences discussed in your textbook between public speaking and conversation? a. b. c. Public speaking is more highly structured. Public speaking requires more formal language. Public speaking requires a different manner of delivery. 7. Mental imaging in which a speaker vividly pictures himself or herself giving a successful presentation is called visualization . List five measures--and briefly explain--that you can take to help control your nervousness when giving a speech. Acquire speaking experience. 8. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 34 Prepare thoroughly for every speech. Think positively about your speech. Use the power of visualization. Know that your nervousness is not visible to the audience. Don't expect perfection. Be at your best physically and mentally. Quietly flex and relax your muscles while waiting to speak. Take a couple of deep breaths before starting to speak. Work especially hard on your introduction. Make eye contact with members of the audience. Concentrate on communicating with the audience. Use visual aids. 9. 10. Because a listener's frame of reference can never be exactly the same as a speaker's, the meaning of a message will never be exactly the same to a listener as to a speaker. The messages sent by listeners to a speaker are called feedback . Chapter 2: Ethics and Public Speaking 11. Ethics is the branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs. 12. The five guidelines in your textbook for ethical public speaking are: a. b. c. d. e. 13. 14. Make sure your goals are ethically sound. Be fully prepared for each speech. Be honest in what you say. Avoid name-calling and abusive language. Put ethical principles into practice. How should you cite sources in a speech to avoid plagiarism? The three guidelines presented in your textbook for ethical listening are: a. b. c. Be courteous and attentive. Avoid prejudging the speaker. Maintain the free and open expression of ideas. Chapter 3: Listening 1. T F 2. T F 3. T F 4. T F 5. T F People need effective listening skills in almost all occupations. Research indicates that even when we listen carefully, we understand and retain only about half of what we hear. People spend more time listening than in any other communicative activity. Hearing and listening are identical. It is impossible to listen too hard. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 35 6. T F 7. T F 8. T F 9. T F 10. T F 11. T F 12. T F 13. T F 14. T F 15. T F 16. T F The aim of active listening is to set aside one's own frame of reference and, as far as possible, to listen from within the speaker's frame of reference. As your textbook explains, focusing on a speaker's delivery and personal appearance is an excellent way to strengthen your listening skills. One of the major obstacles to listening effectively is that the brain can process many more words than can be spoken in a minute. According to your textbook, a skilled therapist listening to a patient is an example of appreciative listening. Appreciative listening is closely tied to critical thinking. Listening is a passive process, while critical thinking is an active process. Listening to provide emotional support for someone is called empathic listening. According to your textbook, listening to understand a classroom lecture is an example of appreciative listening. According to your textbook, listening to understand a classroom lecture is an example of comprehensive listening. When you listen to someone give a sales presentation, and you need to decide whether you will buy the item, you are engaged in comprehensive listening. You can improve your own speeches by listening carefully to the speeches of other people. 17. T F 18. T F 19. T F 20. T F 21. T F 22. T F 23. T F Listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it is known as critical listening. When you listen to the campaign speech of a political candidate for the purpose of accepting or rejecting the speaker's message, you are engaged in critical listening. When listening critically for evidence, you should consider primarily how the evidence relates to your personal frame of reference. When you listen to the campaign speech of a political candidate for the purpose of accepting or rejecting the speaker's message, you are engaged in empathic listening. Critical listening involves listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting it or rejecting it. Active listeners give their undivided attention to the speaker in a genuine effort to understand her or his point of view. One of the major barriers to effective communication is that the brain can process words much faster than a speaker can talk. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 36 24. T F speaker. Usually it is easy to block out physical and mental distractions when listening to a 25. T F 26. T F 27. T F 28. T F 29. T F 30. T F 31. T F 32. T F When you listen to a speech, it is usually a good idea to try to remember everything the speaker says. Concentrating on details is an excellent way to become a better listener. Jumping to conclusions can be a barrier to effective listening even when a speaker and a listener know each other very well. According to your textbook, reviewing mentally what a speaker has said is a good way to avoid becoming distracted in a speech. If you disagree with a speaker, you have nothing to gain by listening carefully. According to your textbook, when focusing your listening, you should concentrate on a speaker's main points, evidence, and technique. Note taking is usually a barrier to effective listening. Taking notes on a speaker's key points and supporting material will help improve your listening ability and retention. 33. List the four causes of poor listening discussed in your textbook. a. b. c. d. not concentrating listening too hard jumping to conclusions focusing on delivery and personal appearance 34. Identify and explain five of the methods discussed in your textbook for becoming a better listener. Take listening seriously. Be an active listener. Resist distractions. Don't be diverted by appearance or delivery. Suspend judgment. Focus your listening. Develop note-taking skills. Chapter 11 Graded Quiz This assessment is worth 10 points. 1. According to your textbook, language is important because it (1 point) CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 37 a. b. c. d. e. mirrors reality. gives meaning to events. has unambiguous connotations. is separate from thought. all of the above. 2. The connotative meaning of a word is (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. its dictionary definition. determined by the speaker. concrete and precise. what the word suggests or implies. usually too technical for a general audience. 3. As a speaker, you would probably use more connotative words if you wanted to (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. arouse an emotional response. appear as impartial as possible. explain a technical concept. enhance your credibility. exploit the rhythm of language. 4. Which of the following words is the most general and abstract? (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. language novel Moby Dick book publication 5. To help her audience understand how it felt to be a woman living under the Taliban, Sima stated, "Some Afghani women lived their CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 38 lives in dark caves, cut off from the modern world, breathing only the stale air of information filtered through the ideology of the Taliban." In this statement, Sima used (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. metaphor. antithesis. personification. repetition. simile. 6. "Unfortunately, many Americans live on the outskirts of hope--some because of their poverty, some because of their color, and all too many because of both" is an example of (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. simile. antithesis. personification. parallelism. analogy. 7. ____________ is the repetition of the initial consonant sound of close or adjoining words. (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. Antithesis Assonance Anaphora Arthimeria Alliteratio n 8. "Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country" is an example of (1 point) CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 39 a. b. c. d. e. antithesis . simile. metaphor. imagery. alliteration. 9. "We must put an end to war--or war will put an end to us" is an example of (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. antithesis . simile. illustration. metaphor. analogy. 10. Which of the following does your textbook identify as a guideline for using language appropriately? (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. use language appropriate to the topic use language appropriate to the speaker use language appropriate to the audience all of the above a and c only Chapter 14 Graded Quiz This assessment is worth 10 points. 1. Which of the following is an instance of informative speaking? (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. a business manager reporting on next year's budget a pastor urging parishioners to give to a building fund a teacher lecturing about methods of speech organization all of the above a and c only CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 40 2. Which of the following is an instance of informative speaking? (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. a lawyer exhorting a jury not to convict her client a teacher urging colleagues to adopt a new curriculum a banker explaining how the stock market operates all of the above a and c only 3. "To inform my audience how to make genuine French croissants" is a specific purpose statement for a speech about a(n) (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. object. process. function. event. concept. 4. "To inform my audience about the scientific theories of Stephen Hawking" is a specific purpose statement for a speech about a(n) (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. concept. object. process. function. event. 5. "To inform my audience of the major theories about the Bermuda Triangle" is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n) (1 point) a. object. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 41 b. c. d. e. process. event. concept. function. 6. "To inform my audience about the pillars of faith in Islam" is an example of a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n) (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. concept. event. function. process. object. 7. Speeches about ____________ are often more complex than other types of informative speeches. (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. objects events processes functions concepts 8. If your specific purpose statement were "To inform my audience about the major archaeological sites in Central America," you would probably organize your speech in ____________ order. (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. topical or causal spatial or comparative comparative or chronological chronological or causal spatial or topical CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 42 9. Informative speeches about concepts are usually arranged in ____________order. (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. chronological topical spatial causal illustrative 10. What does your textbook mean when it recommends that you "personalize your ideas" in an informative speech? (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. Bring information to life by using examples and illustrations. Use dramatic statistics for a personal effect. Use true-to-life examples rather than hypothetical examples. Use slang and jargon to give the speech a personal tone. Avoid concrete language because it makes ideas vague and impersonal. Question 1 2 out of 2 points According to your textbook, a skilled therapist listening to a patient is an example of appreciative listening. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 2 2 out of 2 points Listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it is known as critical listening. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 43 Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 3 2 out of 2 points When you listen to someone give a sales presentation, and you need to decide whether you will buy the item, you are engaged in comprehensive listening. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 4 2 out of 2 points When approaching the lectern and beginning your speech, you should Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: establish eye contact with the audience before you start to speak. establish eye contact with the audience before you start to speak. Question 5 0 out of 2 points What does your textbook recommend as the first step of practicing delivery? Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Prepare your speaking outline so it is brief and easy to read at a glance. Go through your preparation outline aloud to see if what is CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 44 written works orally. Question 6 2 out of 2 points Your textbook recommends using _______________ in your informative speeches as a way to keep your ideas from being overly abstract. Answer Selected Answer: all of these choices Correct Answer: all of these choices Question 7 0 out of 2 points "To inform my audience of the major theories about the Bermuda Triangle" is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n) Answer Selected Answer: object. Correct Answer: concept. Question 8 2 out of 2 points Which of the following is an instance of informative speaking? Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View Answerstudent sharing ideas about leadership based on a book she has read a student sharing ideas about leadership based on a book she CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 45 has read Question 9 2 out of 2 points Which of the following is recommended in your textbook as a way to reinforce the central idea in a speech conclusion? Answer Selected Answer: refer back to the introduction Correct Answer: refer back to the introduction Question 10 0 out of 2 points When preparing a speech introduction, you should usually Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: all of these choices. reveal the topic of the speech and preview the main points of the speech. Question 11 0 out of 2 points "The major responsibilities of an athletic trainer are preventing, diagnosing, and treating injuries" is an example of a well-worded specific purpose statement for a speech. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 46 Question 12 2 out of 2 points The central idea is usually determined after the bulk of the research for a speech is completed. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 13 2 out of 2 points A questionnaire item that gives the respondent the widest freedom in answering is called a(n) Answer Selected Answer: open-ended question. Correct Answer: open-ended question. Question 14 2 out of 2 points As the size of your audience increases, your presentation should usually become more Answer Selected Answer: formal. Correct Answer: formal. Question 15 2 out of 2 points CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 47 Many of the symptoms of stage fright are due to adrenaline, a hormone released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 16 2 out of 2 points Ethnocentrism needs to be avoided when you are in the role of listener as well as when you are in the role of speaker. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 17 2 out of 2 points Interference is anything that impedes the communication of a message. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 18 2 out of 2 points Which organizational method is used in a speech with the following main points? I. Many citizens are victimized every year by incompetent lawyers. II. A bill requiring lawyers to stand for recertification every 10 years will do much to help solve the problem. Answer Selected Answer: problem-solution Correct Answer: CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 48 problem-solution Question 19 0 out of 2 points According to your textbook, "My second point is . . ." is an example of a(n) Answer Selected Answer: transition. Correct Answer: signpost. Question 20 2 out of 2 points What organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main points of a speech with the central idea "Estate taxes should be retained because they preserve opportunity for all, because their elimination would increase the national deficit, and because they are consistent with American values of fairness and justice"? Answer Selected Answer: topical Correct Answer: topical Question 21 2 out of 2 points Which of the following aspects of public speaking is least likely to help strengthen your skills as a critical thinker? Answer Selected Answer: practicing the delivery of your speech CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 49 Correct Answer: practicing the delivery of your speech Question 22 2 out of 2 points Concern by a listener about an upcoming job interview, the lack of air conditioning, or a toothache are all examples of _________ in the speech communication process. Answer Selected Answer: interference Correct Answer: interference Question 23 2 out of 2 points Jerome wants his audience to appreciate the harsh reality of life for migrant workers in the United States. In addition to using strong supporting materials, he decides to use words with connotative meanings because he knows they will help him Answer Selected Answer: arouse an emotional response. Correct Answer: arouse an emotional response. Question 24 2 out of 2 points According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of ___________. "When Tiger Woods got his first golf club, it was like Picasso getting his first paint brush." CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 50 Answer Selected Answer: simile Correct Answer: simile Question 25 2 out of 2 points Which of the following is a correctly worded main point for a speech preparation outline? Answer Selected Answer: Smallpox poses a real danger to the United States. Correct Answer: Smallpox poses a real danger to the United States. Question 26 2 out of 2 points According to your textbook, as Bekah prepares her preparation outline for her speech on spiders, she should remember to include all of the following except Answer Selected Answer: directions for delivering the speech. Correct Answer: directions for delivering the speech. Question 27 0 out of 2 points Kelly is working on the preparation outline for her informative speech. According to your textbook, her outline should Answer CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 51 Selected Answer: Correct Answer: all of these choices. state main points and subpoints in full sentences and contain a bibliography. Question 28 2 out of 2 points In a preparation outline, the specific purpose is usually stated after the introduction. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 29 0 out of 2 points The speaking outline is a more complete version of the preparation outline. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 30 2 out of 2 points "To inform my audience about the history of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation" is an example of a Answer Selected Answer: specific purpose. Correct Answer: specific purpose. Question 31 CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 52 2 out of 2 points Orawan plans to give an informative speech about her home country of Thailand. Her specific purpose is "To inform my audience about the interaction of ancient traditions and modern technology in Thai society." Her central idea is "Thailand: Customs and Computers." Has Orawan made any mistakes in this process? Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Yes. Orawan's central idea is not written as a complete sentence. Yes. Orawan's central idea is not written as a complete sentence. Question 32 2 out of 2 points During a question-and-answer session, you should direct your answers primarily to the audience as a whole rather than solely to the individual questioner. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 33 2 out of 2 points If you are asked a hostile question during a question-and-answer session, you should avoid sounding hostile in your response. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 34 2 out of 2 points CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 53 Goodwill is the audience's perception of whether the speaker has the best interests of the audience in mind. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 35 2 out of 2 points One way to establish your credibility in a speech introduction is to let the audience know the source of your expertise. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 36 2 out of 2 points One function of a speech conclusion is to reinforce the speaker's central idea. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 37 2 out of 2 points As your textbook explains, when you give an informative speech, it is usually a good idea to assume that the audience already knows a lot about your topic. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 38 2 out of 2 points CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 54 One of the major barriers to effective informative speaking is over-estimating what the audience knows about the topic. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 39 2 out of 2 points If you needed to know the amount of cheddar cheese consumed in the United States each year, which of the following would be the best reference source to consult? Answer Selected Answer: Statistical Abstract of the United States Correct Answer: Statistical Abstract of the United States Question 40 2 out of 2 points The library catalogue Answer Selected Answer: lists all the books, periodicals, and other resources owned by the library as well as allows a researcher to look for books by author, title, or subject. lists all the books, periodicals, and other resources owned by the library as well as allows a researcher to look for books by author, title, or subject. Correct Answer: Question 41 CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 55 2 out of 2 points Ted is listening to the introduction of Janine's speech when he thinks to himself, "Man, this is really going to be boring." What aspect of poor listening identified in your textbook is Ted exhibiting in this example? Answer Selected Answer: jumping to conclusions Correct Answer: jumping to conclusions Question 42 2 out of 2 points Leon is listening to his chemistry instructor review the steps for this week's lab assignment. Because Leon has to understand and follow these directions carefully, your textbook would say he is engaged in ________________ listening. Answer Selected Answer: comprehensive Correct Answer: comprehensive Question 43 2 out of 2 points You are most likely to be successful in your classroom speeches if you think of your classmates as a real audience. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 44 2 out of 2 points CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 56 The need for audience analysis and adaptation is one of the major differences between public speaking and everyday conversation. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 45 2 out of 2 points Research suggests that using a clear, specific method of speech organization can enhance your ability to deliver a speech fluently. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 46 2 out of 2 points Transitions state both the idea the speaker is leaving and the one the speaker is coming to. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 47 2 out of 2 points If you use a tape recorder or a digital recorder in a research interview, you should keep it secret from the person being interviewed. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 48 CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 57 2 out of 2 points You can almost always count on the reliability of Internet research materials found through major search engines such as Google and Yahoo. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 49 0 out of 2 points You can seldom be too cautious in avoiding language that may confuse or offend your audience. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 50 2 out of 2 points "She darted around the bookstore like a hummingbird in a flower garden" is an example of metaphor. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Comm 1110 Chapter 12 Quiz 08.02.28 1. Communication based on a speaker's body and voice, rather than on the use of words, is called a. b. c. implicit communication. nonverbal communication. unintentional communication. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 58 d. e. instinctive communication. physical communication. 2. A political candidate is running for office and must give a speech that will lay out the details of her platform. The speech will be widely covered by newspapers and television. What kind of delivery is the candidate most likely to use? a. b. c. d. e. manuscript impromptu monotonous colloquial memorized 3. According to your textbook, the ____________ speaker delivers a speech with little or no immediate preparation. a. b. c. d. e. colloquial extemporaneous conversational impromptu declamatory 4. Which of the following does your textbook mention as an advantage of extemporaneous delivery? a. b. c. d. e. It requires only a minimal amount of gesturing by the speaker. It reduces the likelihood of a speaker making vocalized pauses. It improves a speaker's ability to articulate difficult words correctly. It requires little or no preparation before the speech is delivered. It allows greater spontaneity than does speaking from a manuscript. 5. A speech that is fully prepared in advance but that is delivered from a brief set of notes or a speaking outline is called a(n) ____________ speech. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 59 a. b. c. d. e. extemporaneous declamatory impromptu manuscript vocalized 6. The relative highness or lowness of sounds produced by the human voice is called a. b. c. d. e. rate. pitch. tone. quality. volume. 7. Which of the following would probably call for a faster speaking rate than normal? a. b. c. d. e. expressing sadness or contempt describing the winning touchdown in last week's game summarizing information already familiar to an audience all of the above b and c only 8. According to your textbook, "uh," "er," "um" and similar expressions in a public speech are referred to as a. b. c. d. vocal fillers. signposts. intonations. vocalized pauses. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 60 e. 9. inflections. Changes in a speaker's rate, pitch, volume, and pauses are referred to as a. b. c. d. e. vocal direction. vocal credibility. vocal pronunciation. vocal contact. vocal variety. 10. Forming particular speech sounds crisply and distinctly is called a. b. c. d. e. verbalization. articulation. vocalized pausing. pronunciation. intonation. 11. in According to your textbook, saying "dunno" instead of "don't know" is an error a. b. c. d. e. accent. articulation. vocalization. intonation. emphasis. 12. in According to your textbook, saying "pas-ghetti" instead of "spaghetti" is an error a. b. articulation. description. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 61 c. d. e. 13. intonation. pronunciation. inflection. Research has shown that a. b. c. d. e. when speakers' nonverbal signals are inconsistent with their words, listeners often believe the nonverbal signals rather than the words. the best rate for effective speechmaking is 170 words per minute. smooth, graceful gestures are vital to effective speechmaking. listeners usually find a somewhat slower than normal speaking rate to be more credible than a slightly faster than normal rate. some dialects are inherently better than others. 14. What does your textbook say about eye contact for public speakers who address audiences in the United States? a. To appear credible and trustworthy, a speaker should gaze intently at one section of the audience. b. In classroom speeches, it is most important to maintain steady eye contact with the instructor. c. Speakers should look at the audience about 80 to 90 percent of the time they are talking. d. Speakers who establish strong eye contact with the audience lose credibility as a result. e. 15. Even with a large audience, engaging the eyes of each person is preferable to scanning the audience in general. When approaching the lectern and beginning your speech, you should a. b. c. start immediately so your audience does not become impatient. create a bond with the audience by acknowledging your nervousness. establish eye contact with the audience before you start to speak. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 62 d. e. all of the above. a and b only. Comm 1110 Chapter 14 Quiz 08.01.22 1. Which of the following is an instance of informative speaking? a. an ambassador urging changes in international adoption laws b. a social worker explaining adoption laws to potential parents c. a scientist convincing colleagues to change their research focus d. all of the above e. b and c only 2. Which of the following is an instance of informative speaking? a. a lawyer exhorting a jury not to convict her client b. a teacher urging colleagues to adopt a new curriculum c. a banker explaining how the stock market operates d. all of the above e. a and c only 3. Which of the following is an instance of informative speaking? a. a doctor explaining how antioxidants affect the body b. a vitamin distributor urging listeners to buy antioxidants c. a scientist arguing that antioxidants have minimal health benefits d. all of the above e. a and c only 4. "To inform my audience about the different notions of intellectual property in eastern and western cultures" is an example of a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n) a. object. b. event. c. concept. d. operation. e. process. 5. "To inform my audience about the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II" is an example of a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n) a. event. b. narrative. c. condition. d. concept. e. function. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 63 6. "To inform my audience about the major parts of a 35-millimeter camera" is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n) a. concept. b. event. c. process. d. object. e. function. 7. "To inform my audience about the removal of the Cherokee Indians from their native lands" is an example of a specific purpose statement for a speech about a(n) a. function. b. event. c. condition. d. object. e. concept. 8. If your specific purpose were "To inform my audience of the major steps in an effective job interview," you would probably organize your speech in ____________ order. a. comparative b. spatial c. chronological d. causal e. illustrative 9. If you were giving an informative speech describing the different parts of the Forbidden City in China, you would probably arrange the speech in ____________ order. a. illustrative b. causal c. chronological d. spatial e. comparative 10. What does your textbook mean when it recommends that you "personalize your ideas" in an informative speech? a. Bring information to life by using examples and illustrations. b. Use dramatic statistics for a personal effect. c. Use true-to-life examples rather than hypothetical examples. d. Use slang and jargon to give the speech a personal tone. e. Avoid concrete language because it makes ideas vague and impersonal. Chapter 9 Graded Quiz This assessment is worth 10 points. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 64 1. Which of the following is a basic objective of a speech introduction? (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. reinforce the central idea preview the main points gain the attention of the audience all of the above b and c only 2. Which of the following would you be most likely to find in a speech introduction? (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. a visual aid a preview statement an internal summary a research citation a quotation 3. Which of the following would you most likely find in a speech introduction? (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. a transition an internal summary a lengthy quotation a startling statement a causal argument 4. Which of the following would you least likely find in a speech introduction? (1 point) a. b. c. d. a preview statement a call to action a credibility statement a provocative quotation CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 65 e. a startling statement 5. In the introduction of his speech on the Special Olympics, Mason mentioned that he had attended the events last year to cheer on a family friend who was competing in some races. Sharing this information with the audience helped Mason achieve which goal of a speech introduction? (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. relating to the audience generating emotional appeal stating the importance of the topic establishing credibility previewing the body 6. Which objective of a good speech introduction is fulfilled by the following statement? Today we will explore the three most important forms of intellectual property protection--copyrights, trademarks, and patents. (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. preview the body establish the speaker's goodwill state the importance of the topic summarize the introduction relate to the audience 7. If Leonardo DiCaprio were to deliver a speech about the future of medical care in the United States, his main task in the introduction of his speech would probably be to (1 point) a. b. c. d. gain attention. reveal the topic. establish credibility. preview the body. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 66 e. define key terms. 8. Which of the following is recommended in your textbook as a way to reinforce the central idea in a speech conclusion? (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. end with a quotation make a dramatic statement refer to the introduction all of the above a and b only 9. Which of the following would you most likely find in a speech conclusion? (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. a preview statement an announcement of the topic a gesture of goodwill a credibility statement a restatement of the central idea 10. Referring back to your introduction in the conclusion of your speech is recommended as a way to (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. secure the audience's attention. reinforce your credibility as a speaker. move the audience to action. give the speech psychological unity. develop a dissolve ending. Comm 1110 Chapter 4 Quiz 08.01.22 1. When the general purpose of your speech is to ____________, you act primarily as a teacher or lecturer. a. inform CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 67 b. c. d. e. convince entertain persuade convert 2. When the general purpose of your speech is to ____________, you act primarily as an advocate. a. persuade b. entertain c. demonstrate d. commemorate e. inform 3. "To inform my audience that the National Football League's video replay system should be adopted by college football in order to eliminate officiating errors" is a poor specific purpose statement for an informative speech because a. it is phrased in figurative language. b. it contains more than one distinct idea. c. the stated goal is persuasive rather than informative. d. all of the above. e. a and b only. 4. As a specific purpose statement, "To inform my audience about computer technology" is too a. figurative. b. broad. c. trivial. d. technical. e. detailed. 5. "To persuade my audience that continuing to spend money on the space program is like throwing good money after bad" is a poorly phrased specific purpose statement for a speech because it is a. expressed in figurative language. b. written as a declarative sentence rather than a question. c. too technical. d. all of the above. e. a and c only. 6. "To inform about saving for retirement" is a poorly phrased specific purpose statement because it a. is too specific. b. contains figurative language. c. is written as a statement instead of a question. d. does not include a reference to the audience. e. is too trivial. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 68 7. "To inform my audience about the history and rules of water polo" is an example of a a. speech topic. b. general purpose. c. central idea. d. thesis statement. e. specific purpose. 8. "To inform my audience about the symptoms, causes, and treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome" is an example of a a. a specific purpose which includes main points. b. thesis statement. c. general purpose. d. central idea. e. a specific purpose which does not include main points. 9. The central idea of a speech should a. be written as a complete sentence. b. be expressed as a statement, not a question. c. be devoid of figurative language. d. include main points. e. all of the above. 10. "The laser is a highly versatile instrument with important uses in medicine, industry, and art" is an example of a a. specific purpose. b. central idea. c. transition. d. general thesis. e. topic statement. 11. "To understand the role of dance marathons in American popular culture, one needs to know why they started, how they evolved, and what they are like today" is an example of a a. mission statement. b. specific purpose. c. transition statement. d. central idea. e. topic statement. 12. Orawan plans to give an informative speech about her home country of Thailand. Her specific purpose is "To inform my audience about the interaction of ancient traditions and modern technology in Thai society." Her central idea is "Thailand: Customs and Computers." Has Orawan made any mistakes in this process? a. No. Orawan is off to a good start with her informative speech. b. Yes. Orawan's specific purpose does not meet the assignment. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 69 c. d. e. Yes. Orawan's specific purpose statement is too trivial. Yes. Orawan's central idea is not written as a complete sentence. Yes. Orawan's central idea contains the word "and." Chapter 6 Graded Quiz This assessment is worth 10 points. 1. The library catalogue (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. lists all the books, periodicals, and other resources owned by the library. provides abstracts of magazine and newspaper articles. allows a researcher to look for books by author, title, or subject. all of the above. a and c only. 2. The best source for numerical data about life in the United States is (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. Who's Who. Encyclopedia Americana. World Almanac and Book of Facts. New York Times Index. Statistical Abstract of the United States. 3. If you want to know about the history of a word in the English language, you should turn first to (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. Facts on File. Roget's Thesaurus. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Webster's Geographical Dictionary. Oxford English Dictionary. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 70 4. You are giving an informative speech about modern music and need to learn the origins of the word "jazz." Which of the following would be the best reference source to consult? (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. Oxford English Dictionary Bartlett's Familiar Quotations World Almanac and Book of Facts Encyclopedia Americana Roget's Thesaurus 5. A ____________ is a search aid that combines Internet technology with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing data. (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. cyber catalogue metasearch engine virtual library reference locator Web crawler 6. As your textbook explains, the best kind of search aid for locating reliable, high quality information on the Internet is a(n) (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. search engine. electronic catalogue. metasearch engine. research pilot. virtual library. 7. When taking research notes, you should (1 point) a. b. take only a few notes so you do not get too much information. put all the notes from each source on a single index card or sheet CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 71 c. d. e. of paper. distinguish among quotations, paraphrases, and your own ideas. record notes only when you're sure you'll use the information in your speech. all of the above. 8. When taking research notes, you should (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. put all notes from each source on a single index card or sheet of paper. record notes only when you're sure you'll use the information in your speech. take all notes as direct quotations. all of the above. none of the above. 9. Antonio is researching his speech on West Nile Virus. According to your textbook, Antonio should (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. make a preliminary bibliography. think about his research materials as he is gathering them. distinguish among direct quotations, paraphrases, and his own ideas. all of the above. a and c only. 10. According to your textbook, which of the following is a guideline for preparing a preliminary bibliography? (1 point) a. b. c. Write a brief note on why the source may be valuable for your speech. Include only those sources that you are certain to use in your speech. Try to get as many sources as possible on each index card or CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 72 d. e. sheet of paper. all of the above b and c only Directions: Choose the answer that best completes each of the following items. Mark your answers on the answer sheet provided. SPH107: Basic Public Speaking Reading Quiz Chapter 5: Analyzing Your Audience 1. Which of the following is not a question that should guide a speech writer in being audience centered? a. To whom am I speaking? b. What do I want them to know, believe, or do as a result of my speech? c. What is the most effective way of composing and presenting my speech to accomplish that aim? d. None of the above True or False: The primary purpose of speechmaking is to demonstrate your command of the topic. a. True b. False In her speech introduction, Susan said," Though we are all very different, we are all students here at this university, and we are all working toward the completion of a degree. Unfortunately, because of rising tuition, some of us may lose the ability to continue in school." According to your textbook, by seeking to create a bond with her audience through emphasizing their common goals and experiences, Susan was engaging in _____. a. Ethnocentrism b. Stereotyping c. Identification d. Comparison e. Framing True or False: Every speech contains two message the one sent by the speaker and the one sent by the listener. a. True b. False According to your textbook, what are the three primary factors to consider when assessing an audience's disposition toward a speech topic? a. Gender, knowledge, opinions b. Interest, background, and age c. Size, occasion, and group membership d. Knowledge, interest, and attitude e. Background, situation, and gender 6. 2. You are giving a speech on a community building project to a local service organization at its monthly luncheon. Dessert dishes are being cleared away as you walk into the overcrowded, overheated room. The most important situational factor to consider when adapting to your audience would probably be _____. a. The age of the audience b. The audience's attitude toward you c. The education of your audience d. The physical setting for your speech e. The gender of your audience As the size of your audience increases, your presentation should usually become more _____. a. Flexible b. Informal c. Formal d. Centered e. Egocentric Which of the following is not a true statement? a. The occasion will dictate how long a speech should be. b. No matter what the occasion, listeners will have fairly definite expectations about the kinds of speeches appropriate for the occasion. c. Being audience-centered means a speaker must sacrifice what she or he really believes to get a favorable response from the audience. d. All audiences are egocentric. True or False: Three types of questions to include in an audience analysis questionnaire are fixed-alternative, scale, and open-ended questions. a. True b. False 7. 3. 8. 4. 9. 5. 10. Audience adaptation is an important factor in which of the following? a. Choosing the speech topic b. Preparing the speech c. Presenting the speech d. All of the above e. A and b only Terms CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 73 Definitions True Public speaking requires more formal language than everyday conversation True When you adjust to the situation of a public speech you are doing on a larger scale what you do everyday in conversation True Many of the symptoms of stage fright are due to adrenaline True Organizing ideas for presentation in a speech is an important aspect of critical thinking True A speakers frame of reference and a listener's frame of reference will never be exactly the same True Most public speaking involves two-way communication True Interference is anything that impedes the communication of a message True Interference can come from either inside or outside your audience False Although language changes from culture to culture, the meaning of nonverbal signals is consistent across cultures False Ethnocentrism is an advantage to public speakers who seek to understand the values, beliefs, and customs of audiences from different cultures True Ethical issues can arise at every stage of the speechmaking process False As the Roman rhetorician Quintilian noted 2,000 years ago, the ideal of speechingmaking is to persuade the audience by any means necessary False The ethical obligation of a speaker to avoid name-calling and other forms of abusive language is essentially a matter of political correctness True Taking someone's entire speech and passing it off as your own is a form of unethical behavior called global plagiarism False If a web page is not copyright protected, then it is ethical to cut and paste sections of the page into your speech without citing your source False When citing an internet document in a speech, it is usually sufficient to introduce it by saing, "As I found on the Web" True Just as public speakers have ethical responsibilities, so too do the people who listen to a speech False All statements made by a public speaker are protected under the free speech clause of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution True It is possible to disagree entirely with a speaker's ideas but still support the speaker's right to express those ideas True No matter how well intentioned they may be, efforts to protect society by restricting free speech usually end up repressing minority viewpoints and unpopular opinions True People need effective listening skills in almost all occupations True The aim of active listening is to set aside one's own frame of reference and, as far as possible, to listen form within the speaker's frame of reference False Appreciate listening is closely tied to critical thinking False Listening to understand a classroom lecture is an example of appreciative listening True You can improve your own speeches by listening carefully to the speeches of other people True Critical listening involves listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting it or rejecting it False Usually it is easy to block out physical and mental distractions when listening to a speaker True Jumping to conclusions can be a barrier to effective listening even a speaker and a listener know each other very well True Reviewing mentally what a speaker has said is a good way to avoid becoming distracted in a speech True Taking notes on a speaker's key points and supporting material will help improve your listening ability and retention False After choosing a topic, the next step in speech preparation is determining your central idea False Once you choose the central idea of your speech, the next step is to formulate your general purpose False Most often, a speaker's general purpose will fall into one of two categories - to inform or to demonstrate False The difference between informing and persuading is like the difference between explaining and entertaining False When your general purpose is to persuade, you act as a teacher or lecturer CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 74 False The specific purpose of a speech usually "sums up" the main points to be developed in the body of the speech False Conducting regular car maintenance is an example of an effective specific purpose statement for a speech False The specific purpose statement should usually be phrased as a question True The central idea of a speech often emerges after you have done your research and have decided on the main points of the speech False "to persuade my audience that the federal government should institute a national sales tax to help pay for social programs" is an example of an effective central idea for a speech False The aim of successful speechmaking is to gain a desired response from listeners by any means necessary False Adapting to audiences is one of the easiest tasks facing beginning speakers False Audience analysis and adaptation affect all aspects of speechmaking except for the delivery of the speech itself True Even when listeners pay close attention, they don't process a speaker's message exactly as the speaker intended True Every speech contains two messages - the one sent by the speaker and the one received by the listener False Ethnocentrism means that audiences typically approach speeches by asking, "why is this important to me" True Identification refers to the process by which speakers seek to create a bond with audiences by emphasizing common values, goals, and experiences True Any characteristic of a given audience is potentially important to a speaker analyzing that audience True Gender, sexual orientation, age, race, ethnicity, and group membership are all factors to consider when conducting a demographic analysis False Because men and women in the US share a much broader range of experiences than they once did, gender is no longer a significant factor in demographic audience analysis True There are four kinds of informative speeches - speeches about objects, concepts, processes, and events False A lawyer urging a jury to acquit her client is an example of informative speaking True Informative speeches about processes are usually arranged in chronological order False "to inform my audience about theories of reincarnation" is a specific purpose for an informative about an object False Informative speeches about concepts are usually arranged in spatial order False A summary is seldom necessary in the conclusion of an informative speech True When giving an informative speech, you should think about ways to relate your topic to the audience in the body of the speech as well as in the introduction False Abstractions are especially helpful for clarifying ideas in informative speeches False Using description as a way to personalize ideas in an informative speech is recommended True Whenever possible, you should try to enliven your informative speeches by expressing ideas in personal terms SPH107: Basic Public Speaking Reading Quiz Chapter 10: Outlining the Speech Directions: Choose the answer that best completes each of the following items. Mark your answers on the answer sheet provided. 1. True or False: When making a preparation outline, you should state your main points and subpoints in full sentences to ensure that you develop your ideas fully. a. True b. False 2. According to your textbook, outlining is important to public speaking because an outline helps you judge whether ______. 7. Which of the following is a correctly worded main point for a speech preparation outline? a. The danger of smallpox in the United States b. What is the danger of smallpox in the United States? c. Smallpox poses a real danger to the United States. d. Smallpox: a genuine danger to the United States CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 75 a. b. c. d. e. 3. your main points are properly balanced your speech will be interesting to the audience you have adequate supporting materials for your main points all of the above a and c only e. Smallpox 8. True or False: According to your textbook, transitions and other connectives should be identified with Roman numerals on a speech preparation outline. a. True b. False In a preparation outline, main points should be _____. a. indicated by Arabic numerals b. positioned farthest to the left c. written in key words to jog memory d. listed after subpoints e. stated as questions 9. Arranged in random order below are a main point, two subpoints, and two sub-subpoints from a speech preparation outline. Which is the first subpoint? a. The purpose of a manager interview is to evaluate those people who survive the screening interview. b. The 20 percent who do pass the screening interview get invited back for a manager interview. c. The two types of job interviews used by most companies are the screening interview and the manager interview. d. The purpose of a screening interview is just what the name implies -- to screen out people the company doesn't want to hire. e. Usually about 80 percent of job applicants do not pass the screening interview. 10. According to your textbook, the main reason to keep a speaking outline brief is to ____. a. help the speaker feel more confident and secure b. make the speech clearer for the audience c. help the speaker maintain eye contact with the audience d. ensure that the outline fits on a single note card 4. True or False: The speaking outline follows a different pattern of symbolization and indentation from the presentation outline. a. True b. False 5. True or False: It is seldom necessary to write out quotations in full in a speaking outline. a. True b. False 6. True or False: The visual framework of a preparation outline shows the relationships among the speaker's ideas. a. True b. False 1. "Are Our Bridges Safe?" would be an appropriate title for a speech on bridge safety. T 2. "Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country" is an example of antithesis. T 3. "Conversational quality" in a speech means that the speaker talks the same as she or he would in ordinary conversation. F 4. "The Olympic flame burns inside every competitor, igniting their desire to win gold" is an example of metaphor. T 5. "To inform my audience how to create their own Web pages" is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a process. T 6. "To persuade my audience that Citizen Kane is the greatest movie of all time" is a specific purpose statement for a persuasive speech on a question of value. T 7. "To persuade my audience to contribute to the campus blood drive" is a specific purpose statement for a persuasive speech on a question of policy whose aim is passive agreement. F CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 76 8. A graduation address and a toast at a wedding are both examples of speeches for special occasions. T 9. A lawyer urging a jury to acquit her client is an example of informative speaking. F 10. A speaker should avoid using familiar words because they make a speech sound trite. F 11. A speaker's credibility is affected by everything she or he says and does during the speech. T 12. A speech dominated by abstract words will almost always be clearer than one dominated by concrete words. F 13. A speech praising the bravery of the firefighters killed in New York on September 11, 2001, is an example of a commemorative speech. T 14. A speech urging Congress to construct a memorial in Washington, D.C., to recognize women's contributions to the American Revolution is an example of a commemorative speech. F 15. A visual aid is only as useful as the explanation that goes with it. T 16. According to chapter 10, the introduction, body, and conclusion should all be labeled in a speech preparation outline. F 17. According to chapter 16, it is redundant for persuasive speakers to give their evidence and then to state the point the evidence is meant to prove. F 18. According to chapter 18, the best approach to brainstorming in a small group is for each member to write down her or his ideas before sharing them with the group. T 19. An extemporaneous speech is carefully prepared and practiced in advance. T 20. Antithesis and alliteration are excellent ways to enhance the imagery of a speech. F 21. Arguments guilty of the ad hominem fallacy attack the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute. T 22. As chapter 11 explains, using inclusive language in a speech is important primarily as a matter of political correctness. F 23. As chapter 15 explains, persuasion takes place only if the audience is strongly in favor of the speaker's position by the end of the speech. F 24. As defined in your textbook, a speech of presentation is a speech that presents someone a gift, an award, or some other form of public recognition. T 25. As in other forms of communication, effective listening is vital to communication in small-group discussion. T 26. As your textbook explains, disagreements among members of a small group should be kept on the interpersonal level so they won't interfere with the group's ability to complete its task. F 27. Because a panel discussion involves speaking impromptu, the best preparation for such a discussion is no preparation at all. F 28. Because it moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion, reasoning from principle is the opposite of reasoning from specific instances. T 29. Chapter 14 discusses four kinds of informative speeches: speeches about objects, speeches about concepts, speeches about processes, and speeches about events. T 30. Connotative meaning is precise, literal, and objective. F 31. Deciding when and where the group will meet is an example of a procedural need in a small group. T 32. Delivery cues should be included on both the preparation and speaking outlines. F 33. Each member of a small group should be prepared to assume a leadership role when necessary. T 34. Effective commemorative speeches depend above all on the speaker's use of language. T 35. Even though a persuasive speaker's goal is to influence the audience's beliefs or actions, he or she still has an ethical obligation to present evidence fairly and accurately. T 36. False cause, or post hoc ergo propter hoc, is an error in reasoning in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because two things are similar in one respect, they are similar in all respects. F 37. If the specific purpose of your informative speech is to recount the history of an event, you will usually arrange the speech in chronological order. T CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 77 38. If you advocate a new policy in a persuasive speech, your main points will usually fall naturally into topical order. F 39. If you were summarizing statistical trends in a speech, the best visual aid to use would probably be a graph. T 40. In most cases, the question-and-answer session has little impact on an audience's response to a speech. F 41. In most circumstances you should keep your visual aids on display throughout your speech. F 42. In the most common system of outlining, main points are identified by Roman numerals and subpoints by capital letters. T 43. In the United States, public speakers who establish strong eye contact are usually perceived as more credible than speakers who have weak eye contact. T 44. Including the specific purpose with your preparation outline makes it easier to assess how well you have constructed the speech to accomplish your purpose. T 45. Informative speeches about concepts are usually arranged in spatial order. F 46. Informative speeches are seldom organized in topical order. F 47. It is important to maintain strong eye contact with your audience when you are presenting a visual aid. T 48. It is seldom necessary to write out quotations in full in a speaking outline. F 49. It is usually inappropriate for persuasive speakers to refer to their personal experience in an attempt to bolster their credibility. F 50. Language needs to be appropriate to a speaker herself or himself, as well as to the audience, topic, and occasion. T 51. Nonverbal communication is based on a person's use of voice and body, rather than on the use of words. T 52. One of the advantages of speaking from a manuscript is that it frees a speaker from the need to establish eye contact with the audience. F 53. Passing visual aids among the audience during a speech is helpful to a speaker because it allows listeners to inspect the aids at their own pace. F 54. Persuasion is the process of creating, reinforcing or changing people's beliefs or actions. T 55. Printing your visual aid in ALL CAPITAL letters is a good way to make sure it will be easy for the audience to read. F 56. Rehearsing how you behave at the beginning and end of your speech is one of the easiest things you can do to improve your image with an audience. T 57. Research has shown that an average speaker who uses visual aids will come across as more credible and better prepared than a speaker who does not use visual aids. T 58. Research has shown that the speaker's personal appearance is an important factor in about 25 percent of speech situations. F 59. Research has shown that visual aids can increase both the clarity and the persuasiveness of a speaker's message. T 60. Research shows that using personal terms such as "you" and "your" in an informative speech can increase listeners' understanding of the speaker's ideas. T 61. Studies have shown that speakers with low initial credibility need to use more evidence than speakers with high initial credibility. T 62. The following statement is an example of reasoning by analogy: "The United Nations charter establishes the right of all people to live free of political repression. The government of North Korea subjects its people to political repression. Therefore, the government of North Korea is violating the U.N. charter." F 63. The fundamental purpose of a commemorative speech is to convey information about the subject being commemorated. F 64. The ideal of small-group discussion is to reach a majority decision on major issues facing the group. F 65. The main purpose of a speech of presentation is to provide a biography of the speaker being presented to the audience. F CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 78 66. The maintenance needs of a small group include such matters as researching the discussion topic, keeping the group on track, and helping the group reach consensus. F 67. The more favorably listeners view a speaker's competence and character, the more likely they are to accept what the speaker says. T 68. The purpose of a speech of introduction is to introduce the person receiving an award or an honor. F 69. The question for a problem-solving group discussion should usually be phrased as a question of policy. T 70. The speaking outline follows a different pattern of symbolization and indentation from the preparation outline F 71. The speaking outline is essentially a manuscript of your speech. F 72. The strongest source of emotional appeal in a persuasive speech is the sincerity and conviction of the speaker. T 73. The target audience is that portion of the whole audience that the speaker most wants to persuade. T 74. The three major traits of a good acceptance speech are brevity, humility, and graciousness. T 75. The visual framework of a preparation outline shows the relationships among the speaker's ideas. T 76. The words we use to label an event determine to a great extent how we respond to that event. T 77. To function effectively, a small group needs a specific leader. F 78. Using jargon in an informative speech is useful since it demonstrates your expertise on the topic. F 79. Using language with a strong rhythm can increase the impact of a speaker's words. T 80. Using visual aids can help combat stage fright. T 81. Ways of talking based on ethnic or regional speech patterns are called dialects. T 82. When an informative speech about a process has more than five steps, the speaker should group the steps into units so as to limit the number of main points. T 83. When giving a speech of introduction, you should be sure to praise the speaking skills of the main speaker. F 84. When giving an informative speech, you should think about ways to relate your topic to the audience in the body of the speech as well as in the introduction. T 85. When making a preparation outline, you should state your main points and subpoints in full sentences to ensure that you develop your ideas fully. T 86. When speaking to persuade, you need to think of your speech as a kind of mental dialogue with your audience. T 87. When trying to persuade listeners that are skeptical about your position, you need to deal directly with the reasons for their skepticism. T 88. When you are going to give an audience material to take home from a speech, you should usually distribute the material at the beginning of the speech. F 89. When you discuss a question of policy, you must deal with three basic issues--need, plan, and practicality. T 90. You can articulate a word sharply and still mispronounce it. T SPCH 1511 Prof. Bryan Midterm Exam Study Guide True-False Questions CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 79 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. F T T T F T F T F T F T If your topic is clear in the body of the speech, there is no need to state it in the introduction. A startling introduction is effective only if it is firmly related to the speech topic. Credibility is the audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic. Goodwill is the audience's perception of whether the speaker has the best interests of the audience in mind. A preview statement is especially important in a speech introduction when a speaker is addressing a hostile audience. Under normal circumstances the introduction should constitute about 10 to 20 percent of a speech. The only way to convey that your speech is ending is through the use of words such as "In conclusion." A dissolve ending is a conclusion that generates emotional appeal by fading step by step to a dramatic final statement. The conclusion should normally make up about 25 percent of a speech. One function of a speech conclusion is to reinforce the speaker's central idea. The preparation outline should be drawn up before a speaker begins research for a speech. Including the specific purpose with your preparation outline makes it easier to assess how well you have constructed the speech to accomplish your purpose. In the most common system of outlining, main points are identified by Roman numerals and subpoints by capital letters. It is seldom necessary to include a formal bibliography in the preparation outline for a classroom speech. According to your textbook, the two major bibliographic formats are those developed by the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA). According to your textbook, your final bibliography should include the URL for Internet sources. 17. 18. 19. T F T 20. T CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 80 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. T F T F F T T T F T F T F T F T You should keep your speaking outline as brief as possible. A bibliography is usually included as part of the speaking outline. A speaking outline should usually include directions for delivering the speech. Delivery cues should be included on both the preparation and speaking outlines. If your topic is clear in the body of the speech, there is no need to state it in the introduction. A startling introduction is effective only if it is firmly related to the speech topic. Credibility is the audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic. Goodwill is the audience's perception of whether the speaker has the best interests of the audience in mind. A preview statement is especially important in a speech introduction when a speaker is addressing a hostile audience. Under normal circumstances the introduction should constitute about 10 to 20 percent of a speech. The only way to convey that your speech is ending is through the use of words such as "In conclusion." A dissolve ending is a conclusion that generates emotional appeal by fading step by step to a dramatic final statement. The conclusion should normally make up about 25 percent of a speech. One function of a speech conclusion is to reinforce the speaker's central idea. The preparation outline should be drawn up before a speaker begins research for a speech. Including the specific purpose with your preparation outline makes it easier to assess how well you have constructed the speech to accomplish your purpose. In the most common system of outlining, main points are identified by Roman numerals and subpoints by capital letters. 37. T CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 81 38. 39. F T It is seldom necessary to include a formal bibliography in the preparation outline for a classroom speech. According to your textbook, the two major bibliographic formats are those developed by the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA). According to your textbook, your final bibliography should include the URL for Internet sources. You should keep your speaking outline as brief as possible. A bibliography is usually included as part of the speaking outline. Although examples work very well to clarify ideas in an informative speech, they are less effective in a persuasive speech. Hypothetical examples can be especially powerful as supporting materials when they create scenarios that involve the audience. Because of their high credibility, you should use only factual examples in your speeches. The mean--popularly called the average--is determined by summing all the items in a group and dividing by the number of items. It is seldom necessary to cite the source of statistics in a speech. Your textbook recommends using visual aids to make statistics easier for listeners to comprehend. Research has shown that the more statistics you use, the more effective your speech is likely to be. Acceptable testimony can include either statements from recognized experts or from ordinary people with special expertise on the topic. It is seldom necessary to name the people you quote or paraphrase in a speech. When you use testimony in a speech, it is acceptable either to paraphrase or to use a direct quotation. Periodical databases help you locate magazine and journal articles. As your textbook explains, periodical databases are particularly useful for finding reference works such as encyclopedias. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. T T F F T F T F T F T F T T F CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 82 55. 56. 57. T T F The best known collection of quotations is Bartlett's Familiar Quotations. A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary. As your textbook explains, when you locate an abstract of a magazine article using a computerized periodical database, you should feel free to cite the article in your speech on the basis of the abstract alone. One advantage of using a virtual library for Internet research is that it can give you access to materials from the "Invisible Web" that are not accessible through traditional search engines. Because it is such a vast source of information, you should use Internet research to replace library research when preparing your speeches. Your most important task before conducting a research interview is to work out the questions you will ask during the interview. When taking research notes, it is important to distinguish among direct quotations, paraphrases, and your own ideas. As your textbook indicates, you should avoid asking probing questions during a research interview. The primary purpose of speechmaking is to demonstrate your command of the topic. Being audience-centered means a speaker must sacrifice what she or he really believes to get a favorable response from the audience. Adapting to audiences is one of the easiest tasks facing beginning speakers. The need for audience analysis and adaptation is one of the major differences between public speaking and everyday conversation. Audience analysis and adaptation affect all aspects of speechmaking except for the delivery of the speech itself. Every speech contains two messages--the one sent by the speaker and the one received by the listener. Egocentrism means that audiences typically approach speeches by asking "Why is this important for me?" Audience size, the physical setting for the speech, and the audience's disposition toward the topic, the speaker, and the occasion are all elements of situational audience analysis. 58. T 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. F T T F F F F F F T T T CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 83 71. T Interest, knowledge, and attitude are the three most important factors to consider when determining an audience's disposition toward a speaker's topic. The more people know about a topic, the more likely they are to be interested in it. The first step in speechmaking is choosing a topic for your speech. You should usually avoid drawing on your personal knowledge or experience when choosing a speech topic. Most often, your general purpose as a speaker is to inform or to persuade. When your general purpose is to inform, you act as an advocate or an opponent. The specific purpose statement indicates precisely what the speaker hopes to accomplish in a speech. "To inform my audience about terrorism" is an example of a well-worded specific purpose statement for a speech. It is important to keep your audience in mind as you formulate the specific purpose for your speech. The specific purpose reveals more about the content of a speech than does the central idea. The central idea of a speech should be expressed as a full sentence. "The three major expenses for people traveling abroad are transportation, food, and lodging" is an example of an effective specific purpose statement for a speech. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. T T F T F T F T F T F 83. T The aim of a speaker is to accomplish his or her goals by any means necessary. 84. T Ethics is the branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs. 85. T Ethical issues can arise at every stage of the speechmaking process. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 84 86. T their Public speakers need to take their ethical responsibilities as seriously as strategic objectives. 87. T Sound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of ethical standards or guidelines. 88. F If something is legal, it is also ethical. 89. F own Unlike writers, public speakers can present other people's ideas as their without being guilty of plagiarism. 90. T of Taking someone's entire speech and passing it off as your own is a form unethical behavior called global plagiarism. 91. 92. T Incremental plagiarism occurs when a speaker uses quotations or paraphrases without citing the sources of the statements. T the It is possible to disagree entirely with a speaker's ideas but still support speaker's right to express those ideas. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. T ago. F your The teaching and study of public speaking began more than 4,000 years It is usually a bad idea to make eye contact with individual members of audience. T Your goal in public speaking is to have your intended message be the message that is actually communicated. F T T When you give a speech to your classmates, you are engaged in one-way communication. The nonverbal messages that listeners send back to speakers are called feedback. Interference can come from either inside or outside your audience. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 85 99. F Ethnocentrism is an advantage to speakers who seek to understand the values, beliefs, and customs of audiences from different cultures. Organizing ideas for presentation in a speech is an important aspect of critical thinking. Using the power of visualization to control stage fright means that you should approach your speech as a performance in which the audience is looking for perfection. The channel is the means by which a message is communicated. 100. T 101. F 102. T Multiple Choice Questions (Students are to indicate the best answer for each question by circling the correct letter.) 99. When your textbook describes public speaking as a form of empowerment, it means that public speaking is a. * b. c. d. e. 100. a way to manipulate people. a way to make a difference in something we care about. a way to make everyone see things through our frame of reference. a way to demonstrate how clever we are. a way to support ethnocentrism. How much time does the average adult spend in conversation? a. b. c. * d. e. about 50 percent of waking hours about 10 percent of waking hours about 20 percent of waking hours about 30 percent of waking hours about 40 percent of waking hours 101. Many of the skills used in public speaking are the same as those used in everyday conversation. These skills include a. b. c. * d. e. organizing your thoughts logically. tailoring your message to your audience. adapting to listener feedback. all of the above. b and c only. 102. When you experience stage fright, your body is producing extra ,a hormone that is released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress. * a. b. c. d. e. adrenaline serotonin potassium glauconite cortisone CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 86 103. According to your textbook, rather than trying to eliminate every trace of stage fright, you should aim at transforming it into a. general anxiety. b. visualized adrenaline. c. professional stage fright. * d. positive nervousness. e. confident apprehension. Because speechmaking is a form of power, we must always be sure to speak a. b. * c. d. e. concisely. persuasively. ethically. forcefully. consistently. 104 105. According to your textbook, the branch of philosophy that deals with human issues of right and wrong is termed a. b. * c. d. e. morality. rationalism. ethics. legality. existentialism. 106. As a public speaker, you face ethical issues when a. b. c. d. * e. selecting the topic for your speech. researching your speech. organizing your speech. a and b. all of the above. 107. In public speaking, sound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against a. * b. c. d. e. the frame of reference of the audience. a set of ethical guidelines or standards. the speaker's strategic objectives. a socially accepted code of legal rules. the personal opinions of the speaker. 108. In public speaking, sound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against a. b. c. * d. e. the persuasive goals of the speaker. an interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. the frame of reference of the audience. a set of ethical guidelines or standards. the majority views of public opinion. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 87 109. All of the following are presented in your textbook as guidelines for ethical speechmaking except a. b. c. d. * e. be honest in what you say. avoid name calling and other forms of abusive language. be fully prepared for each speech. make sure your goals are ethically sound. explain your credibility on the speech topic. 110. Fletcher is listening for pleasure as a friend discusses her trip to Australia. According to your textbook, Fletcher is engaged in listening. * a. b. c. d. e. appreciative receptive personal comprehensive empathic 111. According to your textbook, when you listen to evaluate a speaker's message for purposes of accepting it or rejecting it, what kind of listening is involved? * a. b. c. d. e. critical reflective evaluative empathic comprehensive 112. Lance is enjoying Chris Rock's stand-up comedy routine at the Civic Center. According to your textbook, Lance is engaged in listening. a. * b. c. d. e. critical appreciative comprehensive empathic intimate 113. Natasha and Ramone are listening to a realtor who is encouraging them to buy a house they looked at earlier in the day. As they listen, they are trying to decide whether or not to purchase the house. According to your textbook, Natahsa and Ramone are engaged in listening. * a. b. c. d. e. critical appreciative comprehensive empathic intimate 114. Tara's campus organization has invited several travel agents to speak to the group about their best deals on trips for spring break. As Tara listens, she is deciding which CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 88 travel package is the best one for her. During the presentations, she is engaged in which form of listening? * a. b. c. d. e. 115. critical appreciative comprehensive empathic intimate The fact that audiences are egocentric means that a. * b. c. d. e. listeners believe their cultural group is superior to all other groups. listeners are concerned above all with how a speech will affect them. listeners interpret the speech through the speaker's frame of reference. all of the above. a and b only. 116. What are the two types of audience analysis discussed in your textbook? * a. b. c. d. e. demographic and situational personal and impersonal occupational and educational psychological and sociological descriptive and analytical 117. One of the ways speakers analyze audiences is by looking at traits such as age, gender, sexual orientation, religion, group membership, and racial, ethnic and cultural background. According to your textbook, what is this called? * a. b. c. d. e. demographic audience analysis psychological audience analysis background audience analysis situational audience analysis descriptive audience analysis 118. Which of the following is a demographic characteristic of a speech audience? * a. b. c. d. e. age interest size attitude knowledge 119. Which of the following is a demographic characteristic of a speech audience? a. b. c. * d. e. interest attitude size gender knowledge CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 89 120. According to your textbook, when is it appropriate to cite an abstract of a magazine or journal article in your speech rather than locating and reading the full article? * a. b. c. d. e. never when the article is more than five years old when the article is not available on a computerized database when the only copy of the article is on the book shelves when the article is short enough to be summarized in one paragraph 121. The two kinds of Internet search aids discussed in your chapter are * a. b. c. d. e. search engines and virtual libraries. browsers and cyberguides. electronic catalogues and graphical interfaces. Google and Internet Explorer. metasearch engines and Web crawlers. 122. As your textbook explains, virtual libraries are valuable for speech research because they a. b. c. d. * e. contain higher quality information than do traditional search engines. access the "invisible Web" that is not indexed by traditional search engines. allow a researcher to locate more sources than do traditional search engines. all of the above. a and b only. 123. The search aid that makes it easy to find high-quality Web resources by combining Internet technology with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing data is known as a(n) a. * b. c. d. e. abstract index. virtual library. periodical database. digital reference. electronic catalogue. 124. A is a search aid that combines Internet technology with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing data. a. b. * c. d. e. cyber catalogue metasearch engine virtual library reference locator Web crawler 125. As your textbook explains, the best kind of search aid for locating reliable, high quality information on the Internet is a(n) CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 90 a. b. c. d. * e. 126. search engine. electronic catalogue. metasearch engine. research pilot. virtual library. According to your textbook, the three criteria for judging the reliability of research documents located on the Internet are authorship, sponsorship, interest. and a. b. formality. c. interactivity. * d. recency. e. graphics. 127. According to your textbook, an imaginary story that makes a general point is called a(n) a. b. c. * d. e. 128. mythical example. artificial example. spurious example. hypothetical example. synthetic example. According to your textbook, an imaginary story that makes a general point is called a(n) a. b. * c. d. e. anecdote. simulated example. hypothetical example. narrative. illustration. "the very life of the speech." 129. Accomplished speakers consider a. statistics b. causal reasoning c. testimony * d. examples e. emotional appeals 130. In a speech about valley fever, a potentially deadly disease that has reached serious proportions in several southwestern states, a speaker said: After being plagued by asthma attacks in Hawaii for six years, Lori Crown hoped to find relief by moving to the dryer climate in Bakersfield, California. A few months after arriving in Bakersfield, Crown was suffering from severe headaches, swollen feet, painful bumps on her hands and legs, and a prolonged fever. The diagnosis --valley fever. To combat the disease, Crown has to take fluconazole, an antifungal drug that costs $685 for a one-month supply of pills. Although the CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 91 drug helps, Crown still gets painful headaches, frequent fevers, and debilitating fatigue. "It's so frustrating," Crown says. "One day I'll feel fine, then I'll be in bed for the next three." Most days she wishes she had stayed in Hawaii. According to your textbook, what kind of supporting material is used in this statement? a. * b. c. d. e. 131. scientific example extended example hypothetical example illustrative example expert example Ryan began his speech by saying: Imagine that you are on a deserted island--palm trees sway in the breeze, the warm sun is on your face, and the smell of tropical flowers is in the air. Suddenly, the sound of distant drums breaks your euphoria. What do you do--panic? What would you do if you found yourself in such a situation? What kind of supporting material did Ryan use in his introduction? a. b. c. d. * e. peer testimony extended metaphor synthetic example artificial simile hypothetical example 132. According to your textbook, what is the most important reason for limiting the number of main points in a speech? a. b. c. d. * e. It is hard to maintain parallel wording if there are too many main points. It is hard to phrase the central idea if a speech has too many main points. It is hard to organize supporting materials if there are too many main points. It is hard to deliver a speech extemporaneously if it has too many main points. It is hard for the audience to keep track of too many main points. 133. The most effective order of main points in a speech depends above all on your topic, purpose, and * a. b. c. d. e. audience. research. visual aids. credibility. delivery. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 92 134. Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main points of a speech with the specific purpose "To inform my audience how to start an online business"? a. b. c. d. * e. spatial technical causal comparative-advantages chronological 135. What organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main points of a speech with the specific purpose "To inform my audience about three major ways to block junk mail from their e-mail system"? * a. b. c. d. e. topical logistical chronological technical causal 136. When the main points of a speech follow a time pattern, they are organized in a. b. c. d. * e. problem-solution order. spatial order. topical order. causal order. chronological order. 137. When preparing a speech introduction, you should usually a. b. c. d. * e. reveal the topic of the speech. support the central idea with evidence. preview the main points of the speech. all of the above. a and c only. 138. Which of the following would you be most likely to find in a speech introduction? a. * b. c. d. e. a visual aid a preview statement an internal summary a research citation a quotation 139. Which of the following is recommended in your textbook as a way to reinforce the central idea in a speech conclusion? a. b. c. end with a quotation make a dramatic statement refer to the introduction CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 93 * d. e. 140. all of the above a and b only According to your textbook, in addition to reinforcing the central idea, a speech conclusion should also a. b. c. d. * e. secure the audience's attention. build your credibility as a speaker. reveal the topic of the speech. provide a clear preview statement. signal the end of the speech. Cards in this set: Term Definition As you listen to a speech about campus crime, you relate the speaker's ideas to your own knowledge, goals, and experience. According to your textbook, you are filtering the speech through your own A. frame of reference. B. psychological screen. C. cognitive field. D. social perspective. E. personal vision. Term Definition A. frame of reference. Here are the main points for an informative speech about the history of chocolate: I. Chocolate was originally used in Mexico as a drink by the Aztecs. II. Chocolate was introduced to Europe after the Spanish conquered the Aztecs. III. Chocolate was first made into candy during the 1800s. IV. Chocolate's popularity and uses continue to expand today. In what type of order are the main points organized? A. causal B. analytical C. descriptive D. chronological E. spatial Term Definition D. chronological CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 94 Problem-solution order is MOST APPROPRIATE for organizing which type of speech? A. acceptance B. persuasive C. after-dinner D. commemorative E. informative Term Definition B. persuasive According to your textbook, what is the MOST IMPORTANT early step in the process of developing a successful speech? A. creating a preliminary bibliography B. researching for speech materials C. formulating the specific purpose D. brainstorming for a central idea E. selecting the residual message Term Definition C. formulating the specific purpose As Benita approached the podium, loud voices from the hallway filled the room. Before beginning her speech, she asked someone in the back of the room to close the door. In this case, Benita was dealing with A. stage fright. B. interference. C. nonverbal communication. D. audience attitudes. E. feedback. Term Definition B. interference. All of the following are basic objectives of a speech introduction EXCEPT A. establish credibility and goodwill. B. support your main points. C. reveal the topic of the speech D. preview the body of the speech. E. get the audience's attention and interest. Term Definition B. support your main points. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 95 "To inform my audience that the National C. the stated goal is persuasive rather than Football League's video replay system should be informative. adopted by college football in order to eliminate officiating errors" is a poor specific purpose statement for an INFORMATIVE SPEECH because A. it is phrased in figurative language. B. it contains more than one distinct idea. C. the stated goal is persuasive rather than informative. D. all of the above. E. a and b only. Term Definition If you were to give an INFORMATIVE SPEECH and your Specific Purpose was: "To persuadeE. SP not suitable for an informative speech. my audience to be more accepting of international students." and your Central Idea was: "An international student's accent, use of English, and cultural customs should be accepted rather than criticized." What mistakes (IF any) might you have made? A. None the SP & CI are fine. B. SP contains too much figurative language. C. CI contains two or more unrelated ideas. D. SP is too technical for a classroom speech. E. SP not suitable for an informative speech. Term Definition The most effective order of main points in a speech depends above all on your topic, purpose, and A. audience. B. research. C. visual aids. D. credibility. E. delivery. Term Definition A. audience. "The value of a classic car is determined by its condition, its rarity, and its desirability to E. central idea. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 96 collectors" is an example of a A. speech goal. B. transition statement. C. specific purpose. D. mission statement. E. central idea. Term Definition According to your textbook, a(n) ending is a conclusion that builds force until reaching a peak of power and intensity A. crescendo B. bombastic C. dissolve D. reflective E. ascending Term Definition A. crescendo As you present your speech, you notice that many of your listeners have interested looks on their faces and are nodding their heads in agreement with your ideas. According to your textbook, these reactions by your listeners are called A. interference. B. cognitive cues. C. feedback. D. audience cues. E. indicators. Term Definition C. feedback. "Let's take a moment to recap. To this point we have seen that scientists have made important discoveries about the terrain of Mars, including its channels, basins, and polar caps. Now let's move on from the terrain of Mars and look at the planet's atmosphere." According to your textbook, what type(s) of connective(s) were used? A. internal summary B. transition C. internal preview D. all of the above E. a and b only CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 97 E. a and b only Term Definition Which organizational pattern would probably be MOST EFFECTIVE for arranging the main points of a speech with the specific purpose "To inform my audience about the major geographical regions of Mexico?" A. causal B. chronological C. topical D. problem-solution E. spatial Term Definition E. spatial When the general purpose of your speech is to ____________, you act primarily as a teacher or lecturer A. inform B. convince C. entertain D. persuade E. convert Term Definition A. inform Public speakers who seek to communicate with listeners from cultures other than their own need to take special care to avoid in their speeches. What is this called? A. vocalized pauses B. vocalized pauses C. visual aids D. ethnocentrism E. gestures Term Definition D. ethnocentrism Which of the following is recommended in your refer back to the introduction ("circular B. textbook as a way to reinforce the central idea in device") a speech conclusion? A. speed up your rate of delivery CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 98 B. refer back to the introduction ("circular device") C. ask for questions from the audience D. all of the above E. b and c only Term Definition Even when you use other interest-arousing lures in a speech introduction, you should ALWAYS A. startle the audience. B. use a rhetorical question. C. relate the topic to the audience. D. tell an interesting story. E. present striking statistics. Term Definition C. relate the topic to the audience. According to your textbook, when you are in a D. looking directly at the audience without saying formal speaking situation the MOST a word EFFECTIVE way of gaining the initial attention of your audience after you walk to the lectern is A. asking someone to lower the lights. B. beginning to speak loudly and clearly. C. rapping your hand lightly on the lectern until everyone is quiet. D. looking directly at the audience without saying a word. E. asking everyone to be quiet and pay attention Term Definition As Christopher delivered his speech, he noticed that some members of his audience looked confused as he explained one of his main points. As a result, he slowed down and explained the point again. In this case, Christopher was A. dealing with external interference. B. adjusting the channel of communication. C. interpreting the audience's frame of reference. D. compensating for the situation. E. adapting to audience feedback. Term Definition E. adapting to audience feedback. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 99 Example: "Imagine that you are on a deserted island--palm trees sway in the breeze, the warm sun is on your face, and the smell of tropical flowers is in the air. Suddenly, the sound of distant drums breaks your euphoria. What do you do--panic? What would you do if you found yourself in such a situation?" What kind of supporting material is this? A. peer testimony B. extended metaphor C. synthetic example D. artificial simile E. hypothetical example Term Definition E. hypothetical example Which of the following statistical measures corresponds to what is popularly called "the average"? A. the medial B. the mean C. the medium D. the mode E. the median Term Definition B. the mean According to your textbook, saying "dunno" instead of "don't know" is an error in A. accent. B. articulation. C. vocalization. D. intonation. E. emphasis. Term Definition B. articulation. Each of the following is mentioned in your E. avoid using statistics found on the Internet textbook as a tip for using statistics EXCEPT: A. use statistics sparingly. B. use visual aids to clarify statistical trends. C. round off complicated statistics. D. identify the source of your statistics. E. avoid using statistics found on the Internet CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 100 Term Definition The study of bodily motion and gestures is part of a subject called A. cybernetics. B. physics. C. cryogenics. D. kinesics. E. cryonics. Term Definition D. kinesics. The middle number in a group of numbers arranged from highest to lowest is called the: A. module B. mean C. mode D. median E. meridian Term Definition D. median According to your textbook, when people in one region of the country say "warter," while people in another region of the country say "water," the difference is a matter of A. inflection. B. verbalization. C. dialect. D. enunciation. E. intonation. Term Definition C. dialect. Speaking extemporaneously B. is adaptable to more situations than is speaking from manuscript. A. is completly memorized. B. is adaptable to more situations than is speaking from manuscript. C. offers more spontaneity impromptu speaking. D. all of the above E. b and c only. Term Definition According to your textbook, saying "pas-ghetti" D. pronunciation. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 101 instead of "spaghetti" is an error in A. articulation. B. description. C. intonation. D. pronunciation. E. inflection Term Definition Directions in an outline to help a speaker remember how she wants to deliver key parts of the speech is called: A. presentation cues B. speaking cues C. delivery cues D. articulation cues E. pronunciation cues Term Definition C. delivery cues According to your textbook, outlining is important to public speaking because an outline helps you judge whether A. your main points are properly balanced. B. your speech will be interesting to the audience. C. you have adequate supporting materials for your main points. D. all of the above. E. a and c only. Term Definition E. a and c only According to your textbook, when evaluating statistics you should ask whether they A. are from a reliable source. B. use statistical measures correctly. C. are representative of what they claim to measure. D. all of the above. E. b and c only Term Definition D. all of the above. A __________ speech is "carefully prepared and rehearsed speech which is given from brief D. extemporaneous CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 102 notes." A. rehearsed B. manuscript C. memorized D. extemporaneous E. impromptu Term Definition Which of the following should NOT be included copies of your visual aid (for example: A. in an outline? PowerPoint slides) A. copies of your visual aid (for example: PowerPoint slides) B. the final bibliography (or as we call it, "works cited") C. a specific purpose statement D. transitions E. the central idea Term Definition Ben administered a survey on "favorite ice cream flavors." He found that chocolate was the most popular choice with 30 of 50 participants choosing it over vanilla or strawberry. The statistical measure described here could be called the: A. meridian B. median C. mean D. module E. mode Term Definition E. mode A speech title should A. attract the attention of the audience. B. be brief. C. suggest the main thrust of the speech. D. all of the above. E. a and c only. Term Definition D. all of the above. When a speaker's non-verbal communication is B. non-verbal communication CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 103 inconsistant (also called "incongruent") with their words, the audience will MORE likely believe the speaker's A. words B. non-verbal communication C. visual aids D. PowerPoint E. statistics Term Definition "Conversational quality" in speech delivery speech sounds spontaneous even though it has A. means that the been rehearsed. A. speech sounds spontaneous even though it has been rehearsed. B. speaker is not speaking from memory. C. speaker talks the same as she or he would in ordinary conversation. D. all of the above. E. none of the above. Term Definition Examples are especially helpful as supporting materials because they A. personalize your ideas. B. are not overly technical. C. quantify a speaker's ideas. D. are harder to manipulate than statistics or testimony. E. enhance the speaker's credibility Term Definition A. personalize your ideas. In which of the following situations will the personal appearance of the speaker have an impact on the audience? A. a politician presenting a campaign speech B. a business executive giving a financial report C. a professor giving a lecture D. all of the above E. a and b only Term Definition D. all of the above CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 104 Each of the following is mentioned in your C. persuade your audience to take action on an textbook as a guideline for effective issue. INFORMATIVE speaking EXCEPT A. personalize your ideas. B. don't overestimate what the audience knows. C. persuade your audience to take action on an issue. D. relate the subject directly to the audience. E. don't be too technical Term Definition According to your textbook, what are the three D. knowledge, interest, and attitude PRIMARY factors to consider when assessing an audience's disposition toward a speech topic? A. gender, knowledge, and opinions B. interest, background, and age C. size, occasion, and group membership D. knowledge, interest, and attitude E. background, situation, and gender Term Definition In an informative speech, the speaker acts as a(n) A. advocate B. entertainer C. teacher D. motivator E. evaluator Term Definition C. teacher If you were giving a persuasive speech on the subject of mandatory retirement, the MOST important factor to consider when analyzing your audience would MOST LIKELY be its A. economic standing. B. group membership. C. gender. D. age. E. education. D. age. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 105 Term Definition As your textbook explains, visual aids are MOST D. only while the speaker is discussing them. effective when they are displayed A. throughout the entire speech. B. during the introduction of a speech. C. on an easel where they are visible to everyone. D. only while the speaker is discussing them. E. from the right side of the lectern. Term Definition "To inform my audience about the pillars of faith in Islam" is an example of a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n) A. concept. B. event. C. function. D. process. E. object. Term Definition A. concept. When used as a visual aid in a speech, a video A. should be carefully edited to show exactly what the speaker wants. B. can distract attention from the speaker if it is not used properly. C. needs to be skillfully integrated into the speaker's presentation. D. all of the above. E. none of the above. Term Definition D. all of the above. To say that people usually want to hear about things that are meaningful to them is to say that people are A. empathic. B. eclectic. C. egotistic. D. egalitarian. E. egocentric Term Definition E. egocentric According to your textbook, visual aids are most A. explained clearly. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 106 effective when they are A. explained clearly. B. circulated among the audience. C. presented early in the speech. D. all of the above. E. a and c only. Term Definition When giving an informative speech, you should A. define complex terms or translate technical take special care to information into everyday language. A. define complex terms or translate technical information into everyday language. B. state your ideas in abstract terms. C. state your sources in your introduction. D. avoid speaking about complex topics. E. prepare your introduction before the body of your speech. Term Definition As the size of your audience increases, your presentation should usually become more A. formal. B. flexible. C. extemporaneous. D. punctual. E. informal. Term Definition A. formal. A questionnaire item that gives the respondent the widest freedom in answering is called a(n) A. inductive question. B. leading question. C. open-ended question. D. scale question. E. informal question. Term Definition C. open-ended question According to your textbook, the questions listeners ask when judging an informative speech include D. all of the above CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 107 A. Is the information communicated clearly? B. Is the information communicated accurately? C. Is the information made meaningful and interesting to the audience? D. all of the above E. a and b only Term Definition Which of the following is a factor to consider inC. attitude (disposition) toward the topic SITUATIONAL audience analysis? A. gender B. group membership C. attitude (disposition) toward the topic D. all of the above E. a and c only Term Definition The process by which a speaker seeks to create a bond with listeners by emphasizing common values, goals, and experiences is referred to as by communication scholars. A. framing B. identification C. egocentrism D. structuring E. affiliation Term Definition B. identification As Amanda analyzed the audience for her speech about organic foods, she focused on such things as their gender, age, and cultural background. In doing so, she was engaging in _______________ audience analysis. A. situational B. psychological C. demographic D. preliminary E. descriptive Term Definition C. demographic When making a multimedia presentation, you be prepared to give your speech even if the B. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 108 should A. limit yourself to showing charts, graphs,photographs, and drawings. B. be prepared to give your speech even if the equipment malfunctions. C. use a different set of fonts for each chart to keep the audience interested D. reduce the number of main points to make sure you do not run out of time. E. tell your audience which software program you are using for the speech Term Definition equipment malfunctions If you were constructing an audience-analysis questionnaire and wanted to learn the STRENGTH of your listeners' attitudes for or against animal research, which of the following would be the best kind of question to ask? A. demographic question B. open-ended question C. leading question D. scale question E. fixed-alternative question Term Definition D. scale question (Choose the BEST answer.) The ____________________ will usually dictate how long a speech should be. A. size of the audience B. occasion C. physical setting D. visual aids E. title Term Definition B. occasion If your specific purpose statement were "To inform my audience how to make authentic South American empanadas," you would probably organize your speech in order A. illustrative B. chronological B. chronological CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 109 C. spatial D. comparative E. causal Term Definition If you can't identify the author of a document on to determine the sponsoring organization C. try the Internet, your textbook recommends that you for the document. A. look up the year the document was published B. bookmark the document and return to it later. C. try to determine the sponsoring organization for the document. D. double check the accuracy of the document's URL. E. search for the document in the library Term Definition Audience centered speakers seek to use inclusive A. Avoid stereotyping jobs and social roles by language. Which of these is NOT an example of gender. that? A. Avoid stereotyping jobs and social roles by gender. B. Avoid the generic "he." C. Avoid ALL discussion, of race, culture, or class. D. Avoid identifying personal traits that are unrelated to the topic. E. Use names that groups use to identify themselves Term Definition The MAJOR reason Monroe's motivated C. follows the process of human thinking. sequence is such an effective way of organizing persuasive speeches that seek action from listeners is because it A. is limited to six steps. B. can NOT be easily adapted to standard outlining form. C. follows the process of human thinking. D. is LESS detailed than problem-solution order. E. is often used by politicians CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 110 Term Definition Which of the following does your textbook identify as a guideline for using language appropriately? A. use language appropriate to the topic B. use language appropriate to the speaker C. use language appropriate to the audience D. all of the above E. a and c only D. all of the above Term Definition "We must come to realize that we are responsible not only for preparing you for the world, but for preparing the world for you" is an example of A. simile. B. antithesis. C. appropriateness. D. formalism. E. repitition. Term Definition B. antithesis. "The flickering light of the fire revealed the fearful faces of the campers" is an example of A. metaphor. B. alliteration. C. antithesis. D. repetiation. E. simile Term Definition B. alliteration The three types of questions that give rise to persuasive speeches are questions of A. opinion, fact, and policy. B. problem, cause, and solution. C. fact, value, and policy. D. opinion, attitude, and value. E. need, plan, and practicality Term Definition C. fact, value, and policy CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 111 Of all the kinds of speechmaking,__________________ speaking is the most complex and the most challenging. A. after-dinner B. persuasive C. ceremonial D. informative E. commemorative Term Definition B. persuasive Which is NOT an example of PERSUASIVE C. A lawyer explaining the details of a plea communication? bargaining agreement to her client. A. An architectural firm recommending adoption of its building plan. B. A union representative urging management to avoid a strike by raising wages. C. A lawyer explaining the details of a plea bargaining agreement to her client. D. An advertisment for Sunggle fabric softener. E. An opinion editorial in the Indianapolis Star. Term Definition A(n) ____________________ is a summary of a magazine or research article, written by someone other than the original author A. citation B. abstract C. overview D. paraphrase E. reference Term Definition B. abstract Each of the following is discussed in your textbook as a basic criterion for the effective use of language in public speaking EXCEPT A. use language clearly. B. use language vividly. C. use language appropriately. D. use language technically. E. use language accurately. D. use language technically. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 112 Term Definition The denotative meaning of a word is A. what the word suggests or implies. B. based on the audience's sense of appropriateness. C. usually more abstract than its connotative meaning. D. often too technical to be used in a speech. E. its literal or dictionary meaning. Term Definition E. its literal or dictionary meaning. What are the three criteria discussed in your textbook for assessing the soundness of documents found on the Internet? A. length, accuracy, and graphics B. interactivity, objectivity, and authorship C. graphics, sponsorship, and accuracy D. creativity, reliability, and length E. authorship, sponsorship, and recency Term E. authorship, sponsorship, and recency Definition Which is NOT a step in Monroe's Motivated Sequence? A. need step B. action step C. argument step D. satisfaction step E. visualization step F. attention step Term Definition C. argument step "Government of the people, by the people, for the people" is an example of A. alliteration. B. parallelism. C. repetition. D. all of the above. E. b and c only. Term Definition D. all of the above. According to your textbook, persuasion is a A. mental dialogue CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 113 psychological process in which listeners engage in a __________________ with the speaker A. mental dialogue B. situational disagreement C. cognitive restructuring D. feedback loop E. logical debate Term Definition Regardless of whether your aim is to encourage passive agreement or immediate action, you must deal with three basic issues whenever you discuss a question of policy. They are A. cause, effect, and practicality. B. evidence, practicality, and reasoning. C. need, action, and reaction. D. need, plan, and practicality. E. problem, plan, and solution. Term Definition D. need, plan, and practicality. Phrases such as "dry as a bone," "clear as a bell," "dark as night," and "smart as a whip" should be avoided in speeches because they are A. abstract. B. clichs. C. similes. D. connotative. E. figurative Term Definition A. abstract. The connotative meaning of a word is A. its dictionary definition. B. determined by the speaker. C. concrete and precise. D. what the word suggests or implies. E. usually too technical for a general audience Term D. what the word suggests or implies. Definition The ___________________ is that portion of the whole audience that the speaker most wants to B. target audience CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 114 persuade A. core audience B. target audience C. projected audience D. intended audience E. focus audience Term Definition According to your textbook, skilled listeners do not try to absorb a speaker's every word. Rather, they focus on three major aspects of a speech. Which is NOT one of these. A. main points. B. memorized statistics. C. technique. D. evidence. Term Definition B. memorized statistics. According to your textbook,________________ plagiarism occurs when a speaker copies word for word from two or more sources A. global B. incremental C. patchwork D. scientific E. valid Term Definition C. patchwork (T/F) People spend more time speaking than in any other communication activity FALSE Term Definition As your textbook makes clear, speechmaking carries heavy ethical responsibilities because it is a form of A. privilege. B. communication. C. self-expression. D. power. D. power. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 115 E. authenticity Term Definition Sarah is listening to her roommate to provide emotional support in a time of distress. According to your textbook, Sarah is engaged in ___________________ listening A. critical B. appreciative C. empathic D. personal E. comprehensive Term Definition C. empathic All of the following are presented in your E. show that you are a good researcher textbook as guidelines for ethical speechmaking EXCEPT A. be honest in what you say. B. avoid name calling and other forms of abusive language. C. be fully prepared for each speech. D. make sure your goals are ethically sound. E. show that you are a good researcher Term Definition As explained in your textbook, public speakers have an ethical obligation to avoid name-calling and other forms of abusive language because such language A. demeans the dignity of the groups or individuals being attacked. B. violates current standards of "political correctness" on college campuses. C. undermines the right of all groups in the U.S. to express their ideas. D. none of the above. E. a and c only Term Definition E. a and c only (T/F) Even when we are listening carefully, we usually grasp only about 50% percent of what we TRUE CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 116 hear Term Definition Giving excessive attention to the details of a speech is an example of A. listening "too hard" B. internal distractions C. listening for technique D. jumping to conclusions E. focusing on delivery. Term Definition A. listening "too hard" Although most people speak at a rate of 120 to 150 words a minute, the brain can process words at a rate of A. less than 100 words per minute. B. the same amount- 120- 150 words per minute. C. 400 to 800 words per minute. D. 10,000 words per minute. E. we have not done the research yet to dertermine this Term Definition C. 400 to 800 words per minute. As a public speaker, you face ethical issues when A. selecting the topic for your speech. B. researching your speech. C. organizing your speech. D. a and b. E. all of the above Term Definition E. all of the above Which of the following is included among the four major causes of poor listening discussed in your textbook? A. trying to remember everything the speaker says B. jumping to conclusions about the speaker's ideas C. taking written notes while the speech is in progress D. all of the above E. a and b only CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 117 E. a and b only Term Definition (T/F) After Quiz #5 you will be done with all of your quizzes for R110! Term Definition TRUE According to your textbook, the ethical obligations of listeners include A. judging the speaker on the basis of his or her delivery. B. listening to the speaker courteously and attentively. C. maintaining the free and open expression of ideas. D. all of the above. E. b and c only Term Definition E. b and c only. To avoid plagiarism when using information from an Internet document in your speech, your textbook recommends that you keep a record of A. the title of the document. B. the author or organization responsible for the document. C. the date on which you accessed the document. D. all of the above. E. none of the above. Term Definition D. all of the above. Because speechmaking is a form of power, we must always be sure to speak A. concisely. B. persuasively. C. ethically. D. forcefully. E. consistently Term Definition C. ethically. The difference between the speed at which the speaker speaks and the rate at which a listener D. spare brain time CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 118 processes language is called A. cognitive dissonance B. frame of reference C. external interference D. spare brain time E. egocentricism Term Definition According to your textbook,___________________ plagiarism occurs when the speech as a whole is ethical but the speaker fails to give credit for particular quotations and paraphrases A. incremental B. incidental C. informative D. inferential E. invalid Term Definition A. incremental In public speaking, sound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against A. the frame of reference of the audience. B. a set of ethical guidelines or standards. C. the speaker's strategic objectives. D. a socially accepted code of legal rules. E. the personal opinions of the speaker Term B. a set of ethical guidelines or standards. Definition Listening for a speaker's evidence, you should keep an ear out for its A. sufficiency. B. accuracy. C. objectivity. D. relevance. E. all of the above E. all of the above Question 1 CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 119 2 out of 2 points To help her audience understand how it felt to be a woman living under the Taliban, Sima stated, "Some Afghani women lived their lives in dark caves, cut off from the modern world, breathing only the stale air of information filtered through the ideology of the Taliban." In this statement, Sima used Answer Selected Answer: metaphor. Correct Answer: metaphor. Question 2 2 out of 2 points ___________ is the repetition of the initial consonant sound of close or adjoining words. Answer Selected Answer: Alliteration Correct Answer: Alliteration Question 3 2 out of 2 points Unlike beginning speakers, experienced speakers have little need for audience analysis. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 4 2 out of 2 points CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 120 Being audience-centered means a speaker must sacrifice what she or he really believes to get a favorable response from the audience. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 5 2 out of 2 points The means by which a message is communicated is termed the Answer Selected Answer: channel. Correct Answer: channel. Question 6 2 out of 2 points Which of the following strategies is least likely to help you deal with nervousness in your speeches? Answer Selected Answer: concentrating on your stage fright Correct Answer: concentrating on your stage fright Question 7 2 out of 2 points "To inform my audience how to make genuine French croissants" is a specific purpose statement for a speech about a(n) Answer CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 121 Selected Answer: process. Correct Answer: process. Question 8 2 out of 2 points "To inform my audience about the three stages in a job interview" is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n) Answer Selected Answer: process. Correct Answer: process. Question 9 2 out of 2 points Your textbook recommends using _______________ in your informative speeches as a way to keep your ideas from being overly abstract. Answer Selected Answer: all of these choices Correct Answer: all of these choices Question 10 2 out of 2 points A virtual library is a search engine that combines Internet technology with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing data. Answer Selected Register to View Answer CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 122 Correct Register to View Answer Question 11 0 out of 2 points Yahoo is an example of a virtual library. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 12 2 out of 2 points Which of the following would you least likely find in a speech introduction? Answer Selected Answer: an internal summary Correct Answer: an internal summary Question 13 2 out of 2 points According to your textbook, when you are in a formal speaking situation the most effective way of gaining the initial attention of your audience after you walk to the lectern is Answer Selected Answer: looking directly at the audience without saying a word. Correct Answer: looking directly at the audience without saying a word. Question 14 CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 123 2 out of 2 points "The Olympic flame burns inside every competitor, igniting their desire to win gold" is an example of metaphor. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 15 2 out of 2 points The more abstract a word, the more ambiguous it will be. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 16 0 out of 2 points Speeches arranged in causal order usually have three main points. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 17 2 out of 2 points "Above all, you need to know . . ." is an example of a signpost. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 18 CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 124 2 out of 2 points If your topic is clear in the body of the speech, there is no need to state it in the introduction. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 19 0 out of 2 points Establishing goodwill is more likely to be necessary in the introduction of a persuasive speech than in the introduction of an informative speech. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 20 2 out of 2 points The crescendo conclusion is essentially a matter of the speaker getting louder and louder as the speech comes to an end. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 21 2 out of 2 points In a preparation outline, main points should be Answer Selected Answer: positioned farthest to the left. Correct Answer: CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 125 positioned farthest to the left. Question 22 0 out of 2 points According to your textbook, which of the following should be included in a preparation outline? Answer Selected Register to View Answerbibliography Correct Answer: transitions and a bibliography Question 23 2 out of 2 points According to your textbook, as Bekah prepares her preparation outline for her speech on spiders, she should remember to include all of the following except Answer Selected Answer: directions for delivering the speech. Correct Answer: directions for delivering the speech. Question 24 2 out of 2 points Note taking is usually a barrier to effective listening. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 25 CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 126 2 out of 2 points As your textbook explains, focusing on a speaker's delivery and personal appearance is an excellent way to strengthen your listening skills. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 26 2 out of 2 points According to your textbook, listening to understand a classroom lecture is an example of appreciative listening. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 27 2 out of 2 points The central idea of a speech should be Answer Selected Answer: written as a complete sentence. Correct Answer: written as a complete sentence. Question 28 2 out of 2 points "To inform my audience that the National Football League's video replay system should be adopted by college football in order to eliminate officiating errors" is a poor specific purpose statement for an informative speech because Answer CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 127 Selected Answer: the stated goal is persuasive rather than informative. Correct Answer: the stated goal is persuasive rather than informative. Question 29 2 out of 2 points The best rate of speech depends on the Answer Selected Answer: all of these choices. Correct Answer: all of these choices. Question 30 2 out of 2 points According to your textbook, inflection refers to the Answer Selected Answer: changes in the pitch of a speaker's voice. Correct Answer: changes in the pitch of a speaker's voice. Question 31 2 out of 2 points Research shows that using personal terms such as "you" and "your" in an informative speech can increase listeners' understanding of the speaker's ideas. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 128 Question 32 2 out of 2 points When an informative speech about a process has more than five steps, the speaker should group the steps into units so as to limit the number of main points. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 33 2 out of 2 points The nonverbal messages that listeners send back to speakers are called feedback. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 34 2 out of 2 points Interference can come from either inside or outside your audience. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 35 2 out of 2 points It is usually a bad idea to make eye contact with individual members of your audience. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 129 Question 36 2 out of 2 points When main ideas follow a directional pattern, they are organized in Answer Selected Answer: spatial order. Correct Answer: spatial order. Question 37 2 out of 2 points If the following internal summary were used in an informative speech, the speech would most likely be organized in _______________ order. On our tour of campus thus far, we have moved from the student union on the east side of campus and around the perimeter. We've taken in the engineering campus on the north, the design college on the west side, and the school of education on the south. Answer Selected Answer: spatial Correct Answer: spatial Question 38 2 out of 2 points Here are the main points for an informative speech about the book To Kill a Mockingbird. I. To Kill a Mockingbird was the first, and only, novel written by Harper Lee. II. To Kill a Mockingbird won a Pulitzer Prize for literature and became a modern classic. III. To Kill a Mockingbird has been banned by some public schools because of its CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 130 themes. According to your textbook, these main points are arranged in __________ order. Answer Selected Answer: topical Correct Answer: topical Question 39 2 out of 2 points Ted is listening to the introduction of Janine's speech when he thinks to himself, "Man, this is really going to be boring." What aspect of poor listening identified in your textbook is Ted exhibiting in this example? Answer Selected Answer: jumping to conclusions Correct Answer: jumping to conclusions Question 40 2 out of 2 points A new class registration system has been established on campus. Tonight, a representative from the Registrar's office will speak about how to use the new system. You will be listening to the speaker in hopes of understanding the steps involved in registering for classes next semester. As explained in your textbook, you will be engaged in ______________ listening. Answer Selected Answer: comprehensive Correct Answer: comprehensive Question 41 2 out of 2 points CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 131 As your textbook explains, virtual libraries are valuable for speech research because they Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: contain higher quality information than do regular search engines. contain higher quality information than do regular search engines. Question 42 2 out of 2 points If you needed to learn the number of Americans who own cell phones, which of the following would be the best source to consult? Answer Selected Answer: Statistical Abstract of the United States Correct Answer: Statistical Abstract of the United States Question 43 2 out of 2 points If you were giving an informative speech to your public speaking class about brain aneurysms, the most important factor to consider when analyzing your audience would probably be its Answer Selected Answer: knowledge about the topic. Correct Answer: knowledge about the topic. Question 44 CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 132 2 out of 2 points Which of the following is a factor to consider in situational audience analysis? Answer Selected Answer: attitude toward the topic Correct Answer: attitude toward the topic Question 45 2 out of 2 points The following is an example of a well-worded central idea for a speech: "A diet that encourages eating only foods high in fat and protein has major advantages as well as serious risks." Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 46 2 out of 2 points Brainstorming is a way of clearing your mind so you can relax while choosing a speech topic. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 47 2 out of 2 points Most people recognize and understand about the same number of words in reading as occur in spontaneous speech. Answer CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 133 Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 48 0 out of 2 points The "conversational quality" of extemporaneous speaking means that a speech has been well rehearsed yet sounds spontaneous to the audience Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: [None Given] True Question 49 0 out of 2 points A speaking outline should usually include directions for delivering the speech. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: [None Given] True Question 50 0 out of 2 points Stating main points in a word or two is usually sufficient for a preparation outline. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Chapter 5 Graded Quiz This assessment is worth 10 points. 1. In her speech introduction, Suya said, "Though we are all very different, we are all students here at this university and we are all working toward the completion of a degree. Unfortunately, because of rising tuition, some of us may lose the ability to continue in [None Given] False CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 134 school." According to your textbook, by seeking to create a bond with her audience through emphasizing their common goals and experiences, Suya was engaging in (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. identification. stereotyping. ethnocentrism. comparison. framing. 2. The fact that audiences are egocentric means that (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. listeners believe their cultural group is superior to all other groups. listeners are concerned above all with how a speech will affect them. listeners interpret the speech through the speaker's frame of reference. all of the above. a and b only. 3. According to your textbook, which of the following is a demographic characteristic of a speech audience? (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. their size their sexual orientation their attitude toward the speaker their knowledge about the subject their attitude toward the occasion 4. According to your textbook, which of the following is a situational characteristic of a speech audience? (1 point) a. gender CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 135 b. c. d. e. size religion group membership age 5. Nathan plans to give a speech to his classmates explaining how to create a Web site. The most important factor he should consider when analyzing his audience is probably its (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. group membership. knowledge about the topic. sexual orientation. attitude toward him. size. 6. A landlord with a bad reputation among students for her high rent, deceptive advertising, and refusal to return security deposits is speaking to a campus group about how the city's new zoning law will affect students. The most important factor the landlord should consider in her situational audience analysis is probably her listeners' (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. gender. knowledge of the topic. disposition toward the speaker. interest in the topic. cultural background. 7. If you were giving an informative speech to a general audience about digital encryption, the most important factor to consider when analyzing your audience would probably be the (1 point) a. physical setting for the speech. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 136 b. c. d. e. knowledge of the audience about the topic. size of the audience. occupation of the audience. group membership of the audience. 8. Fran Breit, the golf pro at a local municipal course, has been asked by a social club to give a talk about how to play golf. What is probably the most important factor for Fran to consider in preparing her presentation? (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. the age of the audience the racial background of the audience the time of day the talk will be given the audience's knowledge of the topic the audience's disposition toward the speaker 9. If you were giving an informative speech to a general audience about the war in Vietnam, the most important demographic factor to consider in analyzing your audience would probably be the (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. sexual orientation of the audience. economic standing of the audience. gender of the audience. age of the audience. education of the audience. 10. The major advantage of using fixed-alternative questions in an audience analysis questionnaire is that they (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. enhance the credibility of the questionnaire. get below the surface of respondents' beliefs. produce clear, unambiguous answers. give respondents maximum leeway in answering. require that respondents give truthful answers. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 137 Chapter 10 Graded Quiz This assessment is worth 10 points. 1. All of the following are necessary in a preparation outline except (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. labels for the introduction, body, and conclusion. directions for delivering the speech. transitions, internal previews, and internal summaries. a consistent pattern of indentation and symbolization. a specific purpose statement. 2. According to your textbook, the specific purpose statement in a preparation outline should be written (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. in capital letters. at the end of the introduction. immediately before the first main point. after the preview statement. before the text of the outline itself. 3. According to your textbook, when making a preparation outline, you should (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. label transitions and internal summaries. indicate the introduction, body, and conclusion with Roman numerals. state the specific purpose as a separate unit before the outline itself. all of the above. a and c only. 4. The main points in a preparation outline are (1 point) CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 138 a. b. c. d. e. identified by Roman numerals. identified by capital letters. located farther to the right than subpoints. identified by Arabic numbers. written in phrases, not full sentences. 5. Which of the following is a correctly worded main point for a speech preparation outline? (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. Leadership. What are the major types of leadership? Two major types of leadership. There are two major types of leadership. Leadership: major types. 6. Which of the following is a correctly worded main point for a speech preparation outline? (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. Computer-generated graphics as special effects. Many movie special effects are created with computergenerated graphics. How are special effects created with computer-generated graphics? The use of computer-generated graphics to create special effects in movies. Computer-generated graphics. 7. Arranged in random order below are a main point, two subpoints, and two sub-subpoints from a speech preparation outline. Which is the first subpoint? (1 point) a. b. The purpose of a manager interview is to evaluate those people who survive the screening interview. The 20 percent who do pass the screening interview get invited back for a manager interview. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 139 c. d. e. The two types of job interviews used by most companies are the screening interview and the manager interview. Usually about 80 percent of job applicants do not pass the screening interview. The purpose of a screening interview is just what the name implies--to screen out people the company doesn't want to hire. 8. "Adventures in the Grand Canyon" is an appropriately worded (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. speech title. general purpose statement. main point for a preparation outline. specific purpose statement. central idea. 9. In a speaking outline, subpoints are (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. set off in parentheses. written in full sentences. identified by capital letters. all of the above. a and b only. 10. According to your textbook, a speaking outline (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. includes the final bibliography. states the specific purpose at the start of the outline. contains delivery cues for the speaker. all of the above. a and b only. Question 1 CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 140 2 out of 2 points Goodwill is the audience's perception of whether the speaker has the best interests of the audience in mind. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 2 2 out of 2 points Regardless of what other methods you use to gain attention, you should always relate the topic to your audience in the introduction of a speech. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 3 2 out of 2 points A speech conclusion that builds in power and intensity as it moves toward the closing line is known as a crescendo ending. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 4 2 out of 2 points Which of the following does your textbook recommend for relating the subject directly to your audience in an informative speech? Answer Selected Answer: Speak in personal terms such as "you" and CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 141 "your." Correct Answer: Speak in personal terms such as "you" and "your." Question 5 2 out of 2 points "To inform my audience about the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II" is an example of a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n) Answer Selected Answer: event. Correct Answer: event. Question 6 2 out of 2 points "To inform my audience about the major parts of a 35-millimeter camera" is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n) Answer Selected Answer: object. Correct Answer: object. Question 7 2 out of 2 points One advantage of using virtual libraries such as the Librarian's Internet Index for speech research is that they contain only material that has been screened for quality and reliability. Answer CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 142 Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 8 2 out of 2 points If you use a tape recorder or a digital recorder in a research interview, you should keep it secret from the person being interviewed. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 9 2 out of 2 points According to your textbook, rather than trying to eliminate every trace of stage fright, you should aim at transforming it into Answer Selected Answer: positive nervousness. Correct Answer: positive nervousness. Question 10 2 out of 2 points According to your textbook, when you employ the power of visualization as a method of controlling stage fright, you should Answer Selected Answer: focus on the positive aspects of your speech. Correct Answer: focus on the positive aspects of your speech. Question 11 CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 143 2 out of 2 points Interference is anything that impedes the communication of a message. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 12 2 out of 2 points Organizing ideas for presentation in a speech is an important aspect of critical thinking. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 13 2 out of 2 points Your goal in public speaking is to have your intended message be the message that is actually communicated. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 14 2 out of 2 points According to your textbook, a speech that sounds spontaneous to the audience no matter how many times it has been rehearsed has a strong ____________ quality. Answer Selected Answer: conversational Correct Answer: CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 144 conversational Question 15 2 out of 2 points When conducting a question-and-answer session, you should Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: view the session as one more opportunity to communicate your ideas. view the session as one more opportunity to communicate your ideas. Question 16 2 out of 2 points The denotative meaning of a word includes all the feelings, associations, and emotions that the word touches off in different people. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 17 2 out of 2 points Alliteration as a means of creating rhythm in a speech refers to repeating the initial consonant sound of close or adjoining words. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 18 0 out of 2 points CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 145 As Jenell listened to her classmate's speech explaining the differences between collision insurance and comprehensive insurance, it reminded her that she needed to pay her insurance bill before the end of the day. Then, rather than listening to the speaker, she started thinking about all the other things she had to do that day. According to your textbook, the primary cause of Jenell's poor listening is Answer Selected Answer: being distracted by external interference. Correct Answer: not concentrating. Question 19 2 out of 2 points Although most people speak at a rate of 120 to 150 words a minute, the brain can process words at a rate of Answer Selected Answer: 400 to 800 words a minute. Correct Answer: 400 to 800 words a minute. Question 20 2 out of 2 points A connective is a word or phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 21 2 out of 2 points CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 146 A public speaker should avoid using transitions and internal summaries together. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 22 2 out of 2 points Most often, a speaker's general purpose will fall into one of two categories--to inform or to demonstrate. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 23 2 out of 2 points The central idea of a speech should be expressed as a full sentence. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 24 2 out of 2 points Using jargon in an informative speech is useful since it demonstrates your expertise on the topic. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 25 2 out of 2 points CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 147 The more you assume your audience knows about your speech topic, the greater are your chances of being misunderstood. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 26 2 out of 2 points As your textbook explains, virtual libraries are valuable for speech research because they Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: contain higher quality information than do regular search engines. contain higher quality information than do regular search engines. Question 27 2 out of 2 points Who's Who of American Women is an example of a(n) Answer Selected Answer: biographical aid. Correct Answer: biographical aid. Question 28 2 out of 2 points Being audience-centered means a speaker must sacrifice what she or he really believes to get a favorable response from the audience. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 148 Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 29 2 out of 2 points The more people know about a topic, the more likely they are to be interested in it. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 30 2 out of 2 points In the introduction of her speech on bike paths, Shannon mentioned her involvement with a local cycling club and her work on a grant requesting state funding for a local bike trail. By sharing this information with her audience, Shannon was seeking to accomplish which goal of a speech introduction? Answer Selected Answer: establish credibility Correct Answer: establish credibility Question 31 2 out of 2 points The conclusion of Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech is an example of a Answer Selected Answer: crescendo ending. Correct Answer: CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 149 crescendo ending. Question 32 2 out of 2 points In her speech introduction, Suya said, "Though we are all very different, we are all students here at this university and we are all working toward the completion of a degree. Unfortunately, because of rising tuition, some of us may lose the ability to continue in school." According to your textbook, by seeking to create a bond with her audience through emphasizing their common goals and experiences, Suya was engaging in Answer Selected Answer: identification. Correct Answer: identification. Question 33 2 out of 2 points If you were giving an informative speech to a general audience about digital encryption, the most important factor to consider when analyzing your audience would probably be the Answer Selected Answer: knowledge of the audience about the topic. Correct Answer: knowledge of the audience about the topic. Question 34 2 out of 2 points "To inform my audience about the symptoms, causes, and treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome" is an example of a Answer CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 150 Selected Answer: specific purpose. Correct Answer: specific purpose. Question 35 2 out of 2 points "To persuade my audience that continuing to spend money on the space program is like throwing good money after bad" is a poorly phrased specific purpose statement for a speech because it is Answer Selected Answer: expressed in figurative language. Correct Answer: expressed in figurative language. Question 36 2 out of 2 points You can improve your own speeches by listening carefully to the speeches of other people. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 37 2 out of 2 points As your textbook explains, focusing on a speaker's delivery and personal appearance is an excellent way to strengthen your listening skills. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 151 Question 38 2 out of 2 points According to your textbook, when focusing your listening, you should concentrate on a speaker's main points, evidence, and technique. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 39 2 out of 2 points You should include your specific purpose statement with your preparation outline. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 40 2 out of 2 points Stating main points in a word or two is usually sufficient for a preparation outline. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 41 2 out of 2 points According to your textbook, when making a preparation outline, you should Answer Selected Answer: label transitions and internal summaries and state the specific CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 152 purpose as a separate unit before the outline itself. Correct Answer: label transitions and internal summaries and state the specific purpose as a separate unit before the outline itself. Question 42 2 out of 2 points Which of the following should be included in a preparation outline? Answer Selected Answer: all of these choices Correct Answer: all of these choices Question 43 2 out of 2 points Arranged in random order below are a main point, two subpoints, and two subsubpoints from a speech preparation outline. Which is the main point? Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Raptors are powerful birds of prey with hooked beaks and sharp talons. Raptors are powerful birds of prey with hooked beaks and sharp talons. Question 44 2 out of 2 points Which of the following does your textbook identify as a guideline for using language appropriately? Answer CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 153 Selected Answer: all of these choices Correct Answer: all of these choices Question 45 0 out of 2 points Which of the following are mentioned in your textbook as guidelines for the use of inclusive language in public speaking? Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Avoid stereotyping jobs and social roles by gender. Avoid stereotyping jobs and social roles by gender and pointing out that political correctness restricts our use of language Question 46 2 out of 2 points A manuscript speech is written out word for word and read to the audience. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 47 2 out of 2 points A single practice session of two or three hours is usually the best way to rehearse your speech. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 48 CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 154 2 out of 2 points Here are the main points for an informative speech about the book To Kill a Mockingbird. I. To Kill a Mockingbird was the first, and only, novel written by Harper Lee. II. To Kill a Mockingbird won a Pulitzer Prize for literature and became a modern classic. III. To Kill a Mockingbird has been banned by some public schools because of its themes. According to your textbook, these main points are arranged in __________ order. Answer Selected Answer: topical Correct Answer: topical Question 49 2 out of 2 points A speech with the specific purpose "To inform my audience of the major features of the Empire State Building" would most likely be organized in ______________ order. Answer Selected Answer: topical or spatial Correct Answer: topical or spatial Question 50 2 out of 2 points "Now that we have seen the causes of unrest in central Africa, we shall turn to their effects . . ." is an example of a(n) Answer Selected Answer: transition. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 155 Correct Answer: transition. Comm 1110 Chapter 6 Quiz 08.01.15 1. Encyclopedias, dictionaries, yearbooks, atlases, gazetteers, and quotation books are all examples of a. research guides. b. reference works. c. bibliographical aids. d. general indexes. e. special indexes. 2. A(n) _______________ is a research aid that catalogues articles from a large number of journals or magazines. a. abstract b. biographical aid c. reference work d. periodical database e. keyword index 3. As part of the research for her persuasive speech on Parkinson's disease, Alissa needs to find recent articles published in general interest periodicals and academic journals. The best resource for her is a a. reliable search engine such as Google. b. yearbook such as Facts on File or World Almanac. c. periodical database such as ProQuest or LexisNexis. d. government resource such as FirstGov. e. none of the above. 4. You are researching a speech and need to find a quotation about marriage. Which of the following would be the best reference source to consult? a. International Who's Who b. Oxford English Dictionary c. World Almanac and Book of Facts d. Webster's Unabridged Dictionary e. Bartlett's Familiar Quotations 5. According to your textbook, when is it appropriate to cite an abstract of a magazine or journal article in your speech rather than locating and reading the full article? a. never b. when the article is more than five years old c. when the article is not available on a computerized database d. when the only copy of the article is on the book shelves e. when the article is short enough to be summarized in one paragraph 6. A ____________is a search aid that combines Internet technology with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing data. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 156 a. b. c. d. e. cyber catalogue metasearch engine virtual library reference locator Web crawler 7. According to your textbook, the three criteria for judging the reliability of research documents located on the Internet are authorship, sponsorship, and a. interest. b. formality. c. interactivity. d. recency. e. graphics. 8. In her speech on depression, Aida said: "According to materials I located through a Google search, almost 20 million American adults suffer from a depressive illness serious enough to interfere with their jobs and their family life." According to your textbook, has Aida made any mistakes in citing her sources? a. No. Aida gave the audience a clear statistic from the Internet. b. Yes. Aida should have given the exact statistic instead of rounding it off to 20 million. c. Yes. Aida should have identified the organization that sponsored the Web site. d. Yes. Aida should have stated the statistic without mentioning where she found it. e. No. Aida cited Lexis Nexis, which is a reputable database. 9. The two major formats mentioned in your textbook for citing works in a speech bibliography are from the a. American Library Association (ALA) and National Bibliography Center (NBC). b. Educational Testing Service (ETS) and American Style Manual (ASM). c. International Citation Index (ICI) and American Communication Association (ACA). d. Social Science Manual (SSM) and Humanities Bibliography Guide (HBG). e. Modern Language Association (MLA) and American Psychological Association (APA). Chapter 4 Graded Quiz This assessment is worth 10 points. 1. According to your textbook, brainstorming is especially helpful when you are having trouble (1 point) CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 157 a. b. c. d. e. choosing a speech topic. determining the general purpose. determining the specific purpose. phrasing the central idea. analyzing the audience. 2. Using Yahoo or another of the subject-based search engines on the Internet is recommended in your textbook as one method of ____________ for a speech topic. (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. sifting consulting brainstorming deliberating studying 3. When the general purpose of your speech is to ____________, you act primarily as an advocate. (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. persuade entertain demonstrate commemorate inform 4. "Improving personal relationships" is a poorly phrased specific purpose for a speech because it is (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. too technical for a classroom speech. written as a sentence rather than a declarative phrase. expressed in figurative language. written as a fragment rather than a full infinitive phrase. written as a statement rather than a question. CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 158 5. According to your textbook, what is the most important early step in the process of developing a successful speech? (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. creating a preliminary bibliography researching for speech materials formulating the specific purpose brainstorming for a central idea selecting the residual message 6. Identify the flaw in the following specific purpose statement for a classroom speech: "To inform my audience about the solar system." (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. It's too general. It's too shallow. It's too informative. It's too remote. It's too impersonal. 7. "To inform my audience that the National Football League's video replay system should be adopted by college football in order to eliminate officiating errors" is a poor specific purpose statement for an informative speech because (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. it is phrased in figurative language. it contains more than one distinct idea. the stated goal is persuasive rather than informative. all of the above. a and b only. 8. "The laser is a highly versatile instrument with important uses in medicine, industry, and art" is an example of a CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 159 (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. specific purpose. central idea. transition. general thesis. topic statement. 9. "The three main methods of harvesting trees in professional logging are selective cutting, clear cutting, and row thinning" is an example of a (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. specific purpose. transition. general purpose. signpost. central idea. 10. "To understand the role of dance marathons in American popular culture, one needs to know why they started, how they evolved, and what they are like today" is an example of a (1 point) a. b. c. d. e. mission statement. specific purpose. transition statement. central idea. topic statement. Question 1 2 out of 2 points According to your textbook, listening to understand a classroom lecture is an example of appreciative listening. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 160 Question 2 2 out of 2 points You can improve your own speeches by listening carefully to the speeches of other people. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 3 2 out of 2 points When listening critically for evidence, you should consider primarily how the evidence relates to your personal frame of reference. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 4 2 out of 2 points As your textbook explains, technical language is especially helpful for explaining ideas in informative speeches. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 5 2 out of 2 points When giving an informative speech that explains a process, you will most likely arrange your main points in chronological order. Answer Selected Register to View Answer CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 161 Correct Register to View Answer Question 6 2 out of 2 points A "rhetorical question" is a question that the audience answers mentally rather than out loud. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 7 2 out of 2 points The crescendo conclusion is essentially a matter of the speaker getting louder and louder as the speech comes to an end. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 8 2 out of 2 points One function of a preview statement is to signal that the body of the speech is about to begin. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 9 2 out of 2 points Communication based on a speaker's body and voice, rather than on the use of words, is called CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 162 Answer Selected Answer: nonverbal communication. Correct Answer: nonverbal communication. Question 10 0 out of 2 points According to your textbook, the skilled extemporaneous speaker Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: prepares and practices the speech carefully and uses brief notes while delivering the speech. all of these choices. Question 11 2 out of 2 points Here are the main points for an informative speech about the process of drying and storing garden herbs. I. The first step is to prepare the herbs for drying by rinsing and gathering stems together. II. The second step is to hang the herb bunches upside down in a dry place. III. The third step is to strip the dried leaves and store the herbs properly. These main points are arranged in ____________ order. Answer Selected Answer: chronological Correct Answer: chronological Question 12 2 out of 2 points CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 163 Adriana's informative speech about different kinds of coffee had the following main points. I. Coffees grown in South America are known for their acidic taste. II. Coffees grown in Africa are known for their earthy taste. III. Coffees grown in Asia are known for their well-balanced taste. What method of organization did Adriana use for her main points? Answer Selected Answer: spatial Correct Answer: spatial Question 13 2 out of 2 points Here are the main points for an informative speech about the book To Kill a Mockingbird. I. To Kill a Mockingbird was the first, and only, novel written by Harper Lee. II. To Kill a Mockingbird won a Pulitzer Prize for literature and became a modern classic. III. To Kill a Mockingbird has been banned by some public schools because of its themes. According to your textbook, these main points are arranged in __________ order. Answer Selected Answer: topical Correct Answer: topical Question 14 2 out of 2 points Sridhar is from India and has decided to give his informative speech on Indian marriage customs. Because he will be getting married back home the next summer, he is very excited about the topic. He is concerned, however, that his classmates, all of whom are from the United States, may think he is saying that marriage traditions in India are better than those in the United States. Sridhar's CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 164 concern indicates that he is sensitive to the problem of Answer Selected Answer: ethnocentrism. Correct Answer: ethnocentrism. Question 15 2 out of 2 points A ringing cell phone or an audience member browsing the Web on her laptop during a speech are examples of which element in the speech communication process? Answer Selected Answer: interference Correct Answer: interference Question 16 2 out of 2 points "To persuade my audience that the federal government should institute a national sales tax to help pay for social programs" is an example of an effective central idea for a speech. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 17 2 out of 2 points The specific purpose statement indicates precisely what the speaker hopes to accomplish in a speech. Answer CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 165 Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 18 0 out of 2 points "We will read all these names. We will linger over them. We will learn their stories, and we will weep" is an example of Answer Selected Answer: repetition. Correct Answer: repetition and alliteration. Question 19 2 out of 2 points Which of the following is mentioned in your textbook as a basic criterion for the effective use of language? Answer Selected Answer: use language appropriately Correct Answer: use language appropriately Question 20 2 out of 2 points How well a speech is organized affects how listeners view the speaker's competence and trustworthiness. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 166 Question 21 2 out of 2 points Speeches arranged in spatial order follow a time sequence. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 22 2 out of 2 points As part of the research for her persuasive speech on Parkinson's disease, Alissa needs to find recent articles published in general interest periodicals and academic journals. The best resource for her is a Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: periodical database such as ProQuest or LexisNexis Academic. periodical database such as ProQuest or LexisNexis Academic. Question 23 2 out of 2 points If you needed to know the amount of cheddar cheese consumed in the United States each year, which of the following would be the best reference source to consult? Answer Selected Answer: Statistical Abstract of the United States Correct Answer: Statistical Abstract of the United States CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 167 Question 24 2 out of 2 points In the introduction to his speech on the art of digital photography, Seung mentioned that he works part-time at a camera shop and has had some of his pictures printed in the newspaper. By sharing this information with his audience, Seung was seeking to accomplish which goal of a speech introduction? Answer Selected Answer: establish credibility Correct Answer: establish credibility Question 25 2 out of 2 points The following passage from a speech introduction is an example of _____________. After attending a seminar on currency security, I became fascinated by the technology developed by the Treasury Department to prevent the counterfeiting of paper money. I learned more about the subject by reading information from the Treasury Department, as well as by interviewing Donna Marshall, a security expert at Bank of America. Answer Selected Answer: establishing the speaker's credibility Correct Answer: establishing the speaker's credibility Question 26 2 out of 2 points Gender, sexual orientation, age, race, ethnicity, and group membership are all factors to consider when conducting a demographic audience analysis. Answer Selected Register to View Answer CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 168 Correct Register to View Answer Question 27 2 out of 2 points Being audience-centered means a speaker must sacrifice what she or he really believes to get a favorable response from the audience. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 28 2 out of 2 points "Money" would be an appropriate title for a speech about new security measures to stop counterfeiting. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 29 2 out of 2 points Delivery cues on a speaking outline remind a speaker how to say something, rather than what to say. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 30 2 out of 2 points The major advantage of using fixed-alternative questions in an audience analysis questionnaire is that they CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 169 Answer Selected Answer: produce clear, unambiguous answers. Correct Answer: produce clear, unambiguous answers. Question 31 2 out of 2 points If you were giving a persuasive speech on Medicare to members of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), the most important factor to consider when analyzing your audience would probably be the Answer Selected Answer: age of the audience. Correct Answer: age of the audience. Question 32 2 out of 2 points When Terrence creates a speaking outline for his informative speech on hockey, he should Answer Selected Answer: all of these choices. Correct Answer: all of these choices. Question 33 2 out of 2 points Arranged in random order below are a main point, one subpoint, and three subsubpoints from a speech preparation outline. Which is the main point? Answer CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 170 Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Over the years, people have tried many remedies to combat the common cold. Over the years, people have tried many remedies to combat the common cold. Question 34 2 out of 2 points Arranged in random order below are a main point, two subpoints, and two subsubpoints from a speech preparation outline. Which is the main point? Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Two types of skin cancer are melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Two types of skin cancer are melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Question 35 2 out of 2 points Ethnocentrism is the belief that one's own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 36 2 out of 2 points Fortunately, stage fright only affects inexperienced speakers. Answer Selected Register to View Answer CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 171 Correct Register to View Answer Question 37 2 out of 2 points Speakers who think positively about themselves and the speech experience are more likely to overcome their stage fright than are speakers who think negatively. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 38 2 out of 2 points To keep control of the question-and-answer session, a speaker should usually allow no more than one follow-up question from each questioner. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 39 2 out of 2 points The question-and-answer session can have as much impact on an audience as what a speaker says during the speech itself. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 40 2 out of 2 points Denotative meaning gives words their emotional power. Answer CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 172 Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 41 2 out of 2 points "Family is a well of compassion we return to for comfort in times of need" is an example of a simile. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerFalse Question 42 2 out of 2 points According to your textbook, one way to focus your listening is to Answer Selected Answer: listen for the speaker's main points. Correct Answer: listen for the speaker's main points. Question 43 2 out of 2 points Natasha and Ramone are listening to a realtor who is encouraging them to buy a house they looked at earlier in the day. As they listen, they are trying to decide whether or not to purchase the house. According to your textbook, Natahsa and Ramone are engaged in _____________ listening. Answer Selected Answer: critical Correct Answer: critical CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 173 Question 44 2 out of 2 points "To inform my audience about the different notions of intellectual property in eastern and western cultures" is an example of a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n) Answer Selected Answer: concept. Correct Answer: concept. Question 45 2 out of 2 points "To inform my audience about the scientific theories of Stephen Hawking" is a specific purpose statement for a speech about a(n) Answer Selected Answer: concept. Correct Answer: concept. Question 46 2 out of 2 points "To inform my audience about Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection" is a specific purpose statement for a speech about a(n) Answer Selected Answer: concept. Correct Answer: concept. Question 47 CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 174 2 out of 2 points "Improving personal relationships" is a poorly phrased specific purpose for a speech because it is Answer Selected Answer: written as a fragment rather than a full infinitive phrase. Correct Answer: written as a fragment rather than a full infinitive phrase. Question 48 2 out of 2 points Identify the flaw in the following specific purpose statement for a classroom speech: "To inform my audience about the solar system." Answer Selected Answer: It's too general. Correct Answer: It's too general. Question 49 2 out of 2 points Experts advise that you use Internet research to supplement, not to replace, library research. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue Question 50 2 out of 2 points CHAPTER 2--ETHICS AND PUBLIC SPEAKING 175 According to your textbook, the three major criteria against which to test documents that you locate on the Internet are authorship, sponsorship, and recency. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View AnswerTrue ... View Full Document

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