Chapter 21
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Chapter 21

Course: HISTORY EH 103, Fall 2012

School: SEMO

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Name: ________________________ Class: ___________________ Date: __________ ID: A Chapter 21 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. At the Congress of Vienna, the Austrian representative Prince Metternich pursued the policy of legitimacy, meaning a. he wished to legitimate the French defeat. b. he sought legitimate control over central Europe to...

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________________________ Name: Class: ___________________ Date: __________ ID: A Chapter 21 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. At the Congress of Vienna, the Austrian representative Prince Metternich pursued the policy of legitimacy, meaning a. he wished to legitimate the French defeat. b. he sought legitimate control over central Europe to benefit Austria. c. wishing to restore legitimate monarchs on their thrones, preserving traditional institutions and values. d. he sought legitimate proof of England's economic and industrial support of Austria. e. he demanded that the state churches, Catholic or Protestant, become the primary rulers throughout all of Europe. ____ 2. After Napoleon's defeat, the Quadruple Alliance a. sent troops to sack Paris. b. restored the old Bourbon monarchy to France in the person of Louis XVIII. c. returned Corsica to Italian control. d. delivered an ultimatum to the pope demanding full control over all of Italy. e. declared war against the Ottoman Empire. ____ 3. The Congress of Vienna a. gave Prussia complete control over Polish lands. b. created policies that would maintain the European balance of power. c. failed to achieve long-lasting peace among European nations. d. treated France leniently following Napoleon's One Hundred Days. e. sanctioned the political power of the bourgeoisie. ____ 4. The foreign minister and diplomat who dominated the Congress of Vienna was a. Klemens von Metternich. b. Prince Talleyrand. c. Tsar Alexander I. d. Napoleon. e. Duke of Wellington. ____ 5. Klemens von Metternich a. supported much of the revolutionary ideology after Napoleon's defeat. b. thought that a free press was necessary to maintain the status quo. c. had little influence because of his extreme conservatism. d. was anti-religious and supported atheistic causes. e. believed European monarchs shared the common interest of stability. 1 Name: ________________________ ID: A ____ 6. Conservatism, the dominant political philosophy following the fall of Napoleon a. was rejected by the Congress of Vienna as inappropriate in the new liberal age. b. expressed that individual rights remained the best guide for human order. c. was exemplified by Edmund Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France, emphasizing the dangers of radical and "rational" political change. d. was too radical for Joseph de Maistre, the French spokesman for evolutionary conservatism. e. advocated the creation of oligarchic republics. ____ 7. At its most elementary Burkean level, conservatism a. sought to preserve the achievements of previous generations by subordinating individual rights to communal welfare. b. became the most popular political philosophy in Russia. c. sought above all else the achievement of individual rights. d. was never popular among the political elite of Europe. e. championed individual rights and laissez-faire government. ____ 8. The Congress of Vienna was most successful at a. ending the political domination of the Holy Alliance. b. thwarting Britain's attempts to intervene and crush revolts in Italy and Spain. c. crushing the colonial revolts in Latin America. d. establishing an order that managed to avoid a general European conflict for almost a century. e. preserving the gains of the revolutionary era. ____ 9. The most important factor in preventing the European overthrow of the newly independent nations of Latin America was a. European economic collapse. b. the Monroe Doctrine guiding American foreign policy. c. the sheer size of South America. d. growing support for pacifism in Europe. e. British naval power. ____ 10. The Greek revolt was successful largely due to a. a well-trained guerrilla army. b. the Turks' lack of fortitude. c. European intervention. d. superior Greek military tactics. e. adopting a policy of peaceful coexistence. ____ 11. When protestors of high bread prices in England clashed with government authorities, the resulting conflict was known as the a. St. Paul's Massacre. b. Charing Cross Incident. c. Peterloo Massacre. d. Trafalgar Spectacle. e. Battle of King's Cross. 2 Name: ________________________ ID: A ____ 12. By 1815, following the Congress of Vienna, the Italian peninsula a. was entirely unified as a single country. b. remained divided into several states subject to the domination of other European powers. c. had been devastated by the last campaigns of Napoleon. d. had been completely annexed by Austria, a move confirmed by the Congress. e. sunk into complete anarchy and chaos. ____ 13. The growing forces of liberalism and nationalism in central Europe were exemplified by the a. increased liberal reforms of Frederick William III of Prussia between 1815 and 1840. b. national affinity and unity felt by the many Austrian ethnic groups under Frederick II. c. liberal constitutions of the states of the German Confederation. d. Burschenschaften, the student societies of Germany. e. the enlightened leadership of central European political elites. ____ 14. The Karlsbad Decrees of 1819 did all of the following except a. disband the Burschenshaften. b. impose censorship on the German press. c. placed most German universities under close government supervision. d. dissolved several smaller German states. e. placed restrictions upon university activities. ____ 15. Following the death of Alexander I in 1825, Russian society under Nicholas I became a. the most liberal of the European powers. b. rapidly industrialized. c. an industrial power after the abolition of serfdom. d. increasingly influenced by ultra-conservative societies, such as the Northern Union. e. became a police state, as the czar feared both internal and external revolutionary upheavals. ____ 16. The argument that population must be held in check for any progress to take place was popularized by a. Adam Smith. b. David Ricardo. c. Joseph de Maistre. d. Edmund Burke. e. Thomas Malthus. ____ 17. Which of the following statements best applies to David Ricardo? a. He was an advocate of a social welfare system. b. He believed that the poor should best be ignored. c. He believed that individual effort could always overcome industrial and urban poverty. d. He developed the idea of the "iron law of wages." e. He argued that the population would always outrun the food supply. ____ 18. The foremost social group embracing liberalism was made up by a. factory workers. b. the industrial middle class. c. radical aristocrats. d. army officers. e. the landed gentry. 3 Name: ________________________ ID: A ____ 19. J.S. Mill's On the Subjection of Women stated that a. women should be kept in the home to improve men's chances of finding work. b. men and women did not possess different natures. c. Parliament should admit women members immediately. d. female convicts be shipped out to colonize Australia. e. God and nature had ordained the permanent inferiority of women. ____ 20. Central to the liberal ideology in the nineteenth century was a. child labor laws. b. the preservation of law and order. c. an emphasis on individual freedom. d. the buildup of a nation's military. e. the creation of a socialist community. ____ 21. The growing movement of nationalism in nineteenth-century Europe a. was resisted by liberals, who felt that all ethnic groups should live together harmoniously. b. advocated the formation of one European nation to end economic and military conflicts. c. was radical since it encouraged people to shift their political loyalty away from existing states and rulers. d. found its best expression in the writings of John Stuart Mill. e. declined after the Congress of Vienna. ____ 22. The utopian socialists of the first half of the nineteenth century were best characterized by a. Charles Fourier, who envisioned cooperative communities called "phalansteries." b. Flora Tristan, who rejected the programs for female equality proposed by other socialists. c. Louis Blanc, who wished for the demise of government in favor of individuals providing for their own welfare. d. Henri de Saint-Simon, who established a cooperative community in the U.S. that failed. e. Karl Marx, in The Communist Manifesto. ____ 23. In the July revolution of 1830, a. Charles X agreed to become a constitutional monarch. b. Louis Napoleon launched a violent movement against the monarchy. c. Louis-Philippe succeeded Charles X as king of the French. d. Louis XVIII abdicated in favor of his cousin, Charles Bourbon. e. the Second Republic was proclaimed. ____ 24. King Louis-Philippe in France a. did all he could to help the impoverished industrial workers. b. cooperated with Franois Guizot and the Party of Resistance against the Party of Movement. c. allowed for great reforms in the electoral system. d. was the son of the former reactionary King Charles X. e. died peacefully in France. 4 Name: ________________________ ID: 25. A ____ The most successful nationalistic European revolution in 1830 was in a. Poland. b. Germany. c. Italy. d. the United Provinces. e. Belgium. ____ 26. The primary driving force in the revolutions of Belgium, Poland, and Italy in 1830 was a. nationalism. b. religion. c. racism. d. socialism. e. romanticism. ____ 27. The Polish national uprising of 1830 was crushed by a. France. b. Prussia. c. Austria. d. Russia. e. Britain. ____ 28. Which of the following statements best applies to Thomas Macaulay's thoughts on reform in Britain? a. He opposed giving political concessions to the middle class. b. He was convinced that reforms were largely unnecessary due to Britain's democratic heritage. c. He supported reforms as a means of prevent more radical revolutionary movements. d. He was afraid reforms would cause the collapse of the current Parliament and the political domination of the landed elite. e. He adamantly opposed any and all political and social reforms. ____ 29. The Reform Bill of 1832 in Britain primarily benefited the a. landed aristocracy. b. peasants. c. working class. d. clergy. e. upper middle-class. ____ 30. The English Poor Law of 1834 was based on the theory that a. the poor were entitled to decent levels of support. b. the rich had a moral obligation to support the poor. c. if the conditions of provision for state welfare were intentionally made miserable, then the poor would be encouraged to find profitable employment. d. levels of state support for social welfare programs should be indexed to the cost of living. e. indoor relief was better than outdoor relief. 5 Name: ________________________ ID: A ____ 31. The revolution of 1848 in France ultimately resulted in a. the continued rule of Louis-Philippe but with radical reforms. b. new elections to the national Assembly, resulting in the dominance of the radical republicans. c. Europe's first socialist state under the guidance of Blanc's workshops. d. a new French empire under Louis Napoleon. e. the triumph of the Paris Commune. ____ 32. Louis Blanc's "national workshops" in France a. became a vital part of the French economy. b. were extremely important to the French radical aristocracy. c. became little more than unemployment compensation units through public works projects. d. built many national parks in France. e. turned the city of Paris into the "City of Lights." ____ 33. In 1848, the Frankfurt Assembly a. unanimously adopted a Grossdeutsch solution for the Germanies. b. succeeded in making Prussia's Frederick William IV president of a united Germany. c. failed in its attempt to create a united Germany. d. gained the support of Austria. e. declared its solidarity with revolutionary France. ____ 34. The uprisings in Austria in 1848 resulted in the a. independence of Hungary. b. overthrow of the Habsburgs. c. exile of Metternich. d. independence of Bohemia. e. expulsion of ethnic Germans from the Sudetenland. ____ 35. Giuseppe Mazzini's nationalist organization, Young Italy, a. liberated Italy's northern provinces from Austrian control. b. failed to achieve his goal of "resurgence" by 1849. c. helped inspire successful liberal constitutions throughout Italy. d. used the liberals in governments to extend suffrage to Italy's working classes. e. allied itself with the papacy to drive France out of Italy. ____ 36. Mazzini's risorgimento a. was largely successful in political terms. b. failed due to opposition of the French, the Austrians, and the pope. c. became the basic ideology of contemporary German liberals. d. was most popular among the Italian middle classes. e. succeeded in establishing a socialist society. ____ 37. Mass white male democracy in the United States was achieved during the presidency of a. George Washington. b. Thomas Jefferson. c. James Monroe. d. Andrew Jackson. e. Abraham Lincoln. 6 Name: ________________________ ID: A ____ 38. Professional civilian police forces known as serjents first appeared in 1829 in a. Germany. b. Russia. c. Italy. d. Bavaria. e. France. ____ 39. The politician who introduced the legislation that established London's first professional police force was a. Thomas Babington Macaulay. b. Robert Peel. c. Lord Grey. d. William IV. e. Benjamin Disraeli. ____ 40. Regular police forces and prison reform were geared toward a. the creation of more disciplined and law-abiding societies. b. appeasing the public outcry against the barbarism of the ordeal and the rack. c. protecting the poor from exploitation by rich businessmen. d. adding an element of fear to society for psychological manipulation of mass populations. e. ensuring the continuance of oligarchic government. ____ 41. All of the following were characteristics of Romanticism except a. a strong, pantheistic worship of nature. b. the rejection of the supernatural and unfamiliar. c. a preoccupation with sentiment, suffering, and self-sacrifice. d. a reverence for history that inspired nationalism. e. a reaction to the excesses of the Industrial Revolution. ____ 42. The literary model for early Romantics was a. The Last Days of Socrates, by Plato. b. Don Quixote, by Cervantes. c. Great Expectations, by Dickens. d. The Sorrows of the Young Werther, by Goethe. e. Reflections, by Edmund Burke. ____ 43. The romantic movement can be viewed as a(n) a. reaction against the Enlightenment's preoccupation with reason. b. continuation of Enlightenment ideals and practices. c. attempt to create a socialist society. d. movement of lower-class, less literate people. e. fascination with war and conflict. ____ 44. The American romantic author of The Fall of the House of Usher was a. Ralph Waldo Emerson. b. Thomas Carlyle. c. Edgar Allan Poe. d. Herman Melville. e. Henry David Thoreau. 7 Name: ________________________ ID: A ____ 45. The most important form of literary expression for the romantics was a. the essay. b. poetry. c. the novel. d. the play. e. the monograph. ____ 46. Which of the following were major themes/subjects of Romantic artists? a. portraits b. Madonnas and religious scenes c. landscapes and depictions of nature d. scenes from aristocratic family life e. urban scenes. ____ 47. Romanticism in art and music was well characterized by a. Chateaubriand, whose many paintings anticipated the Impressionist movement. b. Beethoven, whose compositions bridged the gap between Classicism and Romanticism. c. Delacroix, who broke classical conventions by using only blacks and whites in his paintings. d. Friedrich, whose "program" music played upon the listeners' emotions. e. Bach, whose organ music inspired the hearer's feelings. ____ 48. In architectural styles, the Romantics were particularly attracted to the a. Gothic. b. Baroque. c. Neo-classical. d. Post-Modernist. e. Renaissance. ____ 49. The Romantic artist whose paintings were described as "airy visions, painted with tinted steam" was a. Friedrich. b. Turner. c. Delacroix. d. Watteau. e. Berlioz. ____ 50. Religion in the age of Romanticism experienced a. a Catholic revival especially in Germany. b. loss of faith among many artists and intellectuals. c. a decline in Protestantism in England. d. the mass popularization of eastern mystery religions in Europe. e. a return to Deism. 8 ID: A Chapter 21 Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: Register to View AnswerB B A E C A D E C C B D D E E D B B C C A C B E A D C E C D C C C B B D E B PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: 1 p. 633 p. 633 p. 634 p. 633 p. 633-634 p. 635 p. 635 p. 635 p. 637 p. 638 p. 639 p. 639 p. 640 p. 640 p. 641 p. 642 p. 642 p. 642 p. 644 p. 642 p. 644 p. 644 p. 646 p. 647 p. 647 p. 647 p. 647 p. 650 p. 648 p. 648 p. 649 p. 648 p. 651 p. 651 p. 652 p. 652 p. 654 p. 655 p. 655 MSC: *new MSC: *new MSC: *new MSC: *new MSC: *new ID: A 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: Register to View AnswerB D A C B C B A B A PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: 2 p. 654 p. 657-658 p. 657 p. 657 p. 658 p. 658 p. 659 p. 651 p. 650 p. 660 p. 662 MSC: *new

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Ubaid: Complex chiefdoms4100 BCTerminal Ubaid4300 BCLate Ubaid4500 BCMiddle Ubaid4900 BCEarly Ubaid6000 BCMajor trends in Ubaid Settlement: filling in of alluvium, biggertowns Economy: specialization and diversification Integration: horizon
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Uruk: The worlds first state society3000 BCL ate Uruk3400 BCL ate Middle Uruk3600 BCEarly Middle Uruk3800 BCEarly Uruk4100 BCUruk: The worlds first state society First real urbanism Appearance of state: organized political system Institutiona
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Egyptian ChronologyK ey developments of Middle Kingdom Period of reunification Then imperial expansion, esp. to the south intoNubia Professionalization of military Emergence of cult of Osiris Challenge to cult of pharaohs centered aroundSun-god Re
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Egyptian writingHieroglyphs:sacred carvingsHieroglyphs(source: Baines and Maalek)Stages in thedevelopment ofEgyptianlanguagesRelationship ofEgyptian hieroglyphsto other ancientlanguagesPapyrusPreparation of papyrus paperEgyptian writing: To
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Egyptian ChronologyK ey developments of Old Kingdom Highly centralized state: ruled by god-king pharaoh Immense social differentiation Three-tiered ideology: cult of pharaohs centeredaround Sun-god Re; regional (city) patron gods;household worship
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The Old KingdomEgyptian ChronologyK ey developments by Dynasties 1-2 State formed: Egypt unified as pharaoh claims WhiteCrown of Upper Egypt and Red Crown of LowerEgypt Marked class differentiation Incipient monumental burials: mastabas Economy: l
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The Pyramids of EgyptPyramid complexesnear CairoPyramids at GizaChronology of the pyramid buildersPyramid complexes near MemphisEarly Dynastic tombsMastaba designBullheads inside early mastabaEarly dynastic mastaba at AbydosBen-ben stone:solidi
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Early sites in Greater MesopotamiaEarly sites in Greater MesopotamiaGobeckli Tepe(Smithsonian)Gobeckli Tepe(Wikipedia)Gobeckli Tepe(Wikipedia)Gobeckli Tepe(Wikipedia)ayonu Tepesi from the airayonu Tepesi: stone floorayonu Tepesi: structure fou
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Sumerian CivilizationMainSitesWhat is a state? Array of hierarchical institutions: manageadministrative and political affairs 3-tiered decision-making hierarchy: Wrightand Johnson Political structure created to protectinterests of elite: Marx, Ch
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The Royal Tombs at UrMain figures in the tombs Queen Puabi Akalamdug MeskalamdugDigging at UrThe dig crew at UrEntrance to tomb(John and Peggy Sanders)Ur: Kings graveplanUr: GreatDeath PitUr: Great Death Pit reconstructedUncle Fred in his mo
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Chronology of early empiresAkkad: 2350-2200 BCGutian: 2200-2100Ur III: 2100-2000Isin-Larsa: 2000-1800Old BabylonianSargonGudeaUr-Nammu, ShulgiHammurapiConquests of the Kings of AgadeA kkadianmap detailSargon ofA gade?War prisoners:A kkadia
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A ncient EgyptEgyptPyramids at GizaThe sphinx in all its grandeurThe sphinxshown at a truescaleObelisk ofThutmose IObelisks appropriatedA nother obelisk appropriated: Buenos AiresA nother obelisk appropriated: Buenos AiresEgyptian writing mate
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Predynastic and Archaic EgyptEgyptian ChronologyPredynastic Predynastic: 4100-3100 BC 1. rise of pre-civilized chiefdoms 2. possibly earliest states 3. earliest emergence of civilization 4. temporally parallel to Uruk/JemdetNasr 5. developmentall
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Codifying and recordinginformationWriting and other approachesKalhu palacecuneiform (9thc BC)Conventional (and incorrect) assumptions Writing was initially intended to be a visual analog tolinguistic expression Writing was discovered Early symbol
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Theories of the formation of complexsociety, pt. 2M arx and Engels 1882 and 1893Engels: key transformationsMonogamyPastoral tribesHorticultureSurplusProduction for exchange: commoditiesSocial classesMerchantsLand as commodityStateMorton Fried
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Mesopotamian settingGreater Mesopotamia(source: Google Earth)GreaterM esopotamia:Google EarthviewSouthern Mesopotamia(source: Google Earth)Location of MesopotamiaMesopotamian TemperaturesWinter, showingsnows onZagros mtsMesopotamian Rainfall
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The Rise of CivilizationAnthropology V1008ySpring 2011Prof. Terence DAltroyThe Rise of Civilization(Anthropology V1008) Prof. Terence DAltroyOffice: 962 Schermerhorn Extensiontnd1@columbia.edu; 854-2131 TAs: Darryl Wilkinson, Kevin Grant, Matt Sa