2008 AP Chemistry Practice Exam
49 Pages

2008 AP Chemistry Practice Exam

Course Number: CHEM 101, Spring 2013

College/University: UPenn

Word Count: 9638

Rating:

Document Preview

Advanced Placement Program AP Chemistry Practice Exam The questions contained in this AP Chemistry Practice Exam are written to the content specifications of AP Exams for this subject. Taking this practice exam should provide students with an idea of their general areas of strengths and weaknesses in preparing for the actual AP Exam. Because this AP Chemistry Practice Exam has never been administered as an...

Unformatted Document Excerpt
Coursehero >> Pennsylvania >> UPenn >> CHEM 101

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one
below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

Placement Program AP Advanced Chemistry Practice Exam The questions contained in this AP Chemistry Practice Exam are written to the content specifications of AP Exams for this subject. Taking this practice exam should provide students with an idea of their general areas of strengths and weaknesses in preparing for the actual AP Exam. Because this AP Chemistry Practice Exam has never been administered as an operational AP Exam, statistical data are not available for calculating potential raw scores or conversions into AP grades. This AP Chemistry Practice Exam is provided by the College Board for AP Exam preparation. Teachers are permitted to download the materials and make copies to use with their students in a classroom setting only. To maintain the security of this exam, teachers should collect all materials after their administration and keep them in a secure location. Teachers may not redistribute the files electronically for any reason. 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. All other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. Contents Directions for Administration ............................................................................................ ii Section I: Multiple-Choice Questions ................................................................................ 1 Section II: Free-Response Questions .............................................................................. 21 Student Answer Sheet for Multiple-Choice Section ...................................................... 32 Multiple-Choice Answer Key........................................................................................... 33 Free-Response Scoring Guidelines.................................................................................. 34 The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,000 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT, the PSAT/NMSQT, and the Advanced Placement Program (AP). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral.collegeboard.com. -i- AP Chemistry Directions for Administration The AP Chemistry Exam is 3 hours and 5 minutes in length and consists of a multiple-choice section and a freeresponse section. The 90-minute multiple-choice section contains 75 questions and accounts for 50 percent of the final grade. The 95-minute free-response section contains 6 questions and accounts for 50 percent of the final grade. Part A is timed and is 55 minutes long; Part B is 40 minutes long. A 10-minute break should be provided after Section I is completed. Students should be given a 10-minute warning prior to the end of each of the Parts A and B in Section II of the exam. The actual AP Exam is administered in one session. Students will have the most realistic experience if a complete morning or afternoon is available to administer this practice exam. If a schedule does not permit one time period for the entire practice exam administration, it would be acceptable to administer Section I one day and Section II on a subsequent day. Many students wonder whether or not to guess the answers to the multiple-choice questions about which they are not certain. It is improbable that mere guessing will improve a score. However, if a student has some knowledge of the question and is able to eliminate one or more answer choices as wrong, it may be to the students advantage to answer such a question. The use of a calculator* is permitted ONLY during Section II, Part A of the exam. After time is called for Part A, students must place their calculators under their chairs. The use of any other electronic devices (including a cell phone) is not permitted during any portion of the exam. It is suggested that Section I of the practice exam be completed using a pencil to simulate an actual administration. Students can use either a pencil or a pen for Section II. Teachers will need to provide paper for the students to write their free-response answers. Teachers should provide directions to the students indicating how they wish the responses to be labeled so the teacher will be able to associate the students response with the question the student intended to Register to View Answerperiodic table of the elements is provided with both Section I and Section II of the exam. For Section II, a table of standard reduction potentials and tables of commonly used equations and constants are also provided. Remember that students are not allowed to remove any materials, including scratch work, from the testing site. *Calculators cannot have QWERTY keyboards or be designed to communicate with other calculators (such as via infrared ports). -ii- Section I Multiple-Choice Questions -1- MATERIAL IN THE FOLLOWING TABLE MAY BE USEFUL IN ANSWERING THE QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION OF THE EXAMINATION. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -2- CHEMISTRY Section I Time1 hour and 30 minutes NO CALCULATOR MAY BE USED WITH SECTION I. Note: For all questions, assume that the temperature is 298 K, the pressure is 1.00 atmosphere, and solutions are aqueous unless otherwise specified. Throughout the test the following symbols have the definitions specified unless otherwise noted. T= P= V= S= H= G= R= n= M= m= temperature pressure volume entropy enthalpy Gibbs free energy molar gas constant number of moles molar molal L, mL = g = nm = atm = mm Hg = J, kJ = V = mol = liter(s), milliliter(s) gram(s) nanometer(s) atmosphere(s) millimeters of mercury joule(s), kilojoule(s) volt(s) mole(s) Part A Directions: Each set of lettered choices below refers to the numbered statements immediately following it. Select the one that is best in each case and then place the letter of your choice in the corresponding box on the student answer sheet. A choice may be used once, more than once, or not at all in each set. Questions 5-7 refer to the following molecules. Questions 1-4 refer to the following chemical compounds. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) CO (B) CH4 CH4 CCl3F H2S H2O2 K2CrO4 (C) HF (D) PH3 (E) F2 5. Contains two -bonds 1. Commonly used as a disinfectant for minor skin wounds 6. Has the highest dipole moment 2. A refrigerant implicated in the thinning of the stratospheric ozone layer 7. Has a molecular geometry that is trigonal pyramidal 3. A major component of the fuel known as natural gas 4. A yellow solid at room temperature and 1 atm GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -3- Questions 8-11 refer to neutral atoms for which the atomic orbitals are represented below (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 8. Is in an excited state 9. Has exactly five valence electrons 10. Has the highest first ionization energy 11. Forms an aqueous cation that is colored GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -4- Questions 12-15 refer to the chemical reactions represented below. (A) HC2H3O2(aq) + NH3(aq) C2H3O2(aq) + NH4+(aq) (B) Ba2+(aq) + SO42(aq) BaSO4(s) (C) Zn(OH)2(s) + 2 OH(aq) [Zn(OH)4]2(aq) (D) 2 K(s) + Br2(l) 2 KBr(s) (E) N2O4(g) 2 NO2(g) 12. An oxidation-reduction reaction 13. A precipitation reaction 14. A reaction in which a coordination complex is formed 15. A Lewis acid-base reaction that is not a BrnstedLowry acid-base reaction GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -5- Questions 16-17 refer to various points in time during an experiment conducted at 1.0 atm. Heat is added at a constant rate to a sample of a pure substance that is solid at time t0. The graph below shows the temperature of the sample as a function of time. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 16. Time when the average distance between the particles is greatest 17. Time when the temperature of the substance is between its melting point and its boiling point GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -6- Part B Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case and place the letter of your choice in the corresponding box on the student answer sheet. 21. Which of the systems in equilibrium represented below will exhibit a shift to the left (toward reactants) when the pressure on the system is increased by reducing the volume of the system? (Assume that temperature is constant.) (A) 2 Mg(s) + O (g) 2 MgO(s) 18. Which of the following is the correct name for the compound with formula Ca3P2 ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Tricalcium diphosphorus Calcium phosphite Calcium phosphate Calcium diphosphate Calcium phosphide 2 (B) SF4(g) + F2(g) SF6(g) (C) H (g) + Br (g) 2 HBr(g) 19. What mass of KBr (molar mass 119 g mol1) is required to make 250. mL of a 0.400 M KBr solution? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 2 2 (D) N2(g) + 3 H2(g) 2 NH3(g) (E) SO Cl (g) SO (g) + Cl (g) 2 0.595 g 1.19 g 2.50 g 11.9 g 47.6 g 2 2 2 22. The standard enthalpy of formation, DH f , of HI(g) is +26 kJ mol1. Which of the following is the approximate mass of HI(g) that must decompose into H2(g) and I2(s ) to release 20. The value of the acid-dissociation constant, Ka , for a weak monoprotic acid HA is 2.5 106. 500. kJ of energy? The pH of 0.40 M HA is closest to (A) 250 g (B) 650 g (C) 1,300 g (D) 2,500 g (E) 13,000 g (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 2.0 3.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -7- CaCl2(s) Ca2+(aq) + 2 Cl(aq) 23. For the process of solid calcium chloride dissolving in water, represented above, the entropy change might be expected to be positive. However, S for the process is actually negative. Which of the following best helps to account for the net loss of entropy? (A) Cl ions are much larger in size than Ca2+ ions. (B) The particles in solid calcium chloride are more ordered than are particles in amorphous solids. (C) Water molecules in the hydration shells of Ca2+ and Cl ions are more ordered than they are in the pure water. (D) The Ca2+(aq) and Cl(aq) ions are more free to move around in solution than they are in CaCl2(s) . (E) In the solution, the average distance between Ca2+(aq) and Cl(aq) is greater than the average distance between Ca2+ and Cl in CaCl2(s) . . . . CH3OCH3(g) + . . . O2(g) . . . CO2(g) + . . . H2O(g) 24. When the equation above is balanced using the lowest wholenumber coefficients, the coefficient for O2(g) is (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 6 4 3 2 1 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -8- 25. For which of the following processes does entropy decrease (S < 0) ? 28. Which of the following is a formula for an ether? (A) (A) H2O(s) H2O(l ) (B) Br2(l ) Br2(g) (C) Crystallization of I2(s) from an ethanol solution (D) Thermal expansion of a balloon filled with CO2(g) (E) Mixing of equal volumes of H2O(l) and CH3OH(l ) (B) (C) 26. In a laboratory, a student wants to quantitatively collect the CO2 gas generated by adding Na2CO3(s) to 2.5 M HCl . The student sets up the apparatus to collect the CO2 gas over water. The volume of collected gas is much less than the expected volume because CO2 gas (D) (A) (B) (C) (D) is very soluble in water is produced at a low pressure is more dense than water vapor has a larger molar mass than that of N2 gas, the major component of air (E) has a slower average molecular speed than water vapor at the same temperature (E) 27. What mass of Cu(s) would be produced if 0.40 mol of Cu2O(s) was reduced completely with excess H2(g) ? Gas Amount (A) 13 g (B) 25 g (C) 38 g (D) 51 g (E) 100 g Ar 0.35 mol CH4 0.90 mol N2 0.25 mol 29. Three gases in the amounts shown in the table above are added to a previously evacuated rigid tank. If the total pressure in the tank is 3.0 atm at 25C, the partial pressure of N2(g) in the tank is closest to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 0.75 atm 0.50 atm 0.33 atm 0.25 atm 0.17 atm GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -9- 30. Which of the following best explains why the normal boiling point of CCl4(l ) (350 K) is higher than the normal boiling point of CF4(l ) (145 K) ? 33. Which of the following would produce the LEAST mass of CO2 if completely burned in excess oxygen gas? (A) The CCl bonds in CCl4 are less polar than the CF bonds in CF4 . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (B) The CCl bonds in CCl4 are weaker than the CF bonds in CF4 . (C) The mass of the CCl4 molecule is greater than that of the CF4 molecule. (A) CH2F2 (B) N2H4 (C) CH3OCH3 (D) C2H4 (E) C2H2 31. At which of the following temperatures and pressures would a real gas be most likely to deviate from ideal behavior? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 100 200 300 500 500 35. In an aqueous solution with a pH of 11.50 at 25C, the molar concentration of OH(aq) is approximately Pressure (atm) 50 5 0.01 0.01 1 (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 32. After 195 days, a 10.0 g sample of pure 95 Zr has decayed to the extent that only 1.25 g of the original 95 Zr remains. The half-life of 95 Zr is closest to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) CH4 CH3OH C2H4 C2H6 C4H5OH 34. Which of the following substances exhibits significant hydrogen bonding in the liquid state? (D) The electron cloud of the CCl4 molecule is more polarizable than that of the CF4 molecule. (E) The bonds in the CCl4 molecule are covalent, whereas the bonds in the CF4 molecule are ionic. Temperature (K) 10.0 g 10.0 g 10.0 g 10.0 g 10.0 g 3.2 1012 M 3.2 103 M 2.5 101 M 2.5 M 3.2 1011 M 36. Which of the following changes to a reaction system in equilibrium would affect the value of the equilibrium constant, Keq , for the reaction? (Assume in each case that all other conditions are held constant.) 195 days 97.5 days 65.0 days 48.8 days 24.4 days (A) Adding more of the reactants to the system (B) Adding a catalyst for the reaction to the system (C) Increasing the temperature of the system (D) Increasing the pressure on the system (E) Removing some of the reaction products from the system GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -10- Questions 37-38 refer to a galvanic cell constructed using two half-cells and based on the two half-reactions represented below. Zn2+(aq) + 2 e Zn(s) Fe3+(aq) + e Fe2+(aq) E = 0.76 V E = 0.77 V 37. As the cell operates, ionic species that are found in the half-cell containing the cathode include which of the following? I. Zn2+(aq) II. Fe2+(aq) III. Fe3+(aq) (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) I only II only III only I and III II and III 38. What is the standard cell potential for the galvanic cell? (A) 0.01 V (B) 0.01 V (C) 0.78 V (D) 1.53 V (E) 2.31 V GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -11- Ionization Energies for Element X 1st Ionization Energy (kJ mol1) 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 787 1,580 3,200 4,400 16,000 20,000 24,000 39. The first seven ionization energies of element X are shown in the table above. On the basis of these data, element X is most likely a member of which of the following groups (families) of elements? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Alkaline earth metals Boron group Carbon group Nitrogen group Halogen group 40. Which of the following particles is emitted by an atom of 39 Ca when it decays to produce an atom of 39 43. A certain reaction is spontaneous at temperatures below 400. K but is not spontaneous at temperatures above 400. K. If H for the reaction is 20. kJ mol1 and it is assumed that H and S do not change appreciably with temperature, then the value of S for the reaction is K? (B) 4 He 2 1 n 0 (C) 1 H 1 (D) (A) (A) 50. J mol1 K1 (B) 20. J mol1 K1 (C) 0.050 J mol1 K1 (D) 20. J mol1 K1 (E) 8,000 J mol1 K1 (E) + 41. At approximately what temperature will 40. g of argon gas at 2.0 atm occupy a volume of 22.4 L? 44. A sample of a solution of RbCl (molar mass (A) 1,200 K (B) 600 K (C) 550 K (D) 270 K (E) 140 K 121 g mol1) contains 11.0 percent RbCl by mass. From the following information, what is needed to determine the molarity of RbCl in the solution? 42. Which of the following aqueous solutions has the highest boiling point at 1.0 atm? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) I. Mass of the sample II. Volume of the sample III. Temperature of the sample 0.20 M CaCl2 0.25 M Na2SO4 0.30 M NaCl 0.30 M KBr 0.40 M C6H12O6 (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) I only II only I and II only II and III only I, II, and III GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -12- . . . Au3+(aq) + . . . I(aq) . . . Au(s) + . . . I2(s) 45. When the equation above is balanced using the lowest wholenumber coefficients, the coefficient for I2(s) is (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 8 6 4 3 2 46. A closed rigid container contains distilled water and N2(g) at equilibrium. Actions that would increase the concentration of N2(g) in the water include which of the following? I. Shaking the container vigorously II. Raising the temperature of the water III. Injecting more N2(g) into the container (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) I only II only III only I and II only I, II, and III GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -13- Z X+Y CS2(l) + 3 O2(g) CO2(g) + 2 SO2(g) 47. A pure substance Z decomposes into two products, X and Y , as shown by the equation above. Which of the following graphs of the concentration of Z versus time is consistent with the rate of the reaction being first order with respect to Z ? 48. When 0.60 mol of CS2(l) reacts as completely as possible with 1.5 mol of O2(g) according to the equation above, the total number of moles of reaction products is (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) 2.4 mol 2.1 mol 1.8 mol 1.5 mol 0.75 mol Questions 49-50 refer to an experiment to determine the value of the heat of fusion of ice. A student used a calorimeter consisting of a polystyrene cup and a thermometer. The cup was weighed, then filled halfway with warm water, then weighed again. The temperature of the water was measured, and some ice cubes from a 0C ice bath were added to the cup. The mixture was gently stirred as the ice melted, and the lowest temperature reached by the water in the cup was recorded. The cup and its contents were weighed again. (B) (C) 49. The purpose of weighing the cup and its contents again at the end of the experiment was to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (D) determine the mass of ice that was added determine the mass of the thermometer determine the mass of water that evaporated verify the mass of water that was cooled verify the mass of the calorimeter cup 50. Suppose that during the experiment, a significant amount of water from the ice bath adhered to the ice cubes. How does this affect the calculated value for the heat of fusion of ice? (E) (A) The calculated value is too large because less warm water had to be cooled. (B) The calculated value is too large because more cold water had to be heated. (C) The calculated value is too small because less ice was added than the student assumed. (D) The calculated value is too small because the total mass of the calorimeter contents was too large. (E) There is no effect on the calculated value because the water adhered to the ice cubes was at 0C. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -14- F (aq) + H2O(l) HF(aq) + OH (aq) 51. Which of the following molecules contains bonds that have a bond order of 1.5 ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 55. Which of the following species, if any, acts as a Brnsted-Lowry base in the reversible reaction represented above? N2 O3 NH3 CO2 CH2CH2 (A) HF(aq) (B) H2O(l) (C) F (aq) only (D) Both F (aq) and OH(aq) act as BrnstedLowry bases. (E) No species acts as a Brnsted-Lowry base. 52. Of the following metals, which reacts violently with water at 298 K? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Au Ag Cu Mg Rb 56. What is the empirical formula of a hydrocarbon that is 10.0 percent hydrogen by mass? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 53. Heat energy is added slowly to a pure solid covalent compound at its melting point. About half of the solid melts to become a liquid. Which of the following must be true about this process? (A) Covalent bonds are broken as the solid melts. (B) The temperature of the solid/liquid mixture remains the same while heat is being added. (C) The intermolecular forces present among molecules become zero as the solid melts. (D) The volume of the compound increases as the solid melts to become a liquid. (E) The average kinetic energy of the molecules becomes greater as the molecules leave the solid state and enter the liquid state. CH3 C2H5 C3H4 C4H9 C9H10 Pb(s) Pb(l ) 57. Which of the following is true for the process represented above at 327C and 1 atm? (The normal melting point of Pb(s) is 327C.) (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 54. A steady electric current is passed through molten MgCl2 for exactly 1.00 hour, producing 243 g of Mg metal. If the same current is passed through molten AlCl3 for 1.00 hour, the mass of Al metal produced is closest to H = 0 TS = 0 S < 0 H = TG H = TS (A) 27.0 g (B) 54.0 g (C) 120. g (D) 180. g (E) 270. g GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -15- N2(g) + O2(g) + Cl2(g) 2 NOCl(g) H = + 104 kJ mol1 58. The equilibrium system represented above is contained in a sealed, rigid vessel. Which of the following will increase if the temperature of the mixture is raised? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) [N2 (g)] The rate of the forward reaction only The rate of the reverse reaction only The rates of both the forward and reverse reactions The total number of moles of gas in the vessel 59. If a metal X forms an ionic chloride with the formula XCl3 , then which of the following formulas is most likely to be that of a stable sulfide of X? (A) XS2 (B) X 2 S3 (C) XS6 (D) X(SO3 )3 (E) X 2 (SO3 )3 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -16- Questions 60-61 refer to the figures below. The figures show portions of a buret used in a titration of an acid solution of known concentration with a saturated solution of Ba(OH)2. Figures 1 and 2 show the level of the Ba(OH)2 solution at the start and at the endpoint of the titration, respectively. Phenolphthalein was used as the indicator for the titration. 60. What is the evidence that the endpoint of the titration has been reached? (A) The color of the solution in the buret changes from pink to colorless. (B) The color of the solution in the buret changes from blue to red. (C) The color of the contents of the flask below the buret changes from colorless to pink. (D) The color of the contents of the flask below the buret changes from blue to red. (E) The contents of the flask below the buret change from clear to cloudy. 61. The volume of saturated Ba(OH)2 used to neutralize the acid was closest to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 6.60 mL 22.80 mL 23.02 mL 23.20 mL 29.80 mL GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -17- C(diamond) C(graphite) 62. For the reaction represented above, the standard Gibbs free energy change, G298 , has a value of 2.90 kJ mol1. Which of the following best accounts for the observation that the reaction does NOT occur (i.e., diamond is stable) at 298 K and 1.00 atm? (A) S for the reaction is positive. (B) The activation energy, Ea , for the reaction is very large. (C) The reaction is slightly exothermic (H < 0). (D) Diamond has a density greater than that of graphite. (E) Diamond has a heat capacity lower than that of graphite. 8 H2(g) + S8(s) 8 H2S(g) 65. By mixing only 0.15 M HCl and 0.25 M HCl, it is possible to create all of the following solutions EXCEPT 63. When 25.6 g of S8(s) (molar mass 256 g mol1) (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) reacts completely with an excess of H2(g) according to the equation above, the volume of H2S(g) , measured at 0C and 1.00 atm, produced is closest to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 30 L 20 L 10 L 5L 2L 66. At 25C a saturated solution of a metal hydroxide, M(OH)2 , has a pH of 9.0. What is the value of the solubility-product constant, Ksp , of M(OH)2(s) at 25C? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 2 HClO + 3 O2 2 HClO4 64. As the reaction represented above proceeds to the right, the oxidation number of chlorine changes from (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 0.23 M HCl 0.21 M HCl 0.18 M HCl 0.16 M HCl 0.14 M HCl 5.0 1028 1.0 1027 5.0 1019 5.0 1016 1.0 1015 1 to +3 1 to +5 +1 to +5 +1 to +7 +3 to +7 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -18- 71. When a solution is formed by adding some methanol, CH3OH , to water, processes that are endothermic include which of the following? 67. A student weighs out 0.0154 mol of pure, dry NaCl in order to prepare a 0.154 M NaCl solution. Of the following pieces of laboratory equipment, which would be most essential for preparing the solution? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) I. Methanol molecules move water molecules apart as the methanol goes into solution. II. Water molecules move methanol molecules apart as the methanol goes into solution. III. Intermolecular attractions form between molecules of water and methanol as the methanol goes into solution. Large crucible with lid 50 mL volumetric pipet 100 mL Erlenmeyer flask 100 mL graduated beaker 100 mL volumetric flask (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 68. In which of the following are the chemical species correctly ordered from smallest radius to largest radius? (A) B < C < N (B) Ar < Xe < Kr 72. Of the following gases, which has the greatest average molecular speed at 298 K? (C) Cl < S < S2 (D) Na < Na+ < K (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (E) K+ < Ca2+ < K 69. A large piece of wood can burn slowly, but wood in the form of sawdust can combust explosively. The primary reason for the difference is that compared with a large piece of wood, sawdust Cl2(g) NO(g) H2S(g) HCN(g) PH3(g) 73. Types of hybridization exhibited by carbon atoms in a molecule of propyne, CH3CCH, include which of the following? (A) has a greater surface area per kilogram (B) has a greater carbon content per kilogram (C) absorbs more atmospheric moisture per kilogram (D) contains more compounds that act as catalysts for combustion (E) contains more compounds that have higher heats of combustion I. sp II. sp2 III. sp3 (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 70. Of the following elements, which would be expected to have chemical properties most similar to those of sulfur, S ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) I only III only I and II only II and III only I, II, and III I only III only I and III only II and III only I, II, and III Br Cl N P Se GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -19- XY2(aq) X2+(aq) + 2 Y(aq) 75. In which of the following processes are covalent bonds broken? 74. A soluble compound XY2 dissociates in water according to the equation above. In a 0.050 m solution of the compound, the XY2(aq) species is 40.0 percent dissociated. In the solution, the number of moles of particles of solute per 1.0 kg of water is closest to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Solid silver melts. Solid potassium chloride melts. Solid carbon (graphite) sublimes. Solid iodine sublimes. Glucose dissolves in water. 0.15 0.090 0.070 0.040 0.020 END OF SECTION I IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION. DO NOT GO ON TO SECTION II UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO. -20- Section II Free-Response Questions -21- INFORMATION IN THE TABLE BELOW AND IN THE TABLES ON PAGES 23-25 MAY BE USEFUL IN ANSWERING THE QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION OF THE EXAMINATION. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -22- STANDARD REDUCTION POTENTIALS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION AT 25C E (V) Half-reaction - F2 ( g ) + 2 e - 2F 2+ Co Au(s) 2 Cl - O2 (g) + 4H + + 4 e - 2 H 2 O(l ) Br2 (l ) + 2 e 2 Br - 2 Hg2+ + 2 e - Hg2+ + 2 e - Hg2 2+ Hg(l ) Ag(s) 2 Hg(l ) Fe 2+ 2 I- Cu(s) Cu(s) Cu+ Sn 4+ + 2 e - Sn2+ S(s) + 2 H + + 2 e - Co 3+ Au +e 3+ - + 3e Cl2 (g) + 2 e + Ag + e Hg2 Fe 2+ 3+ - - - + 2e +e - - I 2 (s ) + 2 e - Cu+ + e Cu 2+ + 2e Cu 2+ - - +e - H 2S(g) + Pb + 2e - H2 ( g) 2+ Pb(s) Sn 2+ + 2e - Sn(s) - Ni(s) + 2e - Co(s) + 2e - Cd(s) Cr 2+ Fe 2+ + 2 e - Fe(s) - Cr(s) Zn(s) H 2 ( g) + 2 OH - Mn(s) Al(s) Be(s) Mg(s) 2H + 2e Ni 2+ + 2e Co 2+ Cd 2+ Cr Cr 3+ +e 3+ Zn - + 3e 2+ + 2e - 2 H 2 O(l ) + 2 e Mn2+ + 2 e Al 3+ Be + 3e 2+ Mg + 2e 2+ Na + e Sr 2+ 2+ Na(s) - Ca(s) - Sr(s) - Ba(s) Rb(s) + 2e + 2e 2+ + 2e - Rb + e - - + Ba - + 2e + Ca - - - K ( s) + - Cs(s) Li + e - Li(s) + K +e Cs + e + 2.87 1.82 1.50 1.36 1.23 1.07 0.92 0.85 0.80 0.79 0.77 0.53 0.52 0.34 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.00 0.13 0.14 0.25 0.40 0.28 0.41 0.44 0.74 0.76 0.83 1.18 1.66 1.70 2.37 2.71 2.87 2.89 2.90 2.92 2.92 2.92 3.05 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -23- ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS AND CONSTANTS E v l p ATOMIC STRUCTURE E = hv c = lv h l= p = mu mu -2.178 10 -18 joule En = n2 Boltzmanns constant, k = 1.38 10 -23 J K -1 Avogadros number = 6.022 1023 mol -1 Electron charge, e = -1.602 10 -19 coulomb 1 electron volt per atom = 96.5 kJ mol -1 Equilibrium Constants [A - ] [HA] K a (weak acid) K b (weak base) K w (water) K p (gas pressure) [HB+ ] [B] pK a = - log K a , pK b = - log K b pOH = pK b + log K p = K c ( RT ) u = velocity n = principal quantum number m = mass Plancks constant, h = 6.63 10 -34 J s pH = - log [H + ], pOH = - log[OH - ] 14 = pH + pOH Dn energy frequency wavelength momentum Speed of light, c = 3.0 108 m s-1 EQUILIBRIUM [H + ][A - ] Ka = [HA] [OH - ][HB+ ] Kb = [B] K w = [OH ][H + ] = 1.0 10 -14 @ 25 C = K a Kb pH = pK a + log = = = = K c (molar concentrations) , S = standard entropy where D n = moles product gas - moles reactant gas H = standard enthalpy THERMOCHEMISTRY/KINETICS G = standard free energy S products - S reactants DH = DHf products - DH f reactants E T n m q c Cp DS = DG = DGf products - DGf reactants DG = D H - T D S = - RT ln K = -2.303 RT log K = -n E DG = DG + RT ln Q = DG + 2.303 RT log Q q = mcDT DH Cp = DT standard reduction potential temperature moles mass heat specific heat capacity molar heat capacity at constant pressure Ea = activation energy k = rate constant A = frequency factor Faraday's constant, ln [A ] t - ln [ A ]0 = - kt 1 1 = kt [A] t [A]0 ln k = = = = = = = = = 96,500 coulombs per mole of electrons Gas constant, R = 8.31 J mol -1 K -1 = 0.0821 L atm mol -1 K -1 = 62.4 L torr mol -1 K -1 () = 8.31 volt coulomb mol -1 K -1 - Ea 1 + ln A RT GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -24- GASES, LIQUIDS, AND SOLUTIONS P V T n D m u PA = Ptotal X A , where X A = Ptotal = PA + PB + PC + ... m n= M moles A total moles K = C + 273 PV1 P2V2 1 = T1 T2 m D= V 3kT 3 RT urms = = m M 12 KE per molecule = mu 2 3 KE per mole = RT 2 r1 M2 = r2 M1 molarity, M = moles solute per liter solution molality = moles solute per kilogram solvent DT f = iK f molality DTb = iK b molality p = iMRT A = abc pressure volume temperature number of moles density mass velocity = = = = = = = root-mean-square speed kinetic energy rate of effusion molar mass osmotic pressure van't Hoff factor molal freezing -point depression constant Kb A a b c Q I q t n a P + 2 (V - nb) = nRT V = = = = = = = urms KE r M p i Kf PV = nRT 2 = = = = = = = = = molal boiling-point elevation constant absorbance molar absorptivity path length concentration reaction quotient current (amperes) charge (coulombs) time (seconds) E = standard reduction potential K = equilibrium constant OXIDATION-REDUCTION; ELECTROCHEMISTRY Gas constant, R = 8.31 J mol -1 K -1 = 0.0821 L atm mol -1 K -1 Q= I= [ C] c [D] d a [A] [B] = 62.4 L torr mol -1 K -1 , where a A + b B c C + d D = 8.31 volt coulomb mol -1 K -1 Boltzmann's constant, k = 1.38 10 -23 J K -1 q t Ecell = Ecell log K = b K f for H 2 O = 1.86 K kg mol -1 RT 0.0592 ln Q = Ecell log Q @ 25 C n n K b for H2 O = 0.512 K kg mol -1 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr nE 0.0592 STP = 0.00 C and 1.0 atm Faraday's constant, = 96,500 coulombs per mole of electrons GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -25- CHEMISTRY Section II (Total time95 minutes) Part A Time55 minutes YOU MAY USE YOUR CALCULATOR FOR PART A. CLEARLY SHOW THE METHOD USED AND THE STEPS INVOLVED IN ARRIVING AT YOUR ANSWERS. It is to your advantage to do this, since you may obtain partial credit if you do and you will receive little or no credit if you do not. Attention should be paid to significant figures. 1. Answer the following questions about the solubility of the salts Li3PO4 and PbCl2 . Assume that hydrolysis effects are negligible. The equation for the dissolution of Li3PO4(s) is shown below. Li3PO4(s) 3 Li+(aq) + PO43(aq) Ksp = 3.2 109 at 25C (a) Write the equilibrium-constant expression for the dissolution of Li3PO4(s). (b) Assuming that volume changes are negligible, calculate the maximum number of moles of Li3PO4(s) that can dissolve in (i) 0.50 L of water at 25C (ii) 0.50 L of 0.20 M LiNO3 at 25C The equation for the dissolution of PbCl2 is shown below. PbCl2(s) Pb2+(aq) + 2 Cl(aq) Ksp = 1.6 105 at 25C (c) Calculate the concentration of Cl(aq) in a saturated solution of PbCl2 at 25C . (d) An open container holds 1.000 L of 0.00400 M PbCl2 , which is unsaturated at 25C. Calculate the minimum volume of water, in mL, that must evaporate from the container before solid PbCl2 can precipitate. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -26- 2. Answer the following using chemical concepts and principles of the behavior of gases. (a) A metal cylinder with a volume of 5.25 L contains 3.22 g of He(g) and 11.56 g of N2(g) at 15.0C. (i) Calculate the total pressure in the cylinder. (ii) Calculate the partial pressure of N2(g) in the cylinder. (b) A 1.50 L container holds a 9.62 g sample of an unknown gaseous saturated hydrocarbon at 30C and 3.62 atm. (i) Calculate the density of the gas. (ii) Calculate the molar mass of the gas. (iii) Write the formula of the hydrocarbon. (iv) Calculate the root-mean-square speed of the gas molecules in the container at 30C. (Note: 1 J = 1 kg m2 s2) 3. A student performs a titration in which a 10.00 mL sample of 0.0571 M HCl is titrated with a solution of NaOH of unknown concentration. (a) Describe the steps that the student should take to prepare and fill the buret for the titration given a wet 50.00 mL buret and the materials listed below. 0.0571 M HCl solution Indicator solution NaOH(aq) (unknown concentration) Distilled water 10.5 M NaOH solution 100 mL beaker (b) Calculate the pH of the 0.0571 M HCl . (c) A volume of 7.62 mL of the NaOH solution was needed to reach the end point of the titration. Calculate the molarity of the NaOH solution used in the titration. In a different titration using a different NaOH solution, the concentration of NaOH was determined by the student to be 0.0614 M. (d) Given that the actual concentration of the NaOH solution was 0.0627 M, calculate the percent error of the students result. (e) Calculate the volume of 10.5 M NaOH that is needed to prepare 250.0 mL of 0.0627 M NaOH . STOP If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this part only. Do not turn to the other part of the test until you are told to do so. -27- CHEMISTRY Part B Time40 minutes NO CALCULATORS MAY BE USED FOR PART B. Answer Question 4 below. The Section II score weighting for this question is 10 percent. 4. For each of the following three reactions, in part (i) write a balanced equation and in part (ii) answer the question about the reaction. In part (i), coefficients should be in terms of lowest whole numbers. Assume that solutions are aqueous unless otherwise indicated. Represent substances in solutions as ions if the substances are extensively ionized. Omit formulas for any ions or molecules that are unchanged by the reaction. You may use the empty space at the bottom of the next page for scratch work, but only equations that are written in the answer boxes provided will be graded. (a) Equal volumes of 0.1 M hydrofluoric acid and 0.1 M potassium hydroxide are combined. (i) Balanced equation: (ii) Draw the complete Lewis electron-dot diagram for the reactant that is the Brnsted-Lowry base in the forward reaction. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -28- (b) Solid calcium metal burns in air. (i) Balanced equation: (ii) Predict the algebraic sign of H for the reaction. Explain your prediction. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ (c) Samples of nitrogen monoxide gas and oxygen gas are combined. (i) Balanced equation: (ii) If the reaction is second order with respect to nitrogen monoxide and first order with respect to oxygen, what is the rate law for the reaction? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -29- Answer Question 5 and Question 6. The Section II score weighting for these questions is 15 percent each. Your responses to these questions will be graded on the basis of the accuracy and relevance of the information cited. Explanations should be clear and well organized. Examples and equations may be included in your responses where appropriate. Specific answers are preferable to broad, diffuse responses. 5. Answer the following questions relating to the galvanic cell shown in the diagram above. (a) Write the balanced equation for the overall cell reaction. (b) Calculate the value of E for the cell. (c) Is the value of G for the overall cell reaction positive, negative, or 0 ? Justify your answer. (d) Consider the cell as it is operating. (i) Does Ecell increase, decrease, or remain the same? Explain. (ii) Does G of the overall cell reaction increase, decrease, or remain the same? Explain. (iii) What would happen if the NaNO3 solution in the salt bridge was replaced with distilled water? Explain. (e) After a certain amount of time, the mass of the Ag electrode changes by x grams. Given that the molar mass of Ag is 108 g mol1 and the molar mass of Co is 59 g mol1, write the expression for the change in the mass of the Co electrode in terms of x. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -30- 6. Answer each of the following using principles of atomic or molecular structure, and/or intermolecular or intramolecular forces. (a) Explain why the HOH bond angle in H2O is less than the HNH bond angles in NH3 , as shown in the table below. HOH Bond Angle in H2O HNH Bond Angles in NH3 104.5 107 (b) Explain why the radius of the Br atom is less than the radius of the Br ion, as shown in the table below. Radius of Br Radius of Br 0.111 nm 0.196 nm (c) Explain why the dipole moment of HI is less than the dipole moment of HCl, as shown in the table below. Dipole Moment of HI Dipole Moment of HCl 0.42 debye 1.08 debyes (d) Explain why the normal boiling point of Ne is less than the normal boiling point of Kr , as shown in the table below. Normal Boiling Point of Ne Normal Boiling Point of Kr 27 K 121 K STOP END OF EXAM IF YOU FINISH PART B OF SECTION II BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, YOU MAY RETURN TO PART A OF SECTION II IF YOU WISH, BUT YOU MAY NOT USE A CALCULATOR. -31- Name: ____________________________________ AP Chemistry Student Answer Sheet for Multiple-Choice Section No. 1 Answer No. 31 Answer No. 61 2 32 62 3 33 63 4 34 64 5 35 65 6 36 66 7 37 67 8 38 68 9 39 69 10 40 70 11 41 71 12 42 72 13 43 73 14 44 74 15 45 75 16 46 17 47 18 48 19 49 20 50 21 51 22 52 23 53 24 54 25 55 26 56 27 57 28 58 29 59 30 60 -32- Answer AP Chemistry Multiple-Choice Answer Key No. 1 Correct Answer D No. 31 Correct Answer A No. 61 Correct Answer D 2 B 32 C 62 B 3 A 33 B 63 B 4 E 34 B 64 D 5 A 35 B 65 E 6 C 36 C 66 D 7 D 37 E 67 E 8 B 38 D 68 C 9 C 39 C 69 A 10 A 40 E 70 E 11 E 41 C 71 C 12 D 42 B 72 D 13 B 43 A 73 C 14 C 44 C 74 B 15 C 45 D 75 C 16 E 46 C 17 C 47 E 18 E 48 D 19 D 49 A 20 B 50 C 21 E 51 B 22 D 52 E 23 C 53 B 24 C 54 D 25 C 55 D 26 A 56 C 27 D 57 E 28 E 58 D 29 B 59 B 30 D 60 C -33- AP Chemistry Free-Response Scoring Guidelines General Scoring Principles In regard to mathematical errors, a 1-point deduction is made; this deduction may be applied only once per question. In regard to errors in reporting significant figures, a 1-point deduction is made; this deduction may be applied only once per question. A leeway of plus or minus one significant figure different from the correct number of significant figures is allowed before a 1-point deduction is made. For questions including parts that refer back to previous parts of the same question, a wrong answer that derives from the correct use of a previously calculated incorrect answer should not be counted as wrong. The emphasis of scoring is on process, and an error made early on in a multipart calculation should not jeopardize the earning of full credit for the correct use of that incorrect value later in the same question. -34- AP Chemistry Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 1 Answer the following questions about the solubility of the salts Li3PO4 and PbCl2 . Assume that hydrolysis effects are negligible. The equation for the dissolution of Li3PO4(s) is shown below. Li3PO4(s) 3 Li+(aq) + PO43(aq) Ksp = 3.2 109 at 25C (a) Write the equilibrium-constant expression for the dissolution of Li3PO4(s). Ksp = [Li+] 3[PO43] One point is earned for the correct expression. (b) Assuming that volume changes are negligible, calculate the maximum number of moles of Li3PO4(s) that can dissolve in (i) 0.50 L of water at 25C Let x represent the molar concentration of Li3PO4 present in a saturated solution of Li3PO4. Then Ksp = 3.2 10 -9 = (3x)3(x) = 27 x 4 , 3.2 10 -9 = 3.3 10 -3 M. Therefore the number of moles 27 of Li3PO4(s) that can dissolve in 0.50 L of water is thus x = 4 -3 0.50 L 3.3 10 mol Li3 PO 4 = 1.7 10 3 mol 1.0 L One point is earned for a correct setup using the Ksp expression from part (a). One point is earned for a correct calculation of moles of Li3PO4 . (ii) 0.50 L of 0.20 M LiNO3 at 25C In 0.20 M LiNO3 , [Li+] = 0.20 M. Assume that the amount of Li+(aq) contributed to the solution by the Li3PO4(s) that dissolves is negligibly small compared to 0.20 M. Then let y represent the molar concentration of PO43(aq) present in the solution due to the Li3PO4(s) that dissolves in the 0.20 M LiNO3 . Then Ksp = 3.2 10 -9 = (0.20)3(y) y = 3.2 10 -9 = 4.0 10 -7 M. 3 (0.20) One point is earned for recognizing that [Li+] is approximately equal to 0.20 M in the solution to which the Li3PO4(s) was added. So [PO43(aq)] = [Li3PO4(aq)] = 4.0 10 -7 M in 0.20 M LiNO3 (aq). Therefore, the number of moles of Li3PO4(s) that can dissolve in 0.50 L of water is 0.50 L 4.0 10 -7 mol Li3 PO 4 = 2.0 10 7 mol 1.0 L -35- One point is earned for a correct calculation of moles of Li3PO4 . AP Chemistry Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 1 (continued) The equation for the dissolution of PbCl2 is shown below. PbCl2(s) Pb2+(aq) + 2 Cl(aq) Ksp = 1.6 105 at 25C (c) Calculate the concentration of Cl(aq) in a saturated solution of PbCl2 at 25C. Let z = [Pb2+] in a saturated solution of PbCl2 . Then Ksp = [Pb2+] [Cl] 2 = ( z )( 2 z )2 = 4z3. Thus 1.6 105 = 4z3 z= 3 One point is earned for a correct setup. 1.6 10 -5 4 One point is earned for a correct calculation of the value of [Cl]. z = [Pb2+] = 1.6 102 M [Cl] = 2[Pb2+] = 2(1.6 102 M) = 3.2 102 M (d) An open container holds 1.000 L of 0.00400 M PbCl2 , which is unsaturated at 25C. Calculate the minimum volume of water, in mL, that must evaporate from the container before solid PbCl2 can precipitate. 1.000 L of 0.00400 M PbCl2(aq) contains 0.00400 mol of PbCl2(aq), thus it contains 0.00400 mol Pb2+(aq) and 0.00800 mol Cl(aq). Let V = volume of the solution at saturation, then ( 0.00400 mol 0.00800 Ksp = 1.6 105 = V V V= ) 2 = 2.6 10 -7 V3 -7 3 2.6 10 = 0.25 L = 250 mL at saturation 1.6 10 -5 One point is earned for the calculation of the saturation volume. Thus the volume of water that must evaporate = 1,000. 250 = 750 mL OR From part (c), the amount of PbCl2 dissolved in 1 L of saturated PbCl2(aq) is 1.6 102 M . Let V = volume of the solution at saturation, then 0.016 mol PbCl 2 0.00400 mol PbCl2 = 1,000 mL V V = 250 mL Thus the volume of water that must evaporate = 1,000. 250 = 750 mL -36- One point is earned for subtracting the saturation volume from 1,000 mL. AP Chemistry Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 2 Answer the following using chemical concepts and principles of the behavior of gases. (a) A metal cylinder with a volume of 5.25 L contains 3.22 g of He(g) and 11.56 g of N2(g) at 15.0C. (i) Calculate the total pressure in the cylinder. 3.22 g He 1.00 mol He = 0.805 mol He 4.00 g He 11.56 g N2 One point is earned for the calculations of moles and adding them together. 1.00 mol N 2 = 0.4126 mol N2 28.02 g N 2 One point is earned for the correct substitution into the gas law equation. total moles of gas = (0.805 + 0.4126) = 1.218 mol P= nRT (1.218 mol)(0.0821 L atm mol1 K 1 )(15 + 273) K = V 5.25 L P = 5.49 atm One point is earned for the correct answer. (ii) Calculate the partial pressure of N2(g) in the cylinder. pressure N2 = = moles N 2 gas total pressure in flask total moles of gas 0.4126 mol 5.49 atm = 1.86 atm 1.218 mol One point is earned for the calculation of the mole fraction of N2 . One point is earned for the correct answer. (b) A 1.50 L container holds a 9.62 g sample of an unknown gaseous saturated hydrocarbon at 30C and 3.62 atm. (i) Calculate the density of the gas. D= m 9.62 g = = 6.41 g L1 1.50 L V One point is earned for the correct answer. -37- AP Chemistry Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 2 (continued) (ii) Calculate the molar mass of the gas. m Let M = molar mass, then PV = nRT = RT M 1 mRT (9.62 g)(0.0821 L atm K mol1 )(303 K) M= = = 44.1 g mol1 PV (3.62 atm)(1.50 L) One point is earned for the correct answer. (iii) Write the formula of the hydrocarbon. Saturated hydrocarbons have the generic formula CnH2n + 2 , therefore let 44.1 g = 12(n) + 1(2n +2) = 14n + 2 42.1 = 14 n 3=n One point is earned for the correct answer. C3H8 (iv) Calculate the root-mean-square speed of the gas molecules in the container at 30C. ( Note: 1 J = 1 kg m2 s2 ) rms = 3RT = M 3(8.31 kg m 2s 2 mol1 K 1 )(303 K) 0.0441 kg mol1 One point is earned for the correct setup using the molar mass in kilograms. One point is earned for the correct answer. = 414 m s1 -38- AP Chemistry Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 3 A student performs a titration in which a 10.00 mL sample of 0.0571 M HCl is titrated with a solution of NaOH of unknown concentration. (a) Describe the steps that the student should take to prepare and fill the buret for the titration given a wet 50.00 mL buret and the materials listed below. 0.0571 M HCl solution Indicator solution NaOH(aq) (unknown concentration) Distilled water 10.5 M NaOH solution 100 mL beaker Rinse the buret with some distilled water and then pour some of the NaOH solution of unknown concentration into the beaker and use it to rinse the buret two times. Use the beaker to carefully fill the buret with the NaOH solution of unknown concentration. Put the beaker under the buret and drain enough solution to remove any air bubbles in the neck and tip of the buret. One point is earned for rinsing the buret with the titrant solution. One point is earned for removing air bubbles from the neck and tip of the buret. (b) Calculate the pH of the 0.0571 M HCl . HCl is a strong acid [H+] in 0.0571 M HCl = 0.0571 M pH = log [H+] = log (0.0571) = 1.243 One point is earned for the correct answer. (c) A volume of 7.62 mL of the NaOH solution was needed to reach the end point of the titration. Calculate the molarity of the NaOH solution used in the titration. mol HCl titrated = 10.00 mL 0.0571 mol HCl = 0.000571 mol; 1,000 mL ratio HCl:NaOH in neutralization is 1:1, so 0.000571 mol NaOH reacted; One point is earned for calculating the moles of HCl in the sample that was titrated. One point is earned for calculating the molarity of the NaOH solution. 0.000571 mol NaOH = 0.0749 M NaOH 0.00762 L -39- AP Chemistry Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 3 (continued) In a different titration using a different NaOH solution, the concentration of NaOH was determined by the student to be 0.0614 M. (d) Given that the actual concentration of the NaOH solution was 0.0627 M, calculate the percent error of the students result. percent error = 0.0614 - 0.0627 100 = 2.1 % 0.0627 One point is earned for the correct answer. (e) Calculate the volume of 10.5 M NaOH that is needed to prepare 250.0 mL of 0.0627 M NaOH. 250.0 mL 0.0627 mol 1,000. mL 0.0157 mol NaOH = 0.0157 mol NaOH needed 1,000. mL = 1.49 mL 10.5 mol NaOH -40- One point is earned for calculating the moles of NaOH needed. One point is earned for the correct answer. AP Chemistry Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 4 For each of the following three reactions, in part (i) write a balanced equation and in part (ii) answer the question about the reaction. In part (i), coefficients should be in terms of lowest whole numbers. Assume that solutions are aqueous unless otherwise indicated. Represent substances in solutions as ions if the substances are extensively ionized. Omit formulas for any ions or molecules that are unchanged by the reaction. You may use the empty space at the bottom of the next page for scratch work, but only equations that are written in the answer boxes provided will be graded. (a) Equal volumes of 0.1 M hydrofluoric acid and 0.1 M potassium hydroxide are combined. (i) Balanced equation: HF + OH F + H2O (ii) Draw the complete Lewis electron-dot diagram for the reactant that is the Brnsted-Lowry base in the forward reaction. (b) Solid calcium metal burns in air. (i) Balanced equation: 2 Ca + O2 2 CaO (ii) Predict the algebraic sign of H for the reaction. Explain your prediction. The sign of H will be negative because G is negative (the reaction occurs) and S is negative_ __ (a solid and a gas react to form a solid). According to the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, H = G + TS. Therefore H is the sum of two negative quantities and as such must be negative.__ -41- __ ___ AP Chemistry Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 4 (continued) (c) Samples of nitrogen monoxide gas and oxygen gas are combined. (i) Balanced equation: 2 NO + O2 2 NO2 (ii) If the reaction is second order with respect to nitrogen monoxide and first order with respect to oxygen, what is the rate law for the reaction? 2 __ __rate = k[NO] [O2]_______________________________________ __ _______________________________________________________________________________ _ ____ General Scoring Notes for Question 4 Five points are earned for each of parts (a), (b), and (c), distributed as follows. Four points are earned for part (i): one point for the correct reactants, two points for the correct product(s), and one point for the correct coefficients in the balanced equation. One point is earned for the correct answer in part (ii). -42- AP Chemistry Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 5 Answer the following questions relating to the galvanic cell shown in the diagram above. (a) Write the balanced equation for the overall cell reaction. One point is earned for the correct equation. 2 Ag+(aq) + Co(s) 2 Ag(s) + Co2+(aq) (b) Calculate the value of E for the cell. One point is earned for the correct value of Ecell = 0.80 (0.28) = 1.08 V Ecell . (c) Is the value of G for the overall cell reaction positive, negative, or 0 ? Justify your answer. The value of G for the overall reaction must be negative because the cell reaction occurs (is spontaneous) as the cell operates. OR Since Ecell is positive and G = nFE , the value of G must be negative. -43- One point is earned for the correct answer, including a valid justification. AP Chemistry Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 5 (continued) (d) Consider the cell as it is operating. (i) Does Ecell increase, decrease, or remain the same? Explain. As the cell operates, the concentration of Ag+ decreases and the concentration of Co2+ increases [Co2+ ] increases ln Q increases the ratio Q = [Ag+ ]2 Ecell = Ecell - One point is earned for the correct answer, including a valid justification. RT ln Q becomes smaller (decreases). nF (ii) Does G of the overall cell reaction increase, decrease, or remain the same? Explain. The value of G for the system increases (becomes less negative) as the cell operates and the system approaches equilibrium (when G = 0). One point is earned for the correct answer, including a valid justification. (iii) What would happen if the NaNO3 solution in the salt bridge was replaced with distilled water? Explain. The cell would not operate. The voltage of the cell is too small to overcome the electrical resistance of distilled water, which is a poor conductor due to its very low concentration of ions (about 107 M H+(aq) and 107 M OH(aq)) that could carry the current from one cell to the other. One point is earned for the correct answer, including a valid justification. (e) After a certain amount of time, the mass of the Ag electrode changes by x grams. Given that the molar mass of Ag is 108 g mol1 and the molar mass of Co is 59 g mol1, write the expression for the change in the mass of the Co electrode in terms of x. mol Ag = mass Ag 1 mol Ag 1 x =x = 108 g Ag 108 108 mol Co = mol Ag x 1 x 1 mol Co = = 108 216 2 mol Ag 2 59 g C o 59 x = 59 = x mass Co = mol Co 216 1 mol Co 216 -44- One point is earned for using the correct mole ratio of Co to Ag . One point is earned for the correct answer (negative sign is not required). AP Chemistry Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 6 Answer each of the following using principles of atomic or molecular structure and/or intermolecular or intramolecular forces. (a) Explain why the HOH bond angle in H2O is less than the HNH bond angles in NH3 , as shown in the table below. HOH Bond Angle in H2O HNH Bond Angles in NH3 104.5 107 Both molecules have tetrahedral electron-domain geometries and might be expected to have bond angles of 109.5. However, electron domains for nonbonding pairs of electrons exert a greater repulsion on adjacent pairs of electrons than do electron domains for bonding pairs. Thus, in the H2O molecule with its two nonbonding pairs of electrons, the electron domains of bonding pairs are compressed to a greater extent than they are in the NH3 molecule, which has only one nonbonding pair of electrons. One point is earned for citing the difference in number of nonbonding pairs of electrons. One point is earned for citing the greater repulsion from nonbonding pairs as compared with bonding pairs. (b) Explain why the radius of the Br atom is less than the radius of the Br ion, as shown in the table below. Radius of Br Radius of Br 0.111 nm 0.196 nm The nuclear charge (+35) is the same for both the Br and Br species, but the extra electron in Br causes the electron cloud to expand due to an increase in mutual repulsions among the electrons that make up the cloud. -45- One point is earned for recognition that Br and Br have the same nuclear charge. One point is earned for citing increased repulsion among electrons. AP Chemistry Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 6 (continued) (c) Explain why the dipole moment of HI is less than the dipole moment of HCl , as shown in the table below. Dipole Moment of HI Dipole Moment of HCl 0.42 debye 1.08 debyes Iodine, having a lower electronegativity than chlorine has, forms a bond with hydrogen that is less polar than the bond between chlorine and hydrogen in HCl. The lower polarity of the H I bond means that the dipole moment of the bond is smaller than that of the H Cl bond. One point is earned for citing the difference in electronegativity between I and Cl . One point is earned for the comparison of the polarity of the two bonds. (d) Explain why the normal boiling point of Ne is less than the normal boiling point of Kr, as shown in the table below. Normal Boiling Point of Ne Normal Boiling Point of Kr 27 K 121 K The intermolecular forces among atoms in liquid Ne are the same type of forces as those among atoms in liquid Kr, namely London (dispersion) forces. However, the magnitudes of these forces are smaller in Ne because the electron clouds of Ne atoms are smaller and less polarizable than the electron clouds of Kr atoms. Note: An explanation that cites only periodic trends or only the relative masses of Ne and Kr does not earn credit. -46- One point is earned for mentioning that intermolecular forces involved are London (dispersion) forces. One point is earned for mentioning the relative polarizability of the electron clouds of the atoms.
MOST POPULAR MATERIALS FROM CHEM 101
MOST POPULAR MATERIALS FROM CHEM
MOST POPULAR MATERIALS FROM UPenn