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3 Student: Chapter ___________________________________________________________________________ 1. Men are more involved than ever in the grocery shopping task because of _____: A. generational shifts (younger women are now more educated than men) B. economics (the recent recession resulted in more men out of work) C. masculine/feminine values (there is a shift to more balance) D. a and b E. all of the above 2. The percentage of U.S. men who are the primary grocery shopper for their home is _____. A. 5 percent B. 25 percent C. 51 percent D. 75 percent E. none of the above 3. ____ are widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable. A. Norms B. Cultural values C. Precepts D. Prescriptions E. Orientations 4. Which of the following is true regarding changes in American cultural values? A. Shifts in cultural values are not observable. B. Changes in values tend to occur quickly. C. Changes in values tend to occur evenly across individuals and groups. D. There is substantial variance in values across individuals and groups. E. Cultural values are constant. 5. Which of the following provides an accurate description of the organic food market? A. foods which meet USDA standards so that they are certified organic enhance consumer trust B. organic sales are expected to grow to $50 million by 2012 C. roughly two-thirds of Americans buy organic foods regularly D. supermarkets are expected to begin carrying organic foods by 2012 E. all of the above describe the organic food market 6. Which of the following has NOT been found to be a top motive for organic purchases? A. lower cost B. health C. taste D. food safety E. environment 7. Mitch buys organic food and does not eat any foods containing pesticides, herbicides or antibiotics. He based this lifestyle decision on his belief that food grown without the use of chemicals keeps them out of our bodies directly (we don't consume them in our food) and indirectly (they don't end up in our drinking water through run-off). On which motive did Mitch base his decision? A. economics B. health and environment factors C. governmental policy D. religious reasons E. all of the above are motives on which Mitch based his decision 8. When did Americans begin to place increased emphasis on leisure, immediate gratification, and sensual gratification? A. after the end of the Civil War B. after the end of World War I C. during the Depression D. after the end of World War II E. after the Vietnam War 9. Leigh is working on a research project for her marketing class, and her assignment is to study how Americans' values with respect to sensual gratification and abstinence have changed in the past 50 years. Which of the following would give her the best insight into these changes? A. advertising B. movies C. video games D. government documents E. a, b, and c 10. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the religious/secular value in American society? A. A religious group does not control the educational system, government, or political process. B. Most people's daily behaviors are not guided by strict religious guidelines. C. America is basically a religious society. D. Religious-based beliefs do influence decisions. E. Many Americans for whom religion is especially important are conservative in their beliefs. 11. Which of the following is a self-oriented value? A. problem solving/fatalistic B. individual/collective C. tradition/change D. material/nonmaterial E. performance/status 12. Which of the following is NOT an environment-oriented value? A. cleanliness B. performance/status C. tradition/change D. risk taking/security E. all of the above are environment-oriented values 13. Which of the following is NOT an other-oriented value? A. diversity/uniformity B. masculine/feminine C. limited family/extended family D. tradition/change E. individual/collective 14. Which of the following is a current American value? A. uniformity B. active C. religious D. youth E. overcome nature 15. Which of the following is a traditional American value? A. youth B. competition C. active D. hard work E. all of the above 16. Which of the following is an emerging American value? A. materialistic B. individual C. admiring nature D. masculine E. postponed gratification 17. Which changing American value has been blamed for the fact that people age 18 to 40 are most likely to admit that they are spending beyond their comfort range? A. the shift toward immediate gratification B. the shift toward a more religious society C. the shift toward voluntary simplicity D. the shift toward becoming more active E. the shift away from being fatalistic 18. A shift from a focus on sensual gratification to abstinence in America would most likely affect _____. A. the role of price in purchase decisions B. the types of advertising themes used C. the complexity of decision rules used in purchase decisions D. the diffusion of Internet shopping E. none of the above 19. A shift back to an emphasis on postponed gratification in America would most likely _____. A. increase the use of credit B. decrease the use of credit C. alter the timing of television commercials D. expand the use of Internet shopping E. none of the above 20. Which is NOT a reason why Americans work long hours? A. minimum wage is higher the more hours worked B. because of their material orientation C. because they may lack skills or job opportunities to provide even a moderate lifestyle without doing so D. work is meaningful and valuable to them E. all of the above are reasons why Americans work long hours 21. _____ is consumers' efforts to reduce their reliance on consumption and material possessions. A. Downsizing B. Dematerialization C. Voluntary simplicity D. Demarketing E. Voluntary withdrawal 22. The voluntary simplicity movement in America represents a shift in which value? A. active/passive B. problem solving/fatalistic C. masculine/feminine D. material/nonmaterial E. youth/age 23. Erica and her family decided that it was just too much strain on them for Erica to work outside the home. Even though she was a successful attorney and they enjoyed the good things in life, her family made a conscious decision to reduce their reliance on consumption and material possessions. This behavior has been termed _____. A. downsizing B. dematerialization C. voluntary withdrawal D. voluntary simplicity E. demarketing 24. What percentage of American adults exercise regularly? A. less than 50% B. 50% C. 60% D. 75% E. more than 75% 25. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding Americans' environment-oriented values? A. Americans have long valued cleanliness. B. Americans traditionally have not been very receptive to change. C. American's risk-taking orientation seems to be moving more toward taking risks. D. Traditionally, nature was viewed as an obstacle. E. Americans are shifting back to a focus on performance rather than status. 26. Those who work in such professions as architecture, science, engineering, and health care and business who generate new ideas and technologies for a living or engage in complex problem solving are referred to as _____. A. the creative class B. social engineers C. the developers D. trend setters E. true naturals 27. Lakeisha is an architect, and her husband, Timothy, is an engineer. Both are in their early 30s. They represent a growing percentage of the workforce along with others who generate new ideas and technologies for a living or engage in complex problem solving. Lakeisha and Timothy are part of the _____. A. social reengineering movement B. cutting edge C. creative class D. true naturals E. young developers 28. Which of the following factors had a significant impact on Americans' emphasis on security? A. the Depression B. World War II C. the Cold War D. a and b E. a, b, and c 29. Which of the following is a segment used to describe consumers with respect to their environmental activism? A. True Blues B. Eco-Centrists C. Ailing Recluse D. Healthy Hermits E. Green Earths 30. Which of the following is NOT a segment used to describe consumers with respect to their environmental activism? A. Respectful Stewards B. New Green Mainstream C. Proud Traditionalists D. Skeptical Individuals E. Green Naives 31. Which segment of environmental activists is highly dismissive of environmental concerns and doesn't believe global warming exists? A. Proud Traditionalists B. Eco-Villains C. Green Naives D. Eco-Chic E. Skeptical Individuals 32. Gertrude expresses deeply felt environmental concerns and tailors everything she does and purchases to these beliefs. Which segment of environmental activism best describes Gertrude? A. Eco-Centrists B. Proud Traditionalists C. Frugal Earth Mothers D. Eco-Chic E. none of the above 33. Mickey is not concerned about the environment. He has no problem with the pollution coming from his 1965 Chevy, and he refuses to recycle. To which environmental activism segment would Mickey belong? A. Green Naives B. Eco-Villains C. Skeptical Individuals D. Proud Traditionalists E. none of the above 34. Heather and Jeff live on a farm in Iowa with their three children. They are concerned about the environment because of the high cost of heating their home in winter. Which environmental activism segment best describes Heather and her family? A. Frugal Earth Mothers B. Green Naives C. Eco-Chic D. Proud Traditionalists E. Eco-Villains 35. Which of the following is one of the defining characteristics of American society? A. aversion to change B. collectivism C. individualism D. extended family E. status 36. Individualism affects which of the following? A. incentive systems for salespeople B. advertising themes C. product design D. customer complaining behavior E. all of the above 37. Consumers higher in individualism are more likely to _____ when faced with poor service performance. A. complain B. switch C. engage in negative word-of-mouth D. a and b E. a, b, and c 38. Laurie purchased an entertainment armoire from a national chain furniture retailer. Unfortunately, one of the doors did not operate properly, so she called the retailer to complain. A service representative was sent out to adjust the door, but just a few weeks later, the problem reoccurred, so Laurie called again and asked for a new armoire. The store manager said that another service rep would have to come out to determine if it was due to a manufacturer's defect before it could be replaced. Because the service representative failed to show up, the manager decided to offer Laurie a new armoire. Unfortunately the replacement had the same problem and Laurie demanded her money back. Now she tells everyone she knows the problems she's had with this retailer. Which value most likely underlies Laurie's complaining behavior? A. diversity B. uniformity C. fatalistic D. individualism E. status 39. According to the authors, American culture increasingly values _____. A. diversity B. uniformity C. collectivity D. fatalism E. none of the above 40. Which of the following statements is true regarding Americans' other-oriented values? A. A strong emphasis on collectivism is one of the defining characteristics of American society. B. Since World War II, Americans have increasingly valued diversity. C. The impact that the family has on the individual is great. D. Older people are considered wiser than young people and are looked to as models and leaders in American society. E. America is a cooperative rather than a competitive society. 41. The value that Americans place on youth has _____. A. increased dramatically in recent years B. shown a slow reversal toward more value being placed on age in recent years C. decreased dramatically in recent years D. remained unchanged in recent years E. shown a slight increase in recent years 42. A shift away from a competition oriented society would most likely affect _____. A. sales force compensation B. the types of decision rules used C. the use of comparative advertising D. the use of price as a competitive weapon E. all of the above 43. Marketers have responded to Americans' increasing concern for the environment with an approach called _____. A. green marketing B. clean marketing C. environmental marketing D. activist marketing E. cause-related marketing 44. Which of the following is NOT generally involved in green marketing? A developing products whose production, use or disposal is less harmful to the environment than the . traditional versions of the product B. developing products that have a positive impact on the environment C. pricing products lower than the competition D. tying the purchase of a product to an environmental organization or event E. all of the above are involved in green marketing 45. Health Valley is a brand of food, such as breakfast cereals, that uses all natural and organic ingredients. Moreover, they only purchase grain from organic farms. They state on their packages that "organic farming helps keep our food pure and protects our land and water from harmful substances. By supporting dozens of small organic farms, Health Valley helps protect a way of life for these family farmers, and helps ensure a safer and healthier Earth for you and your children." This is an example of _____. A. green marketing B. clean marketing C. environmental marketing D. activist marketing E. cause-related marketing 46. As green claims increased in number and scope, the FTC developed the _____ to help alleviate concern over the potential for marketers to mislead consumers. A. Biodegradable Act of 2005 B. Marketing Required Guidelines C. Green Guides D. a and b E. all of the above were developed by the FTC 47. The "Green Guides" provide examples of acceptable and unacceptable practices dealing with advertising and package claims relating to such areas as the environment, in general, as well those relating specifically to A. ozone friendly B. biodegradable C. recyclable D. recycled content E. all of the above 48. The practice whereby a firm promotes environmental benefits that are unsubstantiated and on which they don't deliver is known as ________. A. eco-friendly B. envirosafe C. greenwashing D. earthsafe E. none of the above 49. Environmental concerns don't guarantee purchase of green products. Negative perceptions are on the rise due to beliefs that green products are ___________. A. too expensive B. lower quality C. not better for the environment D. not green as claimed E. all of the above 50. Which term is used to refer to the application of marketing principles and tactics to advance a cause such as a charity, an ideology, or an activity? A. cause marketing B. social marketing C. personal marketing D. a and b E. a, b, and c 51. _____ is done to enhance the welfare of individuals or society without direct benefit to a firm. A. Cause-related marketing B. Social marketing C. Personal marketing D. Green marketing E. Hybrid marketing 52. Which type of marketing ties a company and its products to an issue or cause with the goal of improving sales or corporate image while providing benefits to the cause? A. cause-related marketing B. green marketing C. nonprofit marketing D. image marketing E. corporate marketing 53. Target stores give one percent of a customer's purchase to a school of their choice if they use a Target Visa credit card to pay for their purchases. Target will also donate one-half percent of all other purchases made on that card. This is an example of _____. A. cause-related marketing B. green marketing C. nonprofit marketing D. image marketing E. corporate marketing 54. Which of the following is an example of cause-related marketing (CRM)? A. A company donates $10,000 to a school to purchase computers. B. A company recognizes alternative lifestyles among its employees and allows benefits accordingly. C. A company donates $1 to Diabetes research for every purchase of its product by consumers. D. A company features educational health information in its product advertising. E. A company hires physically challenged employees. 55. Which of the following is a challenge facing marketers who implement cause-related marketing programs? A. It does not increase consumers' trust in the company. B. A company's commitment to a cause is not important to most consumers. C. Only a small percentage of consumers are likely to switch brands based on CRM when price and quality are equal. D. Consumer skepticism and apathy are demonstrated. E. all of the above 56. Which group of consumers doubts the sincerity or of effectiveness cause-related marketing programs? A. Skeptic B. Balancer C. Attribution-oriented D. Socially concerned E. Apathetic 57. John doubts the sincerity of marketers who claim that they will donate to a cause if he purchases their product. He doesn't believe that they will make a difference because he thinks that marketers are only concerned with profits and probably only donate a small portion of their profits to the stated cause. John is best described as belonging to which group of consumers? A. Skeptic B. Balancer C. Attribution-oriented D. Socially concerned E. Apathetic 58. Karen believes in cause-related programs, but she doesn't always act accordingly. That is, she likes to patronize retailers that claim to donate a portion of her purchases to charity, but she only shops there when it is convenient for her to do so. Which consumer group would Karen belong? A. Skeptic B. Balancer C. Attribution-oriented D. Socially concerned E. Apathetic 59. Carl likes to support marketers that support causes or charities that are important to him. However, he is concerned about a marketer's motive behind cause-related marketing programs and uses good judgment on which ones to support. Carl is best described as belonging to which group of consumers? A. Skeptic B. Balancer C. Attribution-oriented D. Socially concerned E. Apathetic 60. Which consumer group is driven by a desire to help with respect to cause-related marketing programs? A. Skeptic B. Balancer C. Attribution-oriented D. Socially concerned E. Apathetic 61. Maria will go out of her way to purchase a brand or patronize a store that claims to support a charity if she purchases their brand or shops in their store. Even though she knows that marketers develop these programs to help themselves as well as the cause, she doesn't really care about that. She's just driven by the desire to help. To which group of consumers does Maria belong? A. Skeptic B. Balancer C. Attribution-oriented D. Socially concerned E. Apathetic 62. What has been found to improve the results of cause-related marketing programs? A. the amount of money donated B. the fit between the company and the cause C. supporting causes that help children D. supporting causes that help the environment E. longer commitments to supporting a cause 63. Gay consumers, like heterosexuals, vary in terms of _____. A. ethnicity B. geographic region C. occupations D. age E. all of the above 64. The gay market has been estimated to comprise _____ of the adult U.S. population. A. 3-5 percent B. 7 percent C. 10 percent D. 15-20 percent E. 25 percent 65. What is typically absolutely necessary of any firm that desires to capture the loyalty of the gay community? A. must have separate promotion efforts in gay and mainstream media B. must have gay themes in ads placed in mainstream media C. must offer discounts to gay consumers D. must have internal policies that do not discriminate against gay employees E. must use cause-related marketing programs that support causes relevant to gay consumers (i.e., AIDS research) 66. Which index is published by the Human Rights Campaign Foundation and measures how equitably a company treats its GLBT (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender) employees, customers, and investors? A. corporate equality index (CEI) B. corporate GLBT index C. corporate identity index (CII) D. gay rights index (GRI) E. green index 67. Which is a product or service that often needs modification when targeting gay consumers? A. financial services B. automobiles C. furniture D. interior decorating E. all of the above 68. Which term is used to refer to whether a person is biologically a male or female? A. gender B . sex C. gender identity D. a and b E. a, b, and c 69. _____ refers to the traits of femininity and masculinity. A. Gender B. Sex C. Gender identity D. Gender roles E. Gender continuum 70. The behaviors considered appropriate for males and females in a given society are known as _____. A. Gender B. Sex C. Gender identity D. Gender roles E. Gender continuum 71. While women are vital members of the workforce in the U.S., they are still considered the primary care givers of the children in a family. This represents women's _____ in American society. A. gender B . sex C. gender identity D. gender role E. gender continuum 72. A(n) _____ is based on an attribute over which the individual has little or no control. A. traditional role B. achievement role C. ascribed role D. gender identity E. gender orientation 73. _____ are based on performance criteria over which the individual has some degree of control. A. Traditional roles B. Achievement roles C. Ascribed roles D. Gender roles E. Selective roles 74. A woman who is married with the husband assuming the responsibility for providing for the family and the wife running the house and taking care of the children would be classified as _____. A. gender appropriate B. gender consistent C. traditional D. modern E. old-fashioned 75. Catherine is married and a mother of two children. She has decided to forego her own career to stay home with her children until they are grown and on their own. Both she and her husband have decided that it is best for their family for him to assume the responsibility for providing financial security for them while she takes care of the home and family. Catherine would be classified as which type of woman? A. gender appropriate B. gender consistent C. traditional D. modern E. old-fashioned 76. A woman that is married where both she and her husband work and share homemaking and child care responsibilities is classified as _____ with respect to gender orientation. A. transgender B. gender inconsistent C. traditional D. modern E. cutting-edge 77. Rayna is married and a mother of four children. Both she and her husband share homemaking and childrearing responsibilities. Rayna would be classified as a _____ gender orientation. A. transgender B. gender inconsistent C. traditional D. modern E. cutting-edge 78. Which of the following is a segment of female consumers? A. Traditional housewife B. Trapped housewife C. Trapped working woman D. Career working woman E. all of the above 79. Lisa is a single mother of two and works two jobs to provide for her family and derives little or no satisfaction from employment. To which market segment would Lisa belong? A. Traditional housewife B. Trapped housewife C. Trapped working woman D. Career working woman E. Modern-day woman 80. Which of the following is a reason why women are an important target market? A. Women-headed households represent almost 50 percent of all households. B. Women are homogeneous as a group, which makes marketing to them easier. C. A high percentage of women work outside the home. D. Women's purchasing power now equals men's purchasing power. E. all of the above 81. Since women are quite diverse as a group, what other factors must marketers also consider when designing marketing communications? A. ethnicity B. age C. life stage D. employment status E. all of the above 82. Observable shifts in consumer behavior are often due to underlying shifts in cultural values. True False 83. America is basically a secular society. True False 84. Materialism is an emerging American self-oriented value. True False 85. Consumers' efforts to reduce their reliance on consumption and material possessions have been termed dematerialization. True False 86. Americans continue to value an active approach to life. True False 87. Consumers labeled as "Eco-Chic" are highly committed to and concerned about the environment. True False 88. Consumers higher in individualism are more likely to complain, switch, or engage in negative word-ofmouth. True False 89. Americans have always valued diversity. True False 90. Though Americans are increasingly focusing on cooperation and teamwork, it is done so that the team or group can outperform some other team or group. True False 91. Green marketing, like food supplement marketing, is unregulated and marketers can make unsubstantiated claims without penalty. True False 92. Cause-related marketing (CRM) is marketing that ties a company and its products to an issue or cause with the goal of improving sales or corporate image while providing benefits to the cause. True False 93. Current estimates vary, but common benchmarks put the size of the gay market at 10 to 15 percent of the adult U.S. population. True False 94. Compared to the general population, gay consumers tend to be less tech savvy. True False 95. Gender roles refer to the traits of femininity and masculinity. True False 96. A "trapped housewife" is generally married and stays at home, but she prefers to work and does not enjoy household chores. True False 97. Discuss changes in three of Americans' self-oriented values. 98. Define green marketing and explain what is meant by "greenwashing." 99. The company you work for wants to integrate its philanthropic charitable giving with its own corporate performance. Explain how this can be accomplished, and discuss how consumers might respond to this effort. 100.What issues must companies understand and contend with when attempting to market to the gay consumer? 101.Compare and contrast the terms gender, gender identity, and gender roles. Chapter 3 Key 1. (p. 77) E 2. (p. 77) C 3. (p. 78) B 4. (p. 78) D 5. (p. 79) A 6. (p. 79) A 7. (p. 79) B 8. (p. 78) D 9. (p. 81) E 10. (p. 80) C 11. (p. 80) D 12. (p. 80) E 13. (p. 80) D 14. (p. 80) B 15. (p. 80) E 16. (p. 80) C 17. (p. 81) A 18. (p. 81) B 19. (p. 81) B 20. (p. 83) A 21. (p. 82) C 22. (p. 82) D 23. (p. 82) D 24. (p. 83) A 25. (p. 83) B 26. (p. 84) A 27. (p. 84) C 28. (p. 85) E 29. (p. 86) B 30. (p. 86) B 31. (p. 86) B 32. (p. 86) A 33. (p. 86) B 34. (p. 86) D 35. (p. 87) C 36. (p. 87) E 37. (p. 87) E 38. (p. 87) D 39. (p. 87) A 40. (p. 87) B 41. (p. 89) B 42. (p. 89) C 43. (p. 89) A 44. (p. 89) C 45. (p. 89) A 46. (p. 90) C 47. (p. 90) E 48. (p. 90) C 49. (p. 90) E 50. (p. 90) D 51. (p. 90) B 52. (p. 90) A 53. (p. 90) A 54. (p. 90) C 55. (p. 92) D 56. (p. 92) A 57. (p. 92) A 58. (p. 92) B 59. (p. 92) C 60. (p. 92) D 61. (p. 92) D 62. (p. 92) B 63. (p. 93) E 64. (p. 93) B 65. (p. 93) D 66. (p. 93) A 67. (p. 93) A 68. (p. 96) D 69. (p. 96) C 70. (p. 96) D 71. (p. 96) D 72. (p. 96) C 73. (p. 96) B 74. (p. 96) C 75. (p. 96) C 76. (p. 96) D 77. (p. 96) D 78. (p. 97) E 79. (p. 98) C 80. (p. 98) C 81. (p. 99) E 82. (p. 78) TRUE 83. (p. 80) TRUE 84. (p. 82) FALSE 85. (p. 82) FALSE 86. (p. 83) TRUE 87. (p. 86) FALSE 88. (p. 87) TRUE 89. (p. 87) FALSE 90. (p. 87) TRUE 91. (p. 90) FALSE 92. (p. 90) TRUE 93. (p. 93) FALSE 94. (p. 94) FALSE 95. (p. 96) FALSE 96. (p. 98) TRUE f. Active/Passive--Americans continue to value an active approach to life. While less than half of all American adults exercise regularly, most take an active approach to both leisure and problem-solving activities. e. Material/Nonmaterial--Americans have maintained a strong material orientation, resulting in a consumption-driven society. However, some consumers are reducing their reliance on consumption and material possessions, which has been termed voluntary simplicity. d. Hard Work/Leisure--Americans continue their strong tradition of hard work, and the percentage of married women who work outside the home for wages has increased considerably. Reasons for working hard include material orientation, because they lack the skills or job opportunities to provide even a moderate lifestyle without doing so, and because work is meaningful and valuable to them. c. Postponed/Immediate Gratification--Americans seem unwilling to delay pleasures, even in the face of discomfort over spending levels and debt. The recent recession had Americans saving more and paying down debt for a while, but these trends have begun to recede, and Americans are back to "spending as usual." b. Sensual Gratification/Abstinence--Closely tied to America's traditional religious orientation was a belief in the virtue of abstinence. As American society became more secular, sensual gratification became more acceptable. a. Religious/Secular--America is basically a secular society. A religious group does not control the educational system, government, or political process and most people's daily behaviors are not guided by strict religious guidelines. While Americans often profess to be more religious than their behaviors would suggest, religious-based beliefs do influence decisions. Those for whom religion is especially important are conservative in their beliefs. 97. (p. 78-83) The chapter discussed six self-oriented value changes, and students can discuss any three: 98. (p. 89-90) Green marketing is how marketers have responded to Americans' increasing concern for the environment, and it generally involves (a) developing products whose production, use, or disposal is less harmful to the environment than the traditional versions of the product, (b) developing products that have a positive impact on the environment, and (c) tying the purchase of a product to an environmental organization or event. Greenwashing is a practice whereby a firm promotes environmental benefits that are unsubstantiated and on which they don't deliver. 99. (p. 90-92) Cause-related marketing (CRM) is marketing that ties a company and its products to an issue or cause with the goal of improving sales or corporate image while providing benefits to the cause. Research has shown that CRM increases consumers' trust in the company, claim that a company's commitment to a social cause is important when deciding what to recommend to other people, and that they are willing to switch brands based on CRM when price and quality are equal. However, four segments of consumers have been identified: (a) Skeptic (i.e., doubt sincerity or effectiveness of CRM), (b) Balancer (i.e., believe in CRM but generally don't act accordingly), (c) Attribution-oriented (i.e., concerned about motives behind CRM), and (d) Socially concerned (i.e., driven by desire to help). 100. (p. 92-94) Any firm that desires to capture the loyalty of the gay community must have internal policies that do not discriminate against gay employees, and the Human Rights Campaign Foundation provides such information through its corporate equality index (CEI). Additional product and communication issues must also be considered. For example, does the product need to be modified to meet the needs of this market? Should the firm advertise in gay-oriented media using its standard ads? Should it advertise in gay media using ads with gay themes? To what extent should the firm be involved in gay community activities? Should its major media ads include ads with gay themes? 101. (p. 95-96) The term gender is used to refer to whether a person is biologically a male or female (the term sex is used interchangeably with gender). Gender identity refers to the traits of femininity (expressive traits such as tenderness and compassion) and masculinity (instrumental traits such as aggressiveness and dominance). These traits represent the ends of a continuum, and individuals have varying levels of each trait, with biological males tending to be toward the masculine end of the continuum and biological females toward the feminine end. Gender roles are the behaviors considered appropriate for males and females in a given society. Gender roles are ascribed roles, which is based on an attribute over which the individual has little or no control. Chapter 3 Summary Category AACSB: Analytic Blooms: Application Blooms: Comprehension Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: 1 Easy Difficulty: 2 Medium Difficulty: 3 Hard Hawkins - Chapter 03 Learning Objective: 03-01 Understand core American cultural values Learning Objective: 03-02 Summarize changes in self-; environment-; and other-oriented values Learning Objective: 03-03 Discuss values as they relate to green marketing Learning Objective: 03-04 Discuss values as they relate to cause-related marketing Learning Objective: 03-05 Discuss values as they relate to marketing to gay and lesbian consumers Learning Objective: 03-06 Discuss values as they relate to gender-based marketing Topic: Cause-Related Marketing Topic: Changes in American Cultural Values Topic: Environment-Oriented Values Topic: Gender-Based Marketing Topic: Green Marketing Topic: Marketing to Gay and Lesbian Consumers Topic: Other-Oriented Values Topic: Self-Oriented Values # of Questions 101 4 45 52 14 71 16 101 8 44 9 15 8 17 15 5 12 17 9 8 11 24 ... 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