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of Handbook herbs and spices Edited by K. V. Peter Published by Woodhead Publishing Limited Abington Hall, Abington Cambridge CB1 6AH England Published in North and South America by CRC Press LLC 2000 Corporate Blvd, NW Boca Raton FL 33431 USA First published 2001, Woodhead Publishing Limited and CRC Press LLC 2001, Woodhead Publishing Limited The authors have asserted their moral rights. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the authors and the publishers cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials. Neither the authors nor the publishers, nor anyone else associated with this publication, shall be liable for any loss, damage or liability directly or indirectly caused or alleged to be caused by this book. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publishers. The consent of Woodhead Publishing Limited and CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from Woodhead Publishing Limited or CRC Press LLC for such copying. Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. Woodhead Publishing Limited ISBN 1 85573 562 8 CRC Press ISBN-0 8493-1217-5 CRC Press order number: WP1217 Cover design by The ColourStudio Project managed by Macfarlane Production Services, Markyate, Hertfordshire (email: Typeset by MHL Typesetting Limited, Coventry, Warwickshire Printed by TJ International, Padstow, Cornwall, England Related titles on food science and technology from Woodhead Publishing: Antioxidants in food (ISBN: 1 85573 463 X) Antioxidants are a major ingredient in food processing, both in controlling oxidation and in influencing other aspects of food quality as well as providing potential health benefits. This collection reviews antioxidant use, particularly the increasing role of natural antioxidants in food processing Functional foods (ISBN: 1 85573 503 2) Functional foods are widely predicted to become one of the biggest dietary trends of the next 25 years. The editors of this book have gathered together leading experts to provide the food industry with a single authoritative resource. This book first defines and classifies the field of functional foods, paying particular attention to the legislative aspects in both the EU and the USA. It then summarises the key work on functional foods and the prevention of disease. Finally, there is a series of chapters on the issues in developing functional foods in practice. New ingredients in food processing (ISBN: 1 85573 443 5) The food industry is now seeing a rapidly expanding primary processing industry manufacturing tailor-made ingredients (or intermediate food products) for the secondary sector. This major new text offers a comprehensive guide to the range of IFPs available, their key benefits (greater flexibility, functionality and more consistent quality) and the ways in which their manufacture can be tailored to the requirements of the food industry. Details of these books and a complete list of Woodheads food science, technology and nutrition titles can be obtained by: visiting our web site at contacting Customer Services (e-mail:; fax: +44 (0) 1223 893694; tel.: +44 (0) 1223 891358 ext.30; address: Woodhead Publishing Limited, Abington Hall, Abington, Cambridge CB1 6AH, England) If you would like to receive information on forthcoming titles in this area, please send your address details to: Francis Dodds (address, tel. and fax as above; e-mail: Please confirm which subject areas you are interested in. Contributors Chapter 1 Chapter 3 Professor K. V. Peter Director of Research Kerala Agricultural University P.O. K.A.U. 680 656 Trichur Kerala India Dr Rehka S. Singhal, Professor Pushpa R. Kulkarni and Dr V. Rege University Department of Chemical Technology (UDCT) University of Mumbai Nathalal Parikh Marg Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 India Tel: +91 487 371302 Fax: +91 487 370019 E-mail:; Chapter 2 Ms Maria Clay and Martin Muggeridge, Lion Foods Seasoning and Spice Association 6 Catherine Street London WC2B 5JJ England Tel: +44 (0)208 836 2460 Fax: +44 (0)208 836 0580 E-mail: Tel: +91 22 414 5616 Fax: +91 22 414 5614 E-mail: Chapter 4 Dr C. K. George Peermade Development Society P. B. No. 11, Peermade-685 531 Indukki District Kerala India Tel: +91 486 332497, 332496, 332197 Fax: +91 486 332096 E-mail: xii Contributors Chapter 5 Chapter 9 ven Professor Dr Mensure Ozgu Department of Field Crops Faculty of Agriculture University of Cukurova Adana - 01330 Turkey Dr V. S. Korikanthimath Cardamom Research Centre Indian Institute of Spices Research Appangala Madikeri- 571 201 Kodagu Dt Karnataka India Fax: +90 322 338 63 81 E-mail: Fax: +91 0827 228591 E-mail: Chapter 6 Dr Sushil Kumar Director Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Lucknow 226015 India Fax: +91 522 342666 E-mail: Chapter 7 Dr P. N. Ravindran and Dr Johny A. Kallupurackal Indian Institute of Spices Research PB No 1701 Marikunnu PO Calicut-673012 Kerala India Fax: +91 495 370294 E-mail: Chapter 8 Dr T. G. Berke and Dr S. C. Shieh Associate Scientist Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center PO Box 42 Shanua Tainan 741 Taiwan Fax: +886 6 583 0009 E-mail: (, Chapter 10 Dr K. J. Madhusoodanan and Dr Y Saideswara Rao Indian Cardamom Research Institute Spices Board Myladumpara 685 553 Kerala India Fax: +91 0484 331429 E-mail: Chapter 11 Dr J. Thomas and Dr P. P. Duethi Kerala Agricultural University Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Resrach Station PO Asamannur Ernakulam Kerala 683 549 India E-mail: Chapter 12 Dr N. Nurdjannah and Dr Nurliani Bermawie Research Institute for Spice and Medicinal Crops Jalan Tentara Pelajar Indonesia Fax: +62 251 327010 E-mail: Contributors Chapter 13 Chapter 17 Professor Gholamreza Amin Faculty of Pharmacy Tehran University of Medical Sciences PO Box 14155-6451 Tehran Iran xiii Dr P. A. Valsala Department of Plantation Crops and Spices College of Horticulture Kerala Agricultural University Vellanikkara PO Thrissur Kerala India E-mail: Chapter 14 Dr J. Salikutty and Professor K. V. Peter Department of Olericulture Kerala Agricultural University Vellaikkara Thrissur 680656 Kerala India Fax: +91 487 370019 E-mail: Chapter 15 Dr Rajendra Gupta Project Coordinator Zandu Pharmaceuticals B-1/46 Paschim Bihar New Delhi 110063 India Chapter 16 Dr U. B. Pandey National Horticultural Research and Development Foundation Post Box 61 Kanda Batata Bhavan 2954-E New Bombay Agra Road Nashik 422001 (MS) India Fax: +91 0253 596606 E-mail: Fax: +91 487 370019 E-mail: Chapter 18 Dr V. K. Raju and Dr M. Reni Department of Processing Technology College of Horticulture P.O. Kerala Agricultural University Vellanikkara Thrissur 680 656 Kerala India Fax: +91 487 370019 E-mail: Chapter 19 Dr S. N. Potty and Dr V. Krishna Kumar Indian Cardamom Research Institute PO Mailadumpara Idukki Kerala India E-mail: Chapter 20 Mr B. Krishnamoorthy and Dr J. Rema India Institute of Spices Research Calicut 673 012 Kerala India Fax: +91 495 370294 E-mail: xiv Contributors Chapter 21 Chapter 24 Dr K. E. Lawande National Research Centre for Onion and Garlic Rajgurunager- 410 505 Dist Pune (MS) India Professor Arturo Velasco-Negueruela Departmento De Biologia Facultad de Biologia Universidad Complutense 28040 Madrid Spain Fax: +91 2135 24056 E-mail: Tel/Fax: +34 91 394 44 14/50 34 E-mail: Chapter 25 Chapter 22 Dr P. Pushpangadan and Dr S. P. Singh National Botanical Research Institute Lucknow-226001 India E-mail: Chapter 23 Professor Nedyalka V. YanishlievaMaslarova Institute of Organic Chemistry Bulgarion Academy of Sciences Kv Geo Milev, Acad G. Bonchev Str., Blok 9 BG-1113 Sofia Bulgaria Tel: +359 2 7134 178 Fax: +359 2 700225 E-mail: Dr Y. Saideswara Rao and K. Mary Mathew Indian Cardamom Research Institute Spices Board Myladumpara 685 553 Kerala India Fax: +91 0484 331429 E-mail: Chapter 26 Dr B. Sasikumar Indian Institute of Spices Research PO Marikunnu Calicut 673012 Kerala India Fax: +91 495 370294 E-mail: Contents List of contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K. V. Peter, Kerala Agricultural University 1.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 The trade in spices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Spice flavours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Processing issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 The functional role of spices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 The structure of this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7 Sources of further information and advice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix 1: ISO list of plant species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix 2: Major spice-producing areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 Quality specifications for herbs and spices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M. Muggeridge, Lion Foods and M. Clay, European Spices Association 2.1 Defining quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Major international quality specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 The American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 The European Spice Association (ESA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Other tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 Quality assurance systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Quality indices for spice essential oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. S. Singhal, P. R. Kulkarni and D. V. Rege, University of Mumbai 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 The problem of adulteration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix: Physical properties of some spice essential oils and flavourants 1 3 4 4 5 6 7 8 12 13 13 14 16 16 18 21 21 22 22 22 28 30 vi Contents 4 Organic spices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. K. George, Peermade Development Society, Kerala 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Concept of organic farming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Standards and certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 World trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Future trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 5 Aniseed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M. Ozguven, University of Cukurova, Adana 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Chemical structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Main uses in food processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Functional properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6 Toxicity and allergy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7 Quality and regulatory issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 6 Bay leaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S. Kumar, J. Singh and A Sharma, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow 6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Cultivation, production and processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Chemical composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Functional properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 Toxicity and allergenicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 7 Black pepper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P. N. Ravindran and J. A. Kalluparackal, Indian Institute of Spices Research, Kerala 7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Production and international trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 Cultivars and varieties: quality issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Cultivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6 Handling after harvest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.7 Chemical structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8 Quality issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.9 Industrial processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.10 Pepper products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.11 Functional properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.12 Use of pepper in food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.13 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix: Recipes with pepper (Dastur and Maya 1981) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 34 34 35 36 36 38 38 39 40 41 44 44 46 47 48 52 53 54 54 59 59 62 62 64 67 68 72 73 80 81 83 84 86 92 95 Contents 8 Capsicum, chillies, paprika, birds eye chilli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T. G. Berke and S. C. Shieh, Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center, Tainan 8.1 Introduction: classification and use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Chemical structure and stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Main uses in food processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Functional properties and toxicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6 Quality issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii 111 111 112 113 115 116 117 121 9 Cardamom (small) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V. S. Korikanthimath, Indian Institute of Spices Research, Karnataka 9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Chemical structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Quality standards and grade specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 10 Cardamom (large) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K. J. Madhusoodanan and Y. Saideswara Rao, Indian Cardamom Research Institute, Kerala 10.1 Introduction and description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 Chemical structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 The trade in large cardamom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 Cultivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5 Post-harvest handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.6 Main uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.7 Quality issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 11 Cinnamon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J. Thomas and P. P. Duethi, Kerala Agricultural University 11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Chemical structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3 Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4 Main uses in the food industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.5 Functional properties and toxicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.6 Quality issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 12 Clove . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N. Nurdjannah and N. Bermawie, Research Institute for Spice and Medicinal Crops, Jelan Tentara Pelajar 12.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3 Main uses in food processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.4 Functional properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 123 124 124 127 128 132 134 136 137 137 138 139 140 140 143 144 146 148 149 150 152 154 155 158 159 viii Contents 12.5 12.6 Quality and regulatory issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 161 13 Cumin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gh. Amin, Tehran University of Medical Sciences 13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2 Chemical structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.3 Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.4 Main uses in food processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.5 Functional properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.6 Quality specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 14 Curry leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J. Salikutty and K. V. Peter, Kerala Agricultural University 14.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2 Chemical structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.3 Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.4 Functional properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 15 Dill ...................................................................... R. Gupta, Zandu Pharmaceuticals, New Delhi 15.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.2 Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.3 Chemical composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.4 Compounds influencing flavour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.5 Functional properties and toxicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6 Quality indices and standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 16 Garlic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U. B. Pandey, National Horticultural Research and Development Foundation, Nashik 16.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.2 Chemical structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3 Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4 Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.5 Functional properties and toxicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.6 Quality issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 17 Ginger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P. A. Vasala, Kerala Agricultural University 17.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.2 Chemical structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.3 Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.4 Main uses in food processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.5 Functional properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 164 164 165 165 165 166 167 168 169 170 170 171 173 174 176 176 177 177 178 180 182 184 187 187 189 192 195 195 196 198 201 Contents 17.6 17.7 ix Quality specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 205 18 Kokam and cambodge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V. K. Raju and M. Reni, Kerala Agricultural University 18.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.2 Chemical structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.3 Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.4 Main uses in food processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.5 Functional properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.6 Quality issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 207 208 210 211 212 213 214 19 Marjoram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S. N. Potty and V. Krishna Kumar, Indian Cardamom Research Institute, Kerala 19.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.2 Harvesting and post-harvest management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.3 Essential oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.4 Use in food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.5 Functional properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.6 Quality issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 20 Nutmeg and mace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Krishnamoorthy and J. Rema, Indian Institute of Spices Research, Kerala 20.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2 Production and chemical structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3 Main uses and functional properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.4 Quality issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 216 217 219 223 224 227 232 238 239 244 245 247 21 Onion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K. E. Lawande, National Research Center for Onion and Garlic, Pune 21.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.2 Chemical structure and influences on flavour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3 Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.4 Functional properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.5 Quality issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 22 Poppy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P. Pushpangadan and S. P. Singh, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow 22.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2 Cultivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.3 Chemical structure and uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 249 250 252 255 256 258 261 263 263 266 x Contents 23 Rosemary and sage as antioxidants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N. V. Yanishlieva-Maslarova, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia and I. M. Heinonen, University of Helsinki 23.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.2 Extraction methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.3 Antioxidant properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.4 Chemical structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.5 Sage: antioxidant properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 269 269 269 271 272 272 24 Saffron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Velasco-Negueruela, Universidad Complutense, Madrid 24.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.2 Chemical structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.3 Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.4 Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.5 Functional properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.6 Quality issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 25 Tamarind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y. Saideswara Rao and K. Mary Mathew, Indian Cardamom Research Institute, Kerala 25.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.2 Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.3 Main uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.4 Functional properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.5 Quality issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 26 Turmeric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Sasikumar, Indian Institute of Spices Research, Kerala 26.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.2 Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.3 Post-harvest processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.4 Quality specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.5 Chemical structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.6 Use in the food industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.7 Functional properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 297 298 299 301 302 305 307 308 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 276 276 279 281 282 282 284 284 287 288 289 291 291 292 1 Introduction K. V. Peter, Kerala Agricultural University (formerly at Indian Institute of Spices Research) 1.1 Definitions The Geneva-based International Standards Organisation (ISO) defines spices and condiments as: Vegetable products or mixtures thereof, free from extraneous matter, used for flavouring, seasoning and imparting aroma in foods. Webster describes spices as: Any of various aromatic vegetable productions as pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, allspice, ginger, cloves, etc., used in cookery to season and to flavour sauces, pickles, etc.; a vegetable condiment or relish, usually in the form of a powder; also, as condiments collectively. The famous spice author Rosengarten describes a spice as a product which enriches or alters the quality of a thing, for example altering the taste of a food to give it zest or pungency; a piquant or lasting flavouring; or a relish. The term spice is thus used to cover the use of spices, herbs and certain aromatic vegetables to impart odour and flavour to foods. The taxonomic classification of spices is shown in Table 1.1. A conventional classification of spices is based on degree of taste as: hot spices mild spices aromatic spices herbs and aromatic vegetables This classification is shown in Table 1.2. Though the term spice can be used to incorporate herbs, the distinction between herbs and spices can be described as follows: Herbs may be defined as the dried leaves of aromatic plants used to impart flavour and odour to foods with, sometimes, the addition of colour. The leaves are commonly traded separately from the plant stems and leaf stalks. 2 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 1.1 Taxonomic classification of spices Spices may be defined as the dried parts of aromatic plants with the exception of the leaves. This definition is wide-ranging and covers virtually all parts of the plant. The various parts of plants used to produce the range of herbs and spices are illustrated in Table 1.3. Herbs and spices have been used in foods since antiquity. ISO document 676 lists 109 herb and spice plant species useful as ingredients in food. These are shown in Appendix 1 at the end of this chapter. Table 1.2 Conventional classification of spices Classes Spices Hot spices Capsicum (chillies), Cayenne pepper, black and white peppers, ginger, mustard Paprika, coriander Allspice (pimento), cardamom, cassia, cinnamon, clove, cumin, dill, fennel, fenugreek, mace and nutmeg Basil, bay, dill leaves, marjoram, tarragon, thyme Onion, garlic, shallot, celery Mild spices Aromatic spices Herbs Aromatic vegetables Introduction Table 1.3 3 Plant organs as spices Plant organs Spice crops Aril Barks Berries Buds Bulbs Pistil (female part of flower) Kernel Leaf Rhizome Latex from rhizome Roots Seeds Mace of nutmeg Cassia, cinnamon Allspice, black pepper, chilli Clove Onion, garlic, leek Saffron Nutmeg Basil, bay leaf, mint, marjoram, sage, curry leaf Ginger, turmeric Asafoetida Angelica, horse-radish Ajowan, aniseed, caraway, celery, coriander, dill, fennel, fenugreek, mustard, poppy seed 1.2 The trade in spices Some of the main spice-producing areas are listed in Appendix 2 at the end of this chapter. The current annual global trade in spices is 67 lakh tonnes valued at US$33.5 billion. The value of the spice trade is particularly dependent on pepper prices as pepper remains the main spice in international trade. The global spice trade is expected to increase with the growing consumer demand in importing countries for more exotic, ethnic tastes in food. In the UK, for example, spice imports have increased by 27% in the last five years, mainly through the growth in cinnamon, cloves, garlic and seed spices. About 85% of spices are traded internationally in whole form, with importing countries processing and packaging the final product for the food industry and the retail market. The trade in processed and value-added spice ingredients is, however, growing rapidly as importers look for cheaper global sourcing of spice products and exporting businesses develop the appropriate technologies and quality systems. There is limited competition from synthetic products, with the exception of vanilla, particularly given consumer preferences for natural ingredients in food products. The USA is the biggest importer of spice products, followed by Germany and Japan. The European Union has the largest imports of spices in value terms, worth US$2.2 billion and consisting of: 44% retail sales to consumers 41% sales to the food manufacturing sector 15% to the catering sector A snapshot of the nature of the European spices market is provided by France. The total consumption of spices in 1993 was 16,545 tonnes (with a per capita consumption of 290 grams), of which more than 50% was black pepper. The main market is the retail sector with over 100 million consumer packs of spices sold in 1993, valued at US$150 million. The catering market in 1993 was worth US$2025 million. Other major importing regions are the Middle East and North Africa, whilst there are growing markets in other countries. In South Africa, for example, the annual spice trade is worth US$94 million, but is set to grow as consumers demand more exotic tastes in food. 4 Handbook of herbs and spices 1.3 Spice flavours Important flavour compounds found in culinary herbs and other spice plants are: eugenol (allspice, cinnamon, cassia, clove) piperine (black pepper) gingerol (ginger) myristicin (nutmeg) turmerone (turmeric) vanillin (vanilla). The main flavour compounds found in the major herbs and spices used by the food industry are summarised in Tables 1.4 and 1.5. In using spices to flavour foods, the aim should always be to arrive at a balanced overall odour and flavour effect, complementing and accentuating, rather than swamping, the flavour of the basic ingredients, and usually without any single spice predominating excessively. This culinary art needs experience and expertise and in-house training with the assistance of leading spice houses. 1.4 Processing issues Spices can be added to foods in several forms: as whole spices, as ground spices, as essential oils, as oleoresins or as prepared and filtered vinegar infusions. A more recent alternative is spice extracts. These consist of the flavour components of a spice, dispersed on one of several types of base, the most suitable bases for pickle and sauce use, for example, being salt or dextrose. Natural materials used in flavour creations are still most often isolated from essential oils. Extraction of oils and oleoresins is accomplished using a range of methods, including: Table 1.4 Important flavour compounds in spices Spice Important flavour compounds Allspice Anise Black pepper Caraway Cardamom Cinnamon, cassia Chilli Clove Coriander Cumin Dill Fennel Ginger Mace Mustard Nutmeg Parsley Saffron Turmeric Vanilla Eugenol, -caryophyllene (E)-anethole, methyl chavicol Piperine, S-3-Carene, -caryophyllene d-carvone, carone derivatives -terpinyl acetate, 1-8-cineole, linalool Cinnamaldehyde, eugenol Capsaicin, dihydro capsaicin Eugenol, eugeneyl acetate d-linalool, C10-C14-2-alkenals Cuminaldehyde, p-1,3-mentha-dienal d-carvone (E)-anethole, fenchone Gingerol, Shogaol, neral, geranial -pinene, sabinene, 1-terpenin-4-ol. Ally isothiocynate Sabinine, -pinene, myristicin Apiol Safranol Turmerone, Zingeberene, 1,8-cineole Vanillin, p-OH-benzyl-methyl ether Introduction Table 1.5 5 Important flavour compounds in a few culinary herbal spices Herbal spices Flavour compounds Basil, Sweet Bay laurel Marjoram Oregano Origanum Rosemary Sage, Clary Sage, Dalmation Sage, Spanish Savory Tarragon Thyme Peppermint Spear mint Methylchavicol, linalool, methyl eugenol 1,8-cineole e- and t-sabinene hydrates, terpinen-4-ol Carvacrol, thymol Thymol, carvacrol Verbenone, 1-8-cineole, camphor, linanool Salvial-4 (14)-en-1-one, linalool Thujone, 1,8-cineole, camphor e- and t-sabinylacetate, 1,8-cineole, camphor Carvacrol Methyl chavicol, anethole Thymol, carvacrol 1-menthol, menthone, menthfuran 1-carvone, carvone derivatives steam distillation hydrocarbon extraction chlorinated solvent extraction enzymatic treatment and fermentation super critical carbon dioxide extraction. Carbon dioxide extraction from solid botanicals is now on a commercial scale. The advantages of the resulting essential oils are no solvent residue, less terpenes and enhanced black notes. Enzymatic treatment and fermentation of raw botanicals also result in greater yields and quality of essential oil. More recently, the use of genetic engineering and recombinant DNA on the bacteria and fungi used in fermentation has resulted in natural esters, ketones and other flavouring materials made to order. Cloning and single cell culture techniques are of benefit to the flavourist, for example in cultivating flavour cells from black pepper, cardamom or thyme instead of growing the entire plant. In vitro synthesis of secondary metabolites may, in the future, lower market prices of traditionally-cultivated spices. There have also been improvements in preservation technologies to ensure that raw spices in particular are free of microbial and other contamination and that their shelf-life is extended. Techniques include osmotic dehyration and storage within a medium such as high fructose corn syrup. With the banning of chemical treatments such as ethylene oxide in treating microbial contamination, irradiation has grown in popularity, with an estimated 25,000 tonnes of raw spices currently irradiated each year to counter both insect and microbial contamination. Countries with commercial-scale irradiation operations for herbs and spices include: the USA, Canada, The Netherlands, Belgium, France, Denmark, Finland, Israel, Iran, the Republic of Korea, Vietnam, South Africa and a number of Eastern European countries. 1.5 The functional role of spices Herbs and spices are not just valuable in adding flavour to foods. Their antioxidant activity also helps to preserve foods from oxidative deterioration, increasing their shelf- 6 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 1.6 Antioxidants isolated from herbs and spices Spices and herbs Systematic names Substances and type of substances Rosemary Rosemarinus officinalis Sage Salvia officinalis Oregano Origanum vulgare Thyme Thymus vulgaris Ginger Zingiber officinale Turmeric Summer savory Curcuma domestica Satureja hortensis Black pepper Red pepper Chilli pepper Clove Marjoram Common balm Licorice Piper nigrum Capsicum annum Capsicum frutescence Eugenia caryophyllata Marjorana hortensis Melissa officinalis Glycyrrhiza glabra Carnosic acid, carnosol, rosemarinic acid, rosmanol Carnosol, carnosic acid, rosmanol, rosmarinic acid Derivatives of phenolic acids, flavonoids, tocopherols Thymol, carvacrol, p-cunene-2,3diol, biphehyls, flavonoids Gingerol-related compounds, diarylheptanoids Curcumins Rosemarinic acid, carnosol, carvacrol, thymol Phenolic amides, flavonides Capsaicin Capsaicin, capsaicinol Eugenol, gallates Flavonoids Flavonoids Flavonoids, licorice phenolics life. There has been increasing research in the role of herbs and spices as natural preservatives. As an example, ground black pepper has been found to reduce the lipid oxidation of cooked pork. Table 1.6 illustrates the range of antioxidants isolated from herbs and spices. Antioxidants also play a role in the bodys defence against cardiovascular disease, certain (epithelial) cancers and other conditions such as arthritis and asthma. Phenolic compounds such as flavonoids may help to protect against cardiovascular disease and intestinal cancer (black pepper, oregano, thyme and marjoram). Gingerol in ginger is also an intestinal stimulant and promoter of the bioactivity of drugs. Capsaicin in chilli pepper is an effective counter-irritant used in both pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Fenugreek, onion and garlic help lower cholesterol levels. A number of spices have also been identified as having antimicrobial properties. Individual chapters in this book deal with research on the functional role of particular spices. 1.6 The structure of this book This book covers a number of general issues such as quality. However, it consists mainly of coverage of individual spices and herbs. Contributors were asked to follow a common format: introduction: dealing with issues of definition and classification. Such issues can be very significant in establishing appropriate standards of quality and authenticity chemical structure: essential in assessing such issues as quality, potential applications and processing functionality production: a description of the principal methods of cultivation and post-harvest processing which have a significant impact on quality and functionality Introduction 7 uses in food processing: a review of current and potential applications functional properties: as has already been noted, there is increasing interest in herbs and spices as functional ingredients, for example as natural antioxidants. Where appropriate, contributors summarise the current state of research on the nutritional and functional benefits of individual spices and herbs. Issues of toxicity and allergy are also addressed where necessary quality and regulatory issues: a summary of the key quality standards and indices relating to the herb and spice. Individual chapters vary in structure and emphasis, depending on the nature of the spice in question and the particular issues and body of research surrounding it. It is hoped that the book will help food manufacturers and others to make even fuller use of the valuable resource that herbs and spices provide. 1.7 Sources of further information and advice and PETER K V (2000) Biotechnology of spices, in Chadha, K L, Ravindran, P N and Leela Sahijram, Biotechnology in Horticulture and Plantation Crops, Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi. JOHNSON I T, (2000) Anti-tumour properties, in Gibson, G R and Williams, C M, Functional Foods: Concept to Product, Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge. PETER K V (1998) Spices research, Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 68(8): 527 32. PETER K V, SRINIVASAN V and HAMZA S (2000) Nutrient management in spices, Fertilizer News, 45(7): 1318, 2125, 2728. PRUTHI J S (1993) Major spices of India-Crop Management Post Harvest Technology, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi. PRUTHI J S (1999) Quality Assurance in Spices and Spice Products Modern Methods of Analysis, Allied Publishers Limited, New Delhi. YANISHLIEVA-MASLAROVA N V and HEINONEN I M (2001) Sources of natural antioxidants: vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices, in Pokorny J, Yanishlieva N and Gordon M, Antioxidants in Food: Practical Applications, Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge. BABU K NIRMAL, RAVINDRAN P N 8 Handbook of herbs and spices Appendix 1: ISO list of plant species No. Botanical name of the plant Family Common name Name of plant part used as spice 1. Acorus calamus Araceae Rhizome 2. Aframomum angustifolium Aframomum hanburyi Aframomum koranima Aframomum melegueta Allium ascalonicum Allium cepa Allium cepa var. aggregatum Allium tuberosum Allium fistulosum Zingiberaceae Sweet flag, myrtle flag, calamus, flag root Madagascar cardamom Fruit, seed Zingiberaceae Cameroon cardamom Fruit, seed Zingiberaceae Korarima cardamom Fruit, seed Zingiberaceae Fruit, seed Liliaceae Grain of paradise, Guinea grains Shallot Liliaceae Liliaceae Onion Potato onion Bulb Bulb Liliaceae Liliaceae Indian leek, Chinese chive Stony leek, Welsh onion, Japanese bunching onion Leek, winter leek Garlic Chive Bulb, leaf Leaf and bulb Greater galangal, Longwas, Siamese ginger Lesser galangal Bengal cardamom Rhizome 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Allium porrum Allium sativum Allium schoenoprasum Alpinia galanga Liliaceae Liliaceaee Liliaceae Alpinia officinarum Amomum aromaticum Amomum kepulaga Zingiberaceae Zingiberaceae 18. 19. Amomum krervanh Amomum subulatum Zingiberaceae Zingiberaceae 20. 21. Amomum tsao-ko Anethum graveolens Anethum sowa Zingiberaceae Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) 14. 15. 16. 17. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. Angelica archangelica Anthriscus cereifolium Apium graveolens Apium graveolens var. rapaceum Armoracia rusticana Zingiberaceae Zingiberaceae Bulb Leaf and bulb Bulb Leaf Rhizome Fruit, seed Round cardamom, Chester cardamom, Siamese cardamom, Indonesian cardamom Cambodian cardamom Greater Indian cardamom, large cardamom, Nepalese cardamom Tsao-ko cardamom Dill Fruit, seed Indian dill Fruit Garden angelica Fruit, petiole Chervil Leaf Celery, garden celery Fruit, root, leaf Celeriac Fruit, root, leaf Horse radish Root Fruit, seed Fruit, seed Fruit, seed Fruit, leaf, top Introduction 9 No. Botanical name of the plant Family Common name Name of plant part used as spice 28. Artemisia dracunculus Averrhoa bilimbi Asteraceae (Compositae) Averrhoaceae Tarragon, estragon Leaf Fruit Averrhoaceae 31. 32. 33. Averrhoa carambola Brassica junceae Brassica nigra Bunium persicum Belimbing, bilimbi cucumber tree Carambola, caramba Indian mustard Black mustard Black caraway Seed Seed Seed, tuber 34. Capparis spinosa Brassicaceae Brassicaceae Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Capparidaceae Floral bud 35. Capsicum annuum Solanaceae Fruit 36. Capsicum frutescens Carum bulbocastanum Carum carvi Solanaceae Caper, common caper, caper bush Capsicum, chillies, paprika Chillies, birds eye chilli Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Lauracea Black caraway Fruit, bulb Caraway, blond caraway Fruit Cassia, Chinese cassia Bark, leaves Lauraceae Indonesian cassia Bark Lauraceae Vietnamese cassia Bark Lauraceae Tejpat, Indian cassia Leaf, bark Lauraceae Sri Lankan cinnamon, Indian cinnamon Coriander Bark, leaf 29. 30. 37. 38. 39. Cinnamomum aromaticum 40. Cinnamomum burmanii 41. Cinnamomum loureirii 42. Cinnamomum tamala 43. Cinnamomum zeylanicum 44. Coriandrum sativum 45. Crocus sativus 46. Cuminum cyminum 47. Curcuma longa 48. Cymbopogon citratus 49. Cymbopogon nardus 50. Elettaria cardamomum 51. Elettaria cardamomum 52.1 Ferula assa-foetida 52.2 Ferula foetida 52.3 Ferula narthex 53. Foeniculum vulgare 54. Foeniculum vulgare 55. Garcinia cambogia 56. Garcinia indica Fruit Fruit Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Iridaceae Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Zingiberaceae Poaceae Leaf, fruit Saffron Cumin Stigma Fruit Turmeric West Indian lemongrass Rhizome, leaf Leaf Poaceae Sri Lankan citronella Leaf Zingiberaceae Small cardamom Fruit, seed Zingiberaceae Sri Lankan cardamom Fruit, seed Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Asafoetida Rhizome Apiaceae Bitter fennel Leaf, twig, fruit Apiaceae Sweet fennel Leaf, twig, fruit Clusiaceae Clusiaceae Garcinia, Camboge Garcinia, Kokum Pericarp of the fruit Pericarp of the fruit 10 Handbook of herbs and spices No. Botanical name of the plant Family Common name Name of plant part used as spice 57. Hyssopus officinalis Illicum verum Juniperus communis Kaempferia galanga Laurus nobilis Lamiaceae Hyssop Leaf Illiciaceae Cupressaceae Star anise, Chinese anise Common juniper Fruit Fruit Zingiberaceae Galangal Rhizome Lauraceae Leaf 58. 59. 60. 61. Levisticum officinale 63.1 Lippia graveolens Apiaceae Laurel, true laurel, bay leaf, sweet flag Garden lovage, lovage Verbenaceae Mexican oregano Leaf, terminal shoot 63.2 Lippia berlandieri 64. Mangifera indica Anacardiaceae Mango 65. Melissa officinalis Lamiaceae 66. Mentha arvensis Lamiaceae 67. Mentha citrata Lamiaceae Balm, lemon balm, melissa Japanese mint, field mint, corn mint Bergamot 68. Mentha x piperita Lamiaceae Peppermint 69. Mentha spicata Lamiaceae Spearmint, garden mint 70. 71. Murraya koenigii Myristica argentea Rutaceae Myristicaceae 72. Myristica fragrans Myristicaceae 73. Nigella damascena Ranunculaceae 74. 75. Nigella sativa Ocimum basilicum Ranunculaceae Lamiaceae Curry leaf Papuan nutmeg Papuan mace Indonesian type nutmeg, Indonesian type mace, Siauw type mace Damas black cumin, love in a mist Black cumin Sweet basil Immature fruit (rind) Leaf, terminal shoot Leaf, terminal shoot Leaf, terminal shoot Leaf, terminal shoot Leaf, terminal shoot Leaf Kernel Aril Kernel Aril 76. 77. 78. Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Pandanaceae Sweet marjoram Oregano, origan Pandan wangi Papaveraceae Poppy, blue maw, mawseed Parsley Seed 81. Origanum majorana Origanum vulgare Pandanus amaryllifolius Papaver somniferum Petroselinum crispum Pimenta dioica Immature fruit, leaf 82. 83. 84. Pimenta racemosa Pimpinella anisum Piper guineense Myrtaceae Apiaceae Piperaceae 85. Piper longum Piperaceae 86. Piper nigrum Piperaceae Pimento, allspice, Jamaica pepper West Indian bay Aniseed West African or Benin pepper Long pepper, Indian long pepper Black pepper, white pepper, green pepper 62. 79. 80. Apiceae Myrtaceae Fruit, leaf Seed Seed Leaf, terminal shoot Leaf, floral bud Leaf, flower Leaf Leaf, root Fruit, leaf Fruit Fruit Fruit Fruit Introduction 11 No. Botanical name of the plant Family Common name Name of plant part used as spice 87. Punica granatum Punicaceae Pomegranate 88. Lamiaceae Rosemary 89. Rosmarinus officinalis Salvia officinalis Lamiaceae Garden sage 90. Satureja hortensis Lamiaceae Summer savory 91. 92. Satureja montana Schinus molle Lamiaceae Anacardiaceae 93. Schinus terebenthifolius Sesamum indicum Sinapis alba Anacardiaceae Winter savory American pepper, Californian pepper tree Brazilian pepper Seed (dried with flesh) Terminal shoot, leaf Terminal shoot, leaf Terminal shoot, leaf Leaf, twig Fruit, wall (rind) 94. 95. 96. Pedaliaceae Brassicaceae Sesame, gingelly White mustard, yellow mustard Clove Seed Seed 97. 98. Syzygium aromaticum Tamarindus indica Thymus serpyllum Cesalpiniaceae Lamiaceae 99. Thymus vulgaris Lamiaceae Tamarind Mother of thyme, wild thyme, creeping thyme Thyme, common thyme Apiaceae Ajowan Fruit Terminal shoot, leaf Terminal shoot, leaf Fruit Fabaceae Fenugreek Seed, leaf Orchidaceae Vanilla Fruit (pod) Orchidaceae Orchidaceae Annonaceae Fruit (pod) Fruit (pod) Fruit Rutaceae Vanilla Pompona vanilla Negro pepper, Guinean pepper Chinese prickly ash pepper, Sechuang pepper Chinese pepper Rutaceae Japanese pepper Fruit Zingiberaceae Ginger Rhizome 100. Trachyspermum ammi 101. Trigonella Foenumgracecum 102. Vanilla planifolia syn. Vanilla fragrans 103. Vanilla tahitensis 104. Vanilla pompona 105. Xylopia aethiopica 106. Zanthoxylum bungei 107. Zanthoxylum acanthopodium 108. Zanthoxylum piperitum 109. Zingiber officinale Myrtaceae Fruit Rutaceae Flower bud Fruit Fruit 12 Handbook of herbs and spices Appendix 2: Major spice-producing areas Spices Edible part(s) Major source/origin Allspice Aniseed Basil, Sweet Caraway Cardamom Celery Chervil Chilli Berry, leaf Fruit Leaf Fruit Fruit Fruit Leaf Fruit Cinnamon Cassia Clove Coriander Stem bark Stem bark Buds Fruit Cumin Dill Fennel Fruit Fruit Fruit Fenugreek Garlic Ginger Laurel Marjoram (sweet) Mint Mustard Nutmeg Onion Oregano Paprika Fruit Bulb/clove Rhyzome Leaf Leaf Leaf, terminal shoot Seed Aril, seed kernel Bulb Leaf Fruit Parsley Black pepper Poppy Leaf Fruit Seed Rosemary Saffron Sage Sesame Leaf, terminal shoot Pistil of flower Leaf Seed Jamaica, Mexico Mexico, The Netherlands, Spain France, Hungary, USA, Yugoslavia Denmark, Lebanon, The Netherlands, Poland India, Guatemala, France, India USA Ethiopia, India, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, USA Sri Lanka China, Indonesia, South Vietnam Indonesia, Malaysia, Tanzania Argentina, India, Morocco, Romania, Spain, Yugoslavia India, Iran, Lebanon India Argentina, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, India, Lebanon India Argentina India, Jamaica, Nigeria, Sierra Leone Portugal, Turkey Chile, France, Lebanon, Mexico, Peru Bulgaria, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Morocco, Romania, Russia, UK Canada, Denmark, Ethiopia, UK Grenada, Indonesia Argentina, Romania Greece, Mexico Bulgaria, Hungary, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Yugoslavia Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Hungary Brazil, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka The Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Turkey, Russia France, Spain, USA, Yugoslavia Star anise Tarragon Thyme Turmeric Vanilla Fruit Leaf Leaf Rhizome Fruit/beans Spain Albania, Yugoslavia China, El-Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, India, Mexico, Nicaragua China, North Vietnam France, USA France, Spain China, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Jamaica Indonesia, Malagasy Republic, Mexico Source: Mahindru, S.N. (1994). S.N. Mahindrus Manual of Indian Spices. Academic Foundation, New Delhi, p. 380. 2 Quality specifications for herbs and spices M. Muggeridge, Lion Foods and M. Clay, European Spices Association 2.1 Defining quality Within the herb and spice industry, the terms authenticity and quality are sometimes at odds. Authenticity can be defined as freedom from adulteration, most obviously in the sense of absence of foreign bodies or extraneous matter, but it also suggests freedom from impurities in the product itself. However, in practice authenticity is not always helpful in the case of herbs and spices. As an example, sage in virtually all textbooks is defined as Salvia officinalis. But there are some 300 species of sage and some of the major ones, which are traded throughout the world at present, are not the classic Salvia officinalis. Salvia trilobula and tomatosa species are widely traded and these are accepted universally as sage. Similarly with thyme, references are usually to Thymus vulgaris but most thyme traded is a mixture of Thymus capitatus, Thymus serpyllum and Thymus vulgaris. This blend is universally accepted as thyme. Turning to examples of spices, turmeric is defined as Curcuma longa, but there are sub-species such as Alleppy turmeric, which is dark red orange in colour with a rough outer appearance to the root, whereas Cuddapah turmeric is lighter lemon yellow in colour with a smoother root. Each type has its own market niche. The reason for these variations is that most herbs and spices were originally wild rather than cultivated crops, gathered from their natural habitat where mixing of the species and sub-species occurred. A more appropriate term is quality which can be defined in the case of herbs and spices as fit (and customary) for the purpose intended. Herbs and spices have traditionally been traded as dried products for reasons of preservation. The industry goes back before the time of Christ (fragmentary written records exist from 2600 BC) when drying was one of the main forms of food preservation. Drying was then by means of the sun and this method is still widely used. With the advent of modern transport methods and methods of preservation, frozen herbs and fresh herbs and spices have made an appearance as items of trade, but the industry remains dominated by the trade in dried products. The major quality specifications are based mainly on dried herbs and spices. 14 2.2 Handbook of herbs and spices Major international quality specifications Herbs and particularly spices have always been highly-priced commodities and vulnerable to adulteration. In consequence simple standards evolved early. As an example, in 1180 in the United Kingdom in the reign of Henry II, a peppers guild was established in London to set and enforce standards for spices. In 1429 it was incorporated into the Grocers Company which is still in existence. This guild was granted a charter by Henry VI to manage the trade in spices. This organisation was given exclusive power to garble (e.g. cleanse and separate) spices. The term is still in use today, for example in classifying types of pepper such as Tellicherry Garbelled Extra Bold Black Pepper (TGEB). Today the two major international standards are those set by the United States and those set by the European Union (EU). Standards relying on the same general parameters also exist in those countries responsible for growing herbs and spices, for example the Indian Spices Board and the Pepper Marketing Board. These standards are influenced by those set by the major importing countries. There are various types of test which make up the range of international standards: Cleanliness. This is a measure of the amount of foreign and extraneous matter, for example insect contamination, excreta or foreign bodies. Measurement is by physical determination (using microscopic analysis ( 30)) of contamination within aliquots (samples) of the product. Ash level. This is a measure of the level of impurities in a product, obtained by burning off the organic matter and measuring the residue of ash. This measurement is carried out by incinerating the herb or spice at 550C to constant weight. Characteristic maximum figures exist for most herbs and spices. Acid insoluble ash (AIA) (or sand content): This is a classic determination of the cleanliness of the herb or spice. The measure is usually made in conjunction with the ash content by boiling the ash in 2N HCl and incinerating the residue (again at 550C) to a constant weight. Again maximum figures exist for most herbs and spices. Prosecutions have in the past been based on high acid insoluble ash (AIA) levels within Europe, which are seen as indicating an unacceptably dirty product. Volatile oil (V/O) determination. This measure helps to identify whether the herb or spice has been adulterated, perhaps by addition of foreign materials, low quality or spent amounts of the herb or spice in question. The herb or spice is boiled under reflux conditions with water where the oil separates on top of the water and can be read off in a volume proportional to the mass of the product under test. Minimum percentage levels of oil exist for most major herbs and spices. Moisture content. This measure of the amount of moisture is important since moisture content determines weight, and weight is used in pricing. With highly priced commodities traded on weight, a 1% moisture increase in the product as shipped can result in increased weight and increased profits for the original exporter. Maximum moisture contents are set for all herbs and spices, based on the maximum allowable amount of moisture for the product to remain stable. Moisture content is generally determined within the herb and spice industry using the Dean & Stark methodology. This involves re-fluxing a known weight of the herb or spice in petroleum spirit and measuring the water that condenses at the bottom of the reflux chamber from the known weight of herb or spice. Generally the level is 12% max. Water availability. In recent years moisture content has been related to the Aw or the water availability of the herb or spice. The level of 0.6 Aw is generally accepted as a figure at and below which mould or microbial growth cannot occur. However, this Quality specifications for herbs and spices 15 figure is increased in several herbs and spices without problem due to the preservative effect of the oils contained within the spices. Examples are cinnamon, oregano and cloves where the oils have very strong anti-microbial effects. Microbiological measures. There is a range of techniques available for counting the numbers of a pathogen in a sample. Pesticide levels. Pesticide levels are not seen as a major problem given the (low) average daily intakes of these products by consumers. As a result, in the EU limited legislation exists for herbs whilst, for spices, the EU has determined there is no risk and no legislation is planned. Legislation is in a state of flux in the USA and limits may be introduced. In the interim, Codex limits for the nearest equivalent commodity may be a useful guide. Pesticide levels are assessed by either gas chromatography (GC) or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), depending on the pesticide in question. Mycotoxin levels. Mycotoxins, specifically aflatoxin and ochratoxin A, have been of concern within the last few years in the industry. Legislation governing the aflatoxin content of capsicum species, piper species, nutmeg, ginger and turmeric will be enacted in 2001 within the European Union at 10ppb total, 5ppb B1. With the USA the limit is currently 20ppb. HPLC is likely to be the reference methodology employed for these determinations. Bulk density/bulk index. This is an important measure, particularly in filling retail containers of herbs and spices. The herb or spices must be sifted or ground to give a certain density so that retail units appear satisfactorily full and comply with the declared weight. Densities may be measured packed down, e.g. after tapping the product so that it assumes a minimum density, or untapped: as it falls into the container without compression. This measure is usually defined as grams/litre or mls/ 100g. Mesh/particle size. Many spices and herbs are ground to give easier dispersion in the final food product. This process also aids the dispersion of flavour. Particle size is generally specified and is carried out using standardised sieves. Aperture sizes give a particle size, the products being ground to pass a certain sieve, and coarse matter recycled through the mill until it finally passes through the sieve. Sieves are characterised in micron sizes and typical requirements will be a 95% pass on a specified size of sieve. The older method of measuring sieve (hole) sizes was that of mesh which related to the number of holes per inch. However, confusing differences exist between American and British mesh sizes. The mesh size (number of holes per inch) depends on the diameter of the wire making up the sieves and this differs between nations. Thus a 25 mesh US sieve is equivalent to a 30 mesh BS (UK) sieve and both are equivalent to a 500 micron aperture size. Tables are available giving the relationships between national sieve sizes and micron sizes. There are a number of internationally-approved standards for testing procedures, established by the International Standards Organisation (ISO). These include the following ISO standards: Moisture Total Ash Acid Insoluble Ash Volatile Oil ISO ISO ISO ISO 939 928 930 6571 16 2.3 Handbook of herbs and spices The American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) The American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) was established at the beginning of the twentieth century. Given its long involvement in regulating the quality of herbs and spices entering the USA, ASTA standards are recognised and endorsed by the United States Food & Drug Administration (USDA). Cleanliness specifications exist for all major herbs and spices, in terms of permitted amounts of extraneous matter or filth, mould (visible), insects, excreta and insect damaged material. The amount of contamination is measured by microscopic analysis ( 30) of aliquots of the material. These specifications are shown in Table 2.1. For the purposes of these specifications, extraneous matter is defined as everything foreign to the product itself, including, but not restricted to: stones, dirt, wire, string, stems, sticks, non-toxic foreign seeds, (in some cases) other plant material such as foreign leaves, excreta, manure and animal contamination. The level of contaminants permitted under these specifications must fall below those shown in Table 2.1, except for the column Whole insects, dead which must not exceed the limit shown. These specifications provide a general standard of cleanliness. Herbs and spices not meeting this standard must be re-cleaned/re-conditioned before distribution and sale within the United States is allowed. The ASTA also sets a range of other standards. These are broadly comparable to those set by the European Spice Association (ESA), which are discussed in the next section. Microbiological standards in particular now play an increasingly important role in determining the quality of herbs and spices. They are becoming a crucial quality parameter due to the increasingly varied uses of herbs and spices in the developed world. Increased travel has led to a society demanding multicultural foods. This coupled with ready meals, cookchill products, etc., has meant that herbs and spices are not always cooked as was assumed in the past. But the third world origin of many herbs and spices plus the concentration due to drying means these products can pose a potential microbiological risk. Total counts in excess of 106 are common and food pathogens such as Salmonella are estimated to be present in approximately 10% of consignments imported. There are currently three major methods of control. Principally within the United States, microbiological control is exercised by fumigation with ethylene oxide, a bactericidal gas. Sometimes multi-fumigations are used to achieve a satisfactory microbiological reduction. Irradiation is permitted for microbiological control of herbs and spices in many countries of the world. However, the use of the process must be declared on the packaging presented to the consumer and consumer concern about its use in foods have prevented the use of this undeniably efficient process in many areas where its use is permitted by law. In recent years concern about residues left by ethylene oxide has led to bans on its use (within the EU for example). This has led to the use of heat treatment for decontamination, generally using high pressure steam in highly specialised equipment. 2.4 The European Spice Association (ESA) Standards in Europe are typified by the standards set by the ESA which draw both on national standards such as those issued by AFNOR (the French standards authority) and BSI (British Standards Institute), and international standards issued by the ISO (International Standards Organisation). The minimum general ESA quality standards for all herbs and spices are summarised in Table 2.2, whilst quality standards for specific Quality specifications for herbs and spices 17 Table 2.1 American Spice Trade Association Cleanliness Specifications (effective 28 April, 1999; data courtesy of the ASTA) (SF = see footnote) Name of spice, seed or herb v Whole insects, dead by count Excreta, mammalian by mg./lb. Excreta, other by mg./lb. Allspice Anise Sweet basil Caraway Cardamom Cassia Cinnamon Celery seed Chillies Cloves* Coriander Cumin seed Dill seed Fennel seed Ginger Laurel leavesy Mace Marjoram Nutmeg (broken) Nutmeg (whole) Oreganoz Black pepper White pepper{ Poppy seed Rosemary leaves Sagey Savory Sesame seed Sesame seed, hulled Tarragon Thyme Turmeric 2 4 2 4 4 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 SF(2) 4 2 4 3 4 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 4 3 5 3 1 3 3 1 1 3 1 5 3 3 3 SF(2) 3 1 3 1 5 0 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 5 5 1 1 5 5.0 5.0 2.0 10.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 5.0 2.0 SF(2) 3.0 10.0 1.0 10.0 1.0 0.0 10.0 5.0 1.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 10.0 10.0 1.0 1.0 5.0 5.0 Mould % by wgt. Insect defiled/ infested % by wgt. Extraneous/ foreign matter % by wgt. 2.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 5.00 1.00 1.00 3.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 SF(3) 2.00 2.00 1.00 SF(4) SF(5) 1.00 SF(6) SF(7) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 3.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 2.50 1.00 1.00 2.50 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 SF(3) 2.50 1.00 1.00 SF(4) SF(5) 1.00 SF(6) SF(7) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 2.50 0.50 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 1.00* 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 1.00 0.50 0.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 Other insects Rats/ mouse hairs Animal hairs Ground processed spice (cannot exceed limit shown) Spices Ground Paprika Whole equivalent insects Insect fragments Averag of more than 75 fragments/ 25g Mites Average of more than 11 rodent hairs/25 g 18 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 2.1 Continued * Clove Stems: Less than 5% allowance by weight for unattached clove stems over and above the tolerance for other extraneous matter is permitted. y Laurel leaves/sage: Stems will be reported separately for economic purposes and will not represent a pass/fail criteria. z Oregano: Analysis for presence of Sumac shall not be mandatory if samples are marked Product of Mexico. { White pepper: Percent Black Pepper will be reported separately for economic purposes and will not represent a pass/fail criteria. (2) Fennel seed: In the case of Fennel Seed, if 20% or more of the sub-samples contain any rodent, other excreta or whole insects, or an average of 3 mg/lb or more of mammalian excreta, the lot must be reconditioned. (3) Ginger: More than 3% mouldy pieces and/or insect infested pieces by weight. (4) Broken nutmeg: More than 5% mould/insect defiled combined by weight. (5) Whole nutmeg: More than 10% insect infested and/or mouldy pieces, with a maximum of 5% insect defiled pieces by count. (6) Black pepper: 1% mouldy and/or infested pieces by weight. (7) White pepper: 1% mouldy and/or infested pieces by weight. v Whole insects, dead: Cannot exceed the limits shown. Extraneous matter: Includes other plant material, e.g. foreign leaves herbs and spices are shown in Table 2.3. The ESA general standards are more relaxed in their quantitative figures as they represent minimum standards allowable for trade. They do not preclude buyer and seller setting further standards fit for the final purpose for which the herb and spice is to be used. 2.5 Other tests There are a number of other tests used in the industry, some of which are for specific herbs or spices. Some of the best-known and widely used are: Piperine levels. The test is specifically for peppers of the piper species. This involves extraction measurement of the characterising heat portion of the pepper the piperine content. After refluxing in alcohol to extract the piperine, absorbency is compared to a standard in a spectrophotometer at 342345 nm. (ASTA) Colour values. This is a measurement of the extractable colour of products of the capsicum species and its principal use is a quality indicator for paprika. Extraction is in acetone over a 16 hour ambient extraction period and again the methodology is spectrophotometric against a standard at 460 nm. The methodology was developed by the American Spice Trade Association and it is still often known as the ASTA colour value. Capsaicin content. Capsaicin is the pungent principle that gives heat to the capsicum species. Extraction of capsaicin is by re-fluxing with alcohol. The determination is by HPLC using acetonitrile/water as the carrier. It can be related to the Scoville test (see below). Scoville heat units. The Scoville heat unit is a measure of the heat levels (capsaicin content) of the capsicum species. It involves extraction of the capsaicin in alcohol and tasting of successively stronger dilutions in sugar syrup until the chillie heat is detected. It gives a compatible result to capsaicin content but obviates a need for sophisticated laboratory equipment. A trained tasting panel is required. (Scoville units divided by 150,000 = percent capsaicin.) Curcumin content. This is a test specific to the measurement of the extractive colour of turmeric. This is carried out by reflux extraction in acetone followed by measurement using a spectrophotometer at 415425 nm. Quality specifications for herbs and spices 19 Table 2.2 European Spice Association (ESA) specifications of quality minima for herbs and spices (courtesy of the ESA) Subject Extraneous matter Sampling Foreign matter Ash Acid insoluble ash (AIA) Moisture content (H20) Packaging Heavy metals Pesticides Treatments Microbiology Off odours Infestation Mycotoxins Volatile oil (V/O) Adulteration Bulk density Water activity Species Documents Herbs 2%, Spices 1% (For routine sampling) Square root of units/lots to a maximum of 10 samples. (For arbitration purposes) Square root of all containers e.g. 1 lot of pepper may = 400 bags, therefore square root = 20 samples. Maximum 2% See Table 2.3 See Table 2.3 See Table 2.3 Should be agreed between buyer and seller. If made of jute and sisal, they should conform to the standards set by CAOBISCO Ref C50251-sj of 20-02-95. Shall comply with national/EU legislation. Shall be utilised in accordance with manufacturers recommendations and good agricultural practice and comply with existing national and/ or EU legislation. Use of any EC approved fumigants in accordance with manufacturers instructions, to be indicated on accompanying documents. (Irradiation should not be used unless agreed between buyer and seller.) Salmonella absent in (at least) 25g. Yeast and moulds 105/g target, 106/g absolute maximum E. Coli. 102/g target, 103/g absolute maximum Other requirements to be agreed between buyer and seller. Shall be free from off odour or taste. Should be free in practical terms from live and/or dead insects, insect fragments and rodent contamination visible to the naked eye (corrected if necessary for abnormal vision). Aflatoxins Should be grown, harvested, handled and stored in such a manner as to prevent the occurrence of aflatoxins or minimise the risk of occurrence. For capsicum species, piper species, nutmegs, turmeric and ginger, the maximum permitted EC levels from 1 July 2001 are total aflatoxin 10ppb maximum, and B1 5ppb maximum. Ochratoxin A Should be grown, harvested, handled and stored in such a manner as to prevent the occurrence of ochratoxin A or minimise the risk of occurrence. See Table 2.3. Shall be free from. To be agreed between buyer and seller. To be agreed between buyer and seller To be agreed between buyer and seller. Should provide: details of any treatments the product has undergone; name of product; weight; country of origin; lot identification/batch number; year of harvest. 20 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 2.3 Quality standards for specific herbs and spices (courtesy of the European Spice Association) Product (whole form) Ash % w/w max AIA % w/w max H2O % w/w max V/O % w/w min Aniseed Basil (BSI) Bay (ISO) Cardamom (ESA) Cassia (ESA) Celery seed (ISO) Chervil (ESA) Chilli (ISO) Chives (ESA) Cinnamon (ESA) Cloves Coriander Cumin (ESA) Dill tops (ESA) Dill seed (ESA) Dutch caraway (ISO) Fennel seed (ISO) Fenugreek (ISO) Garlic powder Ginger Mace (ISO) Marjoram (ISO) Mint (ISO) Mustard (BSI) Nutmeg Onion powder (ISO) Oregano (BSI) Paprika powder (ESA) Parsley (not English) (ESA) Pepper black Pepper white Pimento Jamaica Other origins Rosemary Saffron whole (ISO) Saffron ground (ISO) Sage (ISO) Savory (ESA) Tarragon (ESA) Thyme Turmeric Whole (BSI) Ground 9 (ISO) 16 7 9 7 12 17 10 13 7 7 (ISO) 7 (ISO) 14 15 10 8 9 7 6 (ESA) 8 (ISO) 4 10 12 6.5 3 (ISO) 5 10 10 14 2.5 (AFNOR) 3.5 2 2.5 2 3 2 1.6 2 2 0.5 (ISO) 1.5 (ISO) 3 2 2.5 1.5 2 2 0.5 (ISO) 2 (ESA) 0.5 2 2.5 1 0.5 (ISO) 0.5 2.5 2 1.5 12 (ISO) 12 8 12 14 11 8 11 8 14 12 (ISO) 12 (ISO) 13 8 12 13 12 12 7 (ESA) 12 (ISO) 10 12 13 10 12 (ESA) 6 12 11 7.5 1 (ISO) 0.5 (ESA) 1 4 1.0 1.5 0.4 14 (AFNOR) 0.3 (ESA) 1.5 1 2.5 1.5 (ISO) 1.5 (ISO) 5 1 0.5 6.5 (ESA) 1.5 (ESA) 7 (ISO) 3.5 (ISO) 1.5 (ESA) 0.3 (ISO) 12 (ESA) 12 (ESA) 2 (ISO) 1.5 (ESA) 5 (ESA) 5 (ESA) 8 (ESA) 8 8 12 12 12 14 (ISO) 0.4 (ISO) 1 (ESA) 1 (ESA) 1 1.5 2 2 1.5 4 (ESA) 12 12 10 12 10 12 12 8 12 (ISO) 3.5 (ISO) 2 (ESA) 1 (ISO) 1.5 0.5 0.5 1 (ISO) 8 9 (ISO) 2 2.5 (ESA) 12 10 (ISO) 2.5 1.5 (ESA) AFNOR BSI ESA ISO Association Francaise de Normalisation British Standards Institute European Spice Association International Standards Institute (ISO) (ISO) (ISO) Quality specifications for herbs and spices 2.6 21 Quality assurance systems Quality assurance (QA) systems for raw materials should be planned and documented using Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles. Any quality assurance system should start with a comprehensive raw material specification agreed with the supplier, where this is possible. This specification needs to be supported by an audit of the supplier to verify that the supplier has the expertise, technology and quality assurance system to meet the agreed specification. In many cases, however, given the lack of infrastructure and resources within many supplier countries, suppliers will be unable to comply with all aspects of a specification. In these circumstances, the company purchasing the material must rely on effective QA systems of its own. As well as appropriate procedures, effective QA systems rely for their success, in most cases, on experienced personnel. The material as imported should firstly be inspected on delivery. The first inspection should be an overall inspection of the product as the doors of the container are opened or the load is made accessible. This necessarily basic first inspection is made to look for large-scale infestation, mould growth, unacceptable packaging, rodent infestation or an unsuitable container, e.g. one previously used for chemicals, which have contaminated the spice or herb. The quality control system should then cover sampling and examination of the raw material. Sampling of the material for these tests should be on a square root basis throughout the load to a maximum of 10 samples. This should initially be physical and examine the amount of dust (with the aid of sieves as appropriate), the amount of stalks, stem, extraneous matter, etc. and most importantly the colour, flavour and general appearance of the product. This should be then backed up with tests relevant to the product for volatile oil, moisture, ash, acid insoluble ash, etc. Any tests specific to the material should also be carried out at this time. Microbiological testing at this stage should be carried out for the presence of Salmonella and E. Coli and the product positively released on the attainment of these parameters (generally Salmonella ND/25g, E. Coli <100 cfu/g). During this period, the product should be quarantined and no further processing permitted. Unacceptable material should be rejected or in certain cases may be reconditioned, e.g. re-cleaned, dried, etc., to bring it within the required parameters. This may be carried out in-house or at a specialist processor. Microbiologically unsatisfactory material may be gas treated or heat treated at this stage. Positive microbiological release should be employed on a pallet basis subsequent to heat treatment. Also incorporated within the QA system should be procedures for removing metal of all types. Characteristically this should consist of the use of metal detection/magnets at appropriate stages during processing and with obligatory use immediately prior to packing. 2.7 References Clean Spices a handbook for ASTA members. Official Analytical Methods of the American Spice Trade Association. Official Microbiological Methods of the American Spice Trade Association. BS4547 Specification for Herbs and Spices. BS7087 Methodology for Analysis of Herbs and Spices ISO series: Specifications for Herbs and Spices. European Spice Association: Quality Minima for Herbs and Spices. 3 Quality indices for spice essential oils R. S. Singhal, P. R. Kulkarni and D. V. Rege, University of Mumbai 3.1 Introduction Essential oil fractions and oleoresins derived from spices are used widely in the food industry to provide flavour. Some of the main essential oils and their origins are shown in Table 3.1. Determining the quality and purity of essential oils faces similar difficulties to establishing the quality of raw spices, given the accepted variations in and mixing of varieties within a particular spice. There are, however, a number of properties that can be used to set quality standards. These include physical characteristics such as: specific gravity molecular refractive index optical rotation solubility. It is also possible to use chemical properties to benchmark quality. These include determination of acids, esters, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, phenols and iodine number. Some specific flavour tests for halogens can also be used to set standards (Guenther 1972). An overview of these quality indices is provided in the appendix at the end of this chapter. 3.2 The problem of adulteration Adulteration has been a serious problem for many years in the area of essential oils. Undoubtedly the economic incentive to blend synthetic flavourants with natural oil is too high to resist. Some essential oils naturally contain a single compound at high concentration, and often the synthetic counterpart of this major component is available at a low cost. Addition of this single compound to natural essential oils without declaration on the label amounts to adulteration. Quality indices for spice essential oils Table 3.1 23 Major essential oils their production and adulterants Essential oil Origin Major countries Adulterants employed Bergamot oil Citrus auranticum (Rutaceae) Italy, Ivory Coast, Brazil Argentina, Spain, Russia synthetic linalool and linalyl acetate; orange and lime terpenes Cassia oil Cinnamonum cassia (Lauraceae) China, Indonesia, Vietnam, Taiwan cinnamaldehyde Cinnamon oil Cinnamonum zeylanicum (Lauraceae) Sri Lanka, India leaf oil to bark oil and cinnamaldehyde Clove leaf oil Eugenia caryophyllata (Myritaceae) Madagascar, Indonesia, Tanzania, Brazil, Sri Lanka clove stem oil Clove bud oil Eugenia caryophyllata (Myritaceae) Indonesia, Madagascar clove stem oil, leaf oil, eugenol, and stem oil terpenes Coriander oil Coriandrum sativum (Umbelliferae) Russia synthetic linalool Cornmint oil Mentha arvensis (Labiatae) China, Brazil, India, Paraguay, Taiwan, Thailand, North Korea, Japan not a commercially attractive proposition Dill oil Anethum graveolens (Umbelliferae) US, Hungary, Bulgaria, Russia Egypt distilled orange terpenes Eucalyptus oil Eucalyptus globus (Myrtaceae) Portugal, S. Africa, Spain, China, India, Austria, Paraguay Garlic oil Allium sativum (Liliaceae) Mexico, Italy, Egypt nature identical raw materials Ginger oil Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) China, India not often adulterated Grapefruit Citrus paradisi (Rutaceae) Brazil, US, Israel, Argentina, New Zealand orange terpenes Lemon oil Citrus limon (Rutaceae) Argentina, US, Italy, Brazil, Greece, Spain, Australia, Peru distilled oil and terpenes 24 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 3.1 Continued Essential oil Origin Major countries Adulterants employed Lemongrass Citrus flexuosus and C. citratus (Gramineae) India, China, Guatemala, Brazil, Russia, Sri Lanka, Haiti, Russia synthetic citral Lime oil Citrus aurantifolia (Rutaceae) Mexico, Peru, Haiti, Brazil Ivory Coast, Cuba, Ghana, Jamaica, China synthetic terpineol terpinolene, and other components of lime terpenes Litsea cubeba oil Litsea cubeba (Lauraceae) China synthetic citral Nutmeg Myristica fragrens (Myristicaceae) Indonesia, Sri Lanka, terpenes and nature identical raw materials Sweet orange oil Citrus sinensis (Rutaceae) Brazil, US, Israel, Italy, Australia adulteration infrequent but higher priced oils diluted with cheaper substitutes Peppermint oil Mentha piperita (Labiatae) US, Russia, Yugoslavia, Hungary, France cornmint oil, terpenes Rose oil Rosa damascena (Rosaceae) Turkey, Russia, Bulgaria, Morocco nature identical components such as citronellol and geraniol Rosemary oil Rosamarinus officinalis (Labiatae) Spain, Morocco, Tunisia, Russia, Yugoslavia, Turkey camphor and eucalyptus fraction Spearmint oil Mentha spicata (Labiatae) US, China, Italy, Brazil, Japan, France laevo carvone Star anise oil Illicium verum (Magnoliaceae) China, Vietnam, North Korea, Russia anethole Tangerine oil Citrus reticulata (Rutaceae) Brazil, US, Russia, Spain, South Africa synthetic methyl-n-methyl anthranilate Source: Singhal et al. (1997). 3.2.1 Addition of synthetic flavourants Synthetic flavour compounds contain impurities characteristic of the synthetic route used to prepare them. These impurities can be quantified by selected ion monitoring (SIM), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in essential oils, and their absence is an Quality indices for spice essential oils 25 indication of the essential oil being natural (Frey 1988). For instance, the presence of impurities such as phenyl pentadienal, benzyl alcohol and eugenol in synthetic cinnamaldehyde forms the basis of its detection in natural cassia oil. These impurities could be quantified by GC/MS, and levels as low as 0.55 parts of synthetic cinnamaldehyde in natural cassia oil can be detected (Zhu et al. 1996). The common adulterants for spice essential oils are listed in Table 3.1. A mass spectrometer usually scans over a range of trace compounds in order to obtain data on every component in a mixture. The decrease in the number of masses detected using SIM results in a 10-fold to 100-fold increase in detection sensitivity for a single compound. 3.2.2 Addition of edible and mineral oils Both edible and mineral oils are often used for adulteration (Nour-el-Din et al. 1977). The mixing of expensive oils with cheaper oils can often be detected by running a GC profile of the oil. One approach is to search for components in the expensive oil which are not commercially available, and are unique to the oil. An example is -selinene in the oil of celery. A good quality oil should contain 7.07.5% -selinene (Straus and Wolstromer 1974). Oils containing less than 7.0% -selinene should be suspected of being adulterated. 3.2.3 Dilution with ethyl alcohol Ethyl alcohol represents the main alcohol usually used in moderate quantities to dilute essential oils (Mostafa et al. 1990a). Dilution of essential oils with ethanol was checked using refractometric methods which were found to be unreliable (Kaminski and Dytkowska 1960). These and many other adulterations can be identified by infra-red (IR), gas chromatography (GC), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) (Di Giacomo and Calvarano 1973). TLC has been found to be a simple method of checking adulteration in essential oils of caraway, coriander, parsley and anethum (Hoerhammer et al. 1964). Detection of nature-identical flavouring substances in high-value genuine onion oil is based on the GC/MS, or IR spectroscopy of the onion furanone, 2-n-hexyl-5-methyl3(2H) furanone (Losing 1999). This technique is both simple and rapid. 3.2.4 Iodine number for detection of adulteration Iodine number has been suggested as a means of detecting adulteration in essential oils (Kartha and Mishra 1963), but the iodine number has not attained significance in assessing the quality of essential oils probably due to unpredictable behaviour of these oils in the presence of solutions, commonly employed for iodination. The observation that the iodine monobromide-mercuric acetate reagent brings about quantitative fission of the cyclopropane and cyclobutane rings in essential oils prompted Kumar and Madaan (1979) to make use of such iodine absorption values for this purpose. Table 3.2 gives the recommended iodine values for pure specimens of various essential oils and isolates. The method could detect adulteration successfully in samples considered to be unadulterated on the basis of conventional analytical procedures. 3.2.5 Physical methods for detection of adulteration Physical methods such as specific gravity at 25C, refractive index at 25C, specific optical rotation, freezing point and chemical parameters such as ester number have been 26 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 3.2 Recommended iodine values for pure specimens of various oils and isolates Essential oli/isolate Recommended iodine value Oil of ajowan, lab. distilleda Oil of fennel, lab. distilleda Oil of dill, lab. distilleda Oil of clove, lab. distilleda Oil of cinnamon leaf, lab. distilled Oil of black pepper, lab. distilled Oil of cumin seed, lab. distilled Oil of lavidin (abrialis)b Oil of parsley seeds, lab. distilleda Oil of spike lavenderb Oil of black jeera, lab. distilleda Oil of Curcuma amada, lab. distilleda Oil of Piper longum lab. distilleda Oil of dry ginger, lab. distilleda Oil of Pimpenella anisum, lab. distilleda Vanillin, pure, BDHb Menthol, pure, lab. distilled Eugenol, pure, lab. distilled Oil of peppermint, dementholized (Japan)b 232265 160185 265307 232243 4652 300324 193195 167 248 135 230 266 265 185 296 58 0 275 68 a Samples collected from different places Samples procured from different companies. Source: Kumar and Madaan (1979) (reproduced with permission). b useful in detecting adulteration. Table 3.3 gives the critical region (borderline) for detection of a sample of essential oils by these different methods. Such physical properties including ester number should be considered as presumptive tests and should be confirmed by other, more specific analysis. A freezing point lower than 10.5C is indicative of turpentine in peppermint oil (Lu 1994). Colorimetric analysis of glycerol can indicate adulteration with edible oils. TLC of the hydrocarbon fraction, GLC and IR are effective in detecting adulterant ethanol, edible oils and liquid paraffins (Mostafa et al. 1990b). The presence of cottonseed oil in different essential oils gave absorption bands characteristic of esters and unsaturated esters (at 17051720 cm1), acetates (at 1245 cm1) and the carbonyl group (at 12501170 cm1), while the presence of paraffin oil gave a broadened absorption band at 3000 cm1 which characterizes the saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Mineral oil in peppermint oil can be detected as turbidity, when peppermint oil is added to 6080% ethanolic solution (Lu 1994). 3.2.6 Authentication of botanical and geographical origin of essential oils Aroma constituents of essential oils such as linalool and linalyl acetate can be traced to various botanical sources such as coriander, lavender, etc. Authentication methods that could trace the botanical and even the geographical origin of such constituents are a challenge to food analytical chemists. Information of such aspects is just beginning to emerge in scientific literature. For instance, analysis of major volatile constituents has demonstrated the ratio of carvaerol/thymol to differentiate essential oils from four oregano species (Pino et al. 1993). Rosemary essential oil of different geographical origins could be differentiated on the basis of GC/MS determination of natural constituents. While Spanish oils are rich in -pinene (19.424.7%), 1,8-cineole (19.0 21.8%) and camphor (16.318.9%), the French oils contain -pinene (19.935.1%), 1,8- Quality indices for spice essential oils Table 3.3 27 Critical region (border line) for detection of adulterated oils by different adulterantsa Properties Marjoram Adulterants added (%) Petit grain Fennel bigrade Specific gravity at 25C 0.94139 0.90820 0.97336 Ethanol Paraffin oil Cottonseed oil >10 >10 >20 >0.5 >0.5 >5 >15 >1 >15 Refractive index at 25C 1.44520 1.4919 1.5198 Ethanol Paraffin oil Cottonseed oil >20 >0.5 >0.5 >0.5 >10 >10 >10 Specific optical rotation: 13.45 3.08 6.39 Ethanol Paraffin oil Cottonseed oil >5 >5 >5 >40 40 only >10 >10 >105 Ester number 45.16 193.4 17.22 Ethanol Paraffin oil Cottonseed oil >15 >20 >0.5 >5 >10 >0.5 >0.5 >2 a Significant at 5% level. Not detected. cineole (5.324.8%) and bornyl acetate (1.214.3%). Moroccan oils are typically rich in 1,8-cineole (43.557.7%) (Chalchat et al. 1993). However, chemical analysis is not always helpful in determining the geographical origin of essential oils as has been shown with sage essential oils (Lawrence 1994, 1998). Authentication of saffron oil on the basis of 13C/12C of safranol, as measured by isotopic mass spectroscopy has been reported (Bigois et al. 1994). Site-specific natural isotope fractionation studied by NMR (SNIF-NMR) combined with molecular isotope ratio determination by mass spectrometry (IRMS) can characterize linalool and linalyl acetate from chemical synthesis or extracted from essential oils of well defined botanical and geographical origins. Chirality can be used as a criterion for differentiation between components of natural and nature-identical types (Werkhoff et al. 1991) as well as mixing of components such as linalool from different sources. It can be achieved by using enantioselective capillary GC coupled with stable isotope ratio analysis (Hener et al. 1992). The overall 13C or 2H contents, as measured by IRMS do not constitute an efficient criterion for such identifications. The GC-IRMS method has serious limitations, since the 13C values of most C3 plants (including spices) partially overlap with those of synthetic substances of fossil origin. This can be overcome by using internal isotopic standards, which can then be used to obtain an isotopic fingerprint, typical of a plant. A genuine natural essential oil would then have 13C values that are identical with the isotopic fingerprint. This approach has been successful with coriander essential oils (Frank et al. 28 Handbook of herbs and spices 1995). The presence of 14C in cinnamaldehyde, as the main constituent in cinnamon essential oil, and its absence in the synthetic counterpart formed the basis of their distinction. Unfortunately, this technique was overcome by addition of 14C enriched cinnamaldehyde. A strategy wherein the cinnamaldehyde is transformed into benzaldehyde via a controlled retroaldolization reaction followed by measuring the deuterium content in the 2H-NMR at a very high magnetic field can distinguish as little as 1015% synthetic cinnamaldehyde in cinnamon oil. This technique is superior to the IRMS technique, which determines the total deuterium content (Remaud et al. 1997). Further, model studies with linalool and linalyl acetate have shown 13C values to be influenced by the method and conditions used in their extraction (Weinrich and Nitz 1992). Non-random distribution of deuterium exhibits large variations as a function of the origin of the sample. Discriminant analysis performed over the natural and synthetic families show all synthetic samples to belong to the same group. Natural linalool is characterized by a strong depletion in the heavy isotope in site 1 and by a relative enrichment at site 6. Semi-synthetic linalool obtained from pinene can also be distinguished from natural linalool by virtue of its deuterium at site 3 of the sample. The discrimination between linalools of various botanical origins is, however, reported to be only 82% effective (Hanneguelle et al. 1992). Very recently, an on-line gas chromatography pyrolysis isotope ratio mass spectrometry has been developed that can easily bring out clear cut origin dependent differences in 2H/1H ratios in case of E-2hexenal and E-2-hexenol demonstrating the importance and potential of this technique in authenticity studies of flavour constituents in complex natural matrices (Hor et al., 2001). Similarly, enantiometric purity of carvone from essential oils of caraway, dill and spearmint can be determined using appropriate enantioselective columns. While S(+)carvone is detected in herb oils of caraway and dill, spearmint oils from various countries contain only R (-)-carvone (Ravid et al. 1992). The differentiation between compounds that are grown naturally, produced by fermentation or synthesized chemically is projected to reflect in legal regulations in the coming years. Hence, intensive and comprehensive basic investigations on the analytical origin assessment of flavours will gain ground. 3.3 References BIGOIS, M., CASABIANCA, H., GRAF, J. B., PHILIT, B., JAME, P. and PERRUCCHIETTI, C. (1994). Spectra Anal. 23(181): 1922. CHALCHAT, J. C., GARRY, R. P., MICHET, A., BENJILALI, B. and CHABART, J. L. (1993). J. Essen. Oil Res . 5(6): 61318. and MOSANDL, A. (1995). J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 16347. FREY, C. (1988). Dev. Food Sci. 18: 51724. GIACOMO, A. DI and CALVARANO, M. (1973). Riv. Ital. Essenze, Profumi, Piante Offic., Aromi, Saponi, Cosmetici 55 (5): 31011. GUENTHER, E. (1972). The Essential Oils. Volume I. History Origin in Plants Production Analysis, Robert E. Krieger Publishing, Krieger Drive, Malabar, Florida. HANNEGUELLE, S., THIBAULT, J. N., NAULET, N. and MARTIN, G. J. (1992). J. Agric. Food Chem. 40: 817. HENER, U., BRAUNSDORF, R., KREIS, P., DIETRICH, A., MAAS, B., EULER, E., SCHLAG, B. and MOSANDL, A. (1992). Chem. Mikrobiol. Technol. Lebensm. 14(5/6): 12933. FRANK, C., DIETRICH, A., KREMER, U. Quality indices for spice essential oils HOERHAMMER, L., WAGNER, H., RICHTER, G., KOENIG, H. W. 29 and HENG, I. (1964). Deut. Apotheker-Ztg. 104(40): 1398402. and SCHREIER, P. (2001). J. Agric. Food Chem. 49: 215. KAMINSKI, B. and DYTKOWSKA, O. (1960). Acta Polonica Pharm. 17: 21319. KARTHA, A. R. S. and MISHRA, R. C. (1963). Indian J. Chem. 1: 4578. KUMAR, S. and MADAAN, T. R. (1979). Res. Ind. 24(3): 1802. LAWRENCE, B. M. (1994). Perfumer and Flavorist 19(6): 5762. LAWRENCE, B. M. (1998). Perfumer and Flavorist 23(1): 3950. LOSING, G. (1999). Dtsch. Lebensm. Rundsch. 95(6): 2346. LU, X. (1994). Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu CN 1, 088, 684 [Cited from Chem. Abstr. 123: 187, 444 w (1995)]. MOSTAFA, M. M., GOMAA, M. A. and EL-MASRY, M. H. (1990a). Egyptian J. Food Sci. 16(1/ 2): 637. MOSTAFA, M. M., GOMAA, M. A., EL-TAHAWY, B. S. and EL-MASRY, M. H. (1990b). Egyptian J. Food Sci. 16(1/2): 4562. NOUR-EL-DIN, H., OSMAN, A. E., HIGAZY, S. and MAHMOUD, H. (1977). Egyptian J. Food Sci. 5(1/2): 6777. PINO, J. A., BORGES, P. and RONCAL, E. (1993). Alimentaria 244: 1057. RAVID, U., PUTIEVSKY, E., KATZIR, I., WEINSTEIN, V. and IKAN, R. (1992). Flavour Fragrance J. 7(5): 28992. REMAUD, G., DEBON, A. A., MARTIN, Y. L. and MARTIN, G. G. (1997). J. Agric. Food Chem. 45: 40428. SINGHAL, R. S., KULKARNI, P. R. and REGE, D. V. (1997). In Handbook of Indices of Food Quality and Authenticity, Woodhead Publishng Limited, England, pp. 386456. STRAUS, D. A. and WOLSTROMER, R. J. (1974). The Examination of Various Essential Oils, Proc. VI Int. Congress on Essential Oils, San Francisco. WEINRICH, B. and NITZ, S. (1992). Chem. Mikrobiol. Technol. Lebensm. 4(3/4): 11724. WERKHOFF, P., BRENNECKE, S. and BRETSCHNEIDER, W. (1991). Chem. Mikrobiol. Technol. Lebensm. 13(5/6): 12952. ZHU, M., LIU, S., LUO, R. and BU, Y. (1996). Yaoxue Xuebao 31(6): 4615. HOR, K., RUFF, C., WECKERLE, B., KONIG, T. Appendix: Physical properties of some spice essential oils and flavourants Spice Specific gravity (20C) Refractive index (20C) Optical rotation () (20C) Asafoetida Allspice (Pimenta) berry oil 0.9060.973 1.0241.055a 1.4931.518 1.5251.536 90H to +918H 032H to 50H Pimenta leaf oil 1.0261.065 1.5301.540 inactive to 530H Bay oil 1.5061.520 laevorotatory up to 2, seldom up to 3 Terpeneless bay oil 0.9600.985;a in oils of lower quality as low as 0.951 1.0291.050H 1.5271.536 010H to 120H Cardamom 0.9230.941a 1.4621.467 +240H to +41 Cardamom, wild 0.909H 1.474 +1630H Cinnamon bark oil 1.0201.030H 1.5681.535 10H to 210H Cinnamon leaf oil 1.0371.055a 1.5291.535 136H to 040H Solubility characteristics Soluble in 12 vols and more of 70% alcohol, occasionally with opalescence to turbidity on dilution Soluble in12 vols of 70% alcohol Freshly distilled oils are soluble usually in 12 vols of 70% alcohol; solubility decreases rapidly on storage Soluble in 22.5 vols of 60% alcohol, sometimes even in 6 6.5 vols of 50% alcohol Soluble in 25 vols of 70% alcohol Soluble in 12.5 vols of 70% alcohol Soluble in 12.5 vols of 70% alcohol, occasionally opalescent to hazy Soluble in 1.5 vols or more of 70% alcohol, sometimes with opalescence or paraffin separation Other remarks Sulphur content, 15.329% Phenol content, 6589% Phenol content, 6596% Phenol content 5760%; in oils of poor quality, as low as 40% Phenol content, 8295.5% Acid number, up to 4; Ester number, 92150 Acid number, 1.1; Ester number, 12 Aldehyde (calcd. as cinnameldehyde), 51.856% Phenol (Eugenol), 1418% Adehyde, up to 4% Phenol, 77.390.5% Cassia oil 1.0551.070a 1.6001.606 10H to +60H Clove bud oil 1.0431.068a 1.5291.537 up to 135H Clove stem oil 1.0401.067a 1.5311.538 up to 130H Clove leaf oil 1.0321.067a 1.5331.539 050H to 153H Ginger 0.8770.886a oils with lower and higher specific gravity have been observed 1.4891.494 Mustard 1.0141.030 1.5271.529 260H to 500H lower values observed for oil distilled from old roots stored for a long time inactive Nutmeg 0.8590.868 1.4691.472 +4048H to +4948H Mace 0.8600.892 1.4721.479 +2142H to +4130H Oil of Wintergreen 1.1801.193a 1.5351.536 025H to 130H Readily soluble in 12 vols of 80% alcohol, 23 vols of 70% alcohol 12 vols or more of 70% alcohol with slight turbidity; freshly distilled in 2.53.0 vols of 60% alcohol 12 vols or more of 70% alcohol and 2.53 vols of 60% alcohol 0.9 vols or more of 70% alcohol Only sparingly soluble in alcohol. Up to 7 vols of 95% alc reqd. for solution which is not always clear. In 90% alc, the oils are generally, but not always completely soluble Soluble in 160 to 300 parts of water, 710 parts of 70% alcohol, 2.53.0 vols of 80% ethanol, in 0,5 vols of 90% ethanol, clearly miscible with ether, amyl alcohol, benzene and petroleum ether Clearly soluble in 68 vols of 70% alcohol Aldehyde, 7590% Eugenol, 7895%, seldom up to 98% Eugenol, 8395%, in exceptional cases higher Eugenol, 7893% Acid number, up to 2; Ester number, up to 15; Ester number after acetylation, 2450 Allyl isothiocynate, 94%; boiling range ar 760 nm, 148154C Acid number, 1.01.3; Ester number, 6.87.3 Acid number, 1.56.2; Ester number, 2.812.8 Ester number, 354365; Ester content, calcd. as methyl salicylate, 9699% Appendix (continued) Spice Specific gravity (20C) Refractive index (20C) Optical rotation () (20C) Solubility characteristics Other remarks Onion 1.0471.098a 1.5371.559 +13H to +353H Acid number, 12.019.8; Carbonyl number, 9.815.1; Iodine number, 59.966.2 Pepper oil 0.8730.916 1.4801.499 100H +3 Most oils not completely soluble in 10 vols of 95% alcohol. Occasionally soluble in 12 vols or more of 95% alcohol Not readily soluble in alcohol, usually soluble in 1015 vols of alc; soluble in 310 vols of 95% alcohol Star anise 0.980.00 1.5531.557 Ajowan oil 0.9100.930a 1.4981.504 up to 2; sometimes up to 036H up to 50H Coriander 0.8700.885a 1.4631.471 +80H to +130H Dill 0.8950.915a 1.4811.491 +700H to +820H Anise oil 0.9800.990 1.5521.559 up to 150H Fennel seed oil 0.9650.977a 1.5281.539 +110H to +240H Celery seed oil 0.8720.891a 1.4801.484 +6553H to +7651H Soluble in 1.53.0 vols of 90% alcohol Soluble in 12 vols and more of 80% alcohol Soluble in 23 vols of 70% alcohol Soluble in 49 vols of 80% alcohol Soluble in 1.53.0 vols of 90% alcohol Soluble in 58 vols of 80% alcohol and in 0.5 vols of 90% alcohol Turbid in 90% alcohol Acid number, up to 1.1 Ester number, 0.5 to 6.5 Ester number after acetylation, 1222.4; Phellandrene test, usually strongly positive Congealing point, +14+18 Phenols, 45.057.0% Acid number, up to 5.0; Ester number, 3.022.7 Carvone content, 4060% Congealing point, not below 5, and as high as 10 in good oils Saponification number, 25.147.6 Caraway seed oil 0.9070.919a 1.4841.488 +700H to +810H Parsley seed oil 1.0431.110a 1.5121.528 40H to 108H Parsley herb oil 0.9021.016a 1.5091.526 +116H to +430H Soluble in 95% alcohol Lemongrass oil 0.8990.911a 1.4851.490 110H to 310H Bitter almond oil $1.050a 1.5421.546 inactive Sassafras oil 1.0701.080a about 1.530 +20H to +338H 22.5 vols of 70% alcohol; occasionally opalescent or slightly cloudy. A few lots not clearly soluble in 70% alcohol, up to 10 vols Soluble in 12 vols and more of 70% alcohol Soluble in 95% alcohol, 12 vols of 90% alcohol a at 15C. Source: Singhal et al. (1997). Seldom soluble in 70% alcohol, soluble in 210 vols of 80% alc., clearly soluble in equal vols of 90% alcohol 48 vols and more of 80% alcohol Carvone content, 50.060% Acid number, up to 6; Ester number, 1 to 11, Ester number after acetylation, 4 to 20 Acid number, up to 1, Ester number, 5 to 14, Ester number after acetylation, 1968 Aldehyde content, 71.879.1% Boiling point 179C Acid number, up to 1.0, Ester number, 0.55.0 Congealing point, 4.56.9C 4 Organic spices C. K. George, Peermade Development Society, Kerala 4.1 Introduction Global awareness of health and environmental issues is spreading fast in recent years, especially in the developed countries. Sustainability in production has become the prime concern in agriculture development. The organic method of farming is the best option to ensure that the air, water and soil around us remain unpolluted, leaving the environment safe for present and future generations. In many countries exploitative agriculture using industrial inputs has been the norm since the 1960s, in order to cater for an increasing population and to combat the occurrence of famine and natural calamities. Such a system of farming has been causing imbalances in the constituents of biosphere, bioforces, bioforms and biosources. As a result the health of Mother Earth has been deteriorating. Organic agriculture aims to tackle the above concern, and also aims at protecting the environment from continuous decline (Anon. 1998). 4.2 Concept of organic farming The concept of organic farming is based on an holistic approach where nature is perceived to be more than just an individual element. In this farming system there is dynamic interaction between soil, humus, plant, animal, eco-system and environment. Hence organic farming differs from industrial agriculture as in the latter, biological systems are replaced by technical production systems with liberal use of chemicals (Anon. 1999). Organic farming improves the structure and fertility of the soil through balanced choice of crops and implementation of diversified crop rotation systems. Biological processes are strengthened without recoursing to chemical remedies, such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. In this farming system control of pests, diseases and weeds is primarily preventative, and if required, adopting organic products, which will not adversely affect the environment. Genetically modified organisms are not normally Organic spices 35 acceptable because of the manipulations made in their natural set up. Organic matter of various kinds, nitrogen fixing plants, pests and disease resistant varieties, soil improvement practices such as mulching and fallowing, crop rotation, multiple cropping, mixed farming, etc., are freely adopted. In brief, organic farming merges traditional and respectable views on nature with modern insights. 4.2.1 Bio-dynamic agriculture Bio-dynamic agriculture is yet another approach to organic farming. It is based on anthropsophy on the ideas formulated by the Austrian expert, Rudolf Steiner, in 1924 (Boor 2000). In this system, the maintenance and furtherance of life processes on Earth are achieved by harnessing cosmic energy and various influences of the sun, the stars, the moon and other planets. Bio-dynamic agriculture most often combines animal husbandry and crop production and use of compost and bio-dynamic preparations to revitalize soil and plants and subsequently animals and human beings. Sowing, cultivation and harvesting are timed according to cosmic rhythms. 4.3 Standards and certification The most significant factors distinguishing organic farming from other methods of sustainable agriculture are the existence of production and processing standards, and certification procedures. 4.3.1 Standards Standards are developed by private associations, companies, certification bodies or by the State itself. Over one hundred regional, national and international standards have been developed worldwide so far. Several countries are formulating or have adopted rules and regulations on organic farming, processing and certification requirements. 4.3.2 Certification Most regulations require products that are labelled organic to be certified by an independent body, thereby providing a guarantee that the products have been made according to organic production standards. It is to protect consumers, producers and traders against the use of misleading or incorrect labels. It is also a trading instrument enabling producers to access markets for organic products and obtain premium prices. Moreover, it creates transparencies, as information on certified producing agencies and their products is normally available to the public directly from the package. Before certification, a detailed inspection by a designated agency is carried out to verify that production and handling are done in accordance with the standards against which certification is done. The certification procedures make it possible to track and control the flow of products from primary and farm level to each stage of manufacturing and ultimately to the finished product for the consumer. This is possible as certification is based on a series of systematic procedures. The farmer, the processor, the trader or whoever is handling the product signs a contract with the certification body. Farmers are required to provide basic information on the farm, such as location and size of fields, crops grown, crop rotation practised, farming method followed, pest and disease control 36 Handbook of herbs and spices measures adopted on farm processing carried out, etc., to the certification body. If there is industrial processing to be carried out, details of the processing unit, technology used in processing, sources of organic raw materials, products processed, etc., need to be presented to the certification body. The certification body has to be convinced not only orally but also through records and registers maintained by the producer or operator. Certification is not a one-time procedure. It is carried out continuously on the basis of ongoing monitoring and inspection of farms and processing units. Though India has a set of organic farmers and a few processing units, local certification bodies accredited to international organizations are only in the formative stage. Hence in India organic products require certification bodies established in other countries, especially in Europe. Of the over 100 certification bodies existing globally, three agencies have opened offices in India. Many Indian organic farmers or their associations avail assistance of these offices for inspection and certification. However, certain individual firms depend on the agencies in Europe and get the inspectors directly from there. Normally inspection and certification costs vary depending on the nature of inspection to be carried out, but it is generally between 0.3 to 1% for most products of high commercial value. 4.4 Quality To sell organic spices, quality considerations are most important. Since no chemicals are used for fertilization, control of pest and diseases, elimination of weeds and growth acceleration, some buyers fear that the microbial population in the end products could be on the higher side than those prepared conventionally using these inputs. As there is no opportunity for the use of chemicals in crop production, the products should be absolutely free from their residues including pesticides and fungicides. In brief, three important parameters to market organic food are the following: 1. 2. 3. Quality certified organic, which has to be proved by inspection report and certificate issued by authorized inspection and certification agency following approved standards. Quality microbiologically clean, based on results from recognized laboratory. Quality absolutely residue free, authenticated with analytical data on residues from approved laboratory. In addition to the above, the product should meet fully the product specifications and all parameters relating to sanitary and phyto-sanitary conditions. In other words, organic spices should not only be superior quality-wise in respect of inherent bio-chemical constituents, but they should also be the most safe for human consumption. 4.5 World trade No reliable published data are available on global trade in organic agricultural products. The International Trade Centre, Geneva has, however, carried out a market survey in Europe (Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, Austria and Italy) and in the United States and Japan in 1997. According to this survey, retail sales of organic foods in these markets were estimated at US$11 billion. The survey did not include Australia, New Zealand and other developed countries. Including these countries, Organic spices 37 the organic food trade in 1997 would have been over US$12 billion. According to the statistics published by the International Trade Centre, spices are also important organic products marketed globally (Anon. 1999). Demand for organic spices varies considerably from country to country and in the kind of spices in a particular country. At present, only a few European countries, USA, Canada and Japan are looking for organic spices. However, countries such as Australia, New Zealand and some other European countries may become involved in the organic spice trade because of the increasing awareness of the safety of organic food consumption. Germany has the highest demand for various organic spices. The world import of various organic spices together during 1999 was less than 300 tonnes as assessed from important buyers. Of this, organic black pepper import was more than 50% followed by ginger, nutmeg and clove. 4.5.1 Indian experience Traditionally, Indian farmers followed organic cultivation methods until the middle of the last century, as they had no other choice. Since the 1960s, many chemical inputs for increasing agricultural production have become available both from domestic production and import. Some of the chemicals imported, particularly for plant protection, were highly dangerous to human health and they left poisonous residues in the soil after application lasting a few decades. The green revolution initiated by importing dwarf and fertilizer responsive wheat and rice varieties led to production programmes using various chemicals profusely in the urge to enhance productivity. A new trend is being developed in India now to produce various crops, including spices, organically not only to protect the natural environment but also because of the need for having safe agriculture products for human consumption. Accordingly some farmers produce spices by organic methods for their own consumption and also for sale in a limited way in the local markets. India has established a name in supplying quality organic spices to Europe and USA. The pioneering work in this regard has been by the Peermade Development Society, Peermade, Kerala, India, with the support of the Spices Board of India. A number of organic spices such as black pepper, white pepper, ginger, turmeric, clove, nutmeg and mace have been exported to USA, the Netherlands, Germany and Switzerland since 1998. The Society has over 1200 farmers growing various horticultural crops especially black pepper and other spices in South India. The Society proposes to produce various other spices like vanilla, chilli, coriander, cumin, fennel, fenugreek, etc., through organic cultivation methods in the near future. A centre for research and training of vermicompost production and multiplication and distribution of bio-agents like Trichoderma has been set up for supporting farmers in organic cultivation by the Society (George 1999a). There are a few other non-governmental organizations for promoting organic production of herbs in Nilgiri district, black pepper in Wynad district and turmeric and ginger in Phulbani district in India. 4.5.2 Production in other countries Among other producing countries, Sri Lanka and Indonesia are also in the organic spice production and trade. These countries produce largely organic black pepper. They have established export channels and have entered in the international market for organic spices in recent years. 38 Handbook of herbs and spices 4.6 Future trends The organic spice trade is of particular interest to many developing countries growing spices. It should be noted that the initial growth in the organic spice sector is encouraging. Some organic food experts visualize that insufficient supply of organic spices, especially those which are required in large quantities, might become a problem in the next few years (George 1999b). The future demand for organic spices appears to be bright. Any processed food can only be labelled organic if 95% of the ingredients originate from organic farming. The remaining 5% can be products, which are listed by government regulations, such as EU regulations. Spices are not listed in such regulations and must therefore be of organic origin. Assuming a market growth of 10% in Europe, USA and Japan for organic products, the world demand for organic spices could grow to 57,000 tonnes in the next ten years. This is based on the market size of 570,000 tonnes of conventional spices at that time as reported by the International Trade Centre in their publication, Imports of Spices into Selected Markets, 1999 (Boor 2000). Although the overall picture for the organic spice sector is promising, there are a number of potential risks to be borne in mind. There could be occasional oversupply of a given spice leading to erosion of price attraction. Further, other forms or methods of environmentally friendly and sustainable agriculture are likely to result in increased competition in the future. In addition, unfavourable press reports and scare stories on higher microbial contamination in organic foods, in general, as they are not treated with chemicals also cannot be discounted (George 2000). A few issues which have to be tackled to increase organic production are worth mentioning. They are lack of technical know-how especially on production and processing methods, poor storage and processing facilities, very little market information, insufficient financing and inadequate support from the government agencies. The high cost of certification and the elaborate records to be maintained by small spice farmers to prove their cultivation system organic are also standing in the way of spreading organic spice production. Since demand for organic spices is growing and generally price attractive, it can be visualized that most of the problems would be solved in the near future. 4.7 References (1998), Production of Organic Spices, Cochin, India, Spices Board. (1999), Product and Market Development Organic Food and Beverages: World Supply and Major European Markets, Geneva, Switzerland, International Trade Centre. BOOR, B. (2000), Requirements and potential for trade in organic spices, Spices to food new trends, new dimension, Proceedings of World Spice Congress 2000, Spices Board, Cochin, 4854. GEORGE, C.K. (1999a), Production and export of organically grown spices from India case presentation on organic pepper. Proceedings of the UNDP Seminar, Spices Board, Cochin, India, 111. GEORGE, C.K. (1999b), Market for organically produced pepper. International Pepper News Bulletin, Jakarta, Indonesia, Vol. XXVI, No. 34, 5963. GEORGE, C.K. (2000), Export of organic spices Indian experience, 13th Scientific Conference, IFOAM 2000, Basle, Switzerland, 209. ANON. ANON. 5 Aniseed ven, University of Cukurova, Adana M. Ozgu 5.1 Introduction Source: Pimpinella anisum L. (Syn. Anisum vulgare Gaertn.; Anisum officinarum Monch; Apium anisum (L.) Crantz; Carum anisum (L.) Baill.; Selinum anisum (L.) E.H.L. Krause; Pimpinella anisum (var.) cultum Alef; Sison anisum Spreng.; Tragium anisum Link).1,2 Family: Apiaceae (= Umbelliferae) Synonyms: Aniseed, Anis seed, Anis, Anise, Sweet cumin Parts used: Seeds (fruits), oil Classification: Division: Spermatophyta Subdivision: Angiospermae Class: Magnoliospida Subclass: Rosidae Order: Apiales Family: Apiaceae Genus: Pimpinella3 Anise is an annual plant that reaches an average height of 3050 cm. The plant is completely covered with fine hairs. The root is thin and spindle-shaped, the stem up, stalkround, grooved and branched upward (see Fig. 5.1). In midsummer the thin stems are topped with umbrella-shaped clusters of tiny white flowers, which are heavy enough to make the stems flop. They turn into seedlike fruits. Anise is a cross-pollinating species and is genetically heterogeneous. The fruit is an ovoid-pearshaped schizokarp somewhat compressed at the side. The two-part fruits separate heavily. The carpophore is almost two-piece up to the base. Commercially available aniseed usually contains the whole fruits and occasionally parts of the fruitstalk (see Fig. 5.2). The fruits with the style-foot are 3 5 mm long, 1.52.5 mm wide and 24 mm thick. Vittae (oil ducts) are almost always present embedded in the fruit wall on the dorsal surface, sometimes in or directly beneath the ridges. The fruits are downy. Their colour is greyish-green to greyish-brown.4,5 40 Handbook of herbs and spices Fig. 5.1 Pimpinella anisum L. 5.2 Chemical structure Anise contains: 14% volatile oil; coumarins: bergapten, umbelliprenine, umbelliferone, scopoletin; ca. 816% lipids, including fatty acids: 5070% petroselinic acid (C18:1), 2228% oleic acid (C18:1), 59% linoleic acid (C18:2) and 510% saturated fatty acids mostly palmitic acid (C16:0); -amyrin, and stigmasterol and its salts (palmitate and stearate); flavonoid glycosides: quercetin-3-glucuronide, rutin, luteolin-7-glucoside, isoorientin, isovitexin, apigenin-7-glucoside (apigetrin) etc; myristicin; ca. 18% protein; ca. 50% carbohydrate and others. Fatty acids can be obtained by extraction, as in the case of caraway, in the remainders of oil extraction via steam distillation. Lauric acid, which is most important to Aniseed Fig. 5.2 41 Dried aniseed. oleochemistry, is obtained from petroselinic acid which is found in high quantities (50 70%) in anise. Fatty oil shows excellent future potential. Successful production of anise seed for economical oil production would probably occur if the seed yields could be improved significantly, and high content of oil and essential oils and large quantity of petroselinic acids could be reached.6,7 The major constituent in volatile oil of aniseed is trans (E)-anethole (7590%7; 80 90%8; 86%9; 9698%10; 8689%11; 8992%12). Methylchavicol (estragole) (4.95%9; 1.73.7%10; 3.65.5%11; 1.02.4%12), anise ketone (para-methoxyphenylacetone) (0.78%9; 0.50.9%11) and -caryophyllene are also present, but in lesser relative amounts. Other components in minor concentrations include anisaldehyde, anisic acid (oxidation products of anethole), linalool, limonene, -pinene, acetaldehyde, p-cresol, creosol, hydroquinine, -farnasene, -himachalene and ar-curcumene.7 5.3 Production 5.3.1 Cultivation Anise is cultivated in Turkey, Egypt, Spain, Russia, Italy, India, Greece, Northern Africa, Argentina, Malta, Romania and Syria. Anise is primarily exported from Turkey, and also from Egypt and Spain in particular. From an industrial standpoint, the quality differences between anise seed from different origins are not significant and therefore specifications need not limit the spice to a specific country of origin.13,14,15 P. anisum requires a warm and long frost-free growing season of 120 days. The plant needs a hot summer to thrive and for seeds to ripen. The reported life zone for anise production is 8 to 23C with 0.4 to 1.7 metres of precipitation on a soil pH of 6.3 to 7.3. Anise develops best in deep, rich, well-drained, sandy and calcerous soils. Cold, loamy 42 Handbook of herbs and spices and moist soils are unsuitable for the cultivation of anise. During germination anise tolerates salinity up to 160 m NaCl. The thousand seeds weight of the part-fruits amounts to 1.5 to 3.0 g and should have a minimum purity of 90% and a minimum germination of 70%. Ripe-fruits seeds germinate relatively quickly. The germination time is 14 days. Only seeds from the previous years harvest germinate well. Long storage quickly reduces germination vigour: seeds stored for five years will no longer germinate. Planting begins when the soil in the beds is warmed. Optimum soil temperature for germination is 18 21C. It is essential to prepare good seedbeds and to create a good contact between the planted seed and the soil because the seeds are small and have low germination percentage (70%). The planting is carried out in spring or autumn depending on the areas it is cultivated. The seeds with a seeding rate of 2025 kg/ha are sown in rows 2030 cm apart, at a depth of 1 cm. The plant develops slowly after germination and for the following few weeks it is necessary to control weeds closely. It is recommended to apply fertilizers at a rate of 80100 kg K2O and 5075 kg P2O5 per hectare. With nitrogen, it is important to be careful, since excessive nitrogen fertilization results in luxuriant vegetative growth with reduced yields, and increased vulnerability to lodging. 50100 kg/ ha N is normally enough. The small white flowers bloom in midsummer, and seed maturity usually occurs one month after pollination, when the oil content in the dried fruits is about 2.5%. Anise seeds are harvested between from the end of July to the beginning of September, depending on the cultivation areas. Yields of seed up to 500 1000 kg/ha have been achieved. P. anisum is recommended in companion planting to repel aphids and cabbage worms. The flowers attract parasitic wasps.5,6,16,17,18 Constituents in plant volatile oils are known to be useful in pest control. Various authors have reported that vapours of essential oils extracted from anise were found to be toxic to two greenhouse pests, viz. the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glov.19 Sarac and Tunc20 indicated that the essential oil of anise had a high residual toxicity to adults of Tribolium confusum, and was the most repellent to Sitophilus oryzae adults in food preference tests. 5.3.2 The production of anise oil The world production of anise oil amounts to 4050 tons per annum. The most significant importing countries of anise oil are the USA and France. Russia, Spain and Poland are among the largest producers of anise oil. There is no distillation of anise oil and no production of anethole in many of the countries which cultivate the crop.21,22,23 Anise oil is steam distilled from the crushed seeds of the plant Pimpinella anisum. The process of steam distillation is the most widely accepted process for the production of essential oils on a large scale. A still is charged with plant material to be processed. Steam is introduced at the base of the still and the crushed anise seeds volatile elements evaporate with the steam. A condensation process turns this vapour-mix into a liquid form of water and essential oil. The essential oil floats on top of the water and is separated off. The essential oil of aniseed is a colourless to faintly yellow oil which solidifies upon cooling to about 1519C due to the crystallization of anethole. Oleoresin anise is a yellowish-green to orange-brown fluid oleoresin. Volatile oil content of oleoresin anise is 1518%. The presence of a large quantity of fixed oil in this product limits its shelf-life and the addition of a permitted antioxidant is advised.24 Anise and anise oil are widely used as flavouring ingredients in all major categories of foods, including alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, frozen dairy desserts, sweets, baked Aniseed 43 goods, gelatines and puddings, and meat and meat products. The highest average maximum use levels for anise oil are about 0.06% (570 ppm) in alcoholic beverages and 0.07% (681 ppm) in sweets.7 Suggested use rate of oleoresin anise is 7.5 to 9%.24 In Turkey the different types of aniseed spirits are distinguished by their anise seed content: Yeni raki (80 g/L aniseed), Kulup raki (100 g/L aniseed) and Altinbas raki (120 g/L aniseed).25 5.3.3 Stability during storage, irradiation and heat processing Anise has to be stored away from daylight and kept in a dry place in cool conditions (DAB 10 Eur, OAB 90, Helv VII). The average loss of the content of the volatile oil has been calculated at 1% of the original content per month. The content of trans-anethole decreases from 89% to 73% during a storage of six weeks with the influence of sunlight, while the content of cis-anethole increases from 0.8 to 4.5% and the content of anisaldehyde from 0.8 to 7.0%. At the same time additional decomposition products are formed. Investigations on airsealed, grinded aniseed clearly show changes of odour within the first 12 months if the temperature of storage exceeds 5C. Because of the sensitivity to light and oxidation it is recommended that the volatile oil of anise is stored in well filled and well closed containers (glass or tin, but not plastic) protected against daylight (DAB 10, BP 88, PFX, OAB 90, HELV VII). Moreover, PFX demands a storage temperature below 10C and BP 88 a storage temperature below 25C. With the influence of daylight, trans-anethole is transformed into its more toxic isomer cisanethole.26 It is reported that there is an increase in anise ketone, anisaldehyde and anisic acid9 and decrease in trans-anethole27 of anise oil during long-term storage. Moisture content of the seeds or humidity of the storage atmosphere is the most important parameter to be considered in preserving the desired properties of anise. At high moisture levels deteriorative reactions and off-flavours are inevitable in addition to the increased rate of loss of volatile oil by diffusion. Oxidation reactions are responsible for the loss of oil during storage by converting the components mostly to acids and aldehydes. Also, daylight catalyzes oxidative reactions and increases the rate of deterioration. Extreme variations in the moisture content of the storage atmosphere favour oil evaporation and particularly oxidation.28 The dimers of anethole (dianethole) and anisaldehyde (dianisoin) are mentioned repeatedly in the literature14,29,30 and are supposedly responsible for the oestrogenic activity in old drugs and in stored oils under exposure to sunlight, and air could not be found after thorough investigation.31 One interesting item to note in this spice is that when the ground product is irradiated, a slightly putrid off odour and flavour results. This contradicts most research that irradiation does not change the chemical properties of a spice when treated. It is possible that it does, in limited cases, change the flavour balance of essential oils.15 Similarly numerous authors report that volatile oil of anise, extracted after irradiation with 1.5 and 10 kGy -rays, contained the most oxygenated compounds, and irradiation caused a general increase in oxygenated compounds at 1 kGy.32 Farag-Zaied et al.33 indicated that -irradiation was effective in decontamination, especially at 10 kGy, but caused losses in the major components of flavour such as anethole, methylchavicol and anisealdehyde in anise. Thermal treatment at 70C for 15 minutes reduced the microbial count and pathogenic microbes, improving the anethole in anise, and washing the spice removed some of the microbes but improved markedly the anise flavour. Thermal and washing treatments may 44 Handbook of herbs and spices be of value as simple natural techniques to produce spices with a good flavour and with an acceptable level of contamination. Bendini et al.34 detected linear, unsaturated hydrocarbons in aniseed samples treated with -rays or microwaves. The microwave treatment of aniseeds did not modify the hydrocarbon profile with respect to the untreated samples. In contrast, -irradiation gave rise to a series of unsaturated hydrocarbons of which C16:2, C16:1, C17:2 and C17:1 were determined. In most cases, when these products were quantified, their amounts increased with the dose of radiation. C17:1 could be considered as the marker of the irradiation treatment. The essential oil of anise extracted from -irradiated and microwaved fruits exhibit antioxidant properties. -irradiation and microwave treatments have no effect on the antioxidant properties of essential oil. Essential oil extracted from the -irradiated fruits are more effective as antioxidants than those produced from microwaved fruits.35,36 5.4 Main uses in food processing Aniseeds long popularity throughout so many lands stems from its many uses: flavourant, culinary, household, cosmetic and medicinal. While the entire plant is fragrant, it is the fruit of anise, commercially called aniseed, that has been highly valued since antiquity. Aniseed is one of the oldest spices used widely for flavouring curries, breads, soups, baked goods such as German springerle, and Italian biscotti, sweets (e.g. licorice candies, especially aniseed-balls), dried figs, desserts, cream cheese, pickles, coleslaw, egg dishes, non-alcoholic beverage. It is a favourite flavouring for alcoholic drinks in the Mediterranean region, such as French Pastis, Pernod, Anisette, and Ricard, Greek Ouzo, Turkish Raki and Arabian Arak, and also South American Aguardiente, Russian Allasch, Puerto Rican Tres Castillos. Aniseed oil is a component in German Boonekamp, Benediktener, Goldwasser and Spanish Pacharan and Ojen. Anisette combines anise, coriander and fennel seeds in sweet vodka. Anise and anise oils are used in Italian sausage, pepperoni, pizza topping and other processed meat items. Anise is an essential component of Italian anise cake and cookies. All parts of the plant can be used in the kitchen. The flowers and the leaves can be added to fruit salads. Freshly-chopped leaves also enhance dips, cheese spreads, vegetables, or green salads. Mixed into stews and soups, the stem and roots of anise give just a hint of licorice.6,15,16,18,26 The essential oil is valuable in perfumery, in dentrifices as an antiseptic, toothpaste, mouthwashes, soaps, detergents, lotions and skin creams, in tobacco manufacture, with maximum use levels of 0.25% oil in perfumes. It is also used to mask undesirable odours in drug and cosmetic products. The oil is used for production of anethole and sometimes as sensitizer for bleaching colours in photography.7,16,23 5.5 Functional properties The pharmaceutical data mentioned in the literature mainly refer to anise oil and anethole. Anethole is structurally related to the catecholamines adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine.37 Anise oil and anethole have a number of functional properties: antibacterial antifungal Aniseed 45 antioxidant stimulant, carminative and expectorant. The antibacterial activities of the essential oil distilled from Pimpinella anisum against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium ovis were evaluated. Against S. pyogenes, aniseed oil was equally effective in the pure state and at dilution up to 1:1000. Against C. ovis, aniseed oil was equally effective at dilutions up to 1:100 and at higher dilutions.38 The inhibitory properties of anise essential oil, alone or in combination with either benzoic acid or methyl-paraben, against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteriditis were investigated. S. enteriditis was particularly sensitive to inhibition by combinations of anise essential oil with methylparaben. L. monocytogenes was less sensitive but exhibited significant reductions in growth in response to combinations of essential oil with methyl-paraben.39 Kubo40 reported that anethole, a naturally occurring phenylpropanoid extracted from aniseed, exhibited a broad antimicrobial spectrum and the antifungal activity (against Candida albicans) of two sesquiterpene dialdehydes, polygodial and warburganal (extracted from Polygonum hydropiper), was increased 32 fold when combined with low concentrations of anethole. In a study of the volatile oil from aniseed, significant antifungal activity against members of the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Fusarium and Penicillium was recorded at concentrations of 500 ppm, the active constituent having been identified as anethole.41 Anethole also inhibits growth of mycotoxin producing Aspergillus species in culture. Anethole has been reported to be mutagenic in Ames Salmonella reversion assay. Anethole, anisaldehyde and myristicin (in aniseed), along with d-carvone (present in P. anisum plant), have been found to have mild insecticidal properties.7 Pharmacological studies were carried out in rats and mice, and anise oil showed significant antipyretic activities in rats.42 Curtis43 reports that synthetic versions of compounds in herbs and spices such as trans-anethole have inhibitory and lethal activity against food spoilage yeast Debaromyces hansenii. There is some evidence of anise oils effectiveness as an antioxidant. Gurdip et al.44 investigated the antioxidant activity of essential oil from spice materials on stored sunflower oil and found that anise oil possessed excellent antioxidant effects, better than those of synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene. Anise oil is reported to be carminative and expectorant. The reputed lactogogic action of anise has been attributed to anethole, which exerts a competitive antagonism at dopamine receptor sites (dopamine inhibits prolactin secretion), and to the action of polymerized anethole, which is structurally related to the oestrogenic compounds stilbene and stilboestrol. Anethole is also structurally related to the hallucinogenic compound myristicin. Bergapten, in combination with ultraviolet light, has been used in the treatment of psoriasis.37 Anise oil is used as carminative, stimulant, mild spasmolytic, weak antibacterial, and expectorant in cough mixtures and lozenges, among other preparations. It can be used internally for dyspeptic complaints and externally as an inhalant for congestion of the respiratory tract. The whole, crushed, or ground crude drug can be used for infusion, and other galenical preparations; e.g. several instant teas as powders containing aqueous extracts of aniseed, or as tea paste, some preparations with micro-encapsulated anise oil. Anise seed and anise oil are subjects of German official monographs; 3.0 g of seed or 0.3 g of essential oil (mean daily dose) allowed as a bronchial expectorant for upper respiratory tract congestion and as gastrointestinal spasmolytic.7,31 Anise may have other potential health benefits. The effect of the beverage extracts anise on absorption of iron was tested in tied-off intestinal segments of rats. Results 46 Handbook of herbs and spices showed that the beverage of anise promoted Fe absorption.45 Preparations containing 5 10% essential oil are used externally.7,31 The oil added to an ointment helps in cases of aches of muscles and neuralgia.6 Olfactory masking with aniseed oil decreased aggression and prevented the decrease in milk production in dairy cattles.46 It is reported that anethole stimulates hepatic regeneration in rats, and also shows spasmolytic activity. Chemically it is used as a precursor in the manufacture of anisaldehyde. Occurring in the essential oil of P. anisum, p-anisaldehyde has fungistatic activity; pcresol is a disinfectant agent and cresols are used in veterinary practice as local antiseptics, parasiticides and disinfectants; hydroquinone has antibacterial, antitumour, antimitotic and hypertensive activities. It is cytotoxic to rat hepatoma cells. Uses include a depigmentor, an antioxidant and a photographic reducer and developer.47 In traditional medicine anise is reportedly used as aromatic carminative, stimulant and expectorant; also as oestrogenic agents to increase milk secretion, promote menstruation, facilitate birth, increase libido, and alleviate symptoms of male climacteric.7 Aniseed is traditionally regarded as an aphrodisiac. Externally, the oil may be used as an ointment base for the treatment of scabies. The oil by itself will help in the control of lice and as a chest rub for bronchial complaints. The oil is often mixed with oil of Sassafras albidum for skin parasites and with that of Eucalyptus globulus as a chest rub.18 5.6 Toxicity and allergy Aniseed contains anethole and estragole which are structurally related to safrole, a known hepatotoxin and carcinogen. Although both anethole and estragole have been shown to cause hepatotoxicity in rodents, aniseed is not thought to represent a risk to human health when it is consumed in amounts normally encountered in foods.37 Anise and oil of anise are generally regarded as safe for human consumption. The toxicity and cancerogenity of anethole are controversial. Anethole has two isomers (trans and cis), the cis (Z) isomer being 1538 times more toxic to animals than the trans (E) isomer.7 The major component of the natural volatile oil of anise (8096%) is trans-anethole, which is most likely non-cancerogenic. Trans-anethole will be accompanied by cis-anethole (maximum 0.30.4%), which is not caused by distillation, but exists naturally in anise seeds. In case of storage without protection of daylight the forming of cis-anethole is possible. Synthetic trans-anethole contains higher quantities of toxic cis-anethole compared to natural trans-anethole and therefore it is not used in food processing. Cases of intoxication with the volatile oil of anise are not known.26 Current United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and Food Chemical Codex (FCC) specifications for anethole do not require differentiation between the isomers.7 Aniseed may cause an allergic reaction. It is recommended that the use of aniseed oil should be avoided in dermatitis, or any inflammatory or allergic skin conditions.37 Patients with an allergy to pollen are often suffering from spice-allergy like celery, carrot, etc. Skin-prick tests with anise extracts in several cases result in positive allergic reactions.26 Freeman48 reports an atopic man who experienced cutaneous allergy and periorbital edema after preparing and eating fresh dill. The patient reported here demonstrated reactive skin tests and positive radio allergo sorbent test (RAST) to other members of the Umbelliferae including aniseed in addition to dill. Similarly Fraj et al.49 describe a case of occupational asthma induced from aniseed dust sensitization. A skinprick test carried out with 13 spices showed positive reactions only to aniseed extract. When consumed in sufficient quantities, anise oil may induce nausea, vomiting, Aniseed 47 seizures and pulmonary edema. Contact of the concentrated oil with skin can cause irritations.16 Anethole has been reported to be the cause of dermatitis (erythema, scaling and vesiculation) in some people.7 Compared with star anise however, the sensitization effect of anise oil is lower.26 5.7 Quality and regulatory issues The recommended moisture limits from the American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) is 10% in whole and in ground anise. Ash and acid insoluble ash should be no greater than 6.0% and 1.0%, respectively.15 According to BHP 1983:31 foreign organic matter, not more than 2%; other fruits and seeds, not more than 2%; total ash, not more than 10%; acid-insoluble ash, not more than 2.5%. The minimum content of volatile oil of anise is 2% (BHP 1983; Ph. Eur, 2).31 Anise oil is a colourless to pale yellow, strongly refractive liquid, having the characteristic odour and taste of anise. It should contain 84 93% trans-anethole (major component and typical carrier of odour and flavour) and 0.5 6.0% methylchavicol (=estragole, which smells like anise but does not have its sweet taste) (HPLC profile Ph. Eur.).14 Anise oil is frequently adulterated with the lower priced star anise oil, which, according to several Pharmacopoeiae, is also considered anise oil. Star anise (Illicium verum Hook f.) is the dried fruit of a tall evergreen tree, which is native to southern China and northern Vietnam. The profile of star anise oil is similar to that the Pimpinella oil and the two are equally acceptable and interchangeable in use. But, strictly from the flavouring viewpoint, anise oil (P. anisum) is undoubtedly superior to star anise oil (I. verum), the latter having a somewhat harsher odour. Pharmacopoeiae therefore demand the specification of the plant of origin out of which the anise oil was extracted (whether from aniseed, P. anisum or star anise, I. verum, which can be determined). This is obviously for the sake of consumer protection, since star anise oil is substantially cheaper than the oil extracted from anise. Characteristic of genuine aniseed oil is the presence of up to 5% of the 2-methylbutyryl ester of 4-methoxy-2-(1-propenyl)-phenol (= pseudoisoeugenyl 2-methylbutyrate). On the other hand, fruit oil of I. verum is characterized by the presence of Foeniculin. The provenance of an oil can be determined by detection of each of these two substances. Star anise oil further differs from P. anisum oil by its content of several terpene hydrocarbons (THC) as well as its content of 1,4-cineol. This may explain why star anise oil does not reach the flavour quality of aniseed oil.14,26,31,50 Other adulterants are synthetic anethole and fennel oil. The latter can be detected by a change in the optical rotation. Much cheaper synthetic anetholes are also available but some carry a risk of toxicity, which precludes their use in food and drinks.50,51 A further criterion of quality is its solidification point which sinks with decreasing content of anethol. The solidification point of officinal anise oil lies between +15C and +19C (Ph. Eur.). Pure anethole becomes fluid above +23C and solidifies at +21C. All Pharmacopoeiae recommend checking physical properties like specific gravity, refractive index, optical rotation and temperature of solidification in order to get hints about the purity of anise oil. Table 5.1 lists physical properties according to different sources. The specifications of the limits as mentioned in the Pharmacopoeiae vary slightly. Anise oil has to be dissolvable in 1.5 to 3.0 times its volume of EtOH 90% (DAB 10, NFXVII, OAB 90, Helv VII). This test is useful to exclude adulterations by fats, oils and mineral oils.26 Italian anis may be confused (in former times more often, nowadays very rarely) occasionally with poisonous fruits of Conicum maculatum L. (hemlock). Morpho- 48 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 5.1 Physical properties of anise volatile oil according to different sources Properties Turkish anise11 volatile oil Food chemical52 codex specification Pharmacopoeiae26 ISO53 Specific gravity (20C) Refractive index (20C) Solidification point Optical rotation (20C) 0,990 1,558 19C 0,9780,988 1,5531,560 > 15C 2 to + 1 0,9790,994 (DAB10) 1,5531,561 (DAB10) > 15C (BP 88) 2 to + 1 (BP 88) 0.9800990 1.5521.559 + 15C to + 19.5 2 to + 5 logically, hemlock fruit can be recognized by the undulate (especially in the upper part of the fruit) ridges. Crushed fruits that are moistened with a potassium hydroxide solution should not smell like mouse urine (coniine). Adulteration with parsley or dill fruits can be detected readily by their smaller size and missing hairs. Nearly all anise fruits currently traded are impurified with up to 1% coriander fruits.14,31 Adulteration of powdered aniseed or anise oil can be rapidly and reliably determined by direct mass spectroscopy via the marker compound pseudoisoeugenyl 2-methyl-butyrate which only occurs in genuine anise oil; as little as 0.21.4% can be detected in the presence of 94% anethole, without the necessity of its having to be separated or the sample specially prepared.31 In the USA, aniseed is listed as GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe; 182.10 and 182.20). Aniseed is used extensively as a spice and is listed by the Council of Europe as a natural source of food flavouring (category N2). Anise seed and anise oil are subject to different pharmacopoeial Monographs: Aust., Br., Cz., Egypt., Eur., Fr., Ger., Gr., Hung., It., Neth., Rom., Rus., and Swiss.37 Aniseed is covered by the following: Anise DAB 10 (Eur), OAB90, Helv VII, Pimpinella BHP83, Aniseed Mar29. Anise oil is covered by: DAB 10, BP88, NFXVI, Essentia anisi Hisp IX, Huile essentielle danis PFX, Anisi aetheroleum OAB90, Helv VII, Anise Oil BPC79, Mar 29 (All pharmacopoeias mentioned under Monographs except Hisp IX additionally allow Illicium verum Hook as plant of origin). Homeopathic guidance includes: Pimpinella anisum, ethanol. Decoctum hom. HAB1, Anisum hom. HAB 34, Anisum hom. HPUS88.26 5.8 References 1 MADAUS G, Lehrbuch der biologischen Heilmittel, Band I, Hildesheim, New York, Georg Olms Verlag, 1979. 2 MANSFELD R, Verzeichnis landwirtschaftlicher und gartnerischer Kulturpflanzen 2, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Tokyo, Springer Verlag, 1986. 3 CRONQUIST A, The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants, London, Nelson, 1968. 4 DAVIS P H, Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, Vol. 4, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1972. 5 HEEGER E F, Handbuch des Arznei- und Gewurzpflanzenbaues Drogengewinnung, Berlin, Deutscher Bauernverlag, 1956. 6 SCHUSTER W, Olpflanzen in Europa, Frankfurt, DLG-Verlag, 1992. 7 LEUNG A Y and FOSTER S, Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics, New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1996. Aniseed 49 8 HOPPE H A, Taschenbuch der Drogenkunde, Berlin, New York, Walter de Gruyter, 1981. 9 EL-WAKEIL F, KHAIRY M, MORSI S, FARAG R S, SHIHATA A A and BADEL A Z M A, Biochemical studies on the essential oils of some fruits of umbelliferae family, Seifen-Oele-Fette-Wachse, 1986, 112, 7780. 10 BAYRAM E, Turkiye Kultur Anasonlar (Pimpinella anisum L.) uzerinde Agronomik ve Teknolojik Arastrmalar, Dissertation, Bornova-zmir, 1992. 11 KARAALI A and BASOGLU N, Essential oils of Turkish anise seeds and their use in the aromatization of raki, Z Lebenm Unters Forsch, Springer Verlag, 1995, 200: 4402. 12 ASKARI F and SEFIDKON F, Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of the Pimpinella anisum L. Oil from Iran, 29th Symposium on Essential Oils, Institut fur Lebensmittelchemie Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitat, Frankfurt, 1998. 13 TEUSCHER E, Biogene Arzneimittel, 5. Auflage, Stuttgart, Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1997. 14 WAGNER H, Arzneidrogen und ihre Inhaltsstoffe Pharmazeutische Biologie, Band 2, 6. Auflage, Stuttgart, Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1999. 15 TAINTER D R and GRENIS A T, Spices and Seasonings: A Food Technology Handbook, Weinheim-Germany, VCH Publishers, 1993. 16 SIMON J E, CHADWICK A F and CRAKER L E, Herbs: An Indexed Bibliography 1971 1980, The Scientific Literature on Selected Herbs, and Aromatic and Medicinal Plants of the Temperate Zone, Hamden, CT, Archon Books, 1984. 17 ZIDAN M A and ELEWA M A, Effect of salinity on germination, seedling growth and some metabolic changes in four plant species (Umbelliferae), Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, 1995, 38(1), 5761. 18 BOWN D, Du Monts grosse KrauterEnzyklopadie, Koln, Du Mont Buchverlag, 1998. 19 TUNC I and SAHINKAYA S, Sensitivity of two greenhouse pests to vapours of essential oils, Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 1998, 86, 1837. 20 SARAC A and TUNC I, Toxicity of essential oil vapours to stored product insects, Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 1995, 102(1), 6974. 21 BASER H C, Tbbi ve Aromatik Bitkilerin Ilac ve Alkollu Icki Sanayilerinde Kullanm, Publication No. 199739, Istanbul Chamber of Commerce, 1997. 22 YALCIN S, Turkiye de Ucucu Yaglar Uretimi ve Ds Pazarlama Imkanlar, Ankara, IGEME, 1988. 23 ARCTANDER S, Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin, In: Elizabeth N J (Editor), USA, Det Hoffensberske Establishment, Rutgers The State Univ, 1960. 24 HEATH H B, Source Book of Flavors, Westport, Connecticut, USA, The Avi Publishing Company Inc, 1981. 25 YAVAS I, RAPP A and RUPPRECHT R, Vergleichende gaschromatographische Untersuchungen von turkischen AnisSpirituosen (Raki), Deutsche LebensmittelRundschau, 1991, 87(8), 2425. 26 HA NSEL R, KELLER K, RIMPLER H, SCHNEIDER G , Hagers Handbuch der pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen P-Z, Band 6, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag, 1994. 27 SATIBESE E, DOGAN A and YAVAS I, Anason Tohumu Ucucu Yagnn Bilesimi Uzerine Depolama Suresinin Etkisi, Gda, 1994, 19(5), 2959. 28 SAKLAR S and ESIN A, Effects of storage atmosphere and conditions on the quality of anise during long term storage, Tr. J. of Engineering and Environmental Sciences, 1994, 18, 839. 50 Handbook of herbs and spices 29 ALBERT-PULEO M, Fennel and anise as estrogenic agents, J Ethnopharmacol, 1980, 2, 33744. 30 MIETHING H, SEGER V and HANSEL R, Determination of photoanethole from a stored essential oil of anise fruits as 4,4H -dimethoxystilbene by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet coupling, Phytotherapy Research, 1990, 4(3), 1213. 31 BISSET N G, Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals: A handbook for practice on a scientific basis (translated from the second German edition, edited by Max Wichtl), Stuttgart, Medpharm Scientific Publishers, 1994. 32 EL-GEDDAWY M A H and RASHWAN M R A, Effect of gamma irradiation on flavor components of three Egyptian spices, Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 1993, 24(4), 11323. 33 FARAG-ZAIED S A, AZIZ N H and ALI A M, Comparing effects of washing, thermal treatments and -irradiation on quality of spices, Nahrung, 1996, 40(1), 326. 34 BENDINI A, GALLINA TOSCHI T and LERCKER G, Influence of -irradiation and microwaves on the linear unsaturated hydrocarbon fraction in spices, Z Lebensm Forsch, 1998, 207(3), 21418. 35 FARAG R S and EL-KHAWAS K H A M, Influence of gamma-irradiation and microwaves on the antioxidant property of some essential oils, Adv. Food. Sc., 1996, 18(3/4), 10712. 36 FARAG R S and EL-KHAWAS K H A M, Influence of gamma-irradiation and microwaves on the antioxidant property of some essential oils, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 1998, 49(2), 10915. 37 NEWALL C A, ANDERSON L A and PHILLIPSON J D, Herbal Medicines, A Guide for Health-care Professionals, London, The Pharmaceutical Press, 1996. 38 GANGRADE S K, SHRIVASTAVA R D, SHARMA O P, MOGHE M N and TRIVEDI K C, Evaluation of some essential oils for antibacterial properties Indian-Perfumer, 1990, 34(3), 2048. 39 FYFE L, ARMSTRONG F and STEWART J, Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteriditis by combinations of plant oils and derivatives of benzoic acid: the development of synergistic antimicrobial combinations, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 1998, 9(3), 1959. 40 KUBO I, Anethole, a synergist of polygodial and warburganal against Candida albicans, In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for Human Welfare (WOCMAP), Acta Horticulturae, 1993, 332, 1917. 41 SHUKLA H S and TRIPATHI S C, Antifungal substance in the essential oil of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) Agric Biol Chem, 1987, 51, 19913. 42 AFIFI N A, RAMADAN A, EL-KASHOURY E A and EL-BANNA H A, Some pharmacological activities of essential oils of certain umbelliferous fruits, Veterinary Medical Journal Giza, 1994, 42(3), 8592. 43 CURTIS O F, SHETTY K, CASSOGNOL G and PELEG M, Comparison of the inhibitory and lethal effects of synthetic versions of plant metabolites (anethole, carvacrol, eugenol, and thymol) on a food spoilage yeast (Debaryomyces hansenii) , Food Biotechnology, 1996, 10(1), 5573. 44 GURDIP S, KAPOOR I P S, PANDEY S K and SINGH G, Studies on essential oils part thirteen: natural antioxidant for sunflower oil, Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1998, 57(3), 13942. 45 EL-SHOBAKI F A, SALEH Z A and SALEH N, The effect of some beverage extracts on intestinal iron absorption, Zeitschrift fur Ernahrungswissenschaft, 1990, 29, 2649. 46 CUMMINS K A and MYERS L J, Effect of olfactory masking with anise oil on Aniseed 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 51 aggressive behaviour and milk production in cows, Journal of Dairy Science, 1990, 73(1), 245. HARBORNE J B, BAXTER H and MOSS G P, Phytochemical Dictionary A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants, Second Edition, London, Taylor & Francis, 1999. FREEMAN G L, Allergy to fresh dill, Allergy,1999, 54, 5312. FRAJ J, LEZAUN A, COLAS C, DUCE F, DOMINGUEZ M A and ALONSO M D, Occupational asthma induced by aniseed, Allergy, Copenhagen, 1996, 51(5), 3379. GUENTHER E, The Essential Oils, Individual Essential Oils of the Plant Families Gramineae, Lauraceae, Burseraceae, Myrtaceae, Umbelliferae and Geraniaceae, Vol .4, Malabar, Florida, Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, 1982. ANON. Essential Oils and Oleoresins: A study of selected producers and major markets, Geneva, International Trade Centre UNCTAD/GATT, 1986. ANON. Food Chemicals Codex, 4th ed., Washington DC, National Academy Press, 1996. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANIZATION, Oil of Aniseed, first edn 1975-12-15, ISO 3475-1975 (E). 6 Bay leaves S. Kumar, J. Singh and A. Sharma, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, India 6.1 Introduction The commodity, traded as sweet bay leaf, and true, Roman, or Turkish laurel, is derived from the leaves of Laurus nobilis L. (Family Lauraceae). Because of the similarity in the leaves, several other trees are also variously known as: West Indian bay tree (Pimenta racemosa), Cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus), Portugal laurel (Prunus lusitanica), Laurel of the southern states (Prunus caroliniana), the Laurel or Mountain laurel of California (Umbellularia californica). However, the leaves of true L. nobilis must not be confused with other laurels. L. nobilis is a native of the Mediterranean and grows spontaneously in scrubland and woods in Europe and in California. It is widely cultivated in Europe, America and in Arabian countries from Libya to Morocco (Bailey 1963, Anon. 1962). The flavouring properties of L. nobilis have been known since antiquity. In biblical times, the bay was symbolic of wealth and wickedness, and in the classical world heroes and victors were decorated with a laurel wreath. In addition to being a very well known culinary herb, the leaves and fruits of L. nobilis are used medicinally throughout the world. Infusions or decoctions made from these materials have diaphoretic and carminative effects and also serve as a general gastric secretion stimulant. Laurel oil or butter obtained from the fruits (berries) of L. nobilis is a vital ingredient of laurin ointment, a popular medicine for rheumatism and gout and for the treatment of spleen and liver diseases. It also finds application in veterinary medicine (Anon. 1962; Duke 1989; Wren 1975; Francesco and Francesco 1971). L. nobilis is an evergreen shrub, or more rarely a tree attaining a height of 1520 m. The smooth bark may be olive green or of reddish hue. The luxurious, evergreen leaves are alternate with short stalks, lanceolate or lanceolate oblong, acuminate, 58 cm or longer and 34 cm wide, coriaceous, pellucid-punctate, and with revolute, entire wavy margins; the upper surface is glabrous and shiny, olive green to brown and the lower surface is dull olive to brown with a prominant rib and veins. The flowers are small, yellow in colour, unisexual and appear in clusters. The fruits (berries) are cherry-like, succulent, purple to black in colour, ovoid, coarsely wrinkled and contain a single seed Bay leaves 53 with loose kernel. The dried fruits are drupaceous, ovoid, about 15 mm long and 10 mm wide. The outer surface is glabrous, shining, nearly black and is coarsely wrinkled owing to the shrinkage of the narrow succulent region beneath the epidermis. The remains of the style appear as a small point at the apex and a small scar at the base marks the point of attachment of the fruit to the thalamus. The endocarp is thin and woody and the testa is adherent to its inner surface. The entire pericarp is about 0.5 mm thick. The kernel of the seed consists of two large plano-convex cotyledons and small superior radicle; it is brownish-yellow, starchy and oleaginous, with an aromatic odour and aromatic and bitter taste (Bailey 1963; Wallis 1960; Francesco and Francesco 1971). The cross-section of the leaf shows epidermal cells with thick cuticle; the epidermal cells in surface view are sinous, pitted and thick walled. The lower epidermal walls are more curvilinear and distinctly beaded. The stomata are present only on the lower surface, singly or in pairs. The mesophyll of the leaf is distinctly represented by two layers of parenchymatous palisade cells and a region of spongy parenchyma containing scattered spheroidal oil reservoirs, fibro-vascular and collenchymatous tissues. The leaf has characteristic fragrance when crushed and its taste is bitter and aromatic (Wallis 1960; Bagchi and Srivastava 1993). 6.2 Cultivation, production and processing Sweet bay is propagated by seeds or preferably by cuttings. From a well ripened wood, cuttings of about 7.5 to 10 cm length are put in sharp sand either under bell-glasses or in glass cases. The rooted cuttings are placed in small pots containing fairly rich sandy loam with good drainage, and then can be put in a hot bed, with gentle bottom heat where they will make a good strong growth. L. nobilis stem cuttings produce roots better in July/ August, under Mediterranean conditions, than in other seasons, although the optimal rooting period can be extended by bottom heating from May until September (Raviv 1983a). Ligneous, subapical stem cuttings of bay laurel have a higher rooting percentage than herbaceous apical cuttings, probably due to water deficit in the latter, moisture sufficiency may be critical due to the very long rooting period of four to five months (Raviv 1983b). Rapid and efficient rooting of L. nobilis occurs at a root medium temperature of 20C to 30C, especially during the winter when, if not heated, both the medium and air temperatures are less than 15C in the Mediterranean region (Raviv and Puticvsky 1983). After that, they may be planted in nursery beds with rich sandy soil and good drainage. In one growing season, the plants may attain a height of 1 to 1.5 m. At the end of the growing season and long before the cold season the young plants together with their stakes are kept in well lit and ventilated sheds, and temperature is kept just above freezing. These plants are kept in close rows and watered once or twice a week. The plants are taken out during the spring season and either potted or plunged in nursery. The rich peaty soil with plenty of water and congenial moist atmosphere near the sea coast are favourable conditions for fast and luxriant growth (Bailey 1963). It also grows well under the partly shaded conditions in gardens or orchards. The leaves of L. nobilis are plucked and dried under shade for use as a flavouring material in a variety of culinary preparations, especially in French cuisine. The leaves contain an essential oil of aromatic, spicy odour and flavour which can be isolated by steam distillation. The oil is a valuable adjunct in the flavouring of all kinds of food products, particularly meats, sausages, canned soups, baked goods, confectionery, etc. 54 Handbook of herbs and spices The oil replaces the dried leaves to great advantage because it can be dosed more exactly and therefore gives more uniform results than the dried leaves (Guenther 1953). Laurel berries contain about 1% of an aromatic volatile oil and 25 to 30% fat. The separated fat is the Olecum lauri expressum of commerce. The pure fat is of dull green colour, granular and has an aromatic odour. The expressed oil is used in stimulating liniments and in veterinary practice (Wallis 1960). Currently, two types of essential oils are traded internationally under the name bay oil, although they are entirely unrelated to each other. The West Indian bay oil or bay leaf oil is distilled from the leaves of the tree of Pimenta racemosa, which is found on the various islands of the West Indies, but most particularly in Dominica. The Turkish bay oil or laurel leaf oil is distilled from the leaves of L. nobilis. The sources of the bulk culinary bay leaves are Turkey and the Balkan countries, and in small quantities from France. The annual production level of the genuine L. nobilis oil is only about 2 tons. It is marketed mainly in Western Europe, largely in Germany and the Netherlands (Anon. 1986). 6.3 Chemical composition A good deal of work on physico-chemical characterisation and chemical composition of essential oils of different parts of L. nobilis have been reported. The reported values of physico-chemical constants and chemical constituents identified are provided in Table 6.1. The studies carried out so far on the bay oil indicate the influence of geographical origin of variety and harvest season on the chemical composition. The chemical composition of the flower essential oil is quite different from other parts of the plant, namely leaves, stem bark and stem wood (Fiorini et al. 1997). The earlier studies were mostly carried out by chemical methods (Nigam et al. 1958) but recent GC-MS and GLC analyses has made possible the isolation and characterisation of a number of compounds more accurately and efficiently (Nigam et al. 1992; Fiorini et al. 1997). The chemical structure of some of the important constituents are provided in Figure 6.1. The presence of 1,8 cineole in appreciable amounts makes the oil of bay leaves an important perfumery item (Pruidze 1971). 6.4 Functional properties Although the dried bay leaves and their essential oil are mainly used as a spice and food flavouring agent, the bay oil also finds use in folk or traditional medicines of different countries, for the treatment of a number of diseases. Recent studies have shown that it has the following functional properties: antimicrobial and antifungal characteristics hypoglycaemic properties (in the control of diabetes) antiulcerogenic properties. The essential oil of L. nobilis has been found to be active against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexnerii and Salmonella typhi, pathogens of the intestinal tract (Syed et al. 1991). The L. nobilis has also been noted to possess anti-fungal activity (ies), (Rahari Velomanana et al. 1989; MacGregor et al. 1974). The hypoglycaemic activity of bay leaf extracts has also been reported (Ashaeva et al. 1984). Bay leaves potentiated the action of insulin in glucose metabolism (Khan et al. Table 6.1 Physico-chemical properties and chemical constituents of essential oil extracted from different parts of Laurus nobilis of varying geographical origins S. No. Geographical origin of the resource material Plant part and its essential oil content Physical characteristic(s) determined Chemical constituent(s) identified Reference(s) 1. NAa NA -pinene, eugenol, phellandrene Rattu and Maccioni (1952) 2. NA Fruits, 1% Yellowish brown unpleasant odour, d 0.9278 ()22 d 120, hd 1.4730, soluble in ethyl alcohol 1:90 Rattu et al. (1953) 3. NA Fruits nD30 1.4898, d2020 0.9218, ()D20 18.9, acid no. 5.92, sap. no. 67.94 4. Leaves d 2.53.3, () 3.83.1. 5. Idzhevanskii, Armenia, Noemberyamskii, Armenia NA pinene, cineole, lauric acid, alcohols and sesquiterpenes cineole (12.8%), free alcohols 10.7%, esters (chiefly Mecinnamate 17.9%), free cinnamic acid (1.3%), free phenols (2.0%), terpene hydrocarbons (15.4%), and different carbonyl compounds and sesquiterpenes. Nigam et al. (1958) 6. NA Carbonyl compounds 11.48%, alkali soluble (by vol) 9%, -pinene, citral terpineol, Me-cinnamate, cinnamic acid, caryophyllene, sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons -pinene, camphene, sabinene, limonene, carene and 1,8-cineole (35%) Nigam et al. (1958) Melkumyan and Khurshundyan (1959) d 0.9241.4687, nD 0.94161.4664 Fruits, 4.1% nD20 1.4898, d2020 C.9218, ()d 18.9. Acid value 5.92, sap. value 67-94, sap. value (after acetylation) 99.80 Information on plant part not mentioned 2.5% NA Teisserie (1966) Table 6.1 Continued S. No. Geographical origin of the resource material Plant part and its essential oil content Physical characteristic(s) determined Chemical constituent(s) identified Reference(s) 7. NA NA NA Teisserie et al. (1966) 8. Czechoslovakia Leaves NA 9. Kazakistan Shoot, 0.5% NA 10. Greece Leaves, 1.0% NA Turkey Leaves, 0.8% NA NA NA NA -pinene, camphene, -pinene, sabinene, 3-carene, -phellandrene, -terpinene, myrcene, -limonene, -phellandrene, terpinene, p-cymine, terpinolene and ocimene -pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, p-cymene, -phellandrine, -selinene, and -cadinene -pinene, -pinene, camphene, l-sebinene, -myrcene, and -phelandrene, 1limonene, p-cymene, 1-8-cineole, acetic, propionic, butyric, caproic, caprylic, pelargonic and enanthric acid in phenolic in terpens fraction eugenol, -pinene, camphene, -pinene, sabinine, myrcene, -phellandrene, d-limonene, cineole, -terpinine, p-cymene, terpinelene, camphor, linalool, -terpineol, terpenyl acetate, -selinene, methyl eugenol, terpin-eugenol and acetyl eugenol -pinene, -thujene, camphene, -pinene, sabinene, myrcene, -phellandrene, limonene, -phellandrene, 1,8-cineole, terpinene, p-cymol, linalool, terpinene-4ol, eugenol, methyl eugenol, trepenyl formate 11. } Chow et al. (1965) Goryaev et al. (1966) Giuliana and Stancher (1968) Kekelidze et al. (1977) 12. Italy NA NA 13. 14. Turkey Greece Leaves Leaves NA NA 15. Uttarkhand, India Fruits, 5% d36 0.923, nD35, 1.4960, [9]D28 5.73, acid value, 3.34 and ester value, 25.86, ester value after acetylation 54.68 16. India Petroleum ether extract of fruits NA 17. Toulouse, France Flowers, 0.18% NA Leaves, 0.57% Stem bark 0.68% Stem wood, 0.07% a = NA, information, not available, -thujene (5.9%), -pinene (20.1%) 1,8 cineole (37.3%) p-cymene (traces), terpineol (2.2%), terpenyl acetate (10.6%), methyl eugenol (0.3%) Cis-thujzen-4-ol (a new compound) 1,8 cineole and -terpenyl acetate (major component) pinocarvone and (E)pinocarveol (new compounds) 1,8 cineole (28.4%), methyl cinnamate, (20.1%), -phellandrene (10.1%), pinene (9.3%), terpenol (5.8%), sabinene (4.9%), -thujene (3.8%), -humulene (3.3%), linalool (2.3%), camphor (2.2%), and -gurujunene 2.2% 10-hydroxyoctacosanyl tetradicanoate, ldo co sanol tetradecanoate and 11gaveeramanthin, dehydrocostus lactone, costunolide, zalu zanin and sesquiterpene alcohol (E)-ocimene and sesquiterpenic compounds -carophyllene, viridioflorene, -clemene, germacrene-D-4-ol and germacrene-D 1,8 cineole, linalool, methyleugenol and terpenyl acetate 1, 8 cineole -terpinyl acetate, methyl eugenol and copaene Hector and Retamar (1978) Novak (1985) Tucker et al. (1992) Nigam et al. (1992), Appendino et al. (1992) Garg et al. (1992) Fiorini et al. (1997) 58 Handbook of herbs and spices Fig 6.1 Structures of some important chemical constituents of essential oil of bay leaves Bay leaves 59 1990) and reduced glucose transport (Gurman et al. 1992). The administration of 200 and 600 mg/kg doses of the ethanolic extract of leaves of L. nobilis produced a significant decrease in blood glucose levels in diabetic rabbits (Yanardag and Can 1994). The possible antiulcerogenic activity of L. nobilis seeds was tested on experimentally (ethanol) induced gastric ulcers in rats. The results indicated antiulcerogenic activity for 20 and 40% aqueous extracts as well as for the oily fraction of the seeds. In acute toxicity studies, the aqueous extract was found safe with LD50 compared to oil LD50 at 0.33 ml/ kg body weight (Afifi et al. 1997). Bay has also been reported as having a number of other properties. The methanolic extract from the leaves of L. nobilis inhibited the elevation of blood ethanol level in ethanol loaded rats. The bioassay-guided separation resulted in the isolation of costunolide, dehydrocostus lactone, and santamarine as the active constituents. The methylene- -butyrolactone structure was found to be essential for the preventive effect on ethanol absorption. In addition, the retardation of gastric emptying seemed to be partially involved in the preventive effects (Matsuda et al. 1999). The effects of aqueous extracts of leaves and flowers of L. nobilis on adult snail and embryo (Biomphalaria glabrata) have been studied. Results obtained have shown a degree of toxicity on the embryos starting at a concentration of 125 ppm. The flower extract appeared to be more effective. Cephalic and shell malformations were found in embryos treated with both leaf (50 ppm) and flower (25 ppm) extracts. The LD90 value on adult snails was estimated as 340 ppm for flower extract and 1900 ppm for leaf extract (Rey and Kawano 1987). Cockroach repellant activity has also been found in bay leaves (Verma and Meloan 1981). The antioxidant properties of bay have been discussed by Lagouri and Bouskou (1995). 6.5 Toxicity and allergenicity Bay leaves and their essential oil do not appear to have any significant toxicity. However, sporadic reports have indicated that bay leaves may cause allergic contact dermatitis (Asakawa et al. 1974; Cheminat et al. 1984; Goncalo and Goncalo 1991) perhaps induced by one or more sesquiterpene lactone. Certain bay leaf samples of Mexican origin had been detected to be infested with gastrointestinal disease causing Clostridium perfringens spores @ <100 to 450 Cfu/g (Rodriguez-Romo et al. 1998). 6.6 References and SISI A (1997), Evaluation of the gastro-protective effect of Laurus nobilis seeds on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in rats. J Ethnopharmacol, 58(1), 917. ANON. (1962), The Wealth of India: Raw Materials. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, 6, 423. ANON. (1986), Essential oils and oleoresins: a study of selected producers and major markets. International Trade Centre UNCTAD/GATT, Geneva, 13, 208. APPENDINO G, TAGLIAPIETRA S, NANO G M and CISERO M (1992), A sesquiterpene alcohol from the fruits of Laurus nobilis. Phytochemistry, 31, 2537. ASAKAWA Y, BENEZRA E, DUCOMBS G, FOUSSEREAU J, MULLER J C and OURISSON G (1974), AFIFI F U, KHALIL E, TAMINI S O 60 Handbook of herbs and spices Cross-sensitization between Ferullania and Laurus nobilis. The allergen laurel. Arch Dermatol Rec , 110(6), 957. ASHAEVA L A, ANCHIKOVA L I, ALKANOVA N A and BUZUEV V V (1984), The study of sugar decreasing action of Laurus nobilis leaves. Farmatisya, 33, 4951. BAGCHI G D and SRIVASTAVA G N (1993), Spices and flavouring crops leaf and floral structures. In: Encyclopaedia of Food Science, Food Technology and Nutrition. (Eds: Macrae R, Robinson R K, Sadler M J. Academic Press, London, 42974306. BAILEY L H (1963), The Standard Cyclopaedia of Horticulture. Vol II. The Macmillan Company, New York, pp. 1827. CHEMINAT A, STAMPF J L and BENEZERA C (1984), Allergic contacts dermatitis to laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), isolation and identification of haptens. Arch Dermatol Res , 276(3), 17981. CHOW P N, MOTL O and LUKES N (1965), Hydrocarbons from the oil of laurel leaves. Collection Czech Chem Commun, 30, 91719. (CA 63: 635e). DUKE J A (1989), CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. FIORINI C, FOURASTE J, DAVID B and BESSIERE (1997), Composition of the flower, leaf and stem essential oils from Laurus nobilis L. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 12, 913. FRANCESCO B and FRANCESCO C (1971), Health Plants of the World (Atlas of Medicinal Plants). Newsweek Book, New York, p. 26. GARG S N, SIDDIQUI M S and AGRAWAL S K (1992), New fatty acid esters and hydroxy ketones from Laurus nobilis. J Nat Prod, 55, 1315. GIULIANA P M and STANCHER B A (1967), Characterization of the essential oil of the laurel. Atti Congr, Qual 6th (Pub 1968), 30220 (Ital), (CA 73: 91168 g). GONCALO M and GONCALO S (1991), Allergic contact dermatitis from Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter. Contact Dermatitis, 24(1), 404. GORYAEV A D, KEKELIDZE N A, DEMBITISKII G I and PRUIDZE V G (1966), Essential oil composition. XXVI. Leaves and stems of Laurus nobilis. IZV Akad Nauk Kaz SSR Ser Khim, 16(4), 8991. (CA: 64: 9503f). GUENTHER E (1953), Oil of Bay. The Essential Oils, Van Nostrand Company Inc, New York, pp. 37896. GURMAN E G, BAGIROVA E A and STORCHILO O V (1992), The effect of food and drug herbal extracts on the hydrolysis and transport of sugars in the rat small intestine under different experimental conditions. Fiziol Zh USSR IM Sechanova, 78(8), 109 16. HECTOR H H and RETAMAR A (1978), Essential oil of Laurus nobilis. Riv Ital Essenze Profumi Piante, Off Aromat Syndates Saponi, Cosmet, Aerosol, 60, 6324 (Span), (CA 90: 109789 y). KEKELIDZE N A, BERADZE L V and PZHANIKASHVILIC M L (1977), Essential oil of laurel fruit. Maslo-zhir. Promst, 132 (CA 86: 95859 z). KHAN A, BRYDEN N A, POLANSKY M M and ANDERSON R A (1990), Insulin potentiating factor and chromium content of selected foods and spices. Biol Trace Elem Res . 24(3), 1838. LAGOURI V and BOSKOU D (1995), Screening for antioxidant activity of essential oils obtained from spices. In: Food Flavors: Generation, Analysis and Process Influence. (Ed. Charalambous G.) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 86979. MACGREGOR J T, LAYTON L L and BUTTERY R G (1974), California bay oil II. Biological effects of constituents. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 22, 778. MATSUDA H, SHIMODA H, UEMURA T and YOSHIKAWA M (1999), Preventive effect of sesquiterpenes from bay leaf on blood ethanol elevation in ethanol-loaded rat; Bay leaves 61 structure requirement and suppression of gastric emptying. Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 9(18), 264752. MELKUMYAN I S and KHURSHUNDYAN P A (1959), Biochemical data concerning the leaves of laurel cultivated in Armenia. Izvest Akad Nauk Armylab, SSR Bio Nauki, 12, No. 2, 7781. (CA 53: 16476). NIGAM I C, DHINGRA D R and GUPTA G N (1958), Chemical examination of the essential oil from laurel (Laurus nobilis) berries. Indian Perfumer, 2(1), 39. NIGAM M C, AHAMAD A and MISHRA L N (1992), Laurus nobilis: An essential oil of potential value. Parfumerie and Kosmetic, 73, 8549. NOVAK M (1985), A monoterpene alcohol from Laurus nobilis. Phytochemistry, 24, 858. PRUIDZE V G and KEKELIDZE N A (1971), Essential oil of the Grecian laurel and its use in the food industry. Gnuz Kongr Efirnym MasCam, 1, 2726, (CA 78: 122856q). RAHARI VELOMANAANA P J, TERROM G P, BIANCHINI J P and COULANGES P (1989), Study of the antimicrobial action of various essential oils extracted from Malagasy Plants. II. Lauraceae. Arch Inst Pasteur Madagascar, 56(1), 26171. RATTU V A and MACCIONI A (1952), Essential oils of Sardinian aromatic plants. II. Essence of Laurus nobilis. Rend Seminar Fac Sci Univ Cagliari, 22, 638. (Pub. 1953) (CA 48: 7262 h). RATTU V A, GIGLI C and MANCA P (1953), Essential oils of Sardinian aromatic plants. Rend Seminar, Fac Sci Univ Cagliari, 23, 119207 (CA 49: 5781). RAVIV M and PUTICVSKY E (1983c), Vegetative propagation of aromatic plants of the Mediterranean region. Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants, 2, 15981. RAVIV M, PUTIEVSKY F, RAVID W, SANDEROVICH D, SNIR N and RON R (1983a), Bay laurel as an ornamental plant. Acta Hortic, 132, 3542. RAVIV M, PUTIEVSKY F, SANDEROVICH D and RON R (1983b), Rotting of bay laurel cuttings. Hassadels, 63. REY L and KAWANO T (1987), Effects of Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae) on Biomphalaria glabrata. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, 82 (suppl.), 4, 31520. RODRIGUEZ-ROMO L A, HEREDITA N L, LABBE R G and GARCIA-ALVANADO J S (1998), Detection of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringes in spices used in Mexico by dot blotting using a DNA probe. J Food Prot, 61(2), 201204. SYED M, RIAZ M and CHAUDHURI F M (1991), The antibacterial activity of the essential oils of the Pakistani Acorus calamus, Callistemon lanceolatus and Laurus nobilis. Pakist J Sci Industr Res , 34(11), 4568. TEISSEIRE P (1966), Essential oils in leaves of Laurus nobilis (Grecian laurel). Recherches (Paris), 15, 856. (CA 65: 10421 b). TUCKER A O, MACIARELLO M J and HILL M (1992), Litsea glucescens Humb, Bonpal & Kunth var. glucescens (Lauraceae): A Mexican bay. Economic Botany, 46, 214. VERMA M and MELOAN G E (1981), A natural cockroach repellent in bay leaves. American Laboratories, 13, 669. WALLIS T E (1960), Text Book of Pharmacognosy, 4th Edn. J & A Churchill Ltd., London, pp. 124262. WREN R C (1975), Potters New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. C W Daniel, Essex, England, p. 179. YANARDAG S and CAN S (1994), Effect of Laurus nobilis L. leaves on blood glucose levels in normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits. Chemica Acta Turcica, 22, 16975. 7 Black pepper P. N. Ravindran and Johny A. Kallupurackal, Indian Institute of Spices Research, Kerala 7.1 Introduction Among the spices, black pepper is the king. It is the most important, most popular and most widely used spice in the world. It has extensive culinary uses for flavouring and preserving processed foods and is important medicinally. Of the total spices traded internationally pepper accounts for about 34% (throughout this chapter, pepper is used to mean black pepper, unless otherwise stated). South West India is the traditional home of this important spice, particularly the Western coastal regions of South Peninsular India (the Malabar Coast). Black pepper was the first oriental spice to be introduced into the Western world, and was well known among the Romans and Greeks. In the middle ages pepper assumed great importance in Europe. Its use resulted in revolutionary changes in Western cooking: together with other spices, pepper helped to improve flavour and preservation of food became easier. Pepper was also used in medicine, as a carminative and febrifuge, for aiding in digestion, and in curing the common cold. 7.2 Production and international trade The genus Piper comprises about 1200 species, about 60% of which occur in central and northern South America. The other important regions are South and South-East Asia. Pepper is now grown in tropical zones such as the Asia Pacific region, mainly India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, China, Vietnam and Cambodia. Outside the Asia Pacific region the crop is distributed in Brazil, Mexico, Guatemala, etc., totalling about 26 countries (see Table 7.1). The total global area under pepper production is around 404,000 ha producing around 180,000 tonnes of pepper annually. In 1950, 70% of world pepper cultivation was concentrated in India, but this had gone down to 46% by 1991 and production from 66% to 30%. Indias share of the world market has come down from 56% to 23% in the same period. At the same time pepper production in other countries made remarkable progress. Currently India ranks first in Black pepper Table 7.1 Pepper production in producing countries 1996 to 1999 (in tonnes) Country Asia & Pacific India Indonesia Malaysia Vietnam China P.R. Thailand Sri Lanka Cambodia Brunei Darus South Pacific Fiji Samoa Micronesia Latin America Brazil Mexico Guatemala Honduras Saint Lucia Africa Madagascar Malawi Zimbabwe Benin Kenya Cote dIvoire Cameroon Ethiopia Zambia Total 63 1996 1997 1998 1999 153,988 60,000 39,200 12,000 20,000 8,000 9,773 3,000 2,000 15 60,000 43,291 18,000 25,000 NA 5,183 4,470 NA 65,000 56,250 19,000 22,000 NA 5,313 6,771 NA 75,000 44,500 21,500 30,000 12,000 7,000 4,740 NA 18,000 17,000 22,000 168 150 6 12 21,690 19,500 1,250 380 400 160 4,565 2,500 700 700 150 300 100 65 50 180,411 Source: Proc. Pepper Tech. Meet 1996. International Pepper Community (IPC) Jakarta Publications, 1997, 1998, 1999. area followed by Indonesia and Brazil, while in production India ranks first followed by Indonesia and Vietnam. As far as productivity is concerned, Thailand ranks first (4089 kg/ha) and India is in the last position (311 kg/ha). The present status of area, production, productivity and export of pepper in the world is presented in Table 7.2. Export and percent production exported is presented in Table 7.3. In India pepper is cultivated in an area of around 181,500 ha with an annual production that fluctuates between 6080,000 tonnes annually (75,000 t in 1999 and 60,000 t in 2000). Kerala state is the major producer accounting for 72% of the crop, followed by Karnataka (22%) and the remainder is from Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Goa. India started export of value added products of pepper in the 1970s. Until 1970 only small quantities of spice oil and oleoresin were manufactured and exported from India. Until that time pepper was exported only in the raw form and in bulk. Though there has been demand for diversified products of pepper, even now Indian export of black pepper is mainly in bulk and raw form. 64 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 7.2 Area production and productivity and export of black pepper in major growing countries 1996/1999 Country Area (000 ha) Production Productivity Export (000 t) kg/ha (000 t) Production Export (000 t) (000 t) 1996 India* Indonesia Malaysia Brazil Sri Lanka Thailand IPC countries 197.50 128.67 8.80 21.00 12.09 2.39 370.36 60.00 39.20 12.00 19.50 3.00 9.77 143.47 304 305 364 929 248 4089 35.07 34.00 14.80 15.30 2.10 0.50 101.78 75.00 44.50 21.50 22.00 4.74 7.00 174.74 47.32 35.53 21.59 19.53 3.74 0.86 128.57 17.00 11.18 4.00 1.30 33.48 20.00 8.00 2.50 1.25 31.75 1176 716 625 962 75.00 5.00 2.00 2.50 84.50 30.00 12.00 2.00 28.00 44.00 28.00 403.93 Vietnam China PR Madagascar Mexico Non-IPC Total 1999 175.22 136.28 218.74 156.57 Source: IPC 1997. Pepper Statistical Year Book 199596, IPC Jakarta, IPC Publications, 1999. * Department of Economics and Statistics, New Delhi. India, Brazil, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand are the main suppliers to the world market. Major importers of Indian pepper include USA, Russia, Canada, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, France, Japan, Morocco, Poland, UK, Canada and Saudi Arabia. The annual world export during 198893 ranged from 172,000242,000 t. The value of world exports from 198893 ranged from US$270569 million per year. The imports ranged from 174,000 to 216,000 t, valued at US$273658 million. The export of pepper shows considerable change in recent years due to changes in the geographical composition from the 1970s and 1980s (Table 7.3). The projected world consumption of pepper by 2010 is estimated to be around 230,000 mt from the present production and consumption of around 180,000 mt. The consumption of pepper has undergone a steady increase in most consuming countries (Table 7.4) and the trend is expected to continue. 7.3 Description Black pepper is obtained from mature fruits of Piper nigrum L., a perennial woody evergreen climber, native to the evergreen forests of the Western Ghats of South India (see Fig. 7.1). Under cultivation pepper vines are trailed over supports either living trees or other supports, as columns 56 m tall and 1.02.0 m in diameter. The climbing woody stems have swollen nodes having clinging roots at each node, which helps in anchoring the vine to the support trees (standards). Pepper plants exhibit dimorphic branching, having two different types of branches: the straight upward growing (monopodial) main stem and orthotropic shoot climbing and remaining vegetative, adhering to the support with short adventitious roots at nodes. From the axils of leaves of orthotropic shoots, lateral shoots (plagiotropic branches) grow, and they have a sympodial habit of growth, having shorter internodes and without adventitious roots. Table 7.3 Export (000 t) and (%) production exported from major producing countries, 199599 Country Export Brazil India Indonesia Malaysia Thailand Sri Lanka IPC countries Vietnam China (PR) Madagascar Mexico Non-IPC countries Total 1995 % production exported 1996 Export % production exported Export 1997 % production exported 1998 Export % production exported Export 1999 % production exported 21.25 24.54 56.13 13.98 0.91 2.40 119.20 106.25 44.62 95.14 107.54 8.31 64.34 73.78 15.30 35.07 34.00 14.80 0.50 20.10 101.78 78.46 58.45 86.73 123.33 5.12 48.72 70.29 13.36 36.08 32.51 24.56 0.51 3.28 110.30 74.22 60.13 74.05 73.29 9.85 73.38 74.05 17.25 33.25 39.56 17.83 0.50 5.49 113.88 101.47 51.15 70.33 93.84 9.42 81.09 67.25 19.54 47.32 35.53 21.59 0.86 3.74 128.58 88.81 63.09 79.84 100.00 12.28 78.90 73.58 15.00 5.00 1.27 2.50 23.77 75.00 60.39 50.80 200.00 74.21 15.00 5.00 2.00 2.50 24.50 75.00 42.25 80.00 200.00 69.01 23.5 94.00 22.00 100.00 28.00 93.33 142.97 73.81 136.28 70.04 Source: IPC, 1997, Pepper Statistical Year Book 199596, IPC, Kuningan, Jakarta. IPC Publications, 1999. 66 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 7.4 Pepper consumption in developed countries (in grams) Countries 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1975 1980 199095 (average) Denmark Germany Belgium USA The Netherlands Austria France Sweden Canada Switzerland 102 131 90 117 94 97 107 90 100 121 128 170 127 144 91 141 124 96 87 139 194 190 181 168 151 150 138 122 112 112 In such branches, as the growth proceeds, the terminal bud gets modified into an inflorescence (spike) and further growth is continued by the axilliary bud (see Fig. 7.2). The pepper plant has a delicate root system and around 75% of the roots are confined to an area of 75 to 100 cm radius and depth (Jayasree et al. 1988). Inflorescence of pepper Fig. 7.1 General view of a pepper vine. Black pepper 67 Fig. 7.2 Spikes of pepper. is a pendent spike (catkin) appearing opposite the leaf on plagiotropic branches. Spikes vary in length in cultivars, being 315 cm long with 50150 flowers. The flowers are very minute, white to pale yellow in colour, arranged spirally on fleshy peduncles. The species is naturally self-pollinated, and pollination is by geitenogamy. The dispersal of pollen is aided by the presence of water droplets. The fruit is a single seeded drupe, but is often called a berry, sessile, small, usually globular, having fleshy pericarp and hard endocarp. The fruits are spherical in shape in most cases, obovate in a few and oblong in others. Fruits are green when young, changing to red on ripening. Black pepper has a somatic chromosome number of 2n = 52, and is believed to be of hybrid origin. The meiosis is usually normal, and fertility high. Among the cultivars cv. Vadakkan is a triploid and has a somatic chromosome number of 2n = 78. The related species have chromosome numbers ranging from 2n = 26132. 7.4 Cultivars and varieties: quality issues The cultivars of black pepper have originated from the wild types. More than hundred cultivars are known and a few of them are still popular (Ravindran et al. 2000). The traditional pepper growing tracts have their own popular cultivars. Cultivar diversity is richest in the state of Kerala. Studies carried out in pepper growing belts identified specific cultivars/varieties suitable for different agroecological regions as well as for growing under different cropping systems. The important popular cultivars in India and other countries are given in Tables 7.5 and 7.6. Black pepper is predominantly a self-pollinated crop. Variability for yield and quality characters are seen frequently among cultivars and within the same cultivar. Systematic research efforts in the last three decades has resulted in the release of 12 high yielding 68 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 7.5 The important popular cultivars in India Aimpiriyan, Arakkulam Munda, Blankotta, Cheriyakaniyakadan, Jeerakamundi, Kalluvally, Karimunda, Kottanadan, Karimkotta, Kuthiravally, Narayakodi, Neelamundi, Perambra Munda, Perumkodi, Thomankodi, Valiakaniyakadan, Vellanamben, etc., from Kerala and Uddagere, Doddigae and Malligesara from Karnataka. Improved varieties: Panniyur 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, Sreekara, Subhakara, Panchami, Pournami and PLD-2 Table 7.6 The popular cultivars in other countries Brazil: Kuching (Singapura), Panniyuri 1 Malaysia: Kuching, Sarikei, Miri Indonesia: Bangka, Banjarmasin, Belantung, Beng Kayang, Chunuk, Chunuk Kernuga (CK2), Djambi, Duantebei, Kerenci, Kernuga (CK1), Korintji, LDK (Lampung Daun Kocil), LDL (Lampung Daun Lebar), Palulauta, Petaling 1, Petaling 2, Merefin, Natar 1, Natar 2, LDLN1 (Lampung Daun Lebar Namang 1), LDLN2 (Lampung Daun Lebar Namang 2) Sri Lanka: Ceylon Madagascar: Sel.IV.1, Sel.IV.2 Thailand: Antique (Buffaloes Horning), Ban keow, Prang Thi, Prang Thi Bai yick, thick leaf. superior lines of black pepper through clonal selection, selection in OP progenies as well as through hybridization followed by selection in segregating populations. The quality of black pepper is as important as yield and depends on the contents of piperine and essential oil. Variability of quality characters in black pepper has been investigated and cultivars were classified based on quality parameters (Gopalam and Ravindran 1987). Evaluation studies of germplasm collections resulted in identifying high piperine, oil and oleoresin types. Quality variations among common cultivars are given in Table 7.7. Essential oil varies from 0.4 to 7.0% while piperine from 2.0 to 7.4% among cultivars. 7.5 Cultivation Though pepper is essentially a tropical plant requiring a hot humid climate, it can be grown in a wide range of environmental conditions. The characteristic and most suitable climate requirement for pepper are high rainfall, uniform temperature and high relative humidity, which is typical of the hot and humid tropical region. The plant requires equable climate, rainfall of 20004000 mm together with a mean temperature of 2532C and RH of 6595%. Pepper grows successfully between latitudes 20N and 20S, from sea level up to an altitude of about 1200 m above MSL. The sub-mountain tracts of Western Ghats of India up to about 1000 MSL are ideal for pepper cultivation. Rainfall in MayJune initiates the flushing and flowering process, but once the process starts, there should be good precipitation until fruit development is over. Long spells of dry weather are unfavourable for the crop growth. Pepper yield is significantly correlated with the rainfall received during the first half of May and the cumulative total rainfalls in the second half of the year. In the pepper growing regions of Sarawak, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam the rainfall is well distributed having practically no drought period. Pepper grows in a wide range of soils with a pH of 4.5 to 6.9. The most favourable soil types are deep well drained brown red latosols or andosols, but the crop can grow well in deep Black pepper Table 7.7 69 Quality composition of important cultivars (values on dry weight basis)* SL.No Cultivar 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Arikottanandan Arakkulam munda Blankotta Ceylon Cheriyakaniakkadan Chumala Doddigya Kalluvally Kalluvally (PTB) Kalluvally type I Kaniakkadan Kottanadan Karimunda Karuvilanchy Kumbbakodi Kuthiravally Munda Mundi Narayakkodi Nilgiris Palulauta Panniyur I Perumkodi Perumunda Shimoga Sullia TMB II Uthirankotta Vally Aimpiriyan Udhakara Thommankodi Sreekara Subhakara Panchami Pournami Volatile oil % (v/w) 4.75 4.75 5.12 3.75 3.75 2.25 2.50 3.25 0.40 3.00 4.75 2.50 4.00 3.50 4.50 4.50 4.75 3.50 4.00 5.50 3.00 3.50 3.00 4.00 2.50 4.00 2.50 4.75 2.50 2.63 3.82 5.98 7.00 6.00 3.40 3.35 Oleoresin % (w/w) 12.90 9.84 9.35 3.50 9.05 5.45 7.10 8.80 10.90 8.44 11.60 17.80 11.00 9.70 14.90 14.90 7.00 7.50 10.85 15.50 7.60 9.52 8.60 8.00 7.20 6.80 10.80 8.55 6.53 15.70 8.61 13.77 13.00 12.40 12.50 13.80 Piperine % (w/w) 4.50 4.40 4.26 7.60 3.95 3.30 2.85 4.24 4.65 5.40 6.00 6.60 4.40 4.30 7.60 5.97 5.60 3.60 5.40 6.05 3.60 3.60 4.00 7.40 4.56 3.60 5.80 3.92 4.90 4.69 2.36 2.77 5.10 3.40 4.70 4.10 Starch % (w/w) 24.66 36.18 25.20 15.66 24.84 46.62 36.00 31.50 29.00 20.70 12.42 23.40 39.60 27.00 18.20 14.04 22.70 23.40 24.50 23.60 19.26 35.10 28.80 26.64 17.64 20.70 32.60 28.80 16.02 *Ravindran et al. (2000b). sandy clay as well if provided with mineral nutrition and adequate drainage. Purseglove et al. (1981) suggested that the ideal soil for pepper growing is well distributed alluvium rich in humus with pH above 5.5 or 5.8. The cultivation system of pepper varies in different pepper growing countries. In India pepper is cultivated mostly in homestead gardens as a mixed crop and is seldom grown as pure plantation. In Sarawak, Thailand, Vietnam, Brazil, etc., pepper is grown mostly as a sole crop. Pepper vines are trailed on supports called standards, either live (on trees) or dead (such as concrete/wooden poles). Field planting of pepper vine is 3 3 m or 3 2 m (in sloppy lands). A spacing of 2.5 m 2.5 m accommodating 1600 standards/ha or 3 3 m (1100 vines/ha) are commonly used. Before planting, the land is cleared, tilled and hoed. For planting pepper, pits of 50 50 50 cm are dug on the northern side of the standard at a distance of 15 cm. The pits are then filled with a mixture of top soil + FYM 70 Handbook of herbs and spices + Neem cake + bone meal, etc. Rooted cuttings are transplanted in the field during the rainy season. The best period for planting vines is at the beginning of the monsoon. Where the possibility of water stagnation exists, planting is carried out in August, or cuttings are planted on mounds. Post planting management practices include tying vines to standards, pruning, shade regulation, basin management including mulching, weeding, intercropping, etc. During the initial growth phase shoots are tied to supports, and plants shaded. Mounds are to be maintained for dense rooting and to avoid water stagnation during the rainy season. Pruning is necessary to maximize production of fruiting lateral branches; but in India, Sri Lanka and Indonesia pruning is not practised. After three years plants grow to almost 2.5 m tall, have bushy appearance with many branches and a close canopy. In Sarawak, Malaysia, different pruning methods are adopted which result in thick bushy growth of plants. A novel technique for raising black pepper and maintaining it in bush form has been developed. Instead of allowing the pepper vines to climb on supports (standards) as is usual, it can be grown as a bush so that it can be accommodated in homestead and terrace gardens. The fruiting lateral branches of any variety can be used to make saplings which start flowering in the same year and continue to yield throughout the year. Under good management a bush pepper plant grown in pots can yield an average of 100150 g of dry pepper per pot/year (see Fig. 7.3). It is essential that adequate and balanced fertilizers are applied to maintain the soil fertility and productivity of vines. A fertilizer dose of 100:40:140 NPK/ha is recommended for medium fertile soil in India. Depending upon soil nutrient status and location, specific fertilizer recommendations are also available. In the first two years the plants are to be supplied with half the dose of fertilizers in four equal applications. In India fertilizers are normally applied only twice a year, at the onset of monsoon and towards the end of the rainy season. In Sarawak, Thailand, etc., owing to the welldistributed rainfall, 45 fertilizer doses are given and this is one reason for the greater productivity in these countries. Pepper is grown as a rainfed crop in the majority of areas. Irrigation of vine during summer is beneficial. Diagnostic Recommendation Integration System (DRIS) was developed to quantify precisely the nutrients for sustainable black pepper production (Sadanandan 2000). Insect pests and diseases are major constraints responsible for low productivity and crop loss in all pepper producing countries. Pepper is affected by several diseases that are caused by fungi, bacteria, virus and mycoplasma besides nutritional disorders. Diseases of pepper have been reviewed recently by Anandaraj (2000). Among the pepper diseases the serious ones are the foot rot caused by Phytophthora capsici f. piperi; pepper yellows (or slow decline) complex caused by the burrowing nematode (Radopholus similis) and P. capsici; and the virus disease (little leaf) caused probably by a Badna virus (see Anandaraj 2000, Ramana and Eapen 2000). Management programmes have been evolved to contain these diseases (Anandaraj 2000). In Brazil, Fusarium infestation is common and has led to large scale devastation of pepper, though the Fusarium etiology is still doubted. Infestation by insect pests is another factor responsible for low productivity of pepper in major growing countries. Insect pests of pepper have been reviewed recently by Devasahayam (2000). Pepper is infested by 56 general species of insects damaging various parts of vines such as root, stem, shoot, leaves, spikes and berries. However, depending on the severity and extent of damage, pollu beetle, top shoot borer, leaf gall thrips and scale insects could be considered as major pests. Successful chemical control measures are available for the management of insect pests. Black pepper Fig. 7.3 71 Bush pepper developed from a plagiotropic shoot. Pepper vines attain full bearing from the fifth year onwards, though they commence yield from the second year. Light showers during MayJune are considered beneficial for fruit set. Pepper plant starts flowering during MayJune with the onset of the south west monsoon and harvesting is usually in DecemberJanuary. Variation in maturity pattern depends on factors such as variety, rainfall, altitude, ambient temperature, etc. Pepper fruits mature in about 68 months after flowering. The period generally coincides with dry weather in India. The season of flowering and harvest of pepper varies from country to country (see Table 7.8). Harvesting is carried out when one or more berries in some spikes turn orange to red colour. Entire spikes are picked when fruits are fully mature but still green (see Fig. 7.4). Pepper quality depends on maturity, processing and post-harvest handling. Advances made in the diversification of products and value added produce have necessitated harvesting of berries at different stages of maturity, to be regulated depending on the various end uses (Govindarajan 1977) (see Table 7.9). Table 7.8 Season of black pepper flowering and harvest (Lawrence 1981) Country Flowering Harvest India Bangka (Indonesia) Lampong (Indonesia) Brazil Sri Lanka Cambodia Thailand Sarawak MayJune JanuaryMarch DecemberJanuary February NovemberDecember June JuneAugust DecemberJanuary NovemberFebruary (plains) JulySeptember JuneAugust AugustNovember MarchMay JanuaryMarch FebruaryMarch AprilJuly 72 Handbook of herbs and spices Fig. 7.4 7.6 Pepper berries (top left: fresh berries; top right: fully ripened berries; bottom: white pepper). Handling after harvest Post-harvest handling is crucial to get a high-quality product. The harvested spikes are kept in bags for 1224 hours or heaped and covered overnight for a brief fermentation which makes despiking easy. The spikes are then threshed manually by rubbing or trampling underfoot or by using mechanical threshers of various types. Mechanical threshers are used only by large growers. Recently small-scale threshers are becoming popular in Sarawak and Indonesia. For a more detailed discussion on the topic, see Risfaheri and Nurdjannah (2000) and Zachariah (2000). Fruits separated by threshing are sun dried. Sometimes a blanching process is carried out before drying, by dipping fruits (in a wire basket) in boiling water for two minutes. The fruits are then spread out on the floor for drying. Blanching improves colour and also removes dust and adhering microbial contamination. Drying is done in the open sun in most cases. A black topped Table 7.9 Pepper harvesting for various end products (Govindarajan 1977) Products Maturity at harvest White pepper Black pepper Canned pepper Dehydrated green pepper Oleoresin Oil Pepper powder Fully ripe Fully mature and nearly ripe 45 months after fruit set 1015 days before full maturity 1520 days before full maturity 1520 days before full maturity Fully mature with maximum starch Black pepper Table 7.10 73 Size variations of different pepper cultivars/varieties Large size (> 4.25 mm) Medium size (3.254.25 mm) Small size (< 3.25 mm) Panniyur 1 Valiakaniakkadan Vadakkan Karuvilanchi Kanniakkadan Neelamundi Balankotta Karimunda Arakulammunda Ottaplackal Kuthiravally Kurialmundi Narayakodi Nedumchola Jeerakamundi Table 7.11 Average composition of dried pepper (Pruthi 1993) Content % of composition Moisture Total nitrogen Volatile ether extract Non volatile extract Alcohol extract Starch Crude fibre Piperine Total ash Acid soluble ash 8.714.0 1.52.6 0.34.2 3.911.5 4.412.0 28.049.0 8.718.0 1.77.4 3.65.7 0.030.55 cement floor is the best for sun drying. Mechanical, electrical and solar dryers are also used for rapid drying. Dry recovery percentage varies among cultivars and growing conditions; usually the recovery ranges from 2838%. After proper drying the moisture content should be around 10% only (for details see Ravindran 2000). It is ideal to grade green berries using a mesh to remove the light berries and pinheads and classify based on size. Dried berries are also graded based on size. The size variations usually encountered with different cultivars/varieties are shown in Table 7.10. The average composition of dried pepper is given in Table 7.11 (Pruthi 1993). The dried pepper is cleaned to remove extraneous matter like dirt, grit, stones, stalks, etc., and berries are graded according to their size or density before packing. 7.7 Chemical structure The quality of pepper is contributed by two components: piperine that contributes the pungency volatile oil that is responsible for the aroma and flavour. Oleoresin of black pepper, produced by solvent extraction of dried powdered pepper, contains both aroma and pungency principles. Thus the chemistry of pepper is the chemistry of its essential (volatile) oil and piperine. The chemistry of pepper has been reviewed by Guenther (1952), Govindarajan (1977), Parmar et al. (1997) and Narayanan (2000). 74 Handbook of herbs and spices 7.7.1 Piperine Piperine was first isolated by Oersted (1819) as a yellow crystalline substance. This alkaloid is the major pungent component present in pepper. In addition, five minor alkaloids possessing pungency have been identified in pepper extracts. Piperine (C17H19O3N; m.p 128130C) is a weak base, which on hydrolysis with HNO3 or aqueous alkali yields a volatile base piperidine (C5H11N). The acidic product of hydrolysis is piperinic acid (C17H19O4). The structure of piperine is established as peperinic acid piperidide. Piperinic acid exists in four isomeric forms: 2 trans 4 trans (piperine); 2 cis 4 trans (isopiperine); 2 trans 4 cis (isochavicine) and 2 cis 4 cis (chavicine). The synthesis of the isomers was carried out by Grewe et al. (1970) The structure of piperinic acid and its isomeric forms are given in Fig. 7.5. The three isomers of piperine are only weakly pungent. Piperine is highly sensitive to light. Irradiation of piperine in alcoholic solution produces a mixture of isopiperine and isochavicine. Piperine can be estimated by UV spectrophotometry by measuring the absorption maxima at 342345 nm of a solution in benzine or ethylene dichloride. As piperine in dilute solution is highly photosensitive the solution should not be exposed to direct light. Five analogues of piperine were isolated and characterized by various workers (Govindarajan 1977, Narayanan 2000). They are piperettine, piperanine, piperylin A, piperolein B and pipericine. The chemical structures of these analogues are given in Fig. 7.6. Parmar et al. (1997) listed the following alkaloids in addition to the piperine group of alkaloids mentioned above: brachymide B, guineesine, retrofractamide A, sarmentine, sarmentosine and tricholein. 7.7.2 Essential oil of pepper The essential oil of pepper is a mixture of a large number of volatile chemical compounds. The aroma is contributed by the totality of the components. More than 80 components have been reported in pepper essential oil (Gopalakrishnan et al. 1993) (see Table 7.12). Only the important components are mentioned below (Narayanan 2000). 1. Monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds. This group includes: camphene, 3-carene, -cymene, limonene, myrcene, cis-ocimene, -phellandrene, -phellandrene, -pinene, -pinene, sabinene, -terpinene, -terpinene, terpinolene, -thujene. Among them the major components are -pinene, -pinene, sabinene and limonene. The chemical structures of these compounds are given in Fig. 7.7. There Fig. 7.5 The structure of piperine. Black pepper Fig. 7.6 75 Chemical structures of five analogues of piperine: piperettine, piperanine, piperyline A, piperolein B and pipericine. are many oxygenated monoterpenoid compounds present in pepper essential oil, about 43 are known. They are: borneol, camphor, carvacrol, cis-carveol, transcarveol, carvone, carventanacetone, 1,8-cincole, cryptone, -cymene-8-ol, cymene-8-methyl ether, dihydrocarveol, dihydrocarvone, linalool, cis-menthadien2-ol, 3,8,(9)--menthadien-1-ol, 1(7)--menthadien-6-ol, 1(7)--menthadien-4-ol, 1,8(9)- -menthadien-5-ol, 1,8(9)- -menthadien-4-ol, cis - -2-menthen-1-ol, myrtenal, myrtenol, methyl carvacrol, trans-pinocarveol, pinocamphene, cissabinene hydrate, trans-sabinene hydrate, 1-terpinen-4-ol, 1-terpinen-5-ol, terpeneol,1,1,1,4-trimethylcyclo-hepta-2, 4-dien-6-ol, phellandral, piperitone, 76 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 7.12 Peak No. Comparative chemical composition of four pepper genotypes Compound Kovats index Percent composition Exp 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 33(a) 33(b) 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 -thujene -pinene Camphene Sabinene -pinene Myrcene -phellandrene -3-carene -terpinene q-cymene (Z)- -ocimene + -phellandrene Limonene (E)- -ocimene c-terpinene Trans-sabinene hydrate Terpinolene Trans-linalool oxide (furanoid)ti Unidentified Linalool Cis-p-menth-2-en-1 -ol+cis-p-menth-2, 8-diene-1-ol Trans-p-menth-2en-1-ol Citronellal p-menth-8-en-1-ol Borneol Terpinen-4-ol -terpineol Dihydrocarveol p-menth-8-en-2-ol Trans-carveol Ciscarveol+carvone Piperitone Carvone oxide* Myrtenol Unidentified Unidentified -terpinyl acetate Neryl acetate Geranyl acetate -cubebene/-elemene -copaene -elemene -caryophyllene Trans-G-bergamotene -humulene Ref 931 943 954 975 981 986 990 1005 1008 1018 0.73 5.28 0.14 8.50 11.08 2.23 0.68 2.82 1.26 6.18 0.18 13.54 10.88 2.30 0.20 0.18 0.18 1.59 5.07 0.14 17.16 9.16 2.20 0.39 0.07 0.91 5.32 0.13 1.94 6.40 8.40 2.32 1.03 1.13 9.70 1022 1039 1045 1055 1057 938 942 954 976 981 986 1002 1009 1010 1020 1025/ 1025 1030 1038 1057 1060 21.06 0.18 0.01 0.14 0.15 21.26 2.84 0.49 0.23 22.71 0.30 0.30 0.37 16.74 0.17 0.03 0.19 1066 1082 1074 1082 0.10 0.03 0.20 0.18 0.22 0.08 0.08 1085 1092 1117 1087 1092 1111/ 1120 0.24 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.26 0.46 0.60 0.28 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.02 1128 1128 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 1134 1154 1159 1170 1183 1187 1199 1206 1224 1137 1156 1164 1175 1185 1188 1208 1209 1222/ 1228 1247 1261 1281 1333 1345 1363 1381 1398 1400 1428 1436 1437 0.02 0.03 t 0.19 0.10 0.01 0.01 0.03 t t 0.32 0.17 0.01 0.01 0.03 t 0.52 0.12 0.02 0.02 0.01 T T 0.18 0.07 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.20 0.02 0.02 0.86 0.20 0.12 3.25 0.82 0.09 21.59 0.31 0.21 0.03 t 0.01 0.04 t 1.22 0.07 0.01 0.26 0.49 0.09 27.70 0.20 0.03 0.03 0.11 t 1.33 0.05 0.09 0.16 0.44 0.06 23.29 0.11 0.03 T 0.01 0.04 1.05 0.13 0.11 2.56 0.71 0.05 21.19 0.28 0.29 1245 1261 1277 1287 1299 1334 1346 1364 1376 1384 1403 1429 1431 1435 1 2 3 4 Black pepper 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 (E)- -farnesene -amorphene -guaiene Cloveneti Germacrene-Dti Ar-curcumene -selinene -selinene c-muurolene (E,E)--farnesene -bisabolene + -bisaboleneti -guaieneti Cupareneti -cadinene (Z)-nerolidol Elemol Unidentified (E)-nerolidol Caryophyllene alcohol Unidentified Caryophyllene oxide Unidentified Unidentified Unidentified Unidentified Cedrolti Unidentified A cadinolti A cadinolti Unidentified Unidentified -Bisabolol Unidentified Unidentified Unidentified Unidentified Unidentified Unidentified Unidentified Unidentified Unidentified Unidentified Unidentified Unidentified Unidentified 1445 1451 1455 1460 1469 1474 1480 1483 1489 1492 1498 1448 1451 1454 1469 1475 1477 1484 1486 1494 1496 0.08 1.51 0.11 0.14 0.04 0.26 0.64 0.07 0.73 0.72 4.25 0.22 1.53 0.07 0.07 0.03 0.12 0.87 0.12 0.93 2.15 0.03 1.54 0.07 0.04 0.04 1.37 0.48 0.16 0.47 3.10 0.13 1.28 0.10 0.13 0.26 0.29 0.63 0.14 0.58 0.72 0.49 1515 1520 1523 1530 1540 1548 1551 1557 1502 1518 1524 1524 1540 1553 1559 0.82 1.38 0.12 0.20 0.11 0.04 0.12 0.07 0.17 0.09 0.05 0.06 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.09 0.14 0.07 0.11 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.04 1.85 0.04 0.13 0.05 0.08 0.03 0.03 0.02 1566 1570 1582 1592 1598 1604 1608 1614 1632 1639 1649 1651 1666 1687 1692 1712 1725 1778 1787 1823 1832 1858 1872 1876 1886 1900 1576 1609 1666 0.03 0.90 0.06 0.10 0.10 0.04 0.07 0.38 1.59 0.26 0.20 0.06 0.06 0.02 0.09 0.01 t t t t t t 0.11 0.35 0.04 0.07 0.03 0.24 0.24 0.29 0.12 0.05 0.05 0.09 0.02 0.11 0.07 t t t t t t 0.07 0.38 0.05 0.14 0.05 0.02 0.05 0.22 0.12 0.15 0.02 0.05 0.17 0.02 0.03 0.06 0.04 t t 0.04 t t t t t t 77 0.07 0.25 0.05 0.07 0.07 0.02 0.05 0.27 1.27 0.25 0.04 0.12 0.14 0.04 0.94 0.02 0.01 0.16 0.01 t 0.05 t t 0.05 0.03 Exp = experimental; Ref = reference; t = trace (<0.01%); *correct isomer not given; ti = tentative identification; 1 = Panniyur-1; 2 = Panniyur-2; 3 = Panniyur-3; 4 = Panniyur-5. (Source: Gopalakrishnan et al. 1993) 2. citronellal, nerol geraniol, isopinocamphone, methyl citronillate, methyl geranate, terpenyl acetate, terpenolene epoxide and trans-limonene epoxide. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds. About 25 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons are present in pepper oil, the most important one being caryophyllene (Fig. 7.8). The others are -cis-bergamontene, -trans-bergamontene, 78 Handbook of herbs and spices Fig. 7.7 3 Chemical structures of -pinene, -pinene, sabinene and limonene. -bisabolene, -cadinene, -cadinene, calamenene, -copaene, -cubebene, cubebene, ar-curcumene, -elemene, -elemene, -farnasene, -guaiene, humulene, -humulene, isocaryophyllene, -muurolene, -santalene, -selinene, -selinene, ledene, sesquisabenene and zingiberene. The oxygenated sesquiterpenes identified in pepper essential oil are: 5,10(15) cadinen-4-ol, caryophylla-3-(12), 7(15)-dien-4--ol, caryophylla-2,7 (15)-dien-4- -ol, caryophylla-2-7 (15) dien-4-, ol, caryophyllene alcohol, caryophyllene ketone, caryophyllene oxide, epoxydihydrocaryophellene, cis-nerolidol, 4,10,10-trimethyl-7-methylene bicyclo-(2.0) decane-4-carboxaldehyde, -eudesmol, elemol, cubebol, -bisabolol, -bisabolol, viriideflorol, cubenol and epi-cubenol. Miscellaneous compounds. In addition to the above groups of compounds many others were also identified in black pepper oil. They are: eugenol, methyl eugenol, benzaldehyde, trans-anethole, myristicin, safrole, piperonal, m-methylacetophenone, -methylacetophenone, n-butyrophenone, methylheptanone, pinol, methyl heptanote, Fig. 7.8 Chemical structure of -caryophyllene. Black pepper Fig. 7.9 79 Gas chromatogram of pepper oil (Panniyyur 5), 50 M methyl silicone column (Source: Gopalakrishnan et al. 1993). methyloctanoate, 2-undecanone, n-nonane, n-tridecane, and aromatic acids such as benzoic acid, phenyl acetic acid, cinnamic acid, piperonic acid, butyric acid, 3methyl butyric acid, haxanoic acid and 2-methyl pentanoic acid. Compositional variations were reported among cultivars. Lewis et al. (1969) studied 17 cultivars from Kerala and found that the oil content ranged from 2.43.8%. In the oils, monoterpene hydrocarbons ranged from 69.484%, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons 15 27.6% and the rest were oxygenated constituents. The dominating monoterpene hydrocarbons were -pinene (5.912.8%), -pinene (10.635.5%) and limonene (22 31.1%). -caryophyllene (10.322.4%) constituted the major sesquiterpene hydrocarbon. Significant differences in oil content and chemical constitution was reported by Russel and Else (1973) and Richard et al. (1971) who analysed the pepper samples from Lampong and Sarawak. Gopalakrishnan et al. (1993) studied four genotypes (released varieties) of pepper using GC+MS employing methyl silicone capillary column. A model GC profile is given in Fig. 7.9. The oil of these cultivars possessed -pinene in the range of 5.076.18%, pinene 9.16 11.08%, sabinene 8.50 17.16%, limonene 21.0622.71% and caryophyllene 21.5227.70%. 7.7.3 Phenolic components of pepper The phenolic components of black pepper are a mixture of the glycosides of phenolic acids and flavonol glycosides. Parmar et al. (1997) listed the following flavonols from pepper: quercetin, isoquercetin, isorhamnetin 3- -D-rutinoside, kaempferol 3arabinoside, kaempferol-3-o- -galactoside, quercetin-3-o--D rutinoside. Pepper also contains sitosterol. Grewe et al. (1970) found several lignans. One of them was identified as cubebin, which had been isolated earlier from P. cubaba. 80 7.8 Handbook of herbs and spices Quality issues 7.8.1 Sensory quality evaluation of oil The odour of pepper oil is described as fresh, dry-woody, warm-spicy and similar to that of crushed black peppercorn. Pangburn et al. (1970) made a sensory evaluation study of Malabar pepper oil after column chromatographic fractionation and mixtures of fractions at varying proportions. The early fractions were pepper like and floral and the late fractions pepper like, fresh and woody and the middle fractions falling in between. Govindarajan (1977) made extensive studies on odour analysis of pepper varieties. Using similar techniques Gopalakrishnan et al. (1993) described odour evaluation of four pepper varieties which they have examined by GC-MS. They depicted the odour profile on a four-point category scale and subjected the oils to ranking tests. The mean of the scores for each odour characteristic was plotted on radiating lines representing odour characteristic in sequential odour from left to right. The desirable odours are in the upper quadrants, the undesirable ones in the lower quadrants. The aromagram developed by these authors is given in Fig. 7.10. 7.8.2 Flavour and off flavour compounds Jagella and Grosch (1999a, 1999b, 1999c) carried out some studies on the flavour and off flavour contributing components of black pepper. Their dilution and concentration experiments as well as enantio-selective analysis of optically active monoterpenes indicated that (+)-linalool, (+)-alpha-phellandrene, (-)-limonene, myrcene, (-)-alpha pinene, 3-methylbutanol and methyl propanol as the most potent odourants of black Fig. 7.10 Odour profilograms of pepper cultivars (Source: Gopalakrishnan et al. 1993). Black pepper 81 pepper. The mouldy, musty off-flavour of Malaysian pepper is shown to be due to 2isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine. A storage experiment revealed that for ground pepper losses of -pinene, limonene and 3-methylbutanal were mainly responsible for deficits in pepper-like, citrus-like, tepene-like and methyl notes after 30 days storage at room temperature. Jagella and Grosch (1999c) developed an aroma model for pepper based on the quantification of 19 odorants and calculation of their odour activity values. Omission tests conducted by them indicated that limonene, linalool, -pinene, 1,8-cieole, piperonal, butyric acid, 3-methylbutyric acid, methyl propanal, 2- and 3-methylbutanal as key odorants of white pepper. The faecal off-flavour was caused by skatole and was enhanced by the presence of -cresol. 7.8.3 Adulteration The common adulterants used in whole or ground pepper are low quality pepper and various foreign matter. Synthetic compounds and cheap volatile sources are used to adulterate pepper essential oil (Sen and Roy 1974). Pepper berries are adulterated with stems, chaff or similar organic extraneous matter. 7.9 Industrial processing The importance of value addition in pepper has been recognized by traders, and technologies have been developed for processing of pepper into a variety of products for consumer use. The pepper produced and dried at the farm level is subjected to grading and further processing. The dried pepper is sent through a variety of processing equipments such as mechanical sifter for removal of pinheads, vegetable seeds, sand dust and similar contaminants; and then to winnowing and destoning for removal of dust, stalks, light foreign matter and stones. These operations are now carried out in multiplesieve cum air-classifier type of machine and gravity separators. From gravity separators pepper is conveyed to mechanical washers fitted with brushes for removal of dust, dirt, mould growth, etc., and for imparting a good shine to the product. The cleaned and washed pepper is then centrifuged to remove water, dried in a drier (usually diesel-fired or electric but with indirect heating). Finally the dried pepper is sent through spirals for final cleaning followed by sterilization either by steam or gamma radiation and packed in suitable polythene-lined packaging. 7.9.1 White pepper White pepper is an important product mainly used in food items where the dark particles are undesirable, such as salad dressings, soups, mayonnaise, light coloured sauces, etc. White pepper is prepared from fully ripe fruits by removing the outer pericarp before drying. White pepper is produced conventionally from ripe berries by the water steeping and retting technique. Though other techniques were tested, they never found acceptance with consumers. In the water steeping and retting technique ripe berries and berries that are about to ripen are harvested, threshed and heaped in tanks through which water is allowed to run for 710 days. In Indonesia (which is the largest producer and exporter of white pepper) the pepper berries are tied in gunny bags and immersed in running water in streams or rivulets. During the process of water steeping the outer skin (pericarp) gets rotten and can be removed easily by rubbing and the deskinned fruits (seeds) are further 82 Handbook of herbs and spices washed in clean water and sun dried. Often the deskinned fruits (seeds) are kept immersed in bleaching powder solution for a day or two to give better colour to the product. The yield of white pepper will be around one quarter instead of one third recovery of dry black pepper. 7.9.2 Ground pepper In Western countries the most common form of black pepper available to the consumer is ground pepper. Ground pepper is produced by grinding dried, cleaned and sterilized white or black pepper in a hammer mill having copper tipped hammers. The ground pepper is then sieved in sieves of required mesh size and packed in airtight containers. The following points have to be kept in mind in the production of ground pepper (Ravindran et al. 2000a) Moisture level should be kept to a minimum as high moisture will affect the storage life. Volatile oil content should not be affected during the grinding process. Particle size should be optimum so as to ensure free flow for the duration of its shelflife. Packaging should be airtight and safe. Microbiological cleanliness (freedom from moulds and bacteria) should be ensured. A more recent development is cyrogrinding. In this new technique the grinding is done at low temperature to reduce the oil loss. This is done by injecting liquid nitrogen into the grinding zone and the temperature is adjusted suitably through the control of LN2 flow rate. The cryogrind spice dispense more uniformly in spice formulations and the volatile oil and flavour loss are minimized. 7.9.3 Pepper oil As already mentioned the aroma and flavour of black pepper is due to the essential oil content and this oil can be recovered by hydrodistillation or steam distillation. The essential oil contains monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and their oxygenated derivatives having boiling points in the range of 80200C. Industrial production of pepper essential oil is by steam distillation, by passing steam through pepper powder contained in a distillation chamber. The volatile oil that comes out along with the steam is collected in the condenser and later recovered, dried and stored in airtight containers. 7.9.4 Oleoresin Oleoresin is commonly marketed as spice drops and contains the total pungency and flavour constituents of pepper. Oleoresin is produced by solvent extraction of pepper powder using a suitable organic solvent such as acetone, ethanol, ethyl acetate or ethylene dichloride. Either a one-stage or a two-stage process is employed for this. In the first case the oil is recovered along with the resins by solvent extraction. In the second process the oil is recovered by steam distillation followed by solvent extraction for recovering the oleoresin. Later the oleoresin and oil are blended to meet the required specifications. The organic solvent should be recovered completely from the oleoresin and the ISO as well as the importing countries have fixed maximum permissible limits for the approved solvents. The whole extraction process of oleoresin is usually done in batch extractors. Black pepper 83 7.9.5 Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) SFE is the most versatile separation technology now being employed. It has a high extraction selectivity from a mixture of components because of the pressure-temperature dependent solubility in the solvents. The pepper raw material is loaded into the extractor and brought into contact with the supercritical solvent at relatively high pressures of 80 350 bar, at temperatures of 3570C. The solute mixes into the supercritical solvent and both are passed through a pressure-reducing valve. The pressure on the separator side is about 4060 bar, while the temperature is lower due to sudden expansion of the supercritical solvent. These conditions lower the solubility of the pepper raw materials in the solvent. When the material starts to separate, the gas is again compressed back to extract the material. Solvent recycling is achieved by means of a compressor (Anon. 1997). Supercritical CO2 is an ideal solvent for extraction of pepper, because it is cheap, abundant, inert, non-toxic, non-corrosive, non-inflammable and does not pollute the environment. Separation can be carried out at low temperature, residual solvent content can be reduced to near zero, solubility variation of active constituents can be easily manipulated, fractions can be extracted easily, the process consumes little energy, transfer rates are high and there are no fire hazards. Pepper extraction has been very successful with about 98% extraction of piperine and 81% of essential oil. The quality of the product is high compared to conventional extraction process. The extracted oleoresin is also used for the separation of piperine by centrifuging the oleoresin in a basket centrifuge. From the oleoresin numerous secondary products have been developed having specified flavour strength and other properties. Such products include seasonings, emulsions, solubilised spices, dry soluble spices, encapsulated spices, heat resistant spices, fat based spices, etc. 7.9.6 Microencapsulated pepper Microencapsulation is a recent development in which the flavour material is entrapped in a solid matrix, but releases the flavour when the product comes into contact with water or on heating. Methods such as spray drying, co-acervation, polymerization, etc., are made use of in microencapsulation. The process involves homogenization of the oil/water mixture in presence of the wall material followed by spray drying under controlled conditions. The wall materials used commonly include vegetable gums, starches, dextrins, proteins, cellulose esters, etc. A process known as CR-100, has been developed for microencapsulation which overcomes the limitations of the spray during process (Narayanan et al. 2000). 7.10 Pepper products Much effort have been made in value addition of pepper and a variety of products have been developed. Such value added products are classified as 1) green pepper based products, 2) black pepper and white pepper based products, 3) pepper byproducts (Ravindran et al. 2000a). (1) Green pepper based products: Canned green pepper in brine Bottled green pepper in brine 84 Handbook of herbs and spices Bulk packaged green pepper in brine Cured green pepper (without any covering tissue) Frozen green pepper Freeze dried green pepper Semidried or dehydrated green pepper Green pepper pickle in oil/vinegar/brine Green pepper-mixed pickle in oil/vinegar/brine Green pepper flavoured products Green pepper paste (2) Black and white pepper based products: Black pepper powder White pepper powder White pepper whole Pepper oleoresin Pepper oil Microencapsulated pepper Other pepper products (such as soluble pepper, pepper paste) Byproducts from pepper waste (3) Pepper based products: Many products, in which pepper is a major ingredient, have been developed such as lemon pepper, garlic pepper, sauces and marinades that have pepper as the main component. Spice mixtures and blends curry powders and spice blends for various culinary uses. Pepper flavoured products such as pepper mayonnaise, pepper cookies, pepper keropak, pepper tofu, etc. Products using pepper extracts pepper candies, pepper perfume, etc. 7.11 Functional properties The nutritional composition of black pepper is shown in Table 7.13. Black pepper is an essential ingredient in the Indian systems of medicines Ayurveda, Sidha and Unani, and is used as a curative agent for many maladies. Pharmacological studies have substantiated many of these traditional uses. (For a detailed discussion, see Vijayan and Thampuran, 2000.) Pepper has been seen as demonstrating a number of functional properties, including: analgesic and antipyretic properties antioxidant effects antimicrobial properties. Piperine, the active ingredient in pepper, exerts substantial analgesic and antipyretic effects. Lee et al. (1984) found that piperine reduces inflammation in carragenin induced tests at an oral dose 50 mg/kg body weight. The anti-inflammatory effect was substantiated by Kapoor et al. (1993). Piperine and its homologues get absorbed through skin, and hence are capable of acting on the subcutaneous tissues as well as on nerves and blood vessels. The effect of pepper on the nervous system and on sexual organs (priapism) indicates anticonvulsive and vasodilatoral properties. Pepper also has an effect on lactation by increasing milk production. Pepper oil warms the skin and brings blood to the surface, stimulating circulation. Black pepper Table 7.13 Nutritional composition of black pepper per 100 grams Composition Water (grams) Food energy (Kcal) Protein (grams) Fat (grams) Carbohydrates (grams) Ash (grams) Calcium (grams) Phosphorous (mg) Sodium (mg) Potassium (mg) Iron (mg) Thiamine (mg) Riboflavin (mg) Niacin (mg) Ascorbic acid (mg) Vitamin A activity (RE) 1 2 3 4 85 USDA Handbook 821 ASTA2 10.510 255.000 10.950 3.263 64.810 4.330 0.437 173.000 44.000 1,259.000 28.860 0.109 0.240 1.142 19.000 8.000 4000.000 10.000 10.200 66.500 4.600 0.400 160.000 10.000 1,200.000 17.000 0.070 0.210 0.800 ND4 19.000 Composition of Foods: Spices and Herbs. USDA Agricultural Handbook 82, Jan 1977. The Nutritional Composition of Spices, ASTA Research Committee, Feb 1977. Piperine subtracted from lipid value. ND = Not detected. In Ayurveda, pepper is used in the treatment of epileptic fits and to bring about sleep. Piperine exhibited protection against penetrazole induced seizure and also against electroshock seizure (Won et al. 1979). Piperine also possesses strong potentiating effect on hexobarbital induced hypnosis in mice. A compound of great interest extracted from pepper is 1-(3-benzodioxol-5yl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl-piperidide, known as antiepilepsirine, which was shown to have strong antiepileptic properties. This is used in Chinese hospitals for the treatment of epilepsy (Ebenhoech and Spadaro 1992). Both pepper and piperine exert liver protective action. Kaul and Kapil (1993) found that piperine reduces in vitro and in vivo lipid peroxidation and prevents depletion of GSH (Gastricsulfhydryls) and total thiols. This is a very significant property, as lipid peroxidation causes free radical production that causes tissue damage. Pepper has antioxidant activity which is attributed to the tocopherol and polyphenol contents in pepper. Supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of ground black pepper have been found superior in reducing lipid oxidation of cooked ground pork (Tipsrisukond et al. 1998). The antioxidative activity of black pepper can, at least partially, be ascribed to the presence of glycosides of the flavonoids kaempherol, rhamnetin and quercetin (Vosgen and Herrmann 1980), as well as to the phenolic amides. Nakatani et al. (1986) established that all the five phenolic amides present in pepper possess very good antioxidant property, which is even superior to that of the synthetic antioxidants like butylated hydroxy toluene and butylated hydroxy anisole. Addition of pepper to foods increases their keeping quality and prevents their spoilage, due to the antimicrobial properties of pepper. The essential oil of pepper is found to be inhibitory to Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus albus, Clostridium diphthereae, Shigella dysenteriae, Streptomyces faecalis, Bacillus spp., Pseudomanas spp., etc. Pepper oil stopped the growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasitics at a concentration of 0.21%. Pepper leaf oil also exhibits antifungal activity. 86 Handbook of herbs and spices Pepper as well as piperine increases the bioavailability of medicaments including ampicillin and synthetic drugs as well as uptake of amino acids from food (Johri et al. 1992). Piperine seems to interact with the intestinal cells so as to increase the cell permeability. Piperidine is noted as a CNS-depressant, insectifuge, spinoconvulsant and urate solvent. The amides present in pepper have been shown to have insecticidal properties. Vijayan and Thampuran (2000) give a detailed account of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of pepper and piperine. There is a current movement towards natural organic health supplements and medicines as substitutes for synthesized chemical drugs. The health promoting properties of pepper (as well as other spices) are being increasingly documented. Continued research is needed in this field to confirm their reported attributes. 7.12 Use of pepper in food A spice is used in cooking for the following purposes: flavouring masking/deodorizing pungency colorant. The spice interacts with the taste buds as well as other components of food leading to complex effects. A spice thus induces both direct and indirect (complex) effects as shown in Table 7.14 (Hirasa and Takemasa 1998). Black pepper is the most widely used spice and occupies a proud place in the cusines of both West and East, with both vegetarian and non-vegetarian cooking. Black pepper contributes towards flavour, taste, antifungal, antibacterial and antioxidant properties, and hence pepper is a multifunctional spice, the predominating ones being taste and flavour. Hirasa and Takemasa (1998) discuss the patterning theory of spice use and conclude that pepper is suitable for dishes of meat, seafood, milk, egg, grains, vegetables, fruit, bean and seeds and beverages. Pepper plays an important role in the cuisines of China, South East Asia, India, US, UK, Greece, Italy and France. In the case of cooking technique pepper is suitable for simmered, fried, steamed, deep-fried, food dressed with sauce, pickled and fresh food; but less suitable for baked food. The suitability pattern of pepper is represented in Fig. 7.11 (Hirasa and Takemasa 1998). There is almost no difference in suitability of pepper between Eastern and Western or continental cooking though it shows a very high suitability for American cooking. Table 7.14 Direct effect Indirect (complex) effect Flavour Taste (pungency, bitterness, sweetness) Colour Antifungal effect Antibacterial effect Antioxidant effect Increased appetite Masking effect Improvement of texture and appearance Preservation Preservation Preservation Black pepper 87 Fig. 7.11 Suitability pattern for pepper (Source: Hirasa and Takemasa 1998). 7.12.1 Use of pepper in curry powder Pepper is an essential ingredient of most curry powders (masala mixes) used in cooking all over the world, but most extensively used in Indian as well as in South Asian cooking. There is an amazing variation of curry powders, to suit the hundreds of different curries in the cuisines of these countries. Curry powders do play significant roles in the cuisines of other countries too. Curry powder is a mixture of coriander, cumin, turmeric, fenugreek, ginger, celery and black pepper and smaller amounts of chilli powder, cinnamon, nutmeg, clove, caraway and fennel, either with or without salt (Table 7.15). Many countries have their own specifications for curry powder. The federal specifications for curry powder (EE-S-631 J) are given in Table 7.16. The famous oriental Five Spice Blend (FSB) used extensively in many meat and fish preparations has the following composition: Ground Ground Ground Ground Ground cinnamon anise (or star anise) fennel black pepper cloves 2550% 1025% 1025% 1025% 1025% 7.12.2 Soluble spice seasonings Soluble seasonings are spice extracts mixed with a carrier like salt or dextrose. Oleoresin is used for the preparation of soluble spice. The most commonly used carrier is salt since the size of crystals provide good mixing action which disperses the oleoresin evenly (Tainter and Grenis 1993). But dextrose is preferred when a higher salt level is not desirable in the finished product. Soluble spices and seasonings are more often used in the processed foods industry, mainly because of the convenience involved in its use compared to the extracted 88 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 7.15 Typical curry powder formulation indicating the range of spices (Source: Tainter and Grenis 1993) Ingredient Typical range (%) Ground Ground Ground Ground Ground Ground Ground Ground Ground Ground Ground Ground Ground Ground Salt 1050 520 1035 520 520 015 010 010 05 05 05 05 05 05 010 coriander cumin turmeric fenugreek ginger celery black pepper red pepper cinnamon nutmeg cloves caraway fennel cardamom oleoresin or oil. For example pepper oleoresin is a thick, green, viscous liquid, difficult to mix uniformly and is not easy to pour, and is very difficult to measure when only small quantities are required. On the other hand, soluble black pepper is a free flowing powder, easy to weigh, and to add to a batch of products uniformly and accurately. Finally, waste is minimized compared to the oleoresin. When oleoresin is added it can lead to lump formation preventing uniform mixing, while the soluble salt ensures absolute uniformity while mixing. A typical soluble black pepper formulation consists of the following composition: Oleoresin of black pepper Anticaking agent Salt or dextrose 25% up to 2% to make 100% Pepper is an important ingredient in many flavouring and seasoning formulations American, European as well as oriental. The contents of pepper in some of the wellknown formularies are given in Table 7.17. Consumers look for the organoleptic quality of foods rather than their nutritive value. Even the most nutritious food is not often accepted unless it is moderately spiced. It is an art to subtly blend flavouring and seasoning, to give distinctive tastes to the different dishes. All spices, particularly pepper, must be used with consummate skill. Even the Table 7.16 1993) Federal specifications (EE-S-631 J) for curry powder (Source: Tainter and Grenis Ingredient Limit (%) Turmeric Coriander Fenugreek Cinnamon Cumin Black pepper Ginger Cardamom 37.039.0 31.033.0 9.011.0 Not < than Not < than Not < than Not < than Not < than 7.0 5.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 Black pepper 89 Table 7.17 Pepper use in some of the flavouring and seasoning formularies (Source: Tainter and Grenis 1993) Formulary Content of pepper Pickling mix Poultry seasoning Pumpkin pie sauce Oriental five spice blend Smoked sausage seasoning Italian sausage seasoning Pork sausage Bologna/weiner seasoning formulation Roast beef rub formulation Pepperoni seasoning Hot and spicy nut seasoning 010% 4.55.5% 05% 1025% 6.577.03% 2-6 oz/100 oz 14 oz/100 oz 0.52% (oleoresin) 05% 14 oz/100 oz 05% most insipid dishes can be improved by taking advantage of the pungent taste and spicy aroma of pepper to produce savoury dishes; that is why pepper is a universal favourite among the worlds chefs. A list of oriental dishes where pepper is an essential component is given in Table 7.18. Pepper is often used three times in the same dish before the food is eaten; first in the kitchen, as an ingredient in the dish; secondly, to correct or improve the overall seasoning during cooking; and thirdly at the dining table for the diners to add more spice and flavour to the prepared dishes. Both white and black pepper are used. They are used whole, cracked, coarsely ground, medium ground or finely ground. Whole pepper corns are added as such to meat dishes, fish preparations, soups and pickles. Ground pepper is used in eggs, salads and gravies. Table 7.18 Some important dishes flavoured with pepper Beverages 1. Pepper tea 2. Pepper milk shake 3. Spicy water melon juice Pickles/Chutneys 4. Pickled cherries 5. Pickled beef or pork 6. Pepper spike pickle 7. Coconut chutney 8. Fresh coriander chutney Sweet preparations/confections 9. Quick banana pudding 10. Soji halwa Snacks 11. Pepper biscuits 12. Vegetable crispies 13. Bonda 14. Pongal 15. Quick hamburger onion hash Vegetable preparations 16. Vegetable curry 17. Vegetable korma 18. Masala del Soups 19. Mixed vegetable soup 20. Cream of vegetable soup 21. Clear dhal soup Legume/Pulse preparation to go with cereals 22. Radish sambar 23. Mulugutwanny (Rasam) Meat dishes 24. Pepper steak 25. Black pepper pot roast 26. Pepper mutton balls 27. Black pepper fried chicken 28. Roghan josh 29. Korma curry Other preparations 30. Amla preserve 31. French beans with coconut 32. Ground spice mixture 90 Handbook of herbs and spices White pepper is popular in sauces and in preparations where pepper flavour is wanted but without the black specks. Indian cooks use pepper and other spices in endless variations or combinations, and no two preparations have exactly the same combinations of spices. However, pepper is being used to a greater extent in American (US) cooking. 7.12.3 Masalas (spice mixes) Though some foods such as fried potatoes, ladys finger (Okra), brinjal (egg plant), etc., use only two to three spices, most dishes are prepared with elaborate combinations of meticulously prepared and freshly ground spices referred to as masala. The masalas vary widely and each masala has a special purpose. Garam masala for example, is a blend of dried and powdered spices, to be used as such or in combination with other seasonings. Pepper has an important role in garam masala along with cardamom, cloves and cinnamon. Premavalli et al. (2000) analysed various commercial brands of garam masala and puliyodara mixes and found black pepper to be an important ingredient in all of them. Pepper also is a must in freshly cut vegetable salads, such as cucumber, carrot, lettuce, radish, beetroot, onions, tomatoes, etc., in different combinations. Also, in the universally popular salad dressings, such as French dressing, pepper is a must. Further, as shown in the soup section of recipes (see Appendix), pepper is the only aromatic and piquant agent Table 7.19 Sauce/seasoning and salad formulations containing pepper (Source: Farrell 1985) Product Sauce/seasoning Cucumber cream sauce Cream sauce Sour cream sauce Bearnaise sauce Bechamel sauce Diable sauce Horseradish sauce Poivrade game sauce Tourangelle sauce Newburgh sauce Salad dressings Chicken Cabbage Cucumber Egg Turkey Ingredients Lemon juice, cayenne pepper, white pepper, cream, mashed cucumbers Heavy cream, lemon juice, white pepper, onions, mustard Sour cream, lemon juice, white pepper, onions, egg, vinegar, dry mustard Shallots, parsley, black pepper, terragon, chervil, vinegar, cayenne pepper, egg yolk, butter Chicken stock, butter, white pepper, onion Shallots, black pepper, white pepper, white wine, parsley, Worcestershire sauce Horseradish, white pepper Onions, carrots, shallots, garlic, bay leaf thyme, vinegar, leaf stock, red wine, black pepper, parsley, olive oil, red currant jelly Butter, onion, carrot, shallots, garlic, red wine, beef and chicken stocks, black pepper, parsley, bay leaf, thyme Mace, sherry wine, white pepper Capers, chives, curry powder blend, white pepper, fennel, marjoram, mustard, nutmeg, onion, paprika, poppy seed, rosemary, sesame seed, tarragon Allspice, basil, white pepper, caraway seed, celery seed, dill, marjoram, mint, nutmeg, onion, chillies, poppy seed, paprika, rosemary, sesame, tarragon Basil, capsicum, chervil, white pepper, dill, onion, paprika, terragon Celery seed, chilli powder blend, white pepper, chives, chervil, dill, marjoram, mustard, onion, parsley, paprika, tarragon Capers, chives, curry powder blend, white pepper, marjoram, onion, paprika, poppy seed, rosemary, sesame seed, tarragon Black pepper 91 Table 7.20 Commercial seasoning and instant gravy mixes containing pepper (Source: Farrell, 1985) Name % of pepper (white/black/oleoresin) Frankfurter seasoning Formula A Formula B Formula C Formula D Formula E 5.72 17.03 3.73 3.45 g (oleoresin) per 100 oz 65.71 g/1000 oz (soluble spice in salt base) Bologna Formula Formula Formula 6.25 0.37 (oleoresin) 7.14 (soluble spice) seasoning A B C Fresh Pork Sausage seasoning Formula A Formula B Formula C 10.0 7.5 0.43 (oleoresin) Italian seasoning 10.55 Italian sausage seasoning 10.0 Kielbase (Polish) seasoning 15.0 Smoked liver sausage seasoning 2.8 ground Instant gravy mixes: Mushroom gravy seasoning and mix Chicken gravy seasoning mix Poultry gravy seasoning mix Prawn gravy seasoning mix French onion soup seasoning mix Fish chowder seasoning mix Chicken noodle soup seasoning mix Shrimp seasoning mix Fettucine Alfredo seasoning mix 0.46 0.33 0.026 0.46 0.004 0.004 0.011 0.078 1.0 in white sauces. Spikes of green pepper are used in a number of dishes in the households in Kerala, and Western Karnataka, India, where pepper is grown. It is interesting to note that pepper goes into a variety of dishes, sweets and hot preserves and everyday dishes. It finds a place in exotic as well as bland preparations as in Roghan Josh and in Dhal Soups. A list of recipes using pepper compiled by Dastur and Maya (1981) is given in the Appendix. 7.12.4 Condiments, sauces, seasonings Condiments are prepared food compounds containing one or more spices, or spice extracts, which when added to a food, after it has been served, enhance the flavour of the food (Farrell 1985). Condiments can be either simple (e.g. celery salt, garlic salt, onion salt) or compound (chilli sauce, chutney, meat sauce, mint sauce, prepared mustard, etc.). Pepper forms an ingredient in many compound condiments. Pepper powder constitutes around 0.02% in prepared mustard formulations such as Dijon and Dusseldorf mustards, while in Swedish mustard, pepper is around 0.2%. Pepper is an ingredient in certain 92 Handbook of herbs and spices Worcestershire sauce formulations. It forms about 5.2% of the famous Marinara and Parmesan seasoning mixes. Sauces are hot or cold liquid or semi-liquid products (other than a condiment), which when added to a food as it is being served, adds to its acceptance by improving its appearance, aroma, flavour or texture. It may or may not include spices or spice extracts. Pepper is a component spice in sauces, salad dressings and seasoning formulations (Table 7.19) (Farrell 1985). Seasonings are compounds containing one or more spice extracts which when added to a food, either during its manufacture or in its preparation, before it is served, enhance the natural flavour of the food and thereby increases its acceptance by the consumer (Farrell 1985). Black and white pepper is an ingredient in many famous seasoning formulations and instant gravy mixes (Table 7.20). 7.13 References Note: For a comprehensive treatment of all aspects of black pepper, see P.N. RAVINDRAN (Ed.) (2000) Black Pepper, Harwood Academic Publishers, UK. ANANDARAJ, M. (2000) Diseases of black pepper. In: Ravindran, P.N. (Ed.) Black Pepper, Harwood Academic, pp. 23968. ANON. (1997) Potential uses of pepper and pepper isolates/current research and development for pepper and pepper extracts. Intern. Pepper News Bull., April June, pp. 2636. BANDYOPADHAYAY, C., NARAYAN, V.S. and VARIYER, P.S.. (1990) Phenolics of green pepper berries (Piper nigrum L.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 38, 16969. DASTUR, S.K. and MAYA, N.P. (1981) Pepper in Indian Kitchen, CFTRI, Mysore (Mimeographed). DEVASAHAYAM, S. (2000) Insect pests of black pepper. In: Ravindran, P.N (Ed.) Black Pepper, Harwood Academic, pp. 30934. DEVASAHAYAM, S., PREMKUMAR, T. and KOYA, K.M.A. (1988) Insect pests of black pepper Piper nigrum L. in India a review. J. Plantation Crops, 16, 114. EBENHOECH, A. and SPADARO, O. (1992) Antiepilepsirine: a new Chinese anticonvulsant herb drug. J. Eco. Tax. Bot., 16, 99102. FARRELL, K.T. (1985) Spices, Condiments and Seasonings. AUI Pub. Co., USA. GEORGE, C.K. (1995) Indian folk remedies with black pepper. Intern. Pepper News Bull., AprilJune, 2526. GOPALAKRISHNAN, M., MENON, N., PADMAKUMARI, K.P., JAYALEKSHMI, A. and NARAYANAN, C.S. (1993) GC analysis and odour profiles of four new Indian genotypes of Piper nigrum L. J. Essential Oil. Res. , 5, 24753. GOPALAM, A. and RAVINDRAN, P.N. (1987) Indexing of quality parameters in black pepper cultivars. Indian Spice, 22/23, 811. GOVINDARAJAN, V.S. (1977) Pepper chemistry, technology and quality evaluation. CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci., 9, 1115. GOVINDARAJAN, V.S., DHANRAJ, S. and NARASIMHAN, D. (1973) Evaluation of spices and oleoresins III. Evaluation of some horticultural varieties and trade types of pepper. J. Plantation Crops, 1, (1 & 2), 816. GREWE, R., FREIST, W., NEWMANN, J. and KERSTEN, S. (1970) cited from Narayanan (2000). GUENTHER, E. (1952) Essential oils of the plant family Piperaceae. In: Essential Oils, Vol. 5. Robert Krieger Pub. Co., New York. Black pepper 93 HIRASA, K. and TAKEMASA, M. (1998) Spice Science and Technology, Marcel Dekker Inc., N.Y. and GROSCH, W. (1999a) Flavour and off-flavour compounds of black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.). Evaluation of potent odorants of black pepper by dilution and concentration techniques. European Food Res. Tech., 209, 1621. JAGELLA, T. and GROSCH, W. (1999b) Odour activity values of desirable and undesirable odorants of black pepper. European Food Res. Tech., 209, 2226. JAGELLA, T. and GROSCH, W. (1999c) Desirable and undesirable odorants of white pepper. European Food Res. Tech., 209, 2731. JAYASREE, S., WAHID, P.A. and KAMALAM, N.V. (1988) Absorption of soil applied radio phosphorus by black pepper vines and support trees in relation to the root activities. J. Plantation Crops, 16, 7387. JOHRI, R.K., THUSA, N., KHAJURA, A. and ZUTSHI, U. (1992) Piperine mediated changes in permeability of rat intestinal epithelial cells. Biochem. Pharmacol., 43, 14017. KAPOOR, V.K., CHAWLA, A.S., KUMAR, M. and KUMAR P. (1993) Search for antiinflammatory agents. Indian Drugs, 30, 48193. KAUL, I.B. and KAPIL, A. (1993) Evaluation of liver protective potential of piperine an active principle of black pepper. Planta Medica, 59, 41317. LAWRENCE, B.M. (1981) Essential Oil 197980. Allured Publishing Corporation, USA, pp. 142228. LEE, E.B., SHIN, K.H. and WOO, W.S. (1984) Pharmacological study of piperine. Arch. Pharm. Res ., 7, 12732. LEWIS, Y.S., NANBUDIRI, E.S. and KRISHNAMURTHY, N. (1969) Composition of pepper oil. Perfum. Essential Oil Res. , 60, 25962. NAKATANI, N., INATANI, R., OHTA, H. and NISHIOKA, A. (1986) Chemical constituents of pepper and application to food preservation. Naturally occurring anti-oxidative compounds. Environ. Health Perspect., 67, 13547. NAMBIAR, K.K.N. (1978) Disease of pepper in India. In: M.K. Nair and M. Haridasan (Eds.). Proc. National Seminar on Pepper, Calicut, Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasaragod, pp. 1114. NAMBIAR, K.K.N. and SHARMA, Y.R. (1977) Wilt diseases of black pepper. J. Plantation Crops, 5, 92103. NARAYANAN, C.S. (2000) Chemistry of black pepper. In: Ravindran, P.N. (Ed.) Black Pepper, Harwood Academic, pp. 14362. NARAYANAN, C.S., SREEKUMAR, M.M. and SANKARIKUTTY, B. (2000) Industrial processing and products of black pepper. In: Ravindran, P.N. (Ed.) Black Pepper, Harwood Academic, pp. 36780. NIRMAL BABU, K., REMA, J., RAVINDRAN, P.N. and PETER, K.V. (1993) Micropropagation of black pepper and related species its potential in crop improvement. In: Golden Jubilee Symposium on Horticultural Research-changing Scenario, Bangalore 24, 18 May (Abst.) p. 250. OERSTAD (1819) Cited from Govindarajan (1977). PANGBURN, R.M., JENNINGS, W.G. and NOELTING, C.F. (1970) Preliminary examination of odour quality of black pepper oil. Flavour Indu., 1, 763. JAGELLA, T. PARMAR, V.S., JAIN, S.C., BISHT, K.S., JAIN., R., TANEJA, P., JHA, A., TYAGI, O.D., PRASAD, A.K., and BOLL, P.M. (1997) Phytochemistry of the genus Piper. Phytochemistry, 46, 597673. PARRY, J.W. (1969) Spices, Vol. 1. Chemical Publishing Company. Inc., New York. PREMAVALLI, K.S., MAJUMDAR, T.K and MALINI, S. (2000) Quality evaluation of traditional products. II Garam masala and puliyodara mix masala. Indian Spices, 57, 1013. WENGEL, J., OLSEN, C.E. 94 Handbook of herbs and spices PREMKUMAR, T., DEVASAHAYAM, S. and KOYA, K.M.A. (1994) Pests of spice crops. In: K.L Chadha and P. Rethinam (Eds.) Advances in Horticulture Vol. 10 Plantation and spice crops. Part 2. Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi, pp. 787823. PRUTHI, J.S. (1980) Spices and Condiments: Chemistry, Microbiology and Technology. Academic Press Inc., New York, p. 450. PRUTHI, J.S. (1993) Major Spices of India: Crop management and post harvests technology, ICAR, New Delhi, pp. 44105. PRUTHI, J.S. (1997) Diversification in pepper utilization. Part I & II. International Pepper News Bull., 14(4) 59, 14(5), 69. PURSEGLOVE, J.W. BROWN, E.G., GREEN C.L. and ROBBINS, S.R.J. (1981) Spices, Vol. 1, Longman, London. RAMANA, K.V. and EAPEN, S.J. (2000) Nematode induced disease of black pepper. In: Ravindran, P.N. (Ed.) Black Pepper, Harwood Academic, pp. 297308. RAVINDRAN, P.N. (2000) Introduction. In. Ravindran, P.N. (Ed.). Black Pepper, Harwood Academic, pp. 123. RAVINDRAN, P.N, BALACHANDRAN, I. and CHEMPAKAM, B. (2000a) End uses of Pepper. In: Ravindran, P.N. (Ed.) Black Pepper, Harwood Academic, pp. 467479. RAVINDRAN, P.N, NIRMAL BABU, K., SASIKUMAR, B. and KISHNAMURTHY, K.S. (2000b) Botany and crop improvement of black pepper. In: Ravindran, P.N. (Ed.) Black Pepper, Harwood Academic, pp. 23142. RICHARD, H.M., RUSSEL, G.F. and JENNINGS, W.G. (1971) The volatile components of black pepper varieties. J. Chromatogr. Sci., 9, 5606. RISFAHERI and NURDJANNAH, N. (2000) Pepper processing The Indonesian Scenario. In: Ravindran, P.N (Ed.) Black Pepper, Harwood Academic, 355366. ROSENGARTEN, F. (1973) Book of Spices, Pyramid Books, New York. RUSSEL, G.F. and ELSE, J. (1973) Volatile compositional differences between cultivars of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) J. Assoc. Anal. Chem., 56, 34451. SADANANDAN, A.K. (2000) Agronomy and nutrition of black pepper. In: Ravindran, P.N (Ed.), Black Pepper, Harwood Academic, pp. 163223. SARMA, Y.R., ANANDARAJ, M. and VENUGOPAL, M.N. (1994) Diseases of spices crops. In: K.L Chadha and P. Rethinam (Eds.) Advances in Horticulture, Vol. 10, Part 2, Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi, pp. 101557. SARMA, Y.R., RAMACHANDRAN, N. and ANANDARAJ, M. (1991) Black pepper disease in India. In: Sarma, Y.R. and Premkumar, T. (Eds.) Disease of Black Pepper. National Research Centre for Spices, Calicut, pp. 55101. SEN, A.R. and ROY, B.R. (1974) Adulteration in spices. Proc. Symp. Development and Prospects of Spice Industry in India, CFTRI, Mysore. TAINTER, D.R. and GRENIS, A.T. (1993) Spices and Seasonings, NCH Pub., New York. TIPSRISUKOND, N., FERNANDO, L.N. and CLARKE, A.D. (1998) Antioxidant effects of essential oil and oleoresin of black pepper from supercritical carbon dioxide extractions in ground pork. J. Agric. Food Chem., 46, 432933. VIJAYAN, K.K and THAMPURAN, A. (2000) Pharmacology, toxicology and clinical applications of black pepper. In: Ravindran, P.N. (Ed.) Black Pepper, Harwood Academic, pp. 45566. VOSGEN, B. and HERRMANN, K. (1980) Flavonglykoside von Pfeffer (Piper nigrum L.), Gewurznelken (Syzygium aromaticum L.) und Piment (Pimenta dioica L.), Z Lebensmittel Untersuch Forsch, 170 2047. WAHID, P. (2000) Management of pepper in Indonesia. In: Ravindran, P.N. (Ed.) Black Pepper, Harwood Academic, pp. 22537. Black pepper 95 and SHIN, K.H. (1979) CNS depressant activity of piperine (Cited from Vijayan and Thampuran 2000). ZACHARIAH, T.J. (2000) On farm processing of black pepper. In: Ravindran, P.N. (Ed.) Black Pepper, Harwood Academic, pp. 33554. WON, W.S., LEE, E.B. Appendix: Recipes with pepper (Dastur and Maya 1981) In the following pages are presented recipes of some well-known dishes where pepper appears as an important ingredient. Beverages Pepper tea Ingredients 1. Water for 4 cups 2. Tea dust or leaves 3. 4. 5. Pepper corns (coarsely powdered) Sugar Milk as desired Approximate measure 34 teaspoons (depending upon strength desired) 1012 68 teaspoons Method 1. Place tea leaves and coarsely powdered pepper in a pot 2. Pour boiling water (98C is ideal) over the tea and pepper 3. Steep for 3 minutes and serve tea as usual with milk and sugar Pepper milk shake Ingredients 1 Milk 2. Sugar 3. Pepper corns (finely powdered) 4. Cashew nuts (finely cut and fried) Approximate measure litre 10 teaspoons 1 2 810 1012 Method 1. Boil milk and sugar, stirring for about 20 minutes until it thickens a little 2. Chill 3. Garnish with pepper powder and cashew nuts before serving. Note: This can also be served hot Spicy water melon juice Ingredients 1. Water melon 2. Pepper corn (powdered) Approximate measure 1 medium sized 10 96 3. 4. Handbook of herbs and spices Salt Sugar a pinch 4 tablespoons (more if required) Method 1. Cut water melon to fine pieces, remove the skin and seeds and pass through a blender. 2. Add salt and sugar and chill 3. Garnish with powdered pepper before serving. Note: Tomato juice (fresh/canned/or pure beaten up) chilled can be garnished with powdered pepper and salt. This makes an excellent beverage in itself. It also serves as a base for several cocktails. Pickles/chutneys Pickled cherries Ingredients 1. Cherries 2. Vinegar 3. Brown sugar 4. Whole cloves 5. Pepper corns 6. Mace Approximate measure 1 kg 1 2 litre 1 tablespoon 1 2 tablespoon 2530 23 pieces Method 1. Put the cloves, pepper corns and sugar into the vinegar and bring to boil 2. Boil for 5 minutes and set aside to cool 3. Wash the cherries well and dry with a towel 4. Put the cherries in air-tight jars 5. Strain the vinegar and pour over the cherries, filling the jars to the brim 6. Seal well Pickled pork or beef Ingredients 1. Meat 2. Red chillies 3. Cumin 4. Mustard 5. Turmeric 6. Pepper 7. Ginger 8. Garlic 9. Vinegar Approximate measure 500 gms 6 1 2 teaspoon 1 2 teaspoon 2.5 cm (1HH ) 2530 2 inch piece 45 cloves 13 2 4 litre Method 1. Cut the meat into 2.5 cm (1HH ) cubes and wash in vinegar 2. Prick and rub well with salt and keep under a wt. for 24 hours 3. Wash the meat in vinegar and with the masala paste of ground red chillies, cumin, turmeric and mustard Black pepper 4. 5. 97 Place the slices in a jar and sprinkle each layer with sliced ginger, garlic and pepper Pour sufficient vinegar to cover the whole and shake the jar occasionally Pepper spike pickle Ingredients 1. Green pepper spike 2. Vinegar 3. Garlic 4. Green chillies 5. Ginger 6. Salt 7. Turmeric 8. Oil Approximate measure 1 kg 600 ml 1 pod (big) 10 2 inch piece 1 2 cup 1 teaspoon 2 tablespoons Method 1. Wash the pepper spikes, wipe and sprinkle over with salt and set aside for some time 2. Peel and slice garlic and ginger, slit green chillies 3. Heat oil. Add garlic, ginger and green chillies 4. Remove pan from fire and add turmeric, stir well 5. Add vinegar and salt. Bring to boil 6. Remove, cool and add prepared pepper spikes 7. Pack and store in airtight jars Coconut chutney Ingredients 1. Coconut grated 2. Puffed Bengal gram dhal 3. Red chillies 4. Salt 5. Tamarind 6. Ginger 7. Black gram dhal 8. Coriander leaves 9. Pepper 10. Mustard 11. Vegetable oil Approximate measure 5 tablespoons 2 tablespoons 12 1 teaspoon a little (1 teaspoon) 4 1 2 inch piece 1 teaspoon 1 bunch 810 1 4 teaspoon 1 teaspoon Method 1. Grind together tamarind, salt, red chillies, puffed Bengal gram dhal, pepper, coriander leaves and ginger 2. Add coconut scrapings and grind again 3. Season with mustard and black gram dhal Note: Red chillies can be replaced with green chillies. Fresh coriander chutney Ingredients 1. Fresh lemon juice Approximate measure 3 tablespoons 98 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Handbook of herbs and spices Water Fresh coriander stalks and leaves, thoroughly washed and coarsely chopped Peeled finely chopped fresh coconut Finely chopped onion Scraped, finely chopped fresh ginger root Chopped red or green chillies Sugar Salt Freshly ground black pepper 3 tablespoons 10 medium-sized bundles 1 big 1 medium 11 teaspoons 2 11 teaspoons 2 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon 1 2 teaspoon Method 1. Mix the lemon juice, water and the coriander and grind or blend at high speed for about 30 seconds 2. Add coconut, onion, ginger, chilli, sugar, salt and pepper and blend again 3. Add more sugar or salt if desired 4. Serve immediately. Can be kept in the refrigerator for 1 week Note: 1. Mint or curry leaves can be substituted 2. If preferred traditional grinding stone can be used. Sweet preparation in which pepper is used Quick banana pudding Ingredients Approximate measure 1 Banana 4 large 2. Coconut scrapings 1 cup 1 3. Coarsely powdered pepper 4 teaspoon 4. Jaggery 2 cubes Methods 1. Peel bananas and slice 2. Add coconut scrapings and coarsely powdered jaggery 3. Add powdered cardamom and pepper and mix Note: 1. Addition of thick curds to the above preparation will make it a dish to go with parotas or rotis 2. Jaggery can be substituted by sugar 3. If additional spiciness is preferred, 1 teaspoon of dried ginger powder can also be 4 added, and the quantity of sweetening agent increased slightly Suji halwa Ingredients 1. Wheat suji 2. Sugar Approximate measure 1 cup 11 cups 4 Black pepper 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Milk Water Raisins Cashew nuts Cardamom Pepper (dry powdered) Ginger (dry) Fat 99 1 cup 1 cup 10 3 2 12 1 4 inch piece 2 tablespoons Method 1. Mix the sugar, milk and water and boil for a few minutes, and set aside 2. Mix wheat suji, fat and fry very slowly for 10 minutes 3. When suji becomes brown, pour the prepared syrup to the fried suji 4. Add raisins, cashew nuts and cook slowly until all the superfluous liquid is used up 5. Stir well with the ladle for 810 minutes 6. Then pour the halwa to a greased plate and cut into pieces 7. Sprinkle mixture of powdered cardamom, pepper and dried ginger Snacks Pepper biscuits Ingredients 1. Wheat flour 2. Salt 3. Baking powder 4. Fat 5. Pepper 6. Water 7. Sugar Approximate measure 3 cups 11 teaspoons 2 1 teaspoon 4 tablespoons 1 teaspoon 1 cup (slightly less) 11 teaspoons 2 Method 1. Sieve wheat flour and baking powder 2. Add salt and freshly powdered pepper 3. Add fat and water and knead into a smooth dough 4. Roll and cut into biscuits and bake until light brown Note: 1. These biscuits can also be deep fried 2. Addition of 1 teaspoon of powdered dry ginger and about 1 tablespoon of sugar and substitution of half the water with milk can also be done Vegetable crispies (potato chips) Ingredients 1. Potatoes 2. Salt 3. Pepper (ground) 4. Oil for deep fat frying Approximate measure 3 large sized to taste 1 2 teaspoon 11 cups 2 100 Handbook of herbs and spices Method 1. Wash and scrape potatoes 2. Slice into thin even circular slices 3. Keep in water to prevent browning and drain off water before frying 4. Deep fat fry a few slices at a time until crisp but not brown 5. Add salt and powdered pepper and shake Note: 1. The other vegetables which can be used instead of potatoes are colocasia, yam, tapioca, sweet potatoes, plantatins, brinjals (large-sized) ash gourd skin 2. The vegetables can be cut into any desired shape such as finger chips, slivers, or thin slivers Urd Bonda Ingredients 1. Black gram dhal 2. Green chillies 3. Ginger 4. Pepper (whole) 5. Salt 6. Vegetable oil for frying 7. Coconuts cut into small pieces 8. Coriander leaves Approximate measure 1 2 cup 2 (medium) 1 2 inch piece 30 to taste 2 cups 1 tablespoon 1 bunch (chopped) Method 1. Soak black gram dhal for 4 hours 2. Drain water and grind into fine paste with salt ginger and green chillies 3. Add chopped coriander, cut coconut and whole black pepper to the ground dough 4. Divide into lime size portions and deep fat fry until brown Pongal Ingredients 1. Rice 2. Green gram dhal 3. Green chillies 4. Pepper corns 5. Ginger 6. Fat 7. Cashew nut (optional) 8. Turmeric Approximate measure 11 cups 2 3 4 cup 45 chillies 23 teaspoons 1 inch piece 2 teaspoons 2022 nuts 1 2 teaspoon Method 1. Chop green chillies and ginger 2. Heat fat and fry green chillies, ginger, pepper corns and turmeric 3. Fry the green gram dhal followed by rice, add water and salt and allow to cook 4. Garnish with fried nuts Note: 1. Fresh chopped coriander leaves can be used for garnishing instead of cashew nuts Black pepper 2. 101 Green gram dhal can be substituted with other dhals such as (masur dhal) lentil and red gram dhal (tuar or arhar dhal) Quick vegetable hamburger onion hash Ingredients 1. Minced onion 2. Minced cooked carrot and turnip 3. Butter or margarine 4. Finely chopped cooked potatoes 5. Salt 6. Ground black pepper 7. Garlic Approximate measure cup cup 1 tablespoon 13 tablespoons to taste 1 4 tablespoon 2 cloves 1 2 1 2 Method: 1. Brown onion in butter or margarine 2. Add potatoes, salt, black pepper and ground garlic 3. Stir and cook 4 to 5 minutes 4. Serve hot with chapathi or bread Note: 1. Addition of minced meat will make this a main dish 2. Left over vegetables can be used and spiced up with pepper and garlic, making a quick side dish for salt biscuits, rolls or buns Vegetable preparations Vegetable curry Ingredients 1. Vegetables 2. Curd 3. Onion 4. Garlic 5. Ginger 6. Coriander 7. Pepper corns 8. Cumin seeds 9. Red chillies 10. Salt 11. Fat Approximate measure 500 gms 4 tablespoons 4 medium 8 flakes 1 inch piece 1 teaspoon 1012 1 2 teaspoon 3 to taste 1 tablespoon Method 1. Clean and cut vegetables 2. Peel and slice garlic, ginger and onion 3. Soak garlic in a little water for 15 minutes 4. Pour this water over the vegetables and let it stand for half an hour 5. Heat fat, add sliced onion, vegetables soaked in garlic water and broken red chillies 6. In a thin muslin bag, tie the sliced ginger, pepper corns, cumin seeds and coriander seeds 7. Add in the muslin bag, salt and simmer until vegetables are tender 102 Handbook of herbs and spices 8. Remove the muslin bag with spices, squeezing out as much as possible of the juice into the vegetables Add beaten curd and fry the vegetables until cooked 9. Note: Cauliflower, potatoes, carrots, peas, knoll-khol, turnip and tomatoes can be used as vegetables, in convenient combinations Vegetable khorma Ingredients 1. Vegetables (potatoes, carrots, beans, peas, double beans any choice) 2. Copra 3. Onion 4. Ginger 5. Garlic 6. Red chillies 7. Curd 8. Coriander powder (dhania powder) 9. Khuskhus (poppy seeds) 10. Green chillies 11. Cinnamon, cloves, pepper corns and cardamoms 12. Fat Approximate measure 500 gms 1 tablespoon 3 medium 1 inch piece 34 flakes 45 3 4 cup 3 teaspoons 2 teaspoons 2 1 teaspoon 2 tablespoons Method 1. Wash and cut vegetable 2. Soak in curd for half an hour 3. Grind together khuskhus, copra, garlic, ginger, coriander powder, red chillies (seed removed), green chillies and half the onion 4. Heat fat, fry remaining onion sliced 5. Add ground masala and vegetables. Fry for about 15 minutes over slow heat 6. Add remaining curd and tepid water and cook until vegetables are tender 7. Add cinnamon, cloves, pepper and cardamom roasted and powdered 8. Cook for 5 to 10 minutes more and serve hot Masala dhal Ingredients 1. Red gram dhal 2. Red chillies 3. Garlic 4. Cumin 5. Pepper corn 6. Onions (sliced fine) 7. Garlic (chopped) 8. Green chillies (slit) 9. Cumin (jeera) Approximate measure 1 cup 3 6 cloves 1 2 teaspoon 10 3 1 clove 2 1 teaspoon g Grind to a paste Black pepper 10. 11. Fat (or ghee) Salt 103 1 teaspoon to taste Method 1. Cook dhal with salt, until half done 2. Fry the onions in 3 of fat, add masala paste and fry until brown 4 3. Mix this in dhal and cook until tender 4. Remove from fire and mash dhal 5. Using remaining fat season dhal with cumin, green chillies and chopped garlic Note: 1. In the place of red gram dhal, other split dhals cab be used, such as masur dhal (lentil), green gram dhal, dried field beans dhal 2. Addition of tamarind and a little jaggery add to variety Soups Mixed vegetable soup Ingredients 1. Onion 2. Potatoes 3. Tomatoes 4. Carrots 5. Turnip 6. Celery (if available) 7. Salt 8. Pepper corns 9. Milk Approximate measure 23 small sized 2 medium sized 2 medium sized 2 small sized 1 small 23 stalks to taste 1012 1 4 cup Method 1. Chop all cleaned vegetables 2. Cook in water until tender (meat stock can be used instead of water, if available) 3. Pass through a sieve or colander and make a puree 4. Add to puree, milk and powdered pepper just before serving Note: To add more body to vegetable soup, 1 cup of red gram dhal or green dhal may be added. 4 The dhal should be half-cooked first, before adding vegetables Cream of vegetable soup To the vegetable soup prepared as shown in recipe above, white sauce is added before serving instead of milk and pepper White sauce Ingredients 1. Maida 2. Fat 3. Milk Approximate measure 3 tablespoons 3 tablespoons 300 ml 104 Handbook of herbs and spices 4. 5. Pepper (powdered) Salt 1214 to taste Method 1. Melt the fat in a pan over slow heat 2. Stir in maida with a wooden spoon, and fry 3. Add milk gradually, stirring all the time, taking care that no lumps are formed and until creamy texture is obtained 4. Add powdered pepper and salt 5. Add white sauce to vegetable puree, heat and serve Clear dhal soup Ingredients 1. Red gram dhal 2. Onions 3. Ginger 4. Pepper 5. Salt 6. Milk 7. Turmeric 8. Water (or meat stock) Approximate measure 1 4 cup 1 small 1 2 inch piece 1012 to taste 1 4 cup a pinch about 221 cups 2 Method 1. Cook red gram dhal with chopped ginger, onion and turmeric until soft and set aside 2. Decant the top clear portion 3. Simmer the stock and add salt 4. Add milk, let simmer for about a minute and remove from heat 5. Add freshly ground pepper and serve hot Note: 1. The solid dhal portion can be used for other preparations 2. Other pulses like green gram dhal and whole pulses like cowpea and horsegram can be substituted for red gram dhal 3. Tomatoes may be added to the dhal or whole dhals at the time of cooking Legume/pulse preparations to go with cereals Radish Sambar Ingredients Approximate measure 1 1. Red gram dhal 2 cup 2. Radish 3 medium 3. Coriander seeds 2 teaspoons 4. Pepper 1 teaspoon 5. Red chillies 9 6. Black gram 1 teaspoon 7. Bengal gram dhal 1 teaspoon 8. Grated coconut 1 teaspoon Black pepper 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Tamarind Salt Fenugreek Turmeric Mustard Vegetable oil 105 1 medium sized lime ball to taste 1 4 teaspoon 1 4 teaspoon 1 4 teaspoon 1 teaspoon Method 1. Roast coriander seeds, pepper, black gram dhal, Bengal gram dhal, red chillies and fenugreek together 2. Roast separately grated coconut 3. Grind all these ingredients together (wet sambar masala) 4. Clean wash and cook red gram dhal with turmeric 5. When dhal is half cooked add cut radish pieces 6. When radish is cooked add tamarind juice, salt and boil 7. Then add the wet sambar masala and boil for about 10 minutes 8. Remove from the heat and season with mustard and curry leaves Mulugutwanny type or Rasam Ingredients 1. Red gram dhal 2. Red chillies 3. Tamarind 4. Pepper 5. Curry leaves 6. Cumin 7. Coriander seeds 8. Turmeric powder 9. Mustard 10. Salt Approximate measure 2 teaspoons 4 1 3 lime size ball 2 teaspoons a few 1 2 teaspoon 1 teaspoon a pinch 1 4 teaspoon to taste Method 1. Wash and cook red gram dhal 2. Add turmeric powder 3. Roast cumin pepper, coriander seeds and red chillies and grind 4. Extract tamarind juice 5. Add tamarind juice, salt to cooked dhal 6. Lastly add powdered ingredients and let them simmer for about 58 minutes 7. Season with mustard and curry leaves, and remove from heat Note: 1. This is served as soup also, before main meals 2. Tomatoes can be used for extra flavour, and the quantity of tamarind is reduced 106 Handbook of herbs and spices Meat dishes Pepper steak Ingredients 1. 4 thick slices of beef or (fillet) pork 2. Onions (chopped fine) 3. Whole pepper (crushed) 4. Mustard 5. Red wine (optional can be replaced by tomato juice) 6. Fat 7. Salt Approximate measure 2 medium 1 tablespoon 1 2 teaspoon 1 cup for frying about 34 tablespoons to taste Method 1. Using a mallet, beat the crushed pepper and salt on the four pieces of meat 2. Heat a little fat and brown the steaks on either side 3. Lightly fry the onion in a little fat separately and pour over the steaks. 4. Mix mustard in one cup red wine (or 1 cup tomato juice) and put in the same pan as the fried onions 5. Heat and pour over the steaks just before serving Black pepper pot roast Ingredients 1. Bottom round of beef 2. Tomato paste 3. Bay leaf 4. Pepper corns 5. Salt 6. Minced onion 7. Ground black pepper 8. Small new potatoes 9. Carrots Approximate measure 221 kg 2 1 can (180 gms) 1 small 11 teaspoons 2 11 teaspoons 2 1 teaspoon 1 2 teaspoon 8 small 6 medium Method 1. Brown meat on all sides in heavy kettle 2. Add tomato paste, 11 cups water, bay leaf, whole pepper, salt and minced onion 2 3. Cover and simmer for 3 hours, basting frequently 4. Add ground black pepper, potatoes and carrots, continue cooking for 30 minutes or until meat is tender Pepper mutton balls Ingredients 1. Minced onion 2. Ground mutton 3. Eggs 4. Bread cubes 5. Salt 6. Ground black pepper 7. Ground ginger 8. Ground nutmeg Approximate measure 1 teaspoon 1 2 kg 2 1 cup 1 teaspoon 1 2 teaspoon 1 2 teaspoon 1 4 teaspoon Black pepper 9. Cooking oil 107 46 tablespoons Method 1. Mix minced onion with 1 tsp water, let stand for 5 minutes to soften 2. Combine with remaining ingredients 3. Shape into 1-inch balls or into bite-sized balls and brown on all sides in hot oil 4. Serve with spaghetti or on toothpicks as cocktail balls Black pepper fried chicken Ingredients 1. Chicken 2. Milk 3. Ground black pepper 4. Flour 5. Fat for deep frying 6. Milk (for gravy) 7. Flour 8. Salt Approximate measure 1 broiler 1 cup 21 teaspoons 2 1 2 cup 1 cup 1 4 cup to taste Method 1. Place chicken in a shallow dish. Combine 1 cup of milk, 1 teaspoon ground pepper and 1 teaspoon of salt and pour over chicken 2 2. Cover and refrigerate for 2 hours 3. Combine 1 cup of flour, remaining pepper and salt 2 4. Cut chicken and coat with flour mixture and refrigerate again for 1 hour 5. Cook chicken in deep fat for 15 to 20 minutes until brown and tender, and set aside 6. Make cream gravy the following way: a. Place 1 cup of fat from deep frying in a saucepan 4 b. Blend in 1 cup of flour 4 c. Add milk (left over milk plus more milk to make 21 cups) until medium thick 2 Stir and cool d. Add salt and pepper (remaining 1 teaspoon) 2 7. Add gravy to fried chicken pieces and serve with naan or chapathi Roghan josh and curried lamb Ingredients 1. Lamb (mutton) 2. Chilli powder 3. Salt 4. Yoghurt (curd) 5. Ginger (scraped) 6. Ghee and butter 7. Black pepper freshly ground 8. Turmeric 9. Coriander leaves (chopped) 10. Garam masala 11. Ground spice mixture 12. Water 13. Nutmeg (freshly grated) Approximate measure 1 kg 1 4 teaspoon 1 teaspoon 12 tablespoons 21 teaspoons 2 3 tablespoons 5 teaspoons 2 teaspoons 1 2 teaspoon 11 tablespoons 2 1 2 teaspoon 12 tablespoons a pinch 108 Handbook of herbs and spices Method 1. Place mutton pieces in a large shallow baking dish and sprinkle on it chilli powder and salt evenly 2. Mix together curd and crushed ginger and pour over the mutton pieces, coating all the sides evenly 3. Close the dish tightly and marinade at room temperature for 1 hour 4. Heat ghee in a heavy frying pan and stir in a liberal grinding of black pepper and turmeric and then mutton and its marinade 5. Bring to a boil over high heat turning and stirring constantly 6. Reduce heat, close pan tightly and let it simmer undisturbed for 1 hour 7. Remove cover, sprinkle chopped coriander and pour 6 tablespoons of water, cover again and let simmer for 15 minutes 8. Repeat this using 3 tablespoons of water and cook until tender 9. Remove from heat and sprinkle the top with garam masala and nutmeg Korma curry Ingredients 1. Mutton 2. Sour curd 3. Onion and garlic (finely chopped) 4. Ground pepper 5. Ground ginger 6. Ground cumin seed 7. Ground chillies 8. Ground mustard seed Approximate measure 1 2 kg 2 cups 1 and 2 cloves respectively 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 teaspoon teaspoon teaspoon teaspoon teaspoon Method 1. Fry finely chopped onion in 3 tablespoons of ghee or other fat 2. Add the mixture of meat and spices and cook slowly until the meat is tender 3. Salt and a squeeze of lemon juice is added before serving 4. If possible, cook this curry without water or stock 5. The curds will help to form a thick gravy if cooked slowly Note: Grind the spices and add to the curd and marinade the mutton pieces in the spicy curd for about 2 hours prior to cooking Other preparations Amla preserve Ingredients 1. Amla 2. Sugar 3. Citric acid 4. Nutmeg 5. Cloves 6. Pepper corns 7. Cardamom Approximate measure 1 kg 800 gms 1 teaspoon a small piece 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon Black pepper 109 Method 1. Powder all the spices coarsely except the pepper 2. Boil the amlas in water with a teaspoon of salt 3. Keep aside, covered with a lid, until cool 4. After cooling remove the seeds from the amlas and and keep the pieces aside 5. Dissolve the sugar in 700 ml of water, boil for about 10 minutes 6. Now add the amlas and citric acid to the syrup and boil for about 15 minutes until the syrup is thick 7. Add the powdered spices and the pepper, and remove from the heat after stirring well 8. Bottle when cool French green beans fried with coconut Ingredients 1. Ghee or fat 2. Black mustard seeds 3. Black gram dhal 4. Finely chopped fresh ginger 5. Salt 6. Freshly ground black pepper 7. Green beans trimmed and cut across into paper thin rounds 8. Chilli powder 9. Finely grated fresh coconut 10. Finely chopped fresh coriander 11. Fresh lemon juice Approximate measure 3 tablespoons 1 teaspoon 4 tablespoons 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon 1 2 teaspoon 1 2 kg 1 teaspoon 3 tablespoons 11 tablespoons 2 11 tablespoons 2 Method 1. Heat the ghee. Add the mustard seeds and black gram dhal and fry until the dhal browns lightly 2. Stir the onions, ginger, salt and chilli powder and drop in the green beans 3. Add the coconut and coriander, reduce the heat to low and cover the pan. Cook for about 10 minutes more, stirring occasionally until the beans are tender 4. Sprinkle with lemon juice, ground pepper corns for seasoning, and serve at once Note: In the place of French beans other vegetables which can be included are cluster beans, peas, tender cowpea, winged beans, cabbage, spinach and drumstick leaves Ground spice mixture Ingredients 1. Three inch pieces cinnamon stick 2. Whole cardamom pods (preferably green cardamoms) 3. Whole cloves 4. Whole cumin seeds 5. Whole coriander seeds 6. Whole black pepper corns Approximate measure 5 75 50 50 25 75 gm gm gm gm gm 110 Handbook of herbs and spices Method 1. Roast cinnamon, cardamom, cloves, cumin, coriander, pepper corns in one layer. Do not let the spices brown 2. Put the cardamom seeds, crushed cinnamon, cloves, cumin seeds, coriander seeds and pepper corns into a small pan or bowl and stir them together until they are well mixed 3. Grind the spices in convenient batches by pouring them into the jar of an electric mixer, blending at high speed for 2 to 3 minutes, until they become a smooth powder. As each batch of spice is ground, transfer it to a jar or bottle with a tightly fitting lid. 4. Garam masala may be stored at room temperature in an airtight container, and will retain its full flavour for 5 to 6 months Note: In most homes, the traditional stone grinder is used. 8 Capsicum, chillies, paprika, birds eye chilli T. G. Berke and S. C. Shieh, Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center, Taiwan 8.1 Introduction: classification and use Many different varieties of the genus Capsicum are widely grown for their fruits, which may be eaten fresh, cooked, as a dried powder, in a sauce, or processed into oleoresin.1 There are three major products traded on the world market for use in food processing: paprika, oleoresin, and dried chilli (both whole and in powdered form). Some fresh fruits and some fermented mash is used for food processing, but these are relatively minor amounts and by necessity they are produced close to the processing facility. The genus Capsicum belongs to the family Solanaceae. Within the genus Capsicum, five species are commonly recognized as domesticated: Capsicum annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, and C. pubescens, while approximately 20 wild species have been documented. The genus Capsicum shares the distinction of being the first plants cultivated in the New World with beans (Phaseolus spp.), maize (Zea mays L.), and cucurbits (Cucurbitaceae).2 They are one of the first spices used by humans anywhere in the world. Widespread geographic distribution of C. annuum and C. frutescens from the New World to other continents occurred in the sixteenth century via Spanish and Portuguese traders, whereas the other species are little distributed outside South America.3 Most products used commercially for food processing are C. annuum. The classification system for this genus is somewhat confusing in the literature. In Spain, the Castilian word pimiento refers to any Capsicum species, but in the USA, pimiento or pimento refers only to thick-walled, heart-shaped, non-pungent fruits from the species C. annuum. The Hungarians call all C. annuum fruits paprika, but paprika is defined in the world market as a ground, red powder derived from dried fruits with the desirable colour and flavour qualities. The word chile is the common name for any Capsicum species in Mexico, Central America and the Southwestern USA. In Asia, the spelling chilli is more common and is always associated with highly pungent varieties of C. annuum and C. frutescens, while the non-pungent sweet bell peppers are referred to as Capsicums. Pungent fruits of all cultivated Capsicum species as a collective class are called chillies in the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Yearbook.4 Birds eye chillies are grown primarily in East Africa, but they are merely 112 Handbook of herbs and spices small-fruited, highly pungent forms of C. annuum or C. frutescens. In this review, the following definitions will be used: Oleoresin a viscous liquid derived by polar solvent extraction from ground powder of any Capsicum species; there are three types of oleoresin: paprika (used for colour), red pepper (used for colour and pungency), and Capsicum (used for pungency). Paprika a ground, bright red, usually non-pungent powder used primarily for its colour and flavour in processed foods; all paprika varieties are C. annuum; paprika fruits are used to produce paprika oleoresin. Chilli any pungent variety of any Capsicum species, but primarily C. annuum; chilli varieties may be used to produce red pepper oleoresin or Capsicum oleoresin. Pepper(s) generic term describing the fruits of any Capsicum species, both pungent and non-pungent. Peppers are used as a colourant, flavourant, and/or as a source of pungency, depending on the processed product. Peppers can be used fresh, dried, fermented, or as an oleoresin extract. They can be used whole, chopped, coarsely ground, or finely ground, with or without seeds. Various types of processed products containing primarily peppers include pickled fruits, chilli sauce, chilli powder (also known as cayenne powder), crushed red pepper flakes (with or without seeds), fermented mash, paprika, and three types of oleoresin. Other processed products that contain a significant proportion of peppers include fresh and processed salsas, curry powders, barbecue seasonings, chili powder (a mixture of chilli powder, oregano, cumin, and garlic powder), and many other foods.5 8.2 Chemical structure and stability The main source of pungency in peppers is the chemical group of alkaloid compounds called capsaicinoids (CAPS), which are produced in the fruit. The atomic structure of CAPS is similar to piperine (the active component of white and black pepper, Piper nigrum) and zingerone (the active component of ginger, Zingiber officinale). Capsaicin (C18H27NO3, trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide), shown in Fig. 8.1, is the most abundant CAPS, followed by dihydrocapsaicin, with minor amounts of nordihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin, and others. Capsaicin is a white crystalline, fat-soluble compound formed from homovanillic acid that is insoluble in water, odourless, and tasteless.3 Varieties of chilli differ widely in CAPS content. The amount of CAPS in a given variety can vary depending on the light intensity and temperature at which the plant is grown, the age of the fruit, and the position of the fruit on the plant. The first test developed to measure pungency was the Scoville test, first developed in 1912 by Wilbur Scoville.6 It measures heat as Scoville heat units (SHU) in a given dry weight of fruit tissue. Sweet peppers have 0 SHU, chillies with a slight bite may have 100 to 500 SHU, and the blistering habaneros have between 200,000 and 300,000. The red colour of mature pepper fruits is due to several related carotenoid pigments, including capsanthin (Fig. 8.2), capsorubin, cryptoxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are present as fatty acid esters. The most important pigments are capsanthin and its isomer capsorubin, which make up 3060% and 618%, respectively, of the total carotenoids in the fruit.7 The intensity of the red colour is primarily a function of the amount of these two pigments; the Hungarian and Spanish varieties used for paprika have very high amounts of capsanthin and capsorubin compared to other varieties.7 Capsicum, chillies, paprika, birds eye chilli Fig. 8.1 Chemical structure of capsaicin. Fig. 8.2 113 Chemical structure of capsanthin. CAPS in oleoresins are very stable compounds and generally do not break down, even during processing at high temperatures and during long storage periods. CAPS in dry products (fruits, powder, etc.) are not as stable as in oleoresins. The temperature at which the fruits are dried affects the CAPS content. For example, drying ripe fruits at 60C to a final moisture content of 8% decreases CAPS content approximately 10%.8 If the fruits are held for extended periods of time at 60C after reaching 8% moisture content as much as 50% of the CAPS may be lost.8 Once the fruits are dried, they typically lose 12% CAPS/month under cold (16C) storage, and even more when stored under ambient conditions. Ground powder can lose as much as 5% CAPS/month depending on the fineness of the grind and the storage temperature.8 The red colour of paprika and chilli powder, on the other hand, is not as stable as oleoresin and CAPS, and much work has been done to optimize the processing and storage conditions for dried chillies and paprika to maximize the colour intensity for the longest period of time.9-11 8.3 Production Reliable production figures for paprika and chillies are difficult to obtain because the FAO Yearbook combines production figures for green bell peppers and chillies into one figure for peppers. In 1997, the FAO reported that there were 1.33 million hectares of peppers grown, with an average yield of 12.3 t ha1; total production was estimated at 16.4 million metric tons (MMT).4 The major pepper producing nations in terms of area are India, China, Indonesia, Ethiopia and Mexico. 8.3.1 Paprika production Paprika is produced commercially in Spain, Portugal, Central Europe, Southern Africa, and the US, but Hungary is by far the most famous paprika-producing country, with approximately 8,000 ha devoted to the crop.4,12 Many food historians believe that Turks and Bulgarians of the Ottoman Empire brought peppers to Hungary in the sixteenth 114 Handbook of herbs and spices century. Kalocsa and Szeged are the main centres of paprika production. Once the fruits are harvested, they are loosely stacked in long, narrow, cylindrical mesh bags made of red plastic and allowed to cure for 34 weeks. Then the peppers are washed, dried, crushed and finally ground into powder. The mill master selects the proportion of seeds to be ground with the pepper pods, to produce the desired level of pungency and colour in the paprika. During grinding, the crushed peppers are heated to release the oil in the seeds, which interacts with the pigment in the fruits to produce the intense red colour. Colour has no effect on the pungency of the paprika. Bright red paprikas may be sweet or pungent. Generally, the poorer-quality, pale red and brownish-coloured paprikas are pungent. Heat causes the natural sugar content of the fruits to caramelize slightly, which affects the taste and aroma of the paprika. During the process, if the fruits are heated too much, they will scorch. If they are not heated enough, the moisture content will be too high, and both the flavour and colour will be affected. Optimum moisture content is 8%.12 Only undamaged fruits less than a year old are used for the top grades of Hungarian paprika. Before non-pungent paprika varieties were available, the top grades of paprika were prepared by removing the dissepiment (ribs on the inside of the pericarp which are rich in CAPS) by special knives,13 but this method is no longer used.12 8.3.2 Oleoresin production Oleoresin is a viscous liquid or semi-solid material derived by extraction from finelyground powder, which contains the aroma and flavour of its source. Three types of oleoresin are produced. High-pungency Capsicum oleoresin is produced in India, Africa and China near the production areas of low cost, very pungent chilli varieties. Mediumpungency red pepper oleoresin is produced in many regions. Non-pungent paprika oleoresin is produced in Spain, Ethiopia, Morocco, Israel, India, USA, Mexico and South Africa.5 Oleoresin is extracted from finely ground chilli or paprika powder. A volatile non-aqueous solvent such as hexane, ether, or ethylene dichloride is added and allowed to thoroughly wet the material. The oleoresin enters into solution with the solvent, forming micella. After a period of time, the micella is removed, and the solvent replaced with fresh solvent to continue the extraction. The solvent is subsequently removed from the extract by evaporation at the lowest practical temperature to avoid loss of aromatic volatile compounds. This is done in two stages: the first stage removes approximately 95% in a standard film evaporator, and then the concentrated micella passes through a partial vacuum that removes the rest of the solvent and reduces the micella to oleoresin. The remaining solvent held in the mass of the extracted powder is recovered by very high vacuum. Typical yield of oleoresin depends on the solvent used and ranges from 11.5 16.5%.5 The oleoresin pungency depends on the pungency of the original powder. Paprika oleoresin has little to no pungency, and is used for its colour and flavour properties, while Capsicum oleoresin can have CAPS levels up to 10%, and is used primarily as a source of high pungency. 8.3.3 Dry chilli production Chilli peppers are typically produced on small farms, less than 1 ha in size, in areas where cheap labour is available for harvesting. The largest producer is India, with an estimated 894,000 ha devoted to the crop annually. India is the largest exporter of dried chilli in the world. The second-largest producer is China, which grows an estimated 216,000 ha annually and also exports sizeable quantities of dried chilli.14 Fruits are typically allowed Capsicum, chillies, paprika, birds eye chilli 115 to partially dry on the plant, then harvested and placed in well-ventilated areas receiving direct sunlight for drying. Sun drying can result in bleached fruits, especially if rainfall is received during the drying period, and the fruits may have extraneous matter adhering to them. In more advanced regions, the use of controlled drying improves the quality of the dried fruits. The best drying temperature is 6070C; this gives maximum colour values and longest colour retention time. Higher temperatures tend to caramelize the sugars present in the fruits and give them a dark colour. The optimum moisture content is approximately 10%.15-17 8.4 Main uses in food processing There are many uses of peppers in food processing, including as a food colourant, as a source of pungency in food, as a source of flavour, as a source of pain relief for pharmaceutical use, and as a repellent. In many cases two or more of these properties are included in the same product; for example, paprika may be a source of colour, pungency, and flavour. 8.4.1 Colour People whose diets are largely colourless starches, such as rice or maize, use peppers to add colour to their bland, achromatic diets. Paprika, paprika oleoresin, red pepper oleoresin, and dried chilli may all serve as a source of red colour in various processed products, but the primary sources of red colour are paprika and paprika oleoresin. Paprika is used in many products where no pungency is desired, but the colour, flavour, and texture of a finely ground powder is desired. These include processed lunchmeats, sausages, cheeses and other dairy products, soups, sauces, and snacks such as potato chips. Paprika oleoresin is used as a colour and flavour additive in many products where the texture is important and small particles of paprika powder would be undesirable.5 8.4.2 Pungency Red pepper oleoresin is used as a source of both colour and pungency in canned meats, sausages, smoked pork, sandwich spreads, soups, and in dispersed form in some drinks such as ginger ale. Capsicum oleoresin is used as a source of pungency in many products, especially chilli sauces with extremely high SHU ratings. Oleoresin has considerable advantages over dried chilli including more stable colour retention, easier to handle compared to the rather bulky dried chilli, and the ability to mix and dilute oleoresin with other substances to produce a range of colour and/or pungency values. Dried chilli is also used as a source of both colour and pungency, particularly in the production of crushed red peppers, chilli powder and chilli sauces. 8.4.3 Flavour Paprika is valued for its flavour in many products in addition to its colour. Dried chilli is also valued for its contribution to flavour in chilli sauces and chilli powders. The flavouring principle is associated with volatile aromatic compounds and colour. As a general rule, when the colour of paprika or chilli powder fades, the flavour also disappears. 116 Handbook of herbs and spices 8.4.4 Pharmaceutical Capsicum oleoresin is the primary form of peppers used for pharmaceutical purposes. Here the primary requirement is the CAPS level. Further refinement of the oleoresin may be performed to produce pure capsaicin. At least two types of pain relief products are currently being marketed, including creams containing 0.75% capsaicin (for example, ZostrixTM), and plasters containing 3% oleoresin (for example, VorwerkTM). Several types of capsules containing chilli powder (cayenne powder) with a range of capsaicin levels are currently being marketed. 8.5 Functional properties and toxicity Peppers are well-known for their health benefits. Herbalists have long promoted peppers for their health-enhancing effects. These include clearing the lungs and sinuses, protecting the stomach by increasing the flow of digestive juices, triggering the brain to release endorphins (natural painkillers), making your mouth water, which helps to neutralize cavity-causing acids, and helping protect the body against cancer through antioxidant activity.3 8.5.1 Toxicity The acute toxicity of capsaicin has been measured in several animal species. In mice, the LD50 values for CAPS depended on the mode of administration, ranging from 0.56 (intravenous) to 512 (dermal) mg kg-1 body weight. Death was due to respiratory paralysis.18 To reach the LD50 value for human oral administration, the average person would have to drink 1.5 quarts of Tabasco sauce. The painfulness of the CAPS is a selflimiting factor in their role as a human food ingredient; you can only eat so much at one time. No death has ever been recorded due to CAPS-induced respiratory failure, and the investigators concluded that the acute toxicity of CAPS as a food additive in man was negligible.18 The effect of sub-chronic toxic doses has been examined in rats. Adult rats exhibited no noticeable behavioural or physiological changes when given sub-chronic doses of crude chilli extract by stomach tube for 60 days. Food consumption was significantly higher but body weight was lower than the control group after 60 days.19 8.5.2 Functional benefits CAPS stimulates sensory neurons in the skin and mouth cavity, creating a sensation of warmth that increases to severe pain (type C nociceptive fibre pain) with higher doses. The neurons produce the neuropeptide Substance P (SP), which delivers the message of pain. Repeated exposure of a neuron to capsaicin depletes SP, reducing or eliminating the pain sensation in many people.20 Thus the use of CAPS in pain relief has two modes of action: the sensation of heat, which may help sore muscles and arthritic joints feel better, and the depletion of SP, which reduces the pain sensation in the exposed area. Peppers have been reported to contain an anticoagulant that helps prevent the blood clots that can cause heart attacks.3 Foods containing CAPS increase the thermic effects of food (TEF). The TEF is the slight increase in the bodys metabolic rate after consumption of a meal. A meal containing foods with CAPS can increase the bodys TEF up to 25% for three hours.3 The role of CAPS in triggering the brain to release endorphins (natural painkillers) is well-known. As more CAPS is consumed, the body releases more Capsicum, chillies, paprika, birds eye chilli 117 endorphins, causing one to feel a mild euphoria a natural high! Regular consumption has only a slight desensitizing effect. The Hungarian scientist Albert Szent-Gyorgyi won the 1937 Nobel Prize for isolating ascorbic acid, better known as vitamin C, from peppers. Peppers are also high in vitamin A, vitamin E, and potassium, and low in sodium. One hundred grams of fresh red chilli pepper has 240 mg of vitamin C (five times higher than an orange), 11,000 IU of vitamin A, and 0.7 mg of vitamin E. Vitamin C is sensitive to heat and drying but vitamin A is very stable, and paprika and dried chilli both contain relatively high amounts of this important nutrient.5 8.6 Quality issues The quality parameters of paprika, oleoresin, and dried chilli focus primarily on colour, pungency, and microbial and insect contamination, but vary depending on the product and the intended end use. 8.6.1 Paprika quality Paprika always refers to a ground product prepared of highly coloured, mild or sweet red fruits. The main quality factors are colour and pungency. There are eight grades of Hungarian paprika (Table 8.1). The condition of the fruits at harvest, and to some extent the manner in which they are processed, determines which grade of paprika will be made from them. Fruits are graded at harvest for colour, pungency and aroma. The Grade 1 fruits are used to make the best grades of paprika (special, capsaicin-free, and delicatesse), while Grade 2 fruits are used to make lower grades of paprika (fine sweet, semi-sweet). Fruits from later harvests and those rejected from higher grades are used for rose, while spotted fruits not belonging to any other grade are used for pungent, which is the lowest grade. Spanish paprika is divided into three types (sweet, semi-sweet, and pungent) by pungency, and each type is divided into three grades (extra, select, and ordinary) by colour, ash content and moisture content. The best Spanish paprika is sweet, extra grade, with no pungency, bright fiery red colour and only 8.0% moisture.5 Microbial contamination by bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, and Clostridium perfringens,21-23 yeasts, and aflatoxin-producing moulds such as Aspergillus flavus, A. glaucus, and A. niger24 have been reported. A total bacterial plate count below 10,000/ gram is desirable, with yeast, mould and coliforms below 1000/gram.25 Major health hazard organisms such as E. coli, Salmonella, and Shigella must be negative. Control by fumigation with ethylene oxide is generally recognized as safe by many countries, as long as fumigant residues do not exceed international standards.26 Ethylene oxide is toxic and requires special vacuum equipment and technical skill to administer, but it vaporizes rapidly from the material, leaving little residue, and it has no effect on colour, pungency, or flavour, so it is generally considered the most effective method.25 Paprika that is processed and stored properly generally does not have problems with insect contamination.27 8.6.2 Oleoresin quality The quality specifications for the different types of oleoresin are given in Table 8.2. Three types of oleoresin are specified, based on the pungency and colour values. Table 8.1 Grades of Hungarian paprika, from best (special) to worst (pungent)5 Quality characteristics Grade Colour Pungency Aroma 1) Special Bright, fiery red colour Bright red none or very little none some bitterness barely detectable less pungent pure, very aromatic pure, sweet 2) Capsaicin-free (mild table) 3) Delicatesse (table) 4) (hot table)b 5) Fine sweet 6) Semi-sweet 7) Rose (pink) 8) Pungent a b c Bright red, darker or light Bright red, darker or light Dark or yellowish red Darker to yellowish red Dull red to pale yellow Light brown to greenish less pungent pungent markedly pungent very pungent 100% of the powder can pass through sieve no. Similar to Delicatesse, but with a CAPS minimum of 25 mg 100 g1. Not specified. typical pure aroma typical pure aroma aromatic less typical aroma typical aroma NS H2O Total ash Acidinsoluble ash Ether extract Powder finenessa (%) 10.0 (%) 5.0 (%) 0.3 (%) 12.0 (sieve #) 0.45 10.0 5.5 0.4 13.0 0.50 10.0 6.0 0.45 14.0 0.50 10.0 6.0 0.45 14.0 0.50 10.0 10.0 6.5 7.0 0.5 0.7 16.0 17.0 0.50 0.63 10.0 8.0 0.8 NSc 0.63 10.0 10.0 1.2 NS 0.63 Capsicum, chillies, paprika, birds eye chilli Table 8.2 119 Essential Oils Association standards for oleoresins34 Type of oleoresin Trait Capsicum red pepper paprika Number Preparation EOA no. 245 Solvent extraction of dried ripe fruit Deep red EOA no. 246 Solvent extraction of dried ripe fruit Deep red Odour/taste SHU Colourb EOA no. 244 Solvent extraction of dried ripe fruita Clear, red or light amber, viscous very pungent, aromatic >480,000 <4,000 pungent, aromatic >240,000 <20,000 aromatic 0 40,000100,000 Soluble in: Benzyl benzoate Alcohol Fixed oils Propylene glycol yes partly, with oily layer yes no yes partly, with oily layer yes no yes partly, with oily layer yes no Appearance a Residual solvent limits: <25 ppm hexane, <30 ppm ethylene chloride or acetone, or <50 ppm isopropyl or methyl alcohol for all oleoresins. b Colour is determined by measuring the absorbance of a 0.01% solution of oleoresin in acetone at 258 nm. The absorbance value is multiplied by 61,000 to convert to total colour units. Capsicum oleoresin has very high pungency and low colour, and is used as a source of pungency where colour is not important. Red pepper oleoresin has both moderate pungency and colour, and is used where both traits are important. Paprika oleoresin has very high colour and little or no pungency. Importers of Capsicum oleoresin prefer a pungency value in the range of 610% CAPS (1,000,0001,600,000 SHU).5 Oleoresin that is processed and stored properly has few problems with microbial or insect contamination. 8.6.3 Dried chilli quality Like the other forms of peppers used in food processing, colour and pungency are the major quality factors, as well as aroma. Factors that affect the colour of dried chillies include the cultivar, the stage of maturity at harvest and subsequent curing, fruit drying conditions, and the final moisture content. At less than 10% moisture, the colour appears bleached, while at levels greater than 10% there is darkening, possibly caused by non-enzymatic browning. The colour of crushed or ground chilli powder deteriorates faster than whole chillies, due to the auto-catalyzed degradation of carotenoids. The major factor influencing colour retention during storage is the temperature, followed by the moisture content. The effect of air, light, and type of container is minimal. The optimum storage conditions for chilli powder colour retention are 16C and 1011% moisture.2829 The American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) has set standards for measuring colour in pepper products that are widely followed. Samples are extracted acetone and the absorbance is read by a spectrophotometer at 460 nm.30 Values are expressed as ASTA units; a value greater than 200 is considered a very deep red colour. Commercial samples of chilli powder normally range from 100200 ASTA units, and a premium may be paid by processors for lots with extractable colour greater than 140 units. 120 Handbook of herbs and spices The standard for measuring pungency in all forms of peppers is Scoville Heat Units (SHU). The concept was introduced in 1912, when Wilbur L. Scoville, a pharmacologist with Parke Davis, developed the Scoville Organoleptic Test.6 A panel of five people is used as heat samplers. The panel analyzes a solution made of exact weights of dried chillies dissolved in alcohol and diluted with sugar water. The pungency of the peppers is rated in multiples of one hundred SHU. A majority of three samplers has to agree on one value before any sample is given a value. This method is subjective, especially as it depends on the tasters palate and sensitivity to pungency. Also, the human palate quickly becomes desensitized to CAPS after tasting more than a few samples within a short period of time. It has largely been replaced by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), which is relatively rapid and reliable compared to the Scoville Organoleptic Test.31 Results are reported as ppm CAPS, which can be converted to SHU or other units by the following scale: 1 ppm = 16 SHU = 0.0001% = 0.001 mg g.1 Pure capsaicin = 16,000,000 SHU. Microbial contamination is also a problem in dried chilli, and the same standards used for paprika also apply to dried chilli. In addition, insect contamination can be a problem, particularly the universal drugstore beetle, Stegobium paniceum (Linn.) and the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorn (Fab.).32 Insect damage is three-fold, first by the physical loss as frass, second by the loss of quality due to broken pods and loose seed, and third by mould growth and entry of mites due to insect holes in the fruit walls. Control can be achieved by fumigation with insecticidal chemicals, although their use must be monitored carefully and fumigant residues must be within the limits set by international standards.33 The control method used depends on the quantity, the technological capability and the cost. 8.6.4 Adulteration Several types of adulteration are possible and have been reported at various times. Whole dried chillies may be adulterated by adding sub-standard dried fruits, which are darkened or bleached, by adding moisture to increase the weight of a load, or by coating with mineral oil or synthetic dyes such as coal tar red to improve the colour and appearance.5 A more difficult problem is the addition of varieties or harvests that vary in CAPS and colour but have similar shape, size, and visual colour. Only testing of representative samples and sub-samples can determine if a lot is homogeneous. Chilli powder may be adulterated in many ways, some of which are very difficult to detect without sophisticated tests such as HPLC analysis, and pure standards must always be used for comparison. Chilli powder may be adulterated by adding extra amounts of bleached pericarp, seeds, calyx, and peduncle to increase bulk without visibly affecting appearance. Other reported adulterants include artificial dyes, almond shell dust, and dried red beet pulp. Filth, such as insect fragments, rodent droppings and hairs, and fungal spores are an indication of poor handling and storage. Heavy metals and chemical residues from pesticides represent another adulteration problem. Pesticide residues reported in chilli powder include chlorinated hydrocarbons, DDT, Dieldrin, Endrin, and lindane, but generally in very low levels. Oleoresin may be adulterated by adding synthetic saturated acid vanillylamides such as pelargonic vanillylamide. Detection of these adulterants can be done by sophisticated gas chromatography of the saponified extract5 or by thin-layer chromatography coupled with HPLC.8 Capsicum, chillies, paprika, birds eye chilli 8.7 121 References 1 POULOS J.M. Capsicum L., in J.S. Siemonsma and K. Piluek (eds.) Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 8: Vegetables, pp. 13640, Wageningen, The Netherlands, Pudoc Scientific Publishers, 1993. 2 HEISER C.B. JR. Seed to Civilization: The Story of Mans Food, San Francisco, California, W.H. Freeman and Co., 1973. 3 ANDREWS J. Peppers: The Domesticated Capsicums, Austin, Texas, University of Texas Press, 1995. 4 ANON. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) database at 1997. 5 GOVINDARAJAN V.S. Capsicum production, technology, chemistry and quality. Part II. Processed products, standards, world production, and trade. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 1986 23(3): 20788. 6 SCOVILLE W. Note on Capsicums. J. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 1912 1: 4534. 7 GOVINDARAJAN V.S. Capsicum production, technology, chemistry and quality. Part I. History, botany, cultivation and primary processing. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 1985 22(2): 10976. 8 BENSINGER M. Personal communication. ChromTec, North Palm Beach, Florida, 2000. 9 ISIDORO E., COTTER D.J. and SOUTHWARD G.M. A comparison of colour loss of red chile pepper pods on or off the plant and during storage as powder. HortScience 1990 25: 9545. 10 LEE D.S., CHUNG S.K., KIM H.K. and YAM K.L. Nonenzymatic browning in dried red pepper products. J. Food Quality 1991 14: 15363. 11 GARCIA-MOMPEAN P., FRUTOS M.J., LOPEZ-SEGURA M. and GIMENEZ J.L. Effect of freezing on the stability of paprika. 1st International Conference on Alternative and Traditional Use of Paprika, Szeged, Hungary, 1999. 12 MOOR A. Personal communication. Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary, 2000. 13 ANON. Paprika. Budapest, Hungary, Monimpex Hungarian Foreign Trading Company, 1999. 14 POULOS J.M. Problems and Progress of Chilli Pepper Production in the Tropics, in (C.B. Hock, L.W. Hong, M. Rejab and A.R. Syed (eds.) Proceedings of the Conference on Chilli Pepper Production in the Tropics, pp. 98129. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, MARDI, 1992. 15 LEASE J.G. and LEASE E.J. Effect of drying conditions on initial colour, colour retention, and pungency in red peppers. Food Technology 1962 16: 10410. 16 CARNEVALE J., COLE E.R. and CRANK G. Photocatalyzed oxidation of paprika pigments. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1980 28(5): 9536. 17 KANNER J., HAREL S., PALEVITCH D. and BEN-GERA I. Colour retention in sweet red paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) powder as affected by moisture contents and ripening stage. J. Food Technology 1977 12(1): 59. 18 GLINSUKON T., STITMUNNAUTHUM V., TOSKULKAO C., BURANAWUTI T. and TANGKRISANAVINONT V., Acute toxicity of capsaicin in several animal species. Toxicon 1980 18: 21520. 19 GOVINDARAJAN V.S. and SATHYANARAYANA M.N. Capsicum production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part V. Impact on physiology, pharmacology, nutrition, and metabolism; structure, pungency, pain, and desensitization sequences. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 1991 29: 43574. 122 Handbook of herbs and spices 20 CATERINA M.J., SCHUMACHER M.A., TOMINAGA M., ROSEN T.A., LEVINE J.D. and JULIUS D. The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway. Nature 1997 389: 81624. 21 SMITH L.D.S. Clostridium perfringens, in L.D. Slanetz, C.O. Chichester, A.R. Gaufin, and Z.J. Ordal (eds.) Food Poisoning in Microbiological Quality of Foods, p. 77. New York, Academic Press, 1963. 22 SEENAPPA M. and KEMPTON A. G. A note on the occurrence of Bacillus in Indian spices of export quality. J. Appl. Bact. 1981 50: 225. 23 BAXTER R. and HALZAPFEL W.H. A microbial investigation of selected spices, herbs, and additives in South Africa. J. Food Sci. 1982 47: 570. 24 FLANNIGAN B and HUI S.C. The occurrence of aflatoxin producing strains of Aspergillus flavus in the mold floras of ground spices. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 1976 41: 411. 25 WEBER F.E. Controlling microorganisms in spices. Cereal Foods World 1980 25: 319. 26 ANON. WHO evaluation of some pesticide residues in foods, Pesticide Residue Series No. 1. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 1972. 27 GOVINDARAJAN V.S. Capsicum production, technology, chemistry and quality. Part I. History, botany, cultivation and primary processing. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 1985 22: 10976. 28 MALCHEV E., IONCHEVE N., TANCHEV S. and KALPAKCHIEVA K. Quantitative changes in carotenoids during the storage of dried red pepper powder. Nahrung 1982 26: 415 20. 29 GUZMAN G., GIMENEZ J.L., CANO J. and LAECINA J. Effect of low storage temperatures on Murcia paprika. Anal. Bromatol. 1973 25: 716. 30 ANON., Extractable colour in Capsicums and their oleoresins, ASTA Method 20.1. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, American Spice Trade Association, 1997. 31 COLLINS M.D., WASMUND L.M. and BOSLAND P.W. Improved method for quantifying capsaicinoids in Capsicum using high-performance liquid chromatography. HortScience 1995 30: 1379. 32 MUTHU M. and MAJUMDER S.K. Insect control in spices, Proc. Symp. Dev. Prosp. Spice Industry in India, Mysore, India, Assoc. Food Science and Technology, 1974, p. 35. 33 MONRO H.A.U. Manual of fumigation for insect control, Agricultural Studies no. 391. Rome, Italy, FAO, 1961. 34 ANON. Specifications for paprika oleoresin, red pepper oleoresin, and Capsicum oleoresin, New York, Essential Oils Association, 1975. 9 Cardamom (small) V. S. Korikanthimath, Indian Institute of Spices Research, Karnataka 9.1 Introduction Small cardamom, popularly known as Queen of Spices, is the dried fruit of the tall perennial herbaceous plant, Elettaria cardamomum Maton, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. It is a shade loving plant cultivated at an altitude of 600 to 1200 m above MSL with an annual rainfall of 1500 to 4000 mm and a temperature range of 10 to 35C. Until recently India was the main producer and exporter of cardamom. Of late Guatemala has emerged as a keen competitor to Indian cardamom in the international spice market. Tanzania, Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Papua New Guinea are the other cardamom growing countries. In India, cardamom is cultivated in the southern states of Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Kerala accounts for 60% of the cultivation and production followed by Karnataka 30% and Tamil Nadu 10%. The physical and chemical characteristerics of cardamom from different growing regions in India is shown in Table 9.1. Cardamom oil is used in food, perfumery and liquor and pharmaceutical industries as a flavour and a carminative. Its use in the food industry is in flavouring pickles, meat and canned soups. However, the oil is reported to develop some off flavour in a few days when it contacts with air; its use is therefore restricted to fresh meat products and foods with short shelf-life. Increasing use of cardamom oil is reported in compounded flavours for baked goods, sauces and condiments. Cardamom oil is reported to be gaining increasing use in perfumery, with a trend to spicy tones modifying the dominant lavender group perfumes for women (ITC, Markets for Essential Oils and Oleoresins 1974). Cardamom is used as an adjuvant to carminative drugs. It is officially recognised in British and US pharmacopoeias and used as an aromatic stimulant, carminative and flavouring agent. It can be used to ease cigarette addiction. Eating a few seeds of cardamom can safely be recommended to initially minimise the number of cigarettes being smoked, and slowly the smoker may give up the chronic addiction to chain smoking. 124 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 9.1 Region of growth Composition of cardamom Weight Husk of 100 (%) capsules (g) Seed (%) Volatile NVEE* Starch oil (%) (%) (%) Fibre crude (%) Protein (N6.25) (%) Karnataka Mudigere Coorg 2324 2325 25.528.0 72.074.5 8.68.9 26.027.0 73.074.0 9.19.4 2.03.6 47.048.0 6.96.8 2.23.1 47.748.0 6.72.7 8.811.3 10.5 Kerala Wynard 2022 28.038.0 62.072.0 7.510.0 2.22.4 39.143.7 8.49.3 9.714.0 23 27.7 Alleppey green Tamil Nadu Yercaud 2326 Nelliampathy 1218 72.3 27.0 73.0 26.031.0 74.0 9.49.6 2.2 37.8 9.49.6 2.4 45.5 7.0 9.8 8.510.5 2.53.5 43.046.0 9.512.8 10.711.5 * NVEE non-volatile ether extracts. Sources: Kasturi and Iyer (1955), Krishnamurthy (1964) and Natarajan et al. (1968). 9.2 Description Cardamom is indigenous to the evergreen rainforests of western ghats of Southern India from where it spread to other tropical countries such as Sri Lanka, Tanzania and a few Central American countries. Presently it is being cultivated in countries lying between 20 latitude north and south. Cardamom was an article of Greek trade during the fourth century BC. It was listed among the Indian spices liable to duty at Alexandria in AD 176 (Rosengarten 1969). E. Cardamomum exhibits considerable variation under cultivation and the naming of commercial types after the places of production has led to confusion regarding the identity of the varieties. Two varieties based on the size of the fruits are recognized. They are : (1) E.cardamomum var. Major Thw. comprising the wild indigenous cardamom of Ceylon or Greater oblong cardamom or long cardamom and (2) E.cardamomum var. minor comprising all the cultivated races, particularly those included under the names Malabar and Mysore cardamoms. Var. major is the more primitive variety from which the cultivated var. minor is derived. All the varieties and races are interfertile and the observed variations are probably due to natural crossing. The genus belongs to the natural order Scitaminae, family Zingiberaceae under monocotyledons with diploid chromosome number, 2n = 48. 9.2 Production 9.2.1 Harvesting The peak period of harvest is OctoberNovember. The average yield of cardamom is around 150 kg (dry)/ha; however, record yield of 695 kg/ha (average of 9 crop seasons) was obtained by adopting high production technology directly in farmers plantations (Korikanthimath 1995). Just ripened fruits or physiologically ripened are generally harvested. More splitting of capsules was observed in over-matured capsules Cardamom (small) 125 (Korikanthimath and Naidu 1986). Percentage of dry recovery was highest (29%) in the fully ripened capsules followed by the one harvested at physiological maturity (24%) and in immature stage (14%). Capsules may be washed in water to remove the adhering soil and a treatment with 2% washing soda (alkali) for 10 minutes enables retention of the green colour and prevents growth of mould. 9.3.2 Curing In curing, moisture of green cardamom is reduced from 80% to 12% (wet basis) at an optimum temperature (50) so as to retain its green colour to the maximum extent. Natural (sun) drying. This requires 56 days and the green colour is bleached by this method. Electrical drier. Fifty kg capsules can be dried in 1012 hrs at 4550C retaining the green colour. Flue pipe curing. This is the convenient method of curing from which high-quality green cardamom can be obtained. The structure consists of walls made of bricks or stones and tiled roof with ceiling. A pipe made of iron or zinc sheet starting from the furnace passes through the chamber and opens outside the roof. The heated air current generated in the furnace passes through the pipe and increases the temperature of the room. The fans located either sides of the wall uniformly spread the temperature. Inside the room the cardamom to be dried is kept in wooden/aluminium trays arranged in racks. The fire in the furnace is adjusted to maintain the temperature between 45 50C. Drying takes about 18 to 22 hours (Korikanthimath 1993). 9.3.3 Bleached cardamom Bleached cardamom is creamy white or golden yellow in colour. It can be done with either the dried capsule or freshly harvested capsules. It is prepared using sulphur dioxide, potassium metabisulphite (25% containing 1% HCl for 30 min) and hydrogen peroxide (46% at pH 4.0). However bleached cardamom tends to lose more volatile oil. 9.3.4 Ground cardamom A large portion of the cardamom imported into western countries is to meet industrial and institutional requirements for bulk supply of ground cardamom (Survey of the World Market, 1977). Proper maturity reflected by deep brown, shining seeds with satisfactory weight per litre specifications and good characteristic aroma are the factors necessary for making good quality ground cardamom. In cardamom, the presence of the oil cells near the surface which contains aroma-significant components like 1,8-cineole poses special problems due to the high temperatures produced in attrition and grinding. To overcome the loss of volatiles, prechilling and reduced temperature grinding are used (Anon. 1975). A new innovation for idealized grinding of spices is freeze-grinding (70C) which has many advantages; increased retention of volatiles, minimizing oxidation of volatiles, increased throughput and improved functional properties of dispersability of the fine ground material in food preparation (Russo 1976). Ground spice deteriorates in its aroma quality both by rapid loss of volatile and by the action of oxygen in the head space on the terpenic and lipid components of the spice. This 126 Handbook of herbs and spices loss could be controlled by careful selection of packaging materials. Gerhardt (1972) found that of the different packaging material studied, lacquered cans, PVDC and HDPE gave the smallest loss of ethereal oils in powdered cardamom. Koller (1976) found that among several factors influencing flavour quality of vacuum-packaged ground cardamom, temperature not exceeding +5C was the most important. Cardamom in powder form could be stored vacuum-packed in laminater such as polyamide/ polyethylene or cellophane or lacquered can for 12 months at 18C. 9.3.5 Cardamom volatile oil The most functionally important constituent of cardamom is the volatile oil. The volatile oil content of seeds varies from 6.610.6% for the two types of cardamom (cv. Mysore and Malabar) grown in India (Krishnamurthy 1964; Krishnamurthy et al. 1967; Korikanthimath et al. 1999). In immature capsules the volatile oil content is low, in the order of 45%. The husk is reported to yield 0.2% volatile oil, having properties similar to those of seed oil (Rao et al. 1925). Yields of the volatile oil varied over a wide range: for seeds from 3.4 to 8.6% and for dried capsules from 5.2 to 11.3%. Many developing countries have been producing different aromatic volatile oils by steam distillation over a long period. Among the different distillation methods, steam distillation is the preferred method. Esters have been known to be important for cardamom aroma. Other important control factors for obtaining uniform and typical aroma quality of the oil are the rate and time of distillation. Use of top grades of cardamom for distillation of oil is not economical. Lower grades which are good from the point of view of flavour, but do not command high prices as dry capsules because of defects in appearance, are generally used. The less mature, pale brown seeds contain less oil and flavour quality is also different. The specifications of the Essential Oils Association (EOA), US, which are generally accepted by all countries are given in Table 9.2. Nambudiri et al. (1968) described a stainless steel still, consisting of a material holding cage, condenser and receiver for steam distillators and the conditions of distillation for obtaining acceptable quality oil. Selected material from the lower grades containing seeds of good maturity are first dehusked by shear in a disk mill with wide distances between disks and seeds separated by vibrating sieves. The seeds are again put through the same mill, but closing the distance between the disks to crush the seeds into a coarse powder. The essential oil glands are in a single layer below the epidermal layer and fine milling will result in loss of volatile oil. Freshly powdered coarse grains of cardamom are uniformly and loosely packed into the holding chamber with a perforated bottom. When the cover of the distillation vessel is fitted securely and connected to the tabular condenser, steam at low pressure is let in through a perforated manifold. For efficient distillation, the design of the retort and packing of the powdered cardamom should ensure that the steam passes through the bed uniformly without passing the cage or channelling. Other important controls are the rate and total time of distillation. It was recommended that the distillation be continued for two to three hours. The large volume of condensate was collected in a cylindrical oil trap which siphoned off the excess water continuously, which if allowed to accumulate, could result in loss of oil by saturation and also cause compositional variation due to differential dissolution of the components. It was found that it is better to keep the condensate warm to get a better separation of volatile oil. The oil floating at the top was collected by lapping through another conical vessel which functioned as a second separator of any residual moisture. Cardamom (small) Table 9.2 127 Specifications for cardamom volatile oil Definition Volatile oil distilled from the seeds E.cardamomum Maton Source Family Zingiberaceace Cardamom grown in South India, Ceylon, Guatemala, Indonesia, Thailand and South China. Physical and chemical constants Appearance: Colourless to very pale yellow liquid. Odour and taste: Aromatic, penetrating, somewhat camphoraceous odour of cardamom: persistently pungent, strongly aromatic taste. Specific gravity: Optical rotation: Refractive index: 0.917 to 0.947 at 25oC + 22o to + 44o 1.463 to 1.466 at 20oC Descriptive characteristics Solubility 70% alcohol: in five volumes: occasional opalescence Benzylalcohol: in all proportions Deithyl phthalate: in all proportions Fixed oil: in all proportions Glycerine: insoluble Mineral oil: soluble with opalescence Propylene glycol: insoluble Stability: unstable in presence of strong alkali and strong acids Containers and storage Glass, aluminium or suitably lined containers. Aluminium cans were fitted to the top with the oil to avoid head space, closed tightly and stored in cold chambers. 9.4 Chemical structure The early work of several authors, summarized by Guenther (1975), shows the presence of 1,8-cineole, d--terphenol, terpinyl acetate, limonene, sabinene and borneol. The first detailed analysis of the volatile oil of cardamom was reported by Nigam et al. (1965). They used gas chromatography under isothermal conditions and analyzed both the total oil and fractions obtained by fractional distillation and alumina column chromatography. They confirmed and quantified all the hydrocarbon and oxygenated compounds. 1,8cineole and -terpinyl acetate are the major components in the cardamom volatile oil. Besides the usual terpene hydrocarbon and alcohols as minor compounds and the dominance of 1,8-cineole and -terpinyl acetate, it is significant that methyl eugenol also has been identified (Lawrence 1979). The basic cardamom aroma produced by a combination of the major components, -terpinyl acetate and 1,8-cineole. The percentages of the main components given by Lawrence (1979) are as follows: pinene (1.5%), -pinene (0.2%), sabinene (2.8%), myrcene (1.6%), -phellandrene (0.2%), limonene (11.6%), 1,8-cineole (36.3%), -terpinene (0.7%), p-cymene (0.1%), terpinolene (0.5%), linalool (3.0%), linalyl acetate (2.5%), terpinen-4-01 (0.9%), - 128 Handbook of herbs and spices terpineol (2.6%), -terpinyl acetate (31.3%), citronellol (0.3%), nerd (0.5%), geraniol (0.5%), methyl eugenol (0.2%), trans-nerolidol (2.7%). When the spice is chewed, it does have a slight astringent and pungent taste. The astringent sensation could arise from intense release of many components of the volatile oil when seeds are chewed and or from phenolics that are usually present in seeds. Pungency stimuli have been identified in other spices belonging to the family Zingiberaceae to which cardamom belongs, e.g. gingerols and shogaols in ginger and also the saturated compound (6)-paradol from the seeds of the related spices, the Aframomum meleguta (Connell 1970). The most significant component of cardamom, as spice, is the volatile oil with its characteristic aroma, described generally as comphory, sweet, aromatic spicy. The cardamom oil has few mono- or sesquiterpenic hydrocarbons and is predominantly made up of oxygenated compounds, all of which are potential aroma compounds. While many of the identified compounds alcohols, esters and aldehydes are commonly found in many spice oils (or even volatiles of many different foods), the dominance of the ether, 1,8-cineole and the esters, -terpinyl and linalyl acetates in the composition, make the cardamom volatiles a unique combination. The aroma differences in different sources of cardamom are attributed to the proportion of the esters and 1,8-cineole (Lewis et al. 1966; Salzer 1975; Wijesekera and Jayawardena 1973; Korikanthimath et al. 1997). Volatile oil from cardamom (E.cardamomum Maton var. Minisula Barhill) contains few hydrocarbons and large amounts of 1,8-cineole and -cineole and -terpinyl acetate, while that from E. cardamomum Maton var, major Thewaites (the Ceylon wild cardamom) is high in monoterpenes and very poor in the above two oxygenated compounds. The oils from the Ammomum species are all much higher in 1,8-cineole, around 60 to 75%, and some have relatively large amounts of comphor and borneol. Thus, a complete dominance of 1,8-cineole, camphor, or borneol among the oxygenerated compounds could be identified with the comphory smell. The flavour characteristics of important volatile components in cardamom are listed in Table 9.3, and the structure of some of the important aroma compounds are shown in Fig. 9.1. 9.5 Quality standards and grade specifications Dried cardamom require cleaning to remove all stalks and dried remains of floral parts. This should be done by rubbing dried cardamom over a coarse surface of wire-mesh or bamboo trays. This is best carried out while the cardamom is still hot. Fig. 9.1 Structure of important aroma compounds. Cardamom (small) Table 9.3 129 Flavour characteristics of important volatile components in cardamom Components Flavour description Effect in flavour use Use level Range of concentration (%) in cardamom oil Mildly herbaceous, sweet spicy, variation in odour, warm, mild spicy taste. To stretch cardamom, herbal spice, imitation citrus and cherry, peach flavours Fresh, sweet modifier in perfume and berry flavours 115 ppm 34.652.5 215 ppm 0.76.3 Fresh, comphoraceous, cool odour and taste, very diffusive and poor tenacity. Refreshing effect and lift; extensively used in perfume and flavours 115 ppm 2351 Alcohol Linalool Floral, woody with citrus note; creamy floral taste at low levels. Light to heavy perfume; peculiar pleasant taste effect at low levels. 210 ppm 1.44.5 -terpineol Delicately floral, sweet, lilac-like Citrus and spice compositions 540 ppm 1.43.3 515 ppm 1.3 Esters -terpinyl acetate Linalyl acetate Ethers 1,8-cineole Sweet, floral, fruity odour and taste, poor tenacity, but stronger than terpinyl acetate. Others Methyl eugenol Musty tea-like, mildly spicy, warm, slightly earthy. Tenacious, dry, herbaceous spicy effect Descriptions based on Bernhard et al. (1971) and American Spice Trade Association. With regard to the quality of the dried product, larger, round and uniform pods having a good dark green colour always fetch the highest price. The small type of cardamom with creeping panicles produces round fruits of uniform size and shape, giving a very attractive product. The largest type of bulk gives different kinds of fruits varying in shape and size, from round to longish fruits of nearly an inch in length. This results in a product of mixed quality. The Government of India and the Indian Standards Institution (ISI) have prescribed fairly well-defined grades, popularly known as Agmark grades and Indian specifications or standards on the basis of important quality factors like colour, weight per unit volume, size and percentage of empties, malformed, shrivelled and immature capsules (Tables 9.4 and 9.5). 130 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 9.4 Agmark grade designations of true small cardamom Quality Grade Trade name Alleppey Green cardamom AGEB AGB AGS AGS 1 AGS 2 AGL Cardamom Extra Bold Cardamom Bold Cardamom superior Shipment Green 1 Shipment Green 2 Light Coorg Green Cardamom CGEB CGB CG 1 CG 2 CG 3 CG 4 Extra Bold Bold Superior Coorg Green Motta Green Shipment Light Bleached and/or half bleached cardamom BL 1 BL 2 BL 3 BW 1 BW 2 BW 3 BW 4 Mysore/Mangalore Bleachable Cardamom clipped Unclipped Bulk Bulk cardamom unclipped Mixed cardamom MEB MB MS MS 1 MS 2 ML Mixed Mixed Mixed Mixed Mixed Mixed Cardamom seeds CS 1 CS 2 CS 3 Prime Shipment Brokens Bleached white cardamom Table 9.5 Extra Bold Bold superior shipment 1 shipment 2 light Specifications for cardamom seeds, India (Indian Standards Institution, New Delhi) Grade Trade name Extraneous matter Light seeds Weight (G/l - min) General characteristics CS-1 Prime 0.5 3.0 675 CS-2 Shipment 1.0 5.0 660 CS-3 Brokens 2.0 Decorticated dry seeds of any variety of Elettaria cardamomum Cardamom (small) 131 National and international standards are becoming more and more similar because of close association between the producer and user countries. Specifications for cardamom include the following (Wellner 1972). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Cardamom in capsule form should be dried, nearly ripe fruits of E.cardamomum Maton. The capsule should be from light green to brown in colour; oblong, rounded or three-cornered in shape; and have a ribbed appearance. The aroma and taste of cardamom in capsules and seeds should be characteristic and fresh and free from foreign aroma and taste, including rancidity and mustiness. Cardamom capsules and seeds should be free from living insects and moulds. Marks on capsules due to thrips infestation should not be counted as insect infestation. Cardamom should be free from visible dirt or dust. Extraneous matter such as bits of calyx, stalks and others shall not be more than 5% by weight in cardamom in capsules and 0.5 to 2% by weight in seeds. The proportions of empty or malformed capsules, from opening and examining 100 capsules taken from the sample, should not be more than 1 to 7% by count. The proportions of immature and shrivelled capsules should not be more than 2 to 7% (m/m). Capsules having black colour and those which are split open at the corners for more than half the length should not be found in the bold grades and not be more than 10 and 15% by count in the shipment and light grades. The proportions of cardamom seeds which are light brown, broken or immature (shrivelled), should not be more than 3 to 5% (m/m). The importance attached to the different dimensions of quality varies with the primary raw material producer, the intermediary collector, the trader and exporter, the importer, the processor, the distributor and the final consumer. Product quality is generally related to safe moisture level and cleanliness. The content of substandard product and extraneous matter is important to the producer and trader appearance and colour also to the exporter and importer. The extraction, volatile oil, and specific ingredients are valued by the processor; the interest is sensory quality and cost to the distributor and consumer. 9.5.1 Adulteration Decorticated seeds can be adulterated with seeds from lower grades and also from large cardamom as they are of similar shape, size and colour. Pale brown coloured seeds would represent immature cardamom which are low in volatiles and poor in quality and intensity. The seeds from large cardamom have lower volatile oil content, entirely different composition and aroma. Gross adulteration with seeds from large cardamom will show higher 1,8-cineole and higher terpene hydrocarbons, which are determinable by gas or thin-layer chromotography. However, examination of the surface of the seeds with a hand lens showed distinct differences: while the seed coat surface of true cardamom has clear furrows and ridges, the large cardamom has an almost smooth surface. Adulteration of cardamom powder is possible with almost any material powdered to similar size. Cereal and pulse flours and extracted ginger have been reported as adulterants. These can be detected by microscopy by very different size and structure of the starch granules. Cardamom starch grains, unlike those of cereal and other starches, are very small (2 to 4 m). Whole cardamom powder can be distinguished from the cardamom seed powder by microscopy. The former can be recognized by the yellowish colour, abundance of pitted fibres, spiral cells of the vascular bundles, empty 132 Handbook of herbs and spices parenchymatous cells and scattered resin cells with brownish clumps (Melchior and Kastner 1974). 9.6 References C.C. Spice open new mill. Food Process. Ind., 44(529), 36, 1975. and CHICHESTER, C.O., Terpenoids of cardamom oil and their comparative distribution among varieties, Phytochemistry, 10, 177, 1971. CONNELL, D.W., Natural pungent compounds. III. The paradol and associated compounds, Aust. J. Chem., 23, 369, 1970. GERHARDT, U., Changes in spice constituents due to the influence of various factors. Fleischwirtschaft, 52(1), 77, 1972. GUENTHER, E., Cardamom. In The Essential Oils. Vol 5, Robert E. Krieger Publishing, New York 1975, 85. ITC, Markets for Selected Essential Oils and Oleoresins, UNCTAD/GATT, International Trade Centre, Geneva 1974. KASTURI, T.R. and IYER, B.H., Fixed oil from Elettaria cardamomum seeds, J. Indian Inst. Sci., 37A, 106, 1955. KOLLER, W.D., Die Temperature, ein wesentlichen Faktor bei der Lagerung von gemehlenen Naturgewurzen, Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. 160(2), 143, 1976. KORIKANTHIMATH, V.S. and NAIDU, R., Influence of harvest on the recovery percentage of cardamom. Cardamom J. 21(11), 58, 1986. KORIKANTHIMATH, V.S., Harvesting and on-farm processing of cardamom. Proceedings of National Seminar held at R.R.L., Trivandrum, 1314 May, 6268, 1993. KORIKANTHIMATH, V.S., Economics of sustained production of cardamom, Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops, 4(2), 11928, 1995. KORIKANTHIMATH, V.S., RAVINDRA MULGE and JOHN ZACHARIAH, T., Variation in yield and quality characters of cardamom clones. J. Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences, 19(4), 10247, 1997. KORIKANTHIMATH, V.S., RAVINDRA MULGE and JOHN ZACHARIAH, T., Variations in essential oil constituents in high yielding selections of cardamom. Journal of Plantation Crops, 27(3), 2302, 1999. KRISHNAMURTHY, M.N. PADMABAI, R. and NATARAJAN, C.P., Chemical composition of cardamom. J. Food Sci. Technol., 4, 170, 1967. KRISHNAMURTHY, N., Studies on Curing Aspects and Utilization of Cardamom, Assoc. Thesis, CFTRI, Mysore, India, 1964. LAWRENCE, B.M., Major tropical spices cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum). In Essential Oils. Allured Publ., Wheaton, III. 1979, 104. LEWIS, Y.S., NAMBUDIRI, E.S. and PHILIP, T., Composition of cardamom oils, Perfum. Essent. Oil Rec ., 57, 623, 1966. MELCHIOR, H. and KASTNER, H., Cardamomen in Gewurze Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin 1974, 133. NAMBUDIRI, E.S., LEWIS, Y.S., RAJAGOPALAN, P. and NATARAJAN, C.P., Production of cardamom oil by distillation, Res. Ind., 13(3), 140, 1968. NATARAJAN, C.P., KUPPUSWAMY, S. and KRISHNAMURTHY, M.N., A study on the maturity, regional variations and retention of green colour of cardamom, J. Food Sci. Technol., 5, 65, 1968. ANON., BERNHARD, R.A., WIJESEKERE, R.O.B. Cardamom (small) 133 and LEVI, L., Essential oils and their constituents, MXXVIII. Examination of oil of cardamom by gas chromatography, J. Pharm. Sci., 54 (5), 799, 1965. RAO, B.S., SUDBOROUGH, J.J. and WATSON, H.E., Notes on some Indian essential oils. J. Indian Inst. Sci., 8A, 143, 1925. ROSENGARTEN, F., JR., The Book of Spices, Livingston, Wynnewood, Pa. 1969. RUSSO, J.R., Cryogenic grinding carousel materials handling. Food Eng. Int., 1(8), 33, 1976. SALZER, U.J., Analytical evaluation of seasoning extracts (oleoresins) and essential oils from seasonings, I. International Flavours and Food Additives, 6(3), 151, 1975. WELLNER, G., Flavouring materials and their quality control. In S. M. Herschdoerfer (ed.) Quality Control in the Food Industry, Vol. 3. Academic Press, New York, 1972, 191. WIJESEKERA, R.O.B. and JAYAWARDENA, A.L., Recent developments in the production of spices and their essential oils in Ceylon, Proc. Conf. Spices, Tropical Products Institute, London 1973, 159. NIGAM, M.C., NIGAM, I.C., HANDA, K.L. 10 Cardamom (large) K. J. Madhusoodanan and Y. Saideswara Rao, Indian Cardamom Research Institute, Kerala 10.1 Introduction and description Cardamom are the dried seed capsules of a small group of species or plants belonging to the family Zingiberaceae which contain seeds possessing a pleasant characteristic aroma and flavour. These are broadly grouped into two categories: Small cardamom popularly known as Chhota Elaichi (Elettaria cardamomum) or the true cardamom. It is also known as Queen of Spices. Large cardamom Bada Elaichi (Aframomum and Amomum species) Amomum subulatum Roxb. is the greater Indian or Nepal cardamom which is also called large cardamom. It is a native of the eastern Himalayan region. The presence of several wild relatives viz., A. delbatum, A. aromaticum, A. kinger, A. lingriformi, and A. corynostachium and the tremendous variability within the cultivated species support the view of its origin in Sikkim (Subba 1984, Rao et al. 1993, Singh and Singh 1996). The order Zingiberales (formerly known as Scitamineae) to which the family Zingiberaceae belongs, appears to have originated as wild plants in the tropical evergreen forests. Zingiberaceae, the largest family of this order, is found throughout the tropics but is predominantly Asian. This family has provided important spices which are mostly aromatic, 40 genera and 900 species being recognized. The economically important species which have established themselves as aromatic spices are the genus Zingiber (ginger), Curcuma (turmeric), Alpinia (galanga), Kaempferia, all representing rhizomatous spices, and Elettaria (small cardamom), Amomum and Aframomum (large cardamoms) representing seed spices (Anon. 1977). There has been controversy over the grouping of cardamom. After detailed deliberations the ISO (International Standards Organization) has officially recognized nine species under three main groups (Pruthi 1977): Group I: Elettaria cardamomum Group II: 4 species of Aframomum (a) A. augustifolium (Sonn) K.Schum Madagascar cardamom (b) A. hanburyi K.Schum Cameroon cardamom Cardamom (large) 135 (c) A. korarima (pereira) Engler Korarima cardamom (d) A. melegueta (Roscol) K.Schum Grains of paradise or Guinea grains. Group III: 4 species of Amomum (a) A. aromaticum Roxburgh Bengal cardamom (b) A. kepulaga Spraque et Round cardamom Burkill, Syn. A. cardamom Roxburgh or Chester cardamom or Siam cardamom. (c) A. krervanh pierre et Gagnipain Cambodian cardamom (d) A. subulatum Roxburgh Greater Indian cardamom, Nepal cardamom or large cardamom The Amomum species are known in the North East Indian and South East Asian countries, while the Aframomum species are known in the African regions of Sierra Leone, Guinea Coast, Madagascar and Tanzania. The fruits of the Amomum and Aframomum are much larger in size in comparison with Elettaria cardamomum and it is easy to distinguish them, but the seed size and anatomy are similar in all the three genera. In this chapter, only Amomum subulatum Roxburgh is taken into consideration as large cardamom as it is being cultivated in a larger extent and also due to its position in the trade. From now on, whatever we describe here relates only to Amomum subulatum Roxb. (unless otherwise specified). This species is cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Nepal, Bengal, Sikkim and Assam (eastern Himalayas) and forms one of the cash crops of eastern India. The plants are usually grown along jhoras (small springs), in moist and shady sides of mountain streams and along the hilly slopes, usually at an elevation of 765 to 1675 metres above the mean sea level. The plant is a perennial herb having subterranean rhizomes which give rise to leafy shoots and spikes. The plant matures during the third year of its growth and its height ranges from 1.5 to 3.0 m. Leafy shoots are formed by long sheath-like stalks encircling one another. The leaves are green or dark green, glabrous on both surfaces with acuminate apex. Inflorescence is a dense spike on a short peduncle bearing 40 to 50 flower buds in an acropetal sequence. The fruit is a trilocular many-seeded capsule. The capsule wall is echinated and is reddish brown to dark pink (Rao et al. 1993a). Harvesting is usually carried out during August to October. Dried large cardamom capsules are on an average 25 mm long, oval to globose; greyish brown to dark red brown. The fruit contains 4050 seeds, held together by a viscous sugary pulp. Though the fruits are clearly identifiable by their larger size and differences in shapes compared with small cardamom, the seeds are of nearly the same size as those of true cardamom. Histological features, sizes and orientation of cells in different layers of husk and seed have been described by Berger (1964, 1965). There are three popular varieties (cultivars) of large cardamom in Sikkim, viz., Ramsey, Golsey and Sawney. The varietal differences were described by Gyatso et al. (1980), Subba (1984) and Rao et al. (1993) (see Table 10.1). In addition to these popular varieties, there are several other varieties such as Ramla, Chivey Ramsey, Garday Seto Ramsey, Ramnag, Madhusay, Seto Golsey, Slant Golsey, Red Sawney, Green Sawney and Mingney (Gupta and Borethakur 1986). Rao et al. (1993b) reported a promising variety Barlanga from higher altitudes with desirable high yielding characters like maximum ratio of mature tillers to productive spikes (1:3.6) and bold size capsules (with 50 to 80 seeds). Surveys carried out by Biswas et al. (1986) revealed that Ramsey and Ramla are well suited to higher altitudes, Golsey for lower altitudes and Sawney widely adaptable to different elevations. 136 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 10.1 Characteristics of different varieties of large cardamom Character/variety Ramsey Golsey Altitude High Extent of cultivation 60% Status Tall, vigorous wide clump growth Stem colour Flowers Capsules Essential oil Shade requirement Susceptibility to diseases Maroonish with dense foliage Yellowish and small, corolla tip with pink tinge at base Smaller (16 to 30 seeds) 1 to 1.8% Deep shade Susceptible to Chirkey and Foorkey at lower altitudes Sawney Low to middle 30% Less vigorous with erect leafy stem bearing stout upright leaves Clumps medium Greenish to maroonish Middle 7% Tall, vigorous bent, downwards Yellowish orange Bold to round (40 to 50 seeds) 2.3 to 5% Less shade Tolerant to Chirkey and Foorkey but susceptible to leaf spots Pinkish with dark green foliage Yellowish with pink tinge at base of corolla Medium bold (30 to 40 seeds) 1.8 to 2.5% Moderate to deep shade Susceptible to viral diseases Source: Rao et al. (1993a) 10.2 Chemical structure Large cardamom has the following chemical composition. The composition varies with variety, region and age of the product. The fruit on average comprises 70% seeds and 30% skin (Govindarajan 1982, Pruthi 1993). Moisture Protein Total ash Starch Crude fibre Non-volatile ether extract Volatile ether extract Alcohol extract Volatile extract Water soluble ash Alkalinity of water soluble ash Ash insoluble in acid Volatile oil 8.49% 6.0% 4.01% 43.21% 22.0% 2.31% 3.0% 7.02% 2.8% 2.15% 0.90% 0.42% 2.80% The volatile oil present in the seeds of large cardamom is one of the principal constituents responsible for providing the typical odour. The essential oil is obtained on steam distillation of crushed seeds and yields 2.5% dark brown coloured mobile liquid with Cardamom (large) 137 cineole-like aroma, having the following physical constants: specific gravity at 29C, 0.9142, refractive index at 29C, 1,460, optical rotation in chloroform 18C (Pruthi 1993). The highest volatile oil content was recorded as 3.32% in variety Golsey Dwarf, whereas the lowest was 1.95% in variety White Ramna (Gupta 1986). Quantitative chromatographic analysis of the composition of distilled essential oil was reported previously by Nigam and Purohit (1960) and by Lawrence (1970). The major constituent of large cardamom essential oil is 1,8-cineole (6580%) while the content of terpenyl acetate is low (traces to five per cent). The monoterpene hydrocarbon content is in the range of 517% of which lamonene, sabeinene, the terpinenes and the pinenes are significant components. The terpinols comprise approximately five to seven per cent of the oil. The high cineole and low terpenyl acetate probably account for the very harsh aroma of this spice in comparison with that of true cardamom (Pruthi 1993). 10.3 The trade in large cardamom The trade in Amomum species is largely confined within Asia, with only very small volumes entering the Middle East, European and North American markets. Mainland China has been and remains by far the principal importer. Large cardamom by smaller volumes have been regularly imported by a number of Arab countries as well as Pakistan, Vietnam, Korea and Japan. Until 1970, the major supplier was Thailand, while minor supplies emanated from Laos, Cambodia (Kampuchea), Nepal and India. Since 1970 Nepal has rapidly increased exports and now matches Thailand in importance. Figures on overall production of large cardamom are scarce. The global production of large cardamom during 198586 was estimated at 7850 tonnes (Anon. 1988). In 199798 the annual production of large cardamom in India was in the range of 5000 to 5400 tonnes. The bulk of this is consumed in the country and only one third, about 1700 tonnes, is exported outside India mainly to Pakistan, UAE and Afghanistan (Anon. 1998). 10.4 Cultivation The main conditions for growing large cardamom are: Temperature range (C): max. 1433; min. 422 Season: AprilSeptember Annual precipitation: 200250 cm (well distributed throughout the year) Altitude range: 7651675 m above MSL Morphology: 45 distinct types Average life of a plant: 20 years Bearing period: max. 610 years and steady yield throughout Flowering and fruiting: four months from April to July Harvesting: SeptemberJanuary; peak period late October to mid December. The flowering season starts in May and continues up to August. It takes about four months for the fruits to mature. Harvesting is done by collecting panicles containing ripe fruits with the help of a special chisel-shaped narrow knife, which is specially made for this purpose. Harvesting is done once a year, and because of this there will be some immature fruits in the harvested lot. After harvesting, the individual capsules are 138 Handbook of herbs and spices separated from spikes by hand. At the time of harvesting, old sterile dried shoots which do not bear fruits are also removed, by the same knife, locally known as Elaichi Chhuri. During the third year, when first flowering starts in new plantations, the yield of dry fruits is negligible (25 kg or so per hactare). In subsequent years, every year the yield increases until it reaches a maximum in the sixth and seventh year. Yield at this stage varies greatly from 0.3 to 1.0 tonnes of dry cardamom per hectare according to the management and growing conditions of plantations. For one or two years the maximum yield is maintained and then it starts declining to a considerably lower level by the twelfth year. The rate and extent of yield decline again is very much dependent on the management and growing conditions. Some well-managed plantations can yield profitably even up to 20 years (Pruthi 1993). The capsules are fleshy while harvesting with 72 to 85% of moisture content and the outer layer of the capsules also echinated that can be removed by rubbing after curing. The normal conversion ratio of green to dry capsules is 4:1 to 5:1 which varies according to size and method of curing (Roy 1988). Retention of maroon colour of the capsules is a positive index of quality (Karibasappa 1987, Rao et al. 1993a). 10.5 Post-harvest handling Fruits are separated out of the harvested panicles for drying and curing. Harvested capsules are dried on a mud-plastered threshing floor for seven to ten days, and sold in markets. This contains about 50% moisture and dried again by traders to avoid fungal contamination. Mainly three types of curing systems are available: Traditional `bhatti system. In this system, a load of about 200250 kg capsules are heaped per m2 in a 2570 cm thick bed, and heated directly over a fire by firewood. The bhatti temperature during drying is 100C and the drying operation stretches from two to three days. The capsules dried in this system are dark and have a smoky flavour because of direct exposure to heat and smoke. The volatile losses are as high as 35%. The original colour of the capsules is also lost and they cannot be stored for a long time (Roy 1988, Rao et al. 1993a). The Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI) has suggested a number of modifications to improve the colour of the bhatti-cured capsules (CFTRI 1994). Flue pipe curing houses. In this method flue pipes are laid inside a room (curing house) and connected to a furnace installed outside. Fresh cardamom is spread over wire meshes fixed above the flue pipes. This is an indirect system of drying and smoke does not come into contact with the produce at any stage. This type of drier resulted in early drying and gave better quality capsules, including a better colour (Annamalai et al. 1988, Karibasappa 1987, Rao et al. 1993a). CFTRI system. The Central Food Technological Research Institute, (CFTRI), Mysore, has designed and developed a low cost natural convection dryer. In this system the flue ducts are arranged in double-deck fashion and connected in series to the furnace. The convection current passes upward through the bed of capsules. Thermal efficiency is much better, the cost of drying cheaper, the quality of the product superior and the annual product output higher, than in the case of a curing house or any other existing system. The husk of fresh capsules was found to contain 0.49% to 1.16% of anthocyanins. The dried husk contained 0.05 to 0.39% anthocyanins indicating the loss of colour during Cardamom (large) 139 drying. Treatment with diluted HCl solution (0.025%) of the freshly harvested capsules, improved the colour after drying as revealed by better retention of the anthocyanin content of 461.43 mg/100 g as compared to freshly harvested ones that contain 1159 mg/ 100 g (CFTRI 1994). Large cardamom is usually stored in bulk on bamboo matting spread on the ground or packed immediately into gunny bags which may then be stored in plywood tea-chests. A key issue in storage is maintaining the right level of moisture. The moisture content of capsules has to be brought down to 1214% to achieve a longer shelf-life (CFTRI 1994). Fully dried cardamom tends to split and also loses its natural taste to some extent, whereas excessive moisture reduces its value. A report by CFTRI, Mysore (1994) states that large cardamom stored over a period of six months tend to lose 420% by weight. Insect infestation also reduced the volatile oil content from 2.99% to 1.00%, particularly as a moisture content of 1315% was found conducive for insect breeding. CFTRI has recommended the use of fumigants like methyl bromide (16 g/m3), phosphine (1.5 g/m3), ethyl formate (300 g/m3) to control all the stages of insect infestation without affecting the quality. CFTRI also recommends the usage of hessian cloth over wrapping of bags, in order to avoid the possibility of direct contamination of the products with the pesticides. Of several methods available for producing essential oil, steam distillation is ideal using powdered seeds for commercial level production. The essential oil obtained by steam distillation of dry cardamom seeds ranged from 1.5 to 2.5%. An average yield of oleoresin of 4% was obtained by blending essential oil and resin fractions in the ratio of 1:1. Chromatographic tests of the brown resinous residue obtained after steam distillation of large cardamom seeds indicate the presence of triglycerides and steroid compounds (CFTRI 1994). Hydrodistillation has proved to be unsuitable as it generates foam and leads to charring inside the distillation unit. To improve the flavour of the large cardamom oil, 1,8-cineole, which produces an undesirable odour, can be removed by fractionation, and the oil blended with -terpinyl acetate, linalyl acetate and genanyl acetate. As an alternative, the essential oil has been blended with small cardamom oil (10%) and -terpinyl acetate to obtain the pleasant smell of small cardamom. This method has the additional advantage of a threefold increase in the volume of final product (CFTRI 1994). 10.6 Main uses Due to its pleasant aromatic odour, large cardamom is used for flavouring various vegetables and meat preparation in Indian dishes. It is also used as a flavouring agent in confectionery, hot or sweet pickles and in beverages. Large cardamom seed and powder are used as essential ingredients in mixed preparation and spice masala mixtures. The ripened fruits are considered to be a delicacy and are eaten raw by inhabitants of Sikkim and Darjeeling during September and October months (Gyasto et al. 1980, Gupta et al. 1984). Large cardamom is also credited with curative properties in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine (Mukherjee 1972, Singh 1978, Anon. 1994) Essential oil, oleoresin, encapsulated flavour, cardamom cola, large cardamom flavoured biscuits and large cardamom flavoured liquors are some of the products developed for diversifying the uses of large cardamom (CFTRI 1994). Encapsulated flavour is prepared by spray drying a blended solution of large cardamom oil and gum acacia solution. Cardamom cola is prepared by blending caramel acid, large cardamom flavour and carbonating the mixture. Volatile oil of large cardamom, with a mixture of 140 Handbook of herbs and spices lemon, lime and ginger flavours, has been blended with distilled rectified spirit to create a liquor product which is compatible with other liquors. 10.7 Quality issues The quality of large cardamom depends mainly on: external appearance, which provides visual perception of quality as influenced by colour, uniformity of size, shape, consistency and texture flavour, which is influenced by composition of aromatic compounds. Cineole contributes to pungency while terpinyl acetate towards pleasant aroma (Karibasappa 1987). A draft International Standards Organisation (ISO) proposal on large cardamom was prepared by Spices Board, India in conjunction with CFTRI, Mysore and submitted to the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The draft proposal for BIS adoption reads as follows: Capsules 1 Extraneous matter 2 Insect damaged capsules 3 Moisture 4 Volatile oil (%) ml/100 g 5 Colour should be natural and Not more than 5% by weight Not more than 5% by weight Not more than 14% by weight Not less than 1.5% capsules free from added colours Seeds 1 Moisture Not more than 13% by weight 2 Volatile oil Not less than 2% by weight 3 Total ash Not more than 5% by weight 4 Acid insoluble ash Not more than 2% by weight 5 Extraneous matter Not more than 2% by weight 6 The seeds should be free from moulds and insects 7 Insect damaged seeds Not more than 2% by weight 8 Colour and flavour Should be natural and characteristic 10.8 References Readers interested in obtaining further background information on large cardamom are referred to the accounts by Parry (1918), Winton and Winton (1939), Viechoever and Sung (1937), Bouquet and Kerharo (1950), Ferrara (1957), Guenther (1952), Gildemeister and Hoffmann (1956), Berger (1964), Kulkarni and Pruthi (1967), Melchior and Kastner (1974), Singh et al. (1978), Govindarajan et al. (1982), Rao et al. (1993a) and Singh and Singh (1996). and JOHN T D (1988), Improved curing methods for large cardamom, Spice India, 4, 511. ANON. (1977), Zinziberaceae. In Encyclopaedia Britannica Macropaedia, 15th edn, 19, 1150. ANON. (1988), Status paper on Spices. Spices Board, Cochin, India, pp. 435. ANON. (1994), Indian Medicinal Plants a compendium of 500 species. Vol I. Orient ANNAMALAI, J K, PATIL, R J Cardamom (large) 141 Longman Publishers. (Eds Arya, Vaidyasala, Kottakkal), Coll No. AVS 2409, pp. 1289. ANON. (1998), Spices Statistics. Spices Board. Kochi, India, p. 204. BERGER F (1964, 1965) Neue Erkenninisse auf dem Gebiet der kardamonen forschung Tiel 15, Gardian 64: 8369, 8858 9224, 95661; 65: 247. BISWAS A K, GUPTA R K and BHUTIA D T (1986), Characteristics of different plant parts of large cardamom, Cardamom, 19(2), 711. BOUQUET A and KERHARO J (1950), Les vegtaux condiments de lAfrique du Nard dans laliminataon, la therapeutique et la magie, Acta Tropica, 7, 23774 CFTRI (1994), Studies on post harvest technology, product development and diversification of end uses of large cardamoms. Consolidated project report submitted by Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, p. 90. FERRARA A (1957), Technologia della spezie: cardamom, Riv. Agric.Sub-trop. e Trop., 51, 393400. GILDEMEISTER E and HOFFMANN FR (1956), Die Aetherisehen Oele. Vol IV. Berlin, Academic Verlag. GOVINDARAJAN V S, SANTHI NARASIMHAN, RAGHUVEER K G and LEWIS Y S (1982), Cardamom production, technology, chemistry, and quality. CRC Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, pp. 227326. GUENTHER E (1952), The Essential Oils, Vol. V. New York: D Van Nostrand Co. GUPTA P N (1986), Studies on capsule morphology of large cardamom cultivars (Amomum subulatum Roxb), J. Plantation Crops, 16, 3715. GUPTA P N, NAGNI A, MISRA L N and NIGAM M C (1984), Gas chromatographic evaluation of the essential oils of different strains of Amomum subulatum growing wild in Sikkim, Soundrdruck aus Perfumerie und Kosmetic, 65, 5289. GYATSO K, TSHERING P and BASNET B S (1980), Large cardamom of Sikkim. Department of Agriculture, Govt. of Sikkim, p. 8. KARIBASAPPA G S (1987), Post harvest studies in large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb), J. Plantation Crops, 15, 634. KULKARNI B M and PRUTHI J S (1967), A simple and rapid test for the detection of adulteration in cardamom seeds, Indian Fd. Packer, 24, 21. LAWRENCE B M (1970), Terpenes in two Amomum species, Phytochemistry, 9, 665. MELCHOIR H and KASTNER H (1974), Gewurze, Berlin: Paul Parey. MUKHERJEE D K (1972), Large cardamom, World Crops, 25(1), 313. NIGAM S S and PUROHIT R M (1960), Chemical examination of the essential oil derived from the seeds of Amomum subulatum Roxb, Perfumery and Essential Oil Record , 51(3), 1212. PARRY E G (1918), The Chemistry of the Essential Oils and Artificial Perfumes. Vol. 1 (3rd edn). London, Scott, Greenwood & Son. PRUTHI J S (1977), Cardamom, greater cardamom and lesser cardamom. Spices and condiments. National Book Trust of India, New Delhi, pp. 5363. PRUTHI J S (1993), Major Spices of India Crop Management and Post Harvest Technology. ICAR Publications, New Delhi, pp. 11479. RAO Y S, ANAND KUMAR, SUJATHA CHATTERJEE, NAIDU R and GEORGE C K (1993a), Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb) A review, J. of Spices and Aromatic Crops, 2(1&2), 115. RAO Y S, GUPTA U, ANAND KUMAR and NAIDU R (1993b), A note on large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb ) Germplasm collection, Jour. of Spices and Aromatic Crops, 2 (1&2), 7780. 142 Handbook of herbs and spices (1988) Amomum cardamom (large wild cardamom) the main cash crop of Sikkim and Himalayan region, Spices News Letter, 22(12), 329. SINGH D B (1978), Large cardamom, Cardamom, 10(5), 315. SINGH G B, PANT H G and GUPTA P N (1978), Large cardamom a foreign exchange earner from Sikkim, Indian Farming, 36:, 21. SINGH V B and SINGH K (1996), Large cardamom. Spices. Published by Indian Institute of Plantation Management, Bangalore and New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, pp 527. SUBBA J R (1984), Agriculture in the hills of Sikkim. Sikkim Science Society , Gangtok, p. 286. VIECHOEVER A and SUNG L K (1937), Common and oriental cardamoms, J. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 26, 7287. WINTON A L and WINTON K B (1939), The Structure and Composition of Foods. New York, John Wiley & Sons. ROY B J 11 Cinnamon J. Thomas and P. P. Duethi, Kerala Agricultural University 11.1 Introduction The name cinnamon refers to the tropical evergreen tree as well as the bark that is extracted from the plant. Cinnamon is known as cannelle in French; ceylonzeimt/kaneel in German; cannella in Italian; canela in Spanish, yook gway in Chinese, dal-chini in Hindi and kurunda in Sinhalese. Cinnamon spice is obtained by drying the central part of the bark and is marketed as quills or powder. The production of cinnamon is mostly limited to the wettest lowland areas of Southeast Asia. Cinnamon is cultivated up to an altitude of 500 metres above mean sea level where the mean temperature is 27C and annual rainfall is 20002400 mm. It prefers sandy soil enriched with organic matter. Cinnamon is classified in the botanical division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Magnoliales and family Lauraceae. The tree grows to a height of 7 to 10 m in its wild state and has deeply veined ovate leaves that are dark green on top and lighter green underneath. Both bark and leaves are aromatic. It has small yellowish-white flowers with a disagreeable odour and bears dark purple berries. The genus Cinnamomum has 250 species and many of them are aromatic and flavouring. In many instances, very little distinction is made between the bark of Cinnamomum verum (syn. C. zeylanicum, true cinnamon) and Cinnamomum cassia (Chinese cinnamon). C. verum provides cinnamon bark of the finest quality and oil of cinnamon whereas C. cassia provides cassia bark and oil of cassia (also known as oil of cinnamon). Cassia was used in China long before the introduction of true cinnamon but is now considered an inferior substitute. There are still other species of Cinnamomum which are often traded as cinnamon or cassia. Cinnamon as a spice dates back in Chinese writings to 4000 BC. The botanical name Cinnamomum is derived from the Hebraic and Arabic term amomon, meaning fragrant spice plant. Cinnamon is referred to in the Old Testament and in Sanskrit writings. In ancient Egypt, cinnamon was used medicinally, as a flavouring and in embalming. The spice was highly prized by the Greeks and Romans. It was one of the spices which sent Columbus west to discover the eastern Spice Islands. It was the same search for spices that led Vasco da Gama to round the Cape of Good Hope and reach the Malabar Coast of 144 Handbook of herbs and spices India in 1498. The Portuguese invaded Sri Lanka immediately after reaching India in 1536 mainly for cinnamon. Both Herodotus in the fifth century BC and Theophrastus in the fourth century BC believed that cinnamon and cassia came from the neighbourhood of Arabia. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, is reported to have originated in Sri Lanka and the Malabar coast of India.1 C. cassia is reported to have originated in South-East China. Other economic species of Cinnamon, which are commonly used as substitute for cinnamon/ cassia, are detailed in Table 11.1. A lot of confusion exists between cinnamon and cassia. While cinnamon and cassia are not precisely the same, they are closely related and the bark of the two is not all that different. It may be a surprise to many to know that what is sold in American stores as cinnamon is mostly cassia. Cassia is thick, hard and has a flavour that is extremely bitter and burning with somewhat of a bite in the after taste. Cassia has a double curl when it dries, meaning that this is a spiral of dried bark, a small bit of relatively straight bark, then the other long edge spiral in the opposite direction. Ground cassia has very reddish brown colour. True cinnamon has but a single spiral curl and is almost papery, brittle, easily crushed or powdered. Its flavour is more subdued, less bitter and has a decidedly sweet finish in the after taste. Its smell is sweet and aromatic. The bark of cinnamon is pale yellowish brown. 11.2 Chemical structure Cinnamon bark contains: moisture 9.9% protein 4.65% fat (ether extract) 2.2% fibre 20.3% carbohydrates 59.55% total ash 3.55% calcium 1.6% phosphorus 0.05% iron 0.004% sodium 0.01% potassium 0.4% vitamins (mg/100g) B1 0.14; B2 0.21; C 39.8; niacin 1.9; A 175 I.U. It has a caloric value (food energy) of 355/100 g.2 It also contains up to 4% volatile oil, tannins constituting of polymeric 5,7,3H ,4H -tetrahydroxy flavan-3,4diol units catechins and pre-anthocyanidins, resins, mucilage, gum, sugars, calcium oxalate, two insecticidal compounds (cinnezalin and cinnzelanol); coumarins and others.3 The sweet taste of cinnamon is due to the presence of cinnamaldehyde. It is reported that, when combined with sweet food, the sweet sensation of the food is enhanced because of the synergetic effect between the sweet taste of sugar and sweet aroma of cinnamon.4 Sweetish bark with pungent taste and low mucilage (about 3%) is preferred by the food industry. The deodouring/masking property of cinnamon bark is due to the presence of trimethyl amine. The bark oil consists of cinnamaldehyde (8090%), eugenol, eugenol acetate, cinnamyl acetate, cinnamyl alcohol, methyl eugenol, benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, benzyl benzoate, linalool, monoterpene, hydrocarbon, caryophyllene, safrole and others Table 11.1 Major economic species of Cinnamomum Botanical name Common name Origin/centre of production Part used Major use Cinnamomum verum Presl. Syn C. zeylanicum Blume C. cassia Presl. True cinnamon/Ceylon cinnamon Sri Lanka, Malabar Coast, Seychelles Southeast China bark, leaves C. camphora Camphor Wood/ leaves C. loureirii Nees C. burmanii Blume Saigon cinnamon, Vietnam cassia Cassia vera, Korinjii cassia Southern China/ Indonesia Vietnam Indonesia Flavouring, perfumery, medicinal Flavouring, medicinal, Chewing pan Medicinal/perfumery bark, bark oil bark (Massoi bark) C. tamala Indian cassia India bark, leaves C. ineris Wild cinnamon of Japan bark C. sintok C. obtusifolium Java cassia Japan, Southern India Java and Sumatra Northeast India, Myanmar Moluccas and Amboyana Australia Nepal Flavouring Spice and oleoresin in flavouring Medicinal, leaves as bay leaves for flavouring Mosquito repellent bark bark Flavouring Substitute for true cinnamon bark, bud Flavouring, substitute for clove bud Flavouring Perfumery Cassia, Chinese cinnamon C. culilawan and C. rubrum C. olivera C. glaucascens Australian cinnamon Sugandha kokila bark, leaves, buds bark bark/leaves 146 Handbook of herbs and spices such as pinene, phyllandrene, cymene and cineol.5 Bark oil is a pale yellow to dark yellow liquid with a strong, warm, sweet, spicy, tenacious odour and a sweet, pungent but not bitter taste. The root bark oil consists of camphor at 60%. It is colourless to pale yellowish brown, similar in odour to stem bark oil but weaker, lacking in fragrance and camphoraceous odour. The leaf oil is a yellow to brownish yellow, with a warm, spicy, somewhat harsh odour, lacking the richness of bark oil. Cinnamon leaf oil has eugenol (8088%), cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl acetate, pinene, linalool, eugenol acetate and some minor compounds. The iso-eugenol produced from eugenol fractionated from cinnamon leaf oil possesses more desirable aroma and flavour than that derived from clove leaf oil.6 Chip oil has a very good odour and flavour although contains 20% less cinnamaldehyde and twice the amount of eugenol. Seeds contain 33% fixed oil used for making candles. This oil is also called cinnamon suet. Oleoresin is a deep reddish or greenish brown, rather viscous liquid. Cassia bark yields from 12% volatile oil, resembling that of cinnamon. Its value depends on the percentage of cinnamaldehyde. The oil also contains cinnamyl acetate, cinnamic acid, phenyl propyl acetate, orthocumaric aldehyde, tannic acid and starch. 11.3 Production Sri Lanka followed by the Seychelles and Malagasy Republic are the major producers of true cinnamon bark with the best quality, while Indonesia, China and Vietnam contribute the major share of cassia. India, Malaysia, Indian Ocean Islands and West Union territories are occasional exporters but their impact on world trade is not so significant. The major use of cinnamon is in the form of ground cassia and it comes from Indonesia.7 The low grade cinnamon comprising feathering and chips is produced in limited quantities in Sri Lanka but constitutes a much larger share of total exports from Madagascar. The major importer of cinnamon is Mexico followed by West Germany, USA and Great Britain. Other importers are Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong and France.8 Spice is traded internationally in whole form and grinding is often carried out in the consuming centres. Bark oil is produced from the distillation of imported cinnamon/cassia in Western Europe and North America. The major cinnamon bark oil supplier is Sri Lanka, and France is the biggest importer followed by USA.9 Leaf oil is distilled in Sri Lanka and the Seychelles. USA and Western Europe are the largest markets for cinnamon leaf oil. The ready availability of eugenol ex clove leaf oil has led to some loss in market for cinnamon leaf oil. The major producer of cassia oil is China. USA and Japan are its major importers. Small quantities of cassia oil are produced in Indonesia, Vietnam, India and Nepal but these are obtained from species of cinnamon other than C. cassia and are much less widely traded than Chinese oil. Harvesting for bark is made after the second or third year of planting and the subsequent harvest is made between 12 and 18 months after the previous harvest. Quills of 60125 kg/ha are obtained from the first harvest. Plants with an age of 1012 years will give about 225300 kg quills per hectare. Cutting of the tree is normally done in the wet season from central portions of shoots. The finest quality of bark is obtained from shoots with uniform brown colour, thin bark 1.01.25 m length and 1.25 cm diameter. The ideal time for cutting the stem is when the red flush of the young leaves turn to green and this is the indication of the free flow of sap between the bark and the wood. Shoots Cinnamon 147 ready for peeling are removed from the stumps and the terminal ends of shoots are also removed. The harvesting season varies from May to November, although harvesting on a limited scale continues throughout the year. 11.3.1 Production of quills There are a number of stages in the production of quills2 Peeling: the rough outer bark is first scraped off with a special knife. Then the scraped portion is polished with a brass rod to facilitate easy peeling. A longitudinal slit is made from one end to other and the bark is peeled off. A shoot cut in the morning is peeled on the same day. Rolling : The barks are packed together and placed one above the other and pressed well. The bark slips are reduced to 20 cm length and are piled up in small enclosures made by sticks. Then they are covered with dry leaves or mat to preserve the moisture for the next days operation and also to enhance slight fermentation. The retention of moisture is important for the next operation: piping. Piping: Rolled slips are taken to the piping yard for piping operations. The outer skin is scraped off with a small curved knife. The scraped slips are sorted into different grades according to thickness. The graded slips are trimmed, ends are cut and pressed over pipes. Slips are rolled into pipes and soon after, they are allowed to dry. During drying, smaller quills are inserted into the bigger ones, forming smooth and pale brown compound quills, which are known as pipes. The quills are arranged in parallel lines in the shade for drying as direct exposure to the sun at this stage would result in warping. The dried quills, thus obtained, consist of a mixture of coarse and fine types and are yellowish brown in colour. The quills are bleached, if necessary, by sulphur treatment for about 8 hours. The process of producing quills has several by-products which are used in further processing: Quillings: These are broken pieces of quills used mainly for grinding but also for distillation of oil. The pieces vary considerably in size, being about 5 to 15 or 20 cm in length and about 10 to 25 mm in diameter. Featherings: These are short shavings and small pieces of left overs in the processing of the inner bark into quills. Collectively, featherings present a shade darker colour than the quills and a shade lighter than the chips. Chips: These are small pieces of bark, greyish brown on the outside and a lighter brown on the inside. They are deficient in both aroma and taste and are not to be compared to the quills for flavour. 11.3.2 Production of ground cinnamon The heat of grinding is very destructive to the volatile oil content of cinnamon. Cryogenic grinding, however, does retain more volatiles and it is very good in the case of cinnamon.10 11.3.3 Production of oils and oleoresins Distillation of chips and variable amounts of featherings and quillings through hydrodistillation or steam distillation produce cinnamon bark oil. Bark to be distilled 148 Handbook of herbs and spices for oil should not be left in wet bundles or become damp, as this encourages mould or fermentation which directly affects oil composition. Cinnamon bark produces two oils, viz. a superior type derived from the inner bark, and a lower quality from broken quills, chips and bark. The leaves left after trimming the cut stems as well as those obtained from pruning operations provide the raw material for production of cinnamon leaf oil. About one tonne of leaves are obtained from one hectare which on steam distillation yields 2.53 kg leaf oil rich in eugenol. Cinnamon and cassia oils are both normally rectified to provide oil with a more uniform composition. Rectification is also required to produce feedstock eugenol for subsequent derivative manufacture. Cinnamon oleoresin is also produced, to a lesser extent especially in North America, from cheaper Indonesian cassia for flavouring purposes. Oleoresin is prepared by extracting cinnamon bark with organic solvents, the yield using ethanol is 1012% and using benzene is 2.54.3%. Recently 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2trifluroethane has also been used. 11.3.4 Storage Cinnamon should be stored in a cool, dry place. Excessive heat will volatilise and dissipate its aromatic essential oils, and high humidity will tend to cake it. Date the containers when they arrive, so that older stock will be used first. Store them off the floor and away from outside walls to minimise the chance of dampness. Make it a hard and fast rule that all spice containers be tightly closed after each use, because prolonged exposure to the air will also cause some loss of flavour and aroma. Under good storage conditions, the qualities of aroma and flavour for which cinnamon is prized will be retained long enough to meet any normal requirements of commercial baking. Whole cinnamon does not lose its volatile oil as fast as that of the ground form. When ground cinnamon is stored in bulk in an ambient warehouse, a good rule of thumb is loss of 0.1% volatile oil per month. Whole quills will keep their flavour longer. Oleoresin flavour is stable at high temperature. On prolonged storage, owing to oxidation, it becomes contaminated with resin and cinnamic acid and changes to cherry red. 11.4 Main uses in the food industry A large proportion of the total usage of cinnamon is for culinary purposes. It can be bought as whole sticks, used to flavour rice and meat dishes, but recipes can also call for ground cinnamon. Cinnamon being more delicate is mostly used in dessert dishes. Hot apple cider just does not taste the same without a cinnamon stick. It is used to spice mulled wines, creams and syrups in Europe. In Mexico, the largest importer of Sri Lankan cinnamon, it is drunk with coffee and chocolate or brewed as a tea. Although in Western cuisine, it is mainly used in sweet dishes, its primary use is within savoury dishes in the East. In Indian cuisine, it is used in curries and pilaus and is an important ingredient in garam masala. Cinnamon sticks are used in beverages, boiled beef, pickles, chutneys and ketchup. It is common in many Middle Eastern, North African dishes in flavouring lamp tagines or stuffed aubergines. Cinnamon does more than add flavour to cakes, cookies, ice creams and other high fat desserts. In India, Southeast Asia, USA and in European countries, cinnamon is used for flavouring foods. It is commonly used for de-odouring/masking in the food industry in the USA. Bark oil is employed mainly in the flavouring industry where it is used in meat and fast food seasonings, sauces and pickles, baked goods, confectionery, cola-type Cinnamon 149 drinks, tobacco flavours and in dental and pharmaceutical preparations. The bark oil is anti-fungal and anti-bacterial, slowing meat spoilage, so its use as a spice for meat dishes in warmer climates is sensible. Cinnamon oleoresin is used in flavouring, cake and similar mixes, pickles, prepared meats, convenience foods and related products. Leaf oil is used as a flavouring agent for seasonings and savoury snacks to a small extent. The isoeugenol, derived from ex-eugenol cinnamon leaf oil, is another flavouring agent in confectionery and liqueurs. The stronger flavour of cassia is preferred in chocolate manufacture by Germans and Italians and is used less frequently in the kitchen. Cassia oil is used mainly for flavouring cola-type drinks, with smaller amounts used in bakery products, sauces, confectionery and liqueurs. Dried unripe fruit, or Chinese cassia buds, have the odour and taste of the bark, and are rather like small cloves in appearance. They are employed in confectionery and in making pot-pourri. Cinnamon buds are as good for flavouring and spicing as the bark itself.11 Cinnamon is used widely in baking both for colouring and flavouring. When purchasing cinnamon, however, the commercial baker must consider his specific needs. For certain purposes, it may be desirable to give a baked product high cinnamon colouring and yet only relatively mild cinnamon flavouring. In this case, the buyer would look for a red-coloured cinnamon (cassia) with a moderate oil content, or perhaps a cinnamon blend (in which two or more grades are mixed to give a desired performance). The blending of different cinnamon varieties or grades to create tailor-made cinnamon for various types of baked goods has become a standard practice. It is something which commercial bakers have requested and provided the blends are formulated properly, they have many advantages. 11.5 Functional properties and toxicity This herb has been used medicinally for thousands of years to fight toothache, clear up urinary tract infections and soothe stomach irritation. It has a broad range of historical uses in different cultures including the treatment of diarrhoea, arthritis and various menstrual disorders. The large number of medicinal applications for cinnamon indicates the widespread appreciation of folk herbalists for its healing properties. In the Indian System of Ayurvedic medicine, it is used against a wide spectrum of diseases like bronchitis, colds, congestion, diarrhoea, dysentry, oedema, flu, gas, metabolic and heart strengthening, hiccups, indigestion, liver problems, menorrhagia, melancholy, muscle tension, nausea and vomiting. It assists uterine contractions during labour and menstrual pain from low metabolic function. For external applications, it is used against headaches and pain.12 In Unani medicine, it is used as a cephalic tonic and cardiac stimulant and for the treatment of coughs. Flowers are used in the European tradition as a blood purifier. Cinnamon may find its way to a diabetics daily diet. It contains a chemical called methoxy hydroxy chalcone polymer, which can reduce the blood glucose level. Cinnamon is used for religious purposes also. Its believed, by some, that burning cinnamon incense will promote high spirituality and aid in healing. Some people believe that it can stimulate the passions of the male.13 It is now becoming more widely used as a herbal remedy in Europe and the United States. The generally recommended medicinal dosage for cinnamon powder is 0.51 g as tea, 0.51 ml as fluid extract in 1:1 in 70% alcohol and 0.050.2 ml bark oil.14 150 Handbook of herbs and spices Cinnamon is a good detoxifying herb and acts as a pain reliever. Various terpenoides found in essential oil are believed to account for cinnamons medicinal effects. Important among these compounds are eugenol and cinnamaldehyde. The essential oil also shows antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas, Aspergillus parasiticus, Staphylococcus aureus , Candida and Saccharomyces cerivisiae , Serratia and gram positive (Bronchothrix, Carnobacterium and Lactobacillus). The bark oil is anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Cinnamon oil has strong lipolytic properties in dissolving fat and thus aids digestion.15 Once consumed, cinnamon helps break down fats in the digestive system, possibly by boosting the activity of digestive enzymes. Cinnamon also has a potential role in the treatment of diabetes. Cinnamon contains a chemical called methoxy hydroxy chalcone polymer which can reduce the blood glucose level. Culinary cinnamon is on the Food and Drug Administrations list of herbs generally regarded as safe. The amounts of cinnamon normally used in food are non-toxic, although some people develop allergic reactions after eating this spice. Chronic use may cause inflammation in the mouth. Ingestion of cinnamon oil may cause nausea, vomiting and possible kidney damage. The oil may cause redness and burning of the skin. Do not use in case of fever and pregnancy. Cinnamon handlers have a high incidence of asthma, skin irritation, and hair loss. Toothpastes and ointments containing cinnamon may cause stomatitis and dermatitis in some cases. Only small amounts should be used initially in persons who have not previously had contact with cinnamon, and anyone with a known allergy should avoid it. The concentrated oil is more likely to cause problems. It has been reported from Sri Lanka that workers undertaking grading of cinnamon have suffered a number of ailments, mainly in the form of cough and asthma, smarting of the eye and irritation to the skin due to exposure to cinnamon dust. 11.6 Quality issues The quality of bark is greatly influenced by the soil and ecological factors. The bark obtained from the central branches is superior to that from the outer shoots and that from either the base or the top.16 The bark of thick branches is coarse and that of young shoots is thin and straw coloured with very little flavour.17 Plants grown under shade produce inferior quality quills. The quality of cinnamon is assessed primarily on the basis of its appearance and on the content and aroma/flavour characteristics of the volatile oil. Good quality cinnamon should not be thicker than a thick paper. It should be light brown with wavy lines and produce a sound of fracture when broken. When chewed it should become soft, melt in the mouth and sweeten the breath. Freshly ground cinnamon bark of good quality contains 0.9 to 2.3% essential oil depending on the variety. 11.6.1 Grading of quills This is essentially done on the basis of physical appearance and there is no close relation with the volatile oil content. Compound quills measuring 42 inches long (just over 1 m) are sorted into grades according to the thickness of the bark. Three main qualities are exported18 namely: Cinnamon 151 Fine/continental grades: Quills are fine and are designated by a series of zeroes C00000 being the thinnest and best, while C-0 is the thickest (range from 10 mm in diameter or less in C-00000 and 19 mm in C-0 grade) Hamburg grades: H1 to H3 wherein H-1 grade is thicker and darker than C-0 grade. H3 is very coarse, ranging from about 23 mm to 32 mm Mexican grades: M-00000 and M-0000 are intermediate in quality between fine and Hamburg grades. M-00000 is equivalent to C-000 in thickness and M-0000 is equivalent to C-0. For cassia quills, the grade designations are: Quality A: quills 1 m long taken from the main trunk Quality B: from side branches Quality C: broken pieces 11.6.2 Quality specifications Whole and ground cinnamon quality is defined in ISO 6539-1983 for its physical and chemical properties. According to this standard, Sri Lankan cinnamon should have: moisture (max) 12% total ash (max) 5% acid insoluble ash 1% volatile oils: whole 1% and ground 0.7% The American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) has suggested moisture levels to be at 14% for all Cinnamomum species. Most good quality cinnamon should have ash and acid insoluble ash levels less than 5% and 1% respectively. Insect fragment levels mandated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) must be less than 400 per 5 g in the ground spice and the minimum volatile oil content of the fortified ground cinnamon/cassia shall be 2.0 ml per 100 g. The FDA has set defect action levels of contaminants for cassia/ cinnamon as: an average of 5% mouldy pieces by weight an average of 5% insect infested pieces by weight an average of 1 mg of excreta per pound of cinnamon. British Pharmacopoeia, 1973, lays out the following specifications for bark of Ceylon cinnamon: acid insoluble ash should not be more than 2.0% foreign organic matter, not more than 2.0% volatile oil, not less than 1.0% v/w.19 There is no international standard for cinnamon bark oil although batches containing cinnamaldehye at the higher end of the range fetch higher prices. In USA the Essential Oil Association standard specifies an aldehyde content of 5578%. However, International (ISO) standards exist for cinnamon leaf20 and cassia oils.21 Sri Lanka now accounts for almost all of the leaf oils in the international market and specifies 75 85% eugenol content and the maximum of 5% cinnamaldehyde. In the United States an FMA monograph, which replaces the old EOA standards, specifies the eugenol content of leaf oil in terms of solubility in KOH (8088%). For cassia oil, cinnamaldehyde is the major constituent and a minimum content of 80% is specified in the ISO standard. 152 Handbook of herbs and spices 11.6.3 Adulteration Cinnamon is frequently adulterated with a rougher, thicker and less aromatic bark from cassia and C. tamala. Bark oil is usually adulterated with leaf oil. Artificial cinnamon was prepared by Schmal in 1940, mixing 3.4% of a mixture of 96% cinnamaldehyde and 4% eugenol with a carrier such as powdered hazelnut or almond shells and colouring the mixture with yellow brown dye.22 Bark oil is often distilled from a mixture of bark and leaves. Bark powder is adulterated with powdered beechnut husks, aromatised with cinnamaldehyde. It may often also be adulterated with sugar, ground walnut shells, galanga rhizome, etc. The addition of cassia oil to cinnamon bark oil represents another form of adulteration. The oil sometimes contains resin, petroleum or oil of cloves.23 True cinnamon can be detected by TLC by European/American distillery criteria, where limit of bark oil eugenol content should not exceed 14%. The cinnamaldehyde should fall between 6075%. Ceylon cinnamon, if tested with one or two drops of tincture of iodine to a fluid ounce of a decoction of the powder, is but little affected, while with cassia a deep blue black colour is produced. The cheaper kinds of cassia can be distinguished by the greater quantity of mucilage, which can be extracted by cold water. 11.7 References 1. RADHAKRISHNAN V V, MADHUSOODNAN K J and KURUVILLA K M, Cinnamon The spicy bark, Spice India, 1992 5(4) 1213. 2. PETER K V and KANDIANNAN K, Cinnamon, Tropical Horticulture Vol. 1, Bose T K, Mitra S K, Farooqi A A and Sadhu M K (eds.), Calcutta, Naya Prakash, 1999. 3. LEUNG A Y and FOSTER S, Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics, New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1996. 4. KUMAR N, ABDULKADER J B M, RANGASWAMI P and IRULAPPAN I, Introduction to Spices, Plantation Crops, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. New Delhi, Oxford and IBH Publishing, 1997. 5. HEALTH H B, Flavour Technology Profiles, Products, Applications, Connecticut, AVI Publishing Company, Inc., 1978. 6. COPPEN J J W, Flavours and Fragrances of Plant Origin, Rome, FAO, 1995. 7. ATAL C K and KAPUR B M (ed.) Cultivation and Utilisation of Aromatic Plants, Jammu, RRL, 1982. 8. FARREL K T, Spices, Condiments and Seasonings. Westport, The AVI Publishing Company, Inc., 1985. 9. HONE A and MILCHARD M, Ground and packaged spices: Options and difficulties in processing at origin, Marketing Series, NRI (Natual resource Institute), 1993 7, 57. 10. TAINTER D R and GRENIS A T, Spices and Seasonings A Food Technology Handbook, VCH Publishers, Inc., 1993. 11. PRUTHI J S, Spices and Condiments, India, National Book Trust, 1987. 12. Herb Information Cinnamon Available from http://www.Holistic-on (Accessed in October 2000) 13. SARAH PITMAN, Cinnamon: Its not just for making cinnamon rolls. Ethnobotanical leaflets. College of Science, SIUC http//www. (Accessed on Oct 2000) 14. BLUMENTHAL M, BUSSE W R and GOLDBERG A, (eds.) The Complete Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Boston MA: Integrative Medicine Communication, 1998, 11011. Cinnamon 153 15. HIRASA K and MASA M T, Spice Science and Technology, Tokyo, Marcel Dekker Inc., 1998. 16. BHATNAGAR S S, CHOPRA R N, PRASHAD B, GHOSH J C, SAHA M N, SRIRAM L, SANTAPAU H and SASTRI B N (eds.) Wealth of India, Vol. II, Delhi, CSIR, 1950. 17. RIDLEY H N, Spices, Dehradun, International Book Distributors, 1983. 18. PARRY J W, Spices, Vol. II, Morphology, Histology and Chemistry, New York, Chemical Publishing Company, Inc., 1969. 19. PURSEGLOVE J W, BROWN E G, GREEN C L and ROBBINS S R J, Spices Vol. 1. London, Longman, 1981. 20. ISO 1997, Oil of cinnamn leaf. International Standard, ISO 3524-1977 (E). 2pp. International Standards Organisation. 21. ISO 1974, Oil of cassia. International Standard, ISO 3524-1977 (E). 2pp. International Standards Organisation. 22. PRUTHI J S, Quality Assurance in Spices and Spices Products Modern Methods of Analysis, New Delhi, Allied Publishers, 1998. 23. LEYEL C F (ed.), A Modern Herbal, Norfolk, Lowe & Brydone Printer Ltd., 1979. 12 Clove N. Nurdjannah and N. Bermawie, RISMC, Indonesia 12.1 Introduction The clove, Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill et. Perry, belongs to the family Myrtaceae. The species is indigenous to certain volcanic islands of North Molucca, in the eastern part of Indonesia, where cultivated varieties and wild forms are found, that is Ternate, Tidore, Motir, Makian and Bacan, and the western part of Irian Jaya, where a considerable wild population occurs. The common synonyms are Caryophyllus aromatica L., Eugenia aromatica Kuntze, E. Caryophyllata Thunb. and E. Caryophyllus (Sprengel) Bullock & Harrison. The tree is of medium size, fine, evergreen, reaching up to 20 m in height and varies in its canopy shape from cylindrical to pyramidal, depending on the variety. The tree can live up to 100 years and there are individual records of trees over 350 years old in Ternate. The trunk diameter can reach 30 cm in mature plants. The leaves are opposite, oblong obovate in shape, bright pinks in newly-formed leaves which turn to dark green when mature. The inflorescent is a terminal, with flowers borne in clusters, varying in flower numbers from 15 to 50, depending on variety and cultural practices. The flower is a hermaphrodite with a fleshy hypanthium that is surmounted by the sepals. The colour of unopened buds at the young stage is usually green, turning to flushed pink when they reach their full size, at which time they are ready for harvest. At that stage the stamens are still inside and covered by the petals which form the head of the dried cloves. Early picking or overripe buds will produce lower quality clove bud (Table 12.1). The tree is grown primarily for the unopened flower buds which are dried to produce the familiar spice of commerce. The main products of clove are: whole or ground clove buds essential oils, produced from clove buds, stem and leaf clove oleoresins. Whole or ground clove contains 15 to 20% by weight of volatile oil. The major components of clove bud oil are eugenol 7095%, eugenol acetate up to 17% and 1215% - Clove Table 12.1 155 The characteristics of clove bud from Zanzibar type at several stages of maturity Bud maturity stage Characteristic Fallen flower Undeveloped bud Fully developed bud Overripe bud 12.3 13.9 4.7 11.8 0.15 5.0 14.9 3.8 10.8 0.11 12.8 16.4 4.7 8.5 0.11 6.5 16.1 6.11 13.3 0.10 Clove bud oil Total eugenol content %* 91.0 Eugenol content (%)** 54.2 Eugenol acetate content (%)** 34.4 90.0 55.6 36.5 94.0 68.5 22.0 93.0 72.2 9.4 Clove bud Water content (% v/b) Oil content (% v/b) Ask content (%) Fibre content (%) Si content (%) Notes: * Cassia method. ** By gas chromatography Source: Balittro (1986) in Nurdjannah et al. (1977). caryophyllene. For clove stem oil (the flower stem contains 57% oil by weight), the principal component is still eugenol 9095%, others being eugenol acetate and caryophyllene at lower amounts. Clove leaf oil (comprising up to 3% oil by weight) is a rather lower quality oil than the former and is less expensive, with the principal component being eugenol 8088%. The chemical structures of eugenol, eugenol acetate and -caryophyllene are illustrated in Fig. 12.1. 12.2 Production The world annual demand stays at 4 0005 000 t, with the USA consuming 1850 metric tonnes in 1990. Indonesia became the worlds largest producer of cloves in 1996 with total production 90 000 t, mostly consumed by the Indonesian kretek cigarette manufacturers, with exports of 9 000 t. Despite a rapid increase in Indonesian clove production, Zanzibar and Madagascar remain the main sources for international markets Fig. 12.1 Chemical structures of eugenol, eugenol acetate and -carophyllene (Guenther 1950). 156 Handbook of herbs and spices with 15 000 t in Madagascar and 6 000 t in Zanzibar (Verheij and Snijders 1999). Several thousand tonnes are produced by other Asian countries such as Sri Lanka, India and Malaysia, and smaller amounts by other African countries. 12.2.1 Dried clove bud Clove buds are harvested when they have reached their full size and the colour has turned reddish. After being harvested, the buds are separated from the stems, by hand or thresher machine. The thresher machine produced by the Research Institute for Spice and Medicinal Crops (RISMC), Indonesia, with 1 hp electric power could separate 76 kg fresh clove bud/hour. Immediately after separation, the buds are dried under the sun or using an artificial dryer. The colour and oil content of artificially dried cloves are not significantly different from sun dried (Hidayat and Nurdjannah 1992). 12.2.2 Storage Dried whole clove bud is usually packed in gunny bags and should be stored in a clean, dry room with good ventilation. This way of storing should not cause any significant changes except loss of sheen. Storage usually causes loss of oil by evaporation, the rate depending on the physical condition of the spice, mainly the moisture content of the products, temperature and relative humidity during storage (Purseglove et al. 1981). The essential oil and eugenol acetate content of whole clove decreased slightly after storing for six months, while eugenol content increased (Table 12.2). Loss of volatile oil during storage from whole clove is relatively slow compared to ground clove. Ground clove is more sensitive to high ambient temperature and moisture content which can change its stability and flavour value. Moisture content and temperature storage of ground clove should fall within 810%, and 1015%, respectively, with relative humidity 5565%. Poor storage conditions could cause more loss of volatile oil, mould growth and development of musty flavour and odour (Reineccius 1994). Storage can also change the composition of carbon dioxide extracted clove bud. Reduction in caryophyllene content is 11% at 01C, while at ambient temperature reduction of CO2 extracted oil is higher (up to 18%) compared to commercially distilled oil (only up to 13%) (Gopalakhrisnan 1994). Moreover eugenol content increased after storage, whereas eugenol acetate remained fairly constant (Table 12.3). Table 12.2 The changes of quality of dried clove bud during storage Clove oil * Place of origin Samalayu Cigombong Storage duration (months) Oil content of clove bud (%) 0 6 0 6 17.22 16.48 17.04 14.10 * Analysis using gas chromatography. Source: RISCM (1988). Eugenol content (%) Eugenol acetate content (%) 78.30 80.25 77.56 78.10 7.97 6.80 11.20 8.78 Clove Table 12.3 157 Changes in composition of CO2 extracted clove bud oil during storage Days of storage Component Carbon dioxide extracted oil (%) Commercial distilled oil (%) 0 -cububene -copaene caryophyllene eugenol isoeugenol nerolidol eugenol acetate farnesol MVMC LVMC 45 90 45 90 0 45 90 1.5 1.7 16.6 62.2 0.9 1.2 14.3 0.1 0.2 1.1 1.1 1.4 15.0 61.4 0.9 1.2 13.8 0.3 0.1 2.7 1.3 1.5 14.7 64.8 0.8 1.2 13.6 0.3 0.3 1.4 1.2 1.4 15.1 61.3 0.8 1.2 14.6 0.4 0.1 3.6 1.2 1.4 13.6 65.7 0.6 1.2 13.6 0.3 0.2 2.2 0.7 1.0 10.8 71.0 0.6 0.4 12.1 0.2 0.1 2.2 0.7 1.0 10.5 70.1 0.6 1.2 13.4 0.3 0.6 1.0 9.4 72.6 0.5 1.1 12.3 0.4 0.1 1.8 2.3 Source: Gopalakhrisnan (1994). 12.2.3 Ground clove Ground clove is produced by milling and/or grinding of the dried clove buds. The process is usually conducted at low temperature (2535C) to prevent the loss of valuable volatile constituents during processing. Various techniques such as pre-chilling, water cooling or refrigeration of the grinding chambers have been developed to minimize the heat formed during processing. The results are powder with several degrees of fineness, depending on the nature of the spice, the ultimate application and the country. For extraction and distillation, coarsely ground material are accepted, while for direct use in food seasonings, a finer product is required. To obtain a very fine clove powder a twostep procedure is usually conducted; the buds are firstly reduced to a very coarse powder by passage through a slow speed breaker or cutter mill, then they are ground to the desired fineness. The United States requires finer powder than the United Kingdom. 12.2.4 Clove oil Depending on the raw material, three kinds of oil are produced. The yield and quality of the oils are influenced by origin, variety, quality of raw materials, pre-treatment before distillation, distillation method, and post-distillation treatment. Clove buds and stem are comminuted before distillation to break the oil cell and widen the surface so that the oil can be released more easily from the cells. Clove leaf does not need pre-treatment as it is already in thin form. The materials are distilled using water and steam or steam distillation for between 8 and 24 hours. The highest yield derived from high quality clove bud (20% oil content) is 17%. In the United Kingdom, the finest oil is obtained by water distillation containing 8589% eugenol (Purseglove et al. 1981). According to Gildemeister and Hoffimer, cited by Guenther (1950), the distillation of whole clove bud produces clove oil with high eugenol content, and specific gravity above 1.06. Comminuted clove buds produce clove oil with a slight lower eugenol content, and specific gravity lower than 1.06, because evaporation of the oil occurred during comminution. To prevent evaporation, distillation of comminuted material should be done immediately. Belcher (1965) stated that the eugenol content of the oil is dependent 158 Handbook of herbs and spices on the time taken to distill the charge. Rapid distillation produces oil with eugenol content far higher than that normally found in commercial practice. Commercially CO2 can be used to extract clove bud oil at subcritical condition using extraction conditions of 5080 bar pressure and temperature 0 to 10C. This method is used as an alternative to steam distillation. The oil product has better characteristics, i.e. no solvent residue, no off notes, more top notes, more back notes, better solubility and concentration of aromatic components (Moyler 1977). Clove stem oil of Indonesian clove, using water and steam distillation, yield 56% with eugenol content 9098%, variation in yield and eugenol content dependent on distillation time (Nurdjannah et al. 1990). According to Purseglove et al. (1981), in Zanzibar, distillation using stainless steel steam stills, which hold 680 kg of steam for 16 hours yielded 57% of almost water white oil. The colour darkens to yellow, sometimes violet-tinted, as the oil ages. Clove leaf oil is usually produced from dried fallen leaf (in Indonesia) or fresh leaf after trimming the upper part of the clove tree (in Zanzibar). The oil may vary considerably in composition but eugenol content is usually 8088%, with low eugenyl acetate and high content of caryophyllene. Distillation of leaf in a 100 l still capacity for eight hours yielded 3.5% oil with total eugenol content 76.8% (water content 712%) (Nurdjannah 1993). 12.2.5 Oleoresin Clove oleoresin prepared by solvent extraction of clove bud, yielded about 1822% oleoresin (9092% volatile components) using benzene and 2231% using alcohol (Weiss 1997). Ground clove is extracted by suitable solvent(s) then evaporated or distilled to obtain oleoresin. According to Somaatmadja (1981) ethanol is a very safe solvent because it is not toxic. Oleoresin is an extremely concentrated product, containing all the flavouring ingredients soluble in the particular solvent used, so that much closer to the original clove odour and flavour (Heat 1973). Oleoresin can also be produced by supercritical CO2 extraction, which is conducted at 200300 bar pressure at 5080C. In situ fractionation is possible at 80100 bar and temperature 050C. This could extract all the soluble components of oleoresin in a similar way to organic solvent extraction. The product is free of solvent residue(s), and can be further fractionated to produce oil. Solvent(s) extraction is, however, more cost effective than supercritical extraction (Moyler 1977). 12.3 Main uses in food processing The use of clove in whole or ground form is mainly for domestic culinary and purposes as a flavouring agent in the food industry. Clove can also be used as food. Whole cloves are seldom used in food processing as they are not a ready source of flavour. In some cases, whole clove is inserted into ham and baked apples, and for pickles. Usually only small amounts, perhaps as many as five whole cloves are used for pickling sauce blend, for meat such as corned beef and stews. In the food industry, cloves are often used in the form of ground, extracted essential oils or oleoresin in a small amount because of their intense flavour. The advantages of using ground cloves is that they retain a considerable degree of their original stability during storage and are better able to withstand high-temperature processing (e.g. baking) Clove 159 than many of the extracted processed products. Oleoresin is preferred over other clove products, because it contains both volatile essential oil as well as non-volatile resinous material, which accounts for the flavour mimicking the original ground spice. Oleoresin also has low risk of bacterial contamination. Food products which use clove are mainly curry powder, sauces and baked foods. According to Farrell (1990) curry powder uses 2% (mild) to 3% (sweet) by weight of ground clove buds, meat sauces 0.37% clove ground or 0.111% clove oil, food seasonings such as Bologna seasoning A, B and C use 0.39% ground clove, 0.07% clove oil, and 0.45% clove oil, respectively. Chili sauce uses 0.025% oil, mustard 0.111% and 0.222% ground clove in Dijon and Dusseldorf, respectively, tomato ketchup uses 0.139% clove oil, whereas sausages (Sweet Italian) use 0.111% ground clove (Farrell 1990). The highest average maximum use level reported for cloves is 0.236% in condiments and relishes, and 0.06% clove stem oil and 0.078% clove bud oleoresin in alcoholic beverages (Leung 1980). Clove leaf oil is not suitable for food flavouring because of its harsher note, and does not reproduce the genuine clove flavour. It is mainly produced for production of eugenol and caryophyllene (Weiss 1997). Eugenols have flavour and antiseptic properties, therefore they have been used in soaps, detergents, toothpaste, perfumery and pharmaceutical products. Maximum use levels of bud and stem oils are 0.15% and 0.25% in soaps, 0.7% and 1.0% in perfumery. The major use of clove is, however, in the manufacture of kretek cigarettes in Indonesia which accounts for more than 90% of Indonesian clove production. 12.4 Functional properties Besides being a source of natural flavour, cloves also contain nutrients, such as proteins, vitamins, minerals, etc. The composition of nutrients in 100 g is illustrated in Table 12.4. Table 12.4 Nutritional composition of clove, per 100 g Composition USDA (ground) ASTA Water Food energy (kcal) Protein (g) Fat (g) Carbohydrate (g) Ash (g) Ca (g) P (mg) Na (mg) K (mg) Fe (mg) Thiamin (mg) Riboflavin (mg) Niacin (mg) Ascorbic acid (mg) Vitamin A activities (RE) 6.86 323 5.98 20.06 61.22 5.88 0.646 105 243 1102 8.68 0.115 0.267 1.458 80.81 53 5 430 6.0 14.5 68.8 5.0 0.7 110 250 1200 9.5 0.11 ND 1.5 81 53 Source: Tainter and Grenis (1993). 160 Handbook of herbs and spices It appears that clove contains fat and carbohydrate in high concentration and has relatively high food energy. Clove has long been used in traditional medicine, particularly to aid digestion, cure stomach disorders and in pain relief (Rosengarten 1969; Rumphuis 1741). Some of these therapeutic properties have been investigated, particularly the role of eugenol as an antiseptic. Clove oil has been used successfully for inflamed oral and pharyngeal mucous and for topical anesthesia in dentistry. RISMC has also successfully made balm with clove oil as the active ingredient which is used for soothing pain caused by rheumatism (Nurdjannah et al. 1997). The oil is also a potent bactericide, nematicide and fungicide. It is believed that clove has antioxidant properties, which can neutralize free radicals associated with cancer. Antioxidant content varies depending on the type of clove product. Ground clove contains 1.8%, while in soluble fraction 1.4% (petroleum ether soluble fraction) and 1.7% (alcohol soluble fraction). Shahidi et al. (1995) reported that the antioxidant activity of ground clove, ginger, oregano, sage and thyme in meat lipids was concentration dependent, but clove was most effective, followed by sage and then rosemary. Ginger and thyme exerted the weakest effect. Gallic acid and eugenol 110 have been identified as the major components in clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) (Kramer 1985). It has been established that iso-eugenol 111, more rarely found in nature, exhibited higher antioxidative efficiency than eugenol during methyl oleate (Davcheva et al. 1992) and sunflower oil oxidation (Ivanov and Davchera 1992). Eugenol and iso-eugenol also have an inhibiting effect on the peroxidation of lecithin induced by the Fe2+-H2O2 system (Toda et al. 1994). Table 12.5 Whole clove chemical and physical specification Organization Suggested limit Whole clove ASTA cleanliness specification: Whole dead insect by count Mammalian excreta, by mg/lb Other excreta, by mg/lb Mould, % by weight Insect defiled/infested, % by weight Extraneous, % by weight Ground clove 4 5 8.0 1.00 1.00 1.00 A 5% allowance for unattached clove stems over and above the tolerance for other extraneous matters is permitted FDA DALs: Adulteration with stem by weight Volatile oil Moisture Ash Acid insoluble ash Military specification (EE-S-635J) Average bulk index (mg/100 g) Source: Tainter and Grenis (1993). Ave. of 5% 16. 0% min. 14.0% min. 8.0% max. 8.0% 5.0% max. 5.0% 0.5% max. 0.5% 5% or more by weight of stem 240 Clove Table 12.6 161 Specifications of oil of cloves Sources of oil Characteristics Flower bud Flower stem Leaf Colour colourless to pale yellow yellow to dark brown straw coloured or very pale Specific gravity (25/25C) Optical rotation (20C) Refractive index (20C) Solubility (70% ethanol) Total phenols (min. by volume) 1.038 1.060 1 30H to 0 1.527 1.535 2 vol 85% 1.048 1.056 1.5 to 0 1.534 1.538 2 vol 89 95 1.036 1.046 0 to 2 1.531 1.535 2 vol 84 88 Source: Reineccius (1994). 12.5 Quality and regulatory issues The quality required for clove products depends on each country, for use in domestic or export and nature of the product. The ASTA (American Spice Trade Association) and FDA (Food and Drug Administration) recommendations for whole spice are described in Table 12.5. The specific requirement for clove ground is 12% for minimum quercitannic content, clove stem content maximum 5%, and volatile ether extract minimum 15% (Reineccius 1994). For clove oil, specifications are illustrated in Table 12.6. For oleoresin, Salzer (1975) recommended determination of volatile oil content and subsequent assay of eugenol content as the measure of quality. There are specifications on the maximum residues limit in the foodstuff as a result of the use extraction solvents on the preparation of food flavourings from natural flavouring materials which should be applied to solvent extracted clove oleoresin (Table 12.7). 12.6 References (1965) The Distillation of Clove Oils. In Christian, Karl (ed.), Perfume and Essential Oil Review . pp 14851. CROFTON, R.H. (1936) A Pageant of the Spice Islands. John Bale, Sans and Danielson Ltd., London. BELCHER E.F.M. Table 12.7 The maximum solvent residues limit in foodstuff Solvent name Max. residue limits (mg/kg) Solvent name Max. residue limits (mg/kg) Diethyl ether Hexane* Methyl acetate Butan-1-ol Butan-2-ol 2 1 1 1 1 Ethyl methyl keton* Dichloromethane Methyl-propan-1-ol Propan-1-ol Cyclohexane 1 0.02 1 1 1 * Combined used is forbidden. Source: Ziegler and Ziegler (1998). 162 Handbook of herbs and spices and IVANOV S.A. (1992) Oxidation of methyl oleate in the presence of eugenol and isoeugenol, Oxidation Communications, 15 725. FARREL, K.T. (1990) Spices, Condiments and Seasoning. 2nd edn. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. GOPALAKRISHNAN, N. (1994) Studies on the storage quality of Co2-extracted cardamom and clove bud oils. J. Agric. Food. Chem, 42 7968. GUENTHER E. (1950) The Essential Oils. Vol. 4. Van Nostrand Company Inc., New York, pp. 396437. HARDMAN R. (1973) Spices and Herbs: their families, secretary tissues and pharmaceutical aspects. Tropical Product Institute. Conference Proceedings. TPI, London, pp. 2333. HEAT N.B. (1973) Herbs and Spices for Food Manufacture. Tropical Product Institute Conference Proceedings. TPI., London, pp. 3948. HEYNE, K. Tumbuhan Berguna Indonesia. Vol. III. Yayasan Sarana Wana Jaya, Jakarta, pp. 151014. HIDAYAT T. and NURJANNAH, N. (1992) Rancangan dan Pengujian Prototipe Alat Perontok Bunga Cengkeh Tipe Axial. Buletin Litro, VII (1) 2733. IVANOV S.A. and DAVCHEVA Y.G. (1992) Antioxidative effects of eugenol and isoeugenol in natural lipids. Oxidation Communications, 15 2003. KRAMER R.E. (1985) Antioxidants in clove. J. Amer Oil Chem Soc, 62 11113. LEUNG A.Y. (1980) Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 1312. MOYLER, D.A. (1977) Oleoresin, Tinctures and Extracts. In Ashurst P.R. Food Flavorings, 2nd edn. Blackie Academic & Professional, London, pp. 5884. NURJANNAH N., RUSLI S. and VIANNA A. (1990) Pengaruh Bobot dan Waktu Penyulingan Tangkai Cengkeh Terhadap Mutu dan Rendemen Minyak yang dihasilkan. Pembr. Litri, XV (4) 1537. NURDJANNAH N., SOEHADI and MIRNA (1993) Distilation Methode Influences the Yield and Quality of Clove Leaf Oil. Industrial Crops Research Journal. Research and Development Centre for Industrial Crops., 3 (2) 1826. NURDJANNAH N., YULIANI S. and YANTI L. (1997) Pengolahan dan Diversifikasi Hasil Cengkeh. Monograf Tanaman Cengkeh. Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, pp. 11830. PARRY J.W. (1969) Spice Vol. II. Morphology-Histology Chemistry. Chemical Publishing Company, Inc. New York, pp. 4044, 1912. PRUTHI J.S. (1980) Spices and Condiments: Chemistry, Microbiology, Technology. Academic Press. PURSEGLOVE J.W., BROWN E.G., GREEN C.L. and ROBBINS S.R.J. (1991) Spices. Vol. I. Longman, London and New York, pp. 22985. RISCM (1988) The Analysis Result at Post Harvest Laboratory RISCM. Unpublished materials. REINECCIUS G. (1994) Natural Flavouring Materials. Sourcebook of Flavours, 2nd. edn. Chapman & Hall, New York, p. 286. ROSENGARTEN F. (1969) The Book of Spices. Livingstone Publishing Company, Wynnewood, Pennsylvania. RUMPHUIS, G.R. (1741) Herbarium Amboinense. Vol. II, Joannes Burmannus (ed.), Amsterdam, pp. 113. SALZER, U-J. (1975) Analytical evaluation of seasoning extracts (oleoresin) and essential oils from seasonings. I. Int. Flavour Food Additivies, 6 1517, 20610, 2538. DAVCHEVA Y.G., IVANOV S.K. Clove 163 and SALEEMI Z.O. (1995) Stabilization of meat lipids with ground spices. J. Food Lipids, 2 14553. SOMAATMADJA D. (1981) Prospek Pengembangan Industri Oleoresin di Indonesia. BBIHP. TAINTER, D.R. and GRENIS A.T. (1993) Spices and Seasonings: Cloves, pp. 647. TODA S., OHNISHI M., KIMURA M. and TODA T. (1994) Inhibitory effects of eugenol and related compounds on lipid peroxidation induced by reactive oxygen. Planta Medica, 60 282 VERHEIJ E.W.M. and SNIJDERS C.H.A. Syzygium aromaticum (L) Merrill & Perry Plant Research of South-East Asia 13. In Spices (Eds: C.C. de Guzman and J.S. Siemonsma). Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp. 21118. WEISS, E.A. (1997) Essential Oil Crops. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, pp. 235 59. ZIEGLER, E. and ZIEGLER H. (1998) Flavourings, Production, Composition, Application and Regulation. In: Christian, Karl (Ed.) Flavouring: Herbs, Spices and Essential Oils. Veley-VCH, New York, p. 193. SHAHIDI F. PEGG R.B. 13 Cumin Gh. Amin, Tehran University of Medical Sciences 13.1 Introduction Cumin is a strong aromatic of dried ripe fruit (seed) of Cuminum cyminum L. (Apiaceae). It is variously known as: cumin, kummel, comino, zireh-e sabz, cumino, kemon, zira, kamun. Cumin is mentioned in Isaiah xxvi. 25 and 27, and Matthew xxii 23, and in the work of Hippocrates and Dioscorides. From Pliny we learn that the Romans took ground seed medicinally with bread, water or wine. In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, it was much in use as a culinary spice. Cumin is indigenous to northern Egypt, the Mediterranean region, Iran and India. Today it is cultivated in Mediterranean countries, Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, Mexico and China. Nowadays most cumin is grown in Iran, Sicily, India and Malta. Cumin is a mixture of united and separated mericarps; yellowish green or yellowish brown, elongated ovoid; 36 mm in length. The surface has five primary ridges alternating with four less distinct secondary ridges bearing numerous short hairs. Some fruits have a short attached stalk. These fruits (seeds) belong to a small annual herb 15 to 50 cm in height, with long slender and white roots, bidivaricated branching stem, long, narrow deep green slender leaves and small umbels of white or rose-coloured flower, covered with tiny hairs. 13.2 Chemical structure Cumin has about 24.5% of volatile oil and about 10% fixed oil, together with tannins, oleoresin, mucilage, gum, protein compounds and malates. The characteristic cumin odour is due to the presence of its essential oil. This odour and flavour is due principally to the aldehydes present (i.e, cuminic aldehyde) or cuminol, p-menth-3-en-7-ol and pmentha 1,3-dien-7-ol). Studies of the chemical composition of cumin oil showed the presence of the following components: -pinene (0.5%), Myrcene (0.3%), limonene (0.5%), 1-8-cineole (0.2%), p-menth-3-en-7-ol (0.7%), p-mentha-1, 3-dien-7-ol (5.6%), caryophyllene (0.8%), -bisabolene (0.9%), -pinene (13.0), P-cymene (8.5%), phellandrene (0.3%), D-terpinene (29.5%), cuminic aldehyde (32.4%), cuminyl alcohol Cumin 165 (2.8%), -farnesene (1.1%) together with much smaller quantities of -phellandrene, terpinene, cis and trans sabinene, Myrtenol, -terpineol and phellandral. 13.3 Production 13.3.1 Cumin seed production Cumin is cultivated extensively as a cold-season crop on the plains and as a summer crop in the hills. In the south part of the Mashad province of Iran it is the main crop with an average production of about 12 000 tons per year. It is cultivated in northern India (the Himalayas, Punjab, Baluchistan, Kashmir) and also in eastern Europe. For the summer crop the seeds are planted in early April. They should be sown in small pots, filled with light soil, and placed initially in a moderately warm bed to bring the plants on. They can then be hardened gradually in an open frame and transplanted into a warm border of good soil. The plants bloom in June and July, and are harvested when 85% of fruits are ripe. The fresh seeds are spread out on cloth to dry and, after drying, stored in cotton bags. 13.3.2 Cumin oil production The ripe seeds are used for oil production, both as whole seeds or coarsely ground seeds. If a freely alcohol-soluble oil is required, the whole seed must be used. Hydrodistillation is used for essential oil extraction, producing a colourless or pale-yellow oily liquid with a strong odour. The yield for oil production varies from 2.5 to 4.5%, depending on whether the entire seed or the coarsely ground seed is distilled. Cumin oil can be readily converted artificially into thymol. The volatile oil should be kept in well-sealed bottles or aluminium containers. 13.4 Main uses in food processing Cumin seed is an ancient spice with a strong aromatic smell and warm, bitterish taste. It is widely used in Iran and India both as a condiment and flavouring in many eastern dishes. In Biblical times cumin seeds were valued for their digestive properties and were used for flavouring bread and other dishes during the periods of ceremonial fasting, to make up for the lack of meat. Ground cumin can be added, for example, to lime or lemon-based marinades for chicken, turkey, lamb, and pork, or added to chilli, curries or spicy meat stews. It can be added to olive oil when stir-frying vegetables. Whole cumin is used to make various pickles in Iran, Pakistan and India. Cumin is a common flavour in confectionery, meat, sausage and bread manufacturing and as a preservative in food processing. 13.5 Functional properties Cumin seed and distilled cumin are used as a stimulant, antispasmodic, carminative and antimicrobial agent. They are used as a carminative particularly in veterinary practice. Cumin is used widely in traditional medicine to treat flatulence, digestive disorders, diarrhoea and in the treatment of wounds. 166 Handbook of herbs and spices 13.6 Quality specifications 13.6.1 Specification for whole seeds Seeds are oblong in shape, thicker in the middle, compressed laterally, about 36 mm long, resembling caraway seeds, but lighter in colour and bristly instead of smooth, almost straight, instead of being curved. They have nine fine ridges, overlapping as many oil channels, or vittae. The odour and taste are somewhat like caraway, but less agreeable. Specific quality indices are: seed moisture: less than 6% total ash: 7% acid insoluble ash: 1.5% volatile oil: minimum 2% foreign organic matter: 2% (US maximum for harmless foreign matter: 5%) 13.6.2 Powdered seeds specification The powdered seeds are yellowish-brown with an aromatic, slightly camphoraceous odour and taste. Distinctive characteristics are: The epicarp, composed of a layer of colourless cells, polygonal in surface view with thin sinuous walls and a faintly and irregularly striated cuticule; stomata are fairly frequent and, very occasionally, cicatrices may be present. Underlying the epicarps the thin-walled cells of the palisade are sometimes visible. The covering trichomes, which are usually found attached to small fragments of the epicarp; they are pluricellular, multiseriate and rounded at the apex, vary in length and are composed of fairly thick-walled cells. The sclereids from the mesocarp, of two main types: single layer and elongated cells. They are found frequently associated with the vasculare tissue. The fairly numerous pale yellowish-brown fragments of the vittae composed of fairly large, thin-walled cells, polygonal in surface view. 13.6.3 Volatile oil specification The specific characteristics of cumin oil are: colourless or pale yellow specific gravity (25/25C), 0.905 to 0.925 optical rotation (20C), + 3 to + 8 refractive index, 1.501 to 1.506 solubility (80% ethanol), 8 vol aldehydes (as cuminic aldehyde) 40 to 52%. The physiochemical properties of volatile oils of cumin from various parts of the world are shown in Table 13.1. Cumin essential oil can be adulterated in several ways. One of the most difficult to detect is synthetic cuminaldehyde which cannot be detected easily, though it can affect the optical rotation of the oil. Modern analytical techniques such as stable isotope ratio analysis (SIRA) and selective ion monitoring (SIM) are helpful in detecting adulteration of this kind. Cumin Table 13.1 167 Physicochemical properties of volatile oils of cumin from different origins Property Mediterranean Mexico Iran India Pakistan Specific gravity at 15C Optical rotation at 15C Refractive index at 20 Aldehyde as cuminaldehyde (%) Solubility in 80% alcohol (vols required) 0.9170.924 +422H to +56H 1.5011.504 47.451.50 5 vols 0.936 +255H 1.507 62.70 2 vols and more 0.911 +7 1.498 32.4 6 vols 0.8945 +3.6 1.491 16.00 11 vols 0.9290 +4.6 1.501 20.00 8 vols 13.7 References (1991), Popular Medicinal Plants of Iran, Deputy Minister of Health and Education of Iran, p. 116. JACKSON, B.P. (1968), Powdered Vegetable Drugs, J. & A. Churchill Ltd., p. 130. LOEWENFELD, C. (1979), The Complete Book of Herbs and Spice, Redwood Burn Ltd, p.113. NADKARNI, K.M. (1982), Indian Materia Medica, Bombay Popular Prakashan, p.132. REINECCIUS, G. (Ed.) (1994), Source Book of Flavours, Chapman & Hall, pp. 2889. SINGHAL, R. S. et al. (1997), Handbook of Indices of Food Quality and Authenticity, Woodhead Publishing Ltd modern herbal/ & herbs/cuminAMIN, G. 14 Curry leaf J. Salikutty and K. V. Peter, Kerala Agricultural University 14.1 Introduction Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng) (Syn. Bergera koenigii Koen (N.O. Aurantiaceae), Chaleos koenigii Kurz ex Swingle) is a perennial leaf vegetable. It belongs to the family Rutaceae and is named Murraya after John Adam Murray, Professor of Botany at Gottingen and editor of many of Linnaeuss works. It is a native of the mountainous parts and grows up to an elevation of 1500 m. The curry leaf is found growing throughout India including the Andaman Islands up to an altitude of 1500m.1 It is recorded wild in Garwhal to Sikkim, Bengal, Assam, the Deccan, Circar mountains, Western ghats, Coromandel and Travancore Cochin. The leaves of the plant are used extensively for seasoning and flavouring dishes. Curry leaf is exported as curry leaf and as curry leaf oil from India (Table 14.1). The leaves of the plant are employed extensively as flavourant in curries like dal, South Indian Sambar, rasam and chutneys and mulligatawny. Ground curry leaf with mature coconut kernel and spices forms an excellent preserve. Veppilakkatti, a very famous preparation of South India, can be made with the following ingredients: curry leaf (100 g); tender leaves of malta lemon (50 g); common salt (50 g); seedless tamarind (40 g); red chilli powder without seed (20 g); fenugreek powder (2 g); asafoetida (6 g); black pepper powder (2 g); gingelly oil (10 g). For preparing Table 14.1 Export of curry leaf from India during 199394 to 199798 (quantity in tonnes, value in Rs. 1000) Product 199394 199495 199596 199697 199798 Qty Curry leaf Curry leaf oil Value Qty Value Qty Value Qty Value Qty Value 15.2 989.7 10.9 618.8 39.0 1604.4 68.6 0.4 2185.1 152.8 3334.2 115.4 Source: Spices Statistics, IVth edition by Spices Board, Ministry of Commerce, Government of India, Cochin, 682025. Curry leaf 169 veppilakkatti, fry the asafoetida in gingelly oil and powder it. Mash the tender leaves of malta lemon in a mixi and remove all the fibres. Then add curry leaves, red chilli powder and other ingredients and grind well. If kept in airtight containers it can be stored for a long time. 14.2 Chemical structure The leaves contain the following free amino acids: asparagine, glycine, serine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, theonine, alanine, proline, tyrosine, tryptophan, amino butyric acid, phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine, and traces of ornithine, lysine, arginine and histidine. The leaves also contain a crystalline glucocide, koenigin and a resin. By analysis of concentrated essence of curry leaf, Macleod and Pieris2 obtained mainly terpenes. They also found that M. koenigii produced less than 4% of other components with eight monoterpene hydrocarbons (Ca 16%) and seventeen sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (Ca 80%). According to them the most important constituents of M. koenigii are -caryophyllene, -gurjunene, -elemene, phellandrene and -thujene. Bhattacharya et al.3 reported a carbazole alkaloid-isomurrayazoline from M. koenigii with a structure of 9a,10,11,12,13,13a-hexahydro-5,9,9,12 tetramethyl-1, 12-epoxy-9Hindolo(3,2,1-de) phenanthridine (C23H27NO2). Alkaloids like muconicine, mahanimbine, koenimbine, koenigicine, cyclomahanimbine, mahanimbidine, girinimbine, isomahanimbine, murrayacine, mahanine, koenine, koenigine, koenidine and scopolin were reported by various workers.4 From the stem of M. koenigii, a new C23-carbazole alkaloid, mahanimbinol, was isolated. It is the key precursor in the biosynthesis of some 20 other carbazole alkaloids. Bhattacharya et al.5 identified two carbazole alkaloids namely 2-methoxy carbazole-3methyl carboxylate and 1-hydroxy-3-methyl carbazole from the stem bark extract of M. koenigii. From the stem bark, alkaloids like mahanimbinol, mukonal, murrayanine, murrayacinine and murrayazolidine were isolated and characterised by various workers.4 The fruit is edible. It yields 0.76% of a yellow volatile oil with neroli-like odour and pepper-like taste, accompanied by an agreeable sensation of coolness on the tongue. The characteristics of the oil are as follows: specific gravity (13) refractive index (0) optical rotation (0) boiling point 0.872 1.487 27.24 173174 The fruit is reported to contain koenigin. A yellow clear and transparent oil is procured from the seeds which is known as limbolee oil. Chowdhury6 reported that leaves on hydrodistillation gave 0.5% essential oil on fresh weight basis, having dark yellow colour, spicy odour and pungent clove-like taste. It has the following characteristics: specific gravity (25) refractive index (25) optical rotation (25) saponification value saponification value after acetylation 0.9748 1.5021 + 4.86 5.2 54.6 170 Handbook of herbs and spices acid value soluble in 80% alcohol with slight opalescence 3.8 The constituents of the oil are: dl--phellandrene d-sabinene d--pinene dipentene d--terpineol caryophyllene isosafrol cadinene cadinol lauric acid palmitic acid 4.6% 9.2% 5.5% 6.8% 3.2% 26.3% 4.4% 18.2% 12.8% 2.7% 3.4% On examination by GC-MS the oil contained aromadendrene, -bisabolene, butyl myristrate, carvomethone, cis-caryophyllene, -costol, citral, trans-caryophyllene, isocaryophyllene, camphene, dehydro aromadendrene, dipentene, -elemene, -eudesmol, farnesol, junipene, linalyl acetate, isomenthone, menthol, spathulenol, stearyl alcohol, ateraldehyde, stearic acid, -terpineol, palmitic acid, -pinene and zingiberene. The essential oils hydrodistilled from leaves of Murraya koenigii were analysed by GC and GC-MS. Both essential oils contained mainly monoterpenes and oxygenated monoterpenes. The main constituents are -pinene (1919.7%), sabinene (31.844.8%), -pinene (4.2 4.7%), -terpinene (1.3 4.3%), beta-phellandrene (6.5 7.9%), tauterpinene (3.97.1%) and terpinen-4-01 (5.29.9%).7 Madalageri et al.8 reported 21 different compounds in the hydrodistilled essential oil out of which only seven were identified. A commercially important odouriferous compound -caryophyllene is among them. 14.3 Production The leaves retain their flavour even after drying and hence these are marketed both in fresh and dried forms. There is not much loss of volatile oil during drying either in sun/ shade or in cross flow dryer. Oven drying at 50C is recommended as the best technology for conversion of fresh leaves into dry powder.8 Higher temperatures during drying deteriorated powder quality. Fresh leaves on steam distillation under pressure (90 lb/in2) yield 2.6% of a volatile oil (curry leaf oil). According to Madalageri et al.8 hydrodistillation of fresh leaves at 70C is a cheap and non-cumbersome method of extraction of essential oil. Leaf maturity influenced oil composition, the youngest leaves tested being the best. An extended period of extraction caused loss/decrease in certain components while there was gain/increase in other components. 14.4 Functional properties On analysis the leaves contain the following nutrients: Curry leaf moisture protein fat (ether extract) carbohydrate fibre mineral matter calcium phosphorus iron carotene (as vitamin A) nicotinic acid vitamin C thiamine and riboflavin 171 66.3% 6.1% 1.0% 18.7% 6.4% 4.2% 810 mg/100 g of edible portion 600 mg/100 g of edible portion 3.1 mg/100 g of edible portion 12 600 IU/100g 2.3 mg/100g 4 mg/100 g absent The leaves are a fair source of vitamin A. They are also a rich source of calcium, but due to the presence of oxalic acid in high concentration (total oxalates, 1.35%; soluble oxalates, 1.15%), its nutritional availability is affected. Curry leaf is used in traditional medicine, for example ayurvedic and unani medicine.911 The plant is credited with tonic, stomachic and carminative properties. The undiluted essential oil exhibited strong antibacterial and antifungal activity when tested on microorganisms.12 Even the crude leaf extracts of curry leaf plant are reported to possess antibacterial activity.13 Curry leaf has a potential role in the treatment of diabetes. Hypoglycemic action on carbohydrate metabolism was reported in rats fed with curry leaves.14 Hepatic glycogen and glycogenesis, as evident from the increased activity of glycogen synthetase, were increased and glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis were decreased as evident from the decreased activity of glycogen phosphorylase and gluconeogenic enzymes. Curry leaf is found to exert antioxidant properties in rats fed a high fat diet.15 There were lower levels of hydroperoxides, conjugated dienes and free fatty acids in the liver and heart of rats supplemented with curry leaves compared to rats fed on the high fat diet alone. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione transferase were increased in the heart and liver of rats supplemented with curry leaves. Activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were also increased in the liver and the concentration of glutathione was decreased. Thus supplementing a high fat diet with 10% curry leaf can prevent the formation of free radicals and maintain the tissues at normal levels. Patel and Rajorhia16 reported that ghee samples treated with 1% curry leaves during clarification showed higher resistance to oxidation and higher sensory scores than those treated with a mixture of BHT (butylated hydroxy toluene) + BHA (butylated hydroxy anisole), due to the presence of naturally-occurring antioxidants. The curry leaves at 1% concentration could be used instead of BHT and BHA for extending the shelf-life of ghee. 14.5 References 1. COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH, The Wealth of India, New Delhi, CSIR, 1962 6 4468. 2. MACLOED A J and PIERIS N M, Analysis of the volatile essential oils of Murraya koenigii and Pandanus latifolius, Phytochemistry, 1982 21 (7) 16537. 172 Handbook of herbs and spices 3. BHATTACHARYA L, ROY S K and CHAKROVORTY D P, Structure of the carbazol alkaloid isomurrayazoline from Murraya koenigii, Phytochemistry, 1982 21 (9) 24323. 4. RASTOGI R P and MEHROTRA B N, Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants Vol. I-IV New Delhi, Publication and Information Directorate, 1993. 5. BHATTACHARYA P, MAITA A K, BASU K and CHOWDHURY B K, Carbazol alkaloids from Murraya koenigii, Phytochemistry, 1994 35 (4) 10856. 6. CHOWDHURY A R, Essential oil from the leaves of Murraya koenigii, National Seminar Research and Development in Aromatic Plants: Current trends in biology, uses, production and marketing of essential oils, Lucknow, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 1999. 7. MALLAVAPURA G R, RAMESH S, SYAMASUNDAR K V and CHANDRASEKHARA R S, Composition of Indian curry leaf oil, J. Ess. Oil Res , 1999 11 (2) 1768. 8. MADALAGERI B B, MAHADEV and HIREMATH S M, Dehydration methods, oil extraction and flavour components detection in curry leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng) and detection of flavour components, Karnataka J. Agri. Sci, 1996 9 (2) 2848. 9. DRURY H C, The Useful Plants of India, London, Allen, 1978. 10. DASTUR J F, Medicinal Plants of India and Pakistan, Bombay, Taraporevala Sons, 1970. 11. KIRTHIKAR K R and BASU B D, Indian Medicinal Plants, Dehra Dun, Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, 1935. 12. GOUTAM M P and PUROHIT R M, Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of the leaves of Murraya koenigii (Linn) Spreng (Indian Curry leaf), Indian J. Pharm., 1974 36 (1) 1112. 13. THAKARE R P, Studies on the antibacterial activity of some plant extracts, Indian Drugs, 1980 17 (5) 148. 14. KHAN B A, ABRAHAM A and LEELAMMA S, Hypoglycemic action of Murraya koenigii (curry leaf) and Brassica junceq (mustard): mechanism of action, Indian J. Biochem. and Biophys., 1995 32 (2) 1068. 15. KHAN B A, ABRAHAM A and LEELAMMA S, Antioxidant effects of curry leaf Murraya koenigii and mustard seeds Brassica juncea in rats fed with high fat diet, Indian J. Exptl Biol., 1997 35 (2) 14850. 16. PATEL R S and RAJORHIA, Antioxidative role of curry (Murraya koenigii) and betal (Piper betle) leaves in ghee, J. Food Sci. Technol, 1979 16 (4) 15860. 15 Dill R. Gupta, Zandu Pharmaceuticals, New Delhi 15.1 Introduction Dill (Anethum graveloens Linn.) is an annual aromatic branched herb known for culinary use since ancient times. It is a native of south-east Europe and is cultivated commercially in most parts of Europe, particularly The Netherlands, Hungary, Germany, Romania, South Russia, Bulgaria and on a lesser scale in France, Sweden, Belgium, Poland, Greece, Spain, UK, Turkey and the United States of America. A variant called east Indian dill or Sowa (Anethum graveloens var sowa Roxb. ex, Flem.) occurs in India and is cultivated for its foliage as a cold weather crop throughout the Indian sub-continent, Malaysian archipelago and Japan. The earliest reference to use of dill seed in medicine goes back to Charak Samhita (700 BC), an ancient renowned medical treatise on Indian medicinal plants. Dill foliage, fruits and their volatile oil are used extensively for culinary and medicinal purposes. The fresh aromatic leaves are used in flavouring of soups, sausages, curries, gravies, salad, marinades and pickles; the leafy stems and tops are used in flavouring vinegar, pickled cucumber and fermented cabbages, whereas the seed is used for flavouring meat. In Malaysia and Indonesia, the leaves are steamed with rice whereas fruits are used in flavouring native confectionery. Balkan countries use dill in flavouring yogurt, sour cream and wine. In Sweden, bread is flavoured with dill seed. Dill fruit faintly resembles caraway in odour but has a less sharp taste. It is a popular condiment in Asian countries and is used in seasoning several types of processed meat. The leaf oil has largely replaced the use of the fresh herb in the food industry in Europe. The International Trade Centre (Anon. 1991) has brought out a material survey of four west European countries (France, UK, The Netherlands and Germany) estimating an overall demand of freeze-dry herb to be less than 300 tonnes per annum. France produces a small quantity and imports it from Egypt, Israel, The Netherlands and Morocco. The Netherlands and Germany are larger producers and import a part of their demand from Hungary. The USA is said to import between 70 and 100 kg of herb oil annually, largely from Hungary. India exports 500 to 800 tonnes of seed annually to west Asian countries 174 Handbook of herbs and spices and a small quantity of dill seed oil to western Europe. Varshney (2000) has reported world production of dill weed oil as 80 tonnes and that of dill seed oil as 70 tonnes; the seed oil is produced mainly in India, Russia and Poland. Dill is characterized by long dissected leaves and compound radiating umbels. It grows to between 1 and 1.2 m in height under cultivation. Dill is an annual glabrous, long-day plant with long fusiform (1015 cm) tap root with few secondary rootlets. The stem is erect, dull-green, glaucous, cylindrical, fistular with longitudinal light-green streaks, up to 1.5 cm thick around the base. It is subdichotomously branched, usually above the basal few nodes. Leaves are decompound, tripinnati-partite with ultimate segment 515 (20) mm long and 11.5 mm wide. Flowers are small, bisexual, more in outer unbellules (3040) than inner ones (1520), and opens centripetally. The fruit is oblong, slightly plano-convex in shape, dorsally compressed, 34 mm long and 1.53.0 mm broad, glabrous, with three prominent longitudinal ridges, developed into thin broad wings, 0.250.5 mm wide. Dill flowers in JuneAugust and fruiting takes place in AugustOctober in Europe, while it is February March and MarchApril respectively in India. In the Sowa plant, the fruits are longer, 35(5.5) 1.52.5 (3) mm in dimension, with three longitudinal ridges on the dorsal side more pronounced than the (European) dill. The carpophore holds two mericarps more firmly and consequently these remain joined together in the fruit for a longer time. The vittae has irregular marginal walls in contrast to straight walls in the dill. It has a number of local races like Vizak Sowa, Variyali Sowa and Ghoda Sowa distinguished by the oil composition of their fruits (Shah and Quadri, 1994; Randhawa and Kaur, 1995). 15.2 Production Dill is grown as an irrigated annual crop both in temperate and tropical regions up to 1000 m (m.s.l.). The crop remains in the field for 125 to 180 days. In India, sowing is staggered at a fortnights interval (Octmid-December) to obtain fresh foliage crop, marketed throughout the winter season. A large number of varieties are known in cultivation (Randhawa and Kaur, 1995). Dill prefers light sandy to loamy well drained fertile soils, slightly acidic to neutral in reaction; the pH extends to 8.5 in sub-tropical parts of India. It prefers warm sunny weather, particularly cool moist climate favours vegetative growth and warm, drier and sunny conditions are needed for luxuriant flowering and fruiting to ensure a high crop yield. The seed is sown directly during the spring season (FebruaryMarch) in temperate climate and October in tropical conditions. Seed rate is 5 to 10 kg per hectare depending on the method of sowing, viz. drilling in rows or broadcast; usually it is sown in rows, 1.5 to 2.0 cm deep at 30 to 60 cm apart and spacing at 45 20 cm is found to produce high seed yield in India (Gupta, 1976). Germination commences after a week in tropical regions and may take two weeks in warm temperate conditions. Pre-emergence application of herbicide like Prometryne (50%) at 1.0 kg per hectare is recommended (Timoshenko, 1970). The plants are thinned when 7 to 10 cm tall at 15 to 20 cm apart in the rows. The crop remains 40 to 67 days in vegetative stage (after germination) and flowering/fruiting continues for the next 85 to 90 days. Powdery mildew (Erysiphae spp.) sometimes attack the crop at flowering, occasionally causing severe damage for which spraying of Bordeaux mixture three to four times at weekly intervals is recommended. Similarly, aphids (Myzus spp) suck flowering axils causing loss in growth vigour and weekly spraying of Melathione (0.2%) in water controls the infestation. Dill 175 The crop responds favourably to use of inorganic fertilizers depending on the nutrient status of the soil. Atanasov et al. (1976) observed that application of 70 kg per hectare each of N, P2O5 and K2O produced maximum herbage yield and most economic oil yield in Bulgaria. In India where soils are rich in potash, 60 kg of N and 45 kg of P2O5 per hectare produced maximum seed yield (Gupta, 1982). Usually, five to eight light irrigations are given to the seed crop. Two rounds of weeding cum hoeing given between 30 and 40 days and 60 and 70 days suffice to control weeds; later growth of the crop covers the field and smothers weeds. The herb oil is a colourless to brownish-yellow mobile liquid. The fresh herb at vegetative stage contains 0.60% of oil, which progressively increases with growth and is 0.780.99% at flowering, rises to 1.281.91% at milky-wax seed ripening and 1.92.84% in the herb when the seed is nearing maturity. For herb oil, the crop is harvested when it is between maximum flowering to beginning of fruit formation stage as oil content in the leaves is high and the oil has a lower amount of oxygenated compounds. In Germany and The Netherlands, the entire over-ground crop is harvested at blooming stage (with no seeds) whereas milky-wax to mid-ripe fruiting stage is preferred for obtaining herb oil (dill weed oil) in Hungary and USA. As a matter of fact, the relative quantity of fruits present in the harvested material and their state of ripening determine the oil content and flavour of the oil produced on distillation. On average 2.5 to 3.0 tonnes of fresh herb per hectare is produced when the crop is harvested at maximum flowering stage, which on distillation give 18 to 20 kg of herb oil, containing up to 30% carvone. Harvesting at later stages increased oil yield and its carvone content progressively. In the seed crop, the terminal umbels are hand-picked when the fruit begins to turn yellowish-brown in colour; these come to maturity 40 days early. The rest of the crop is cut from the base later when tertiary umbels begin to turn brownish; delay may cause seed shattering leading to crop loss. The harvested crop is transported to the threshing floor where it is dried in a thin layer for one or two days before carrying out light threshing to separate the fruits. It is found that the milky-waxy fruit maturity stage contains maximum seed oil (Zlatev, 1976); the carvone and dihydrocarvone contents accumulated rapidly in the later part of fruit maturity. The seed yield ranges from 700 to 800 kg per hectare and shade dried seed contains 34% oil; the seed yield in east Indian dill (Sowa) is higher (1 tonne per hectare). The wilted dried plants show a decrease in carvone content over the fresh herb at every stage of growth until flowering, but this trend is reversed in fruiting herb as wilted, dried and stored material showed an increase in carvone content in the oil. As a matter of fact, the dried herb produces oil emitting poor intensity of odour. The mature stored seeds yield a higher quantity of carvone because some of the terpines in the seed are lost during storage; this could be protected by storing seed in gunny bags, lined with polythene in a dry cool place. The essential oil of herb as well as seed crop is obtained through hydrodistillation or steam distillation and complete exhaustion of the produce takes 4.0 and 2.5 hours respectively for herb crop and 8 to 10 hours for seed crop; the seed are crushed into powder to facilitate easy extraction of the oil. During the first one or two hours, the distilled oil has high d-carvone content and the broad ratio between carvone and limoanene is 80(88) : 12(19); because carvone is more easily soluble in water and being higher boiling fraction, it is distilled easily. This trend declines at a later stage. The wilted (herb) material should be distilled within 72 hours. 176 15.3 Handbook of herbs and spices Chemical composition Lawrence (1980) analysed dill herb using IR as a method of characterization of individual constituents by preperative GC and column chromatographic fractions. He reported the oil to contain -pinene (0.9%), -pinene (0.1%), myrcene (0.4%), -phellandrene (30.2%), limonene (22.5%), -phellandrene (3.8%), p-cymene (1.0%), terpinolene (0.1%), -p-dimenthylstyrene (0.1%), 3,9-epoxy-p-menthlene (5.6%), cis-p-mentha-2,8dien-lol (0.1%), transdihydrocarvone (0.5%), cis-dihydrocarvone (1.2%), carvone (31.6%), di-hydrocarveol (0.1%), cis-carvyl acetate (0.1%), trans-carveol (0.1%), ciscarvyl acetate (0.1%), trans -carveol (0.1%), dihydrolimonene-10-ol (0.1%), dihydrolimenon e10-yhexanoate (0.1%), p-mentha-l, 3-dien-10-yl-hexanoate (0.1%) and p-mentha-1(7), 2-dien-10-yl butyrate (0.1%) besides a host of other compounds in traces. Lawrence (1981) has reproduced chemical composition of seed oil obtained through solvent extraction by Kodam at Leiden University (doctorate dissertation). It was found to contain limonene (44.0%), d-p, dimethylstyrene (0.2%), transhydrocarvone (0.4%), cis-dihydrocarvone (2.1%), neodihydrocarveol (0.2%), carvone (51.5%), dihydrocarveol (0.1%), isodihydrocarveol (0.4%), trananethole (0.1%), trancarveol (0.1%) and ciscarveol (0.2%) besides many other compounds in traces. An interesting feature of growing dill is that after successive generations, the European dill develops higher oxygenated compounds in the oil, which includes a small quantity of dillapiole. It was found to contain up to 3.0% of dillapiole (Baslas et al., 1971) when grown under tropical climate. Gupta (1982) explained this as being due to more sunlight hours combined with solar intensity in the tropics. 15.4 Compounds influencing flavour The principal constituents of the herb oil are phellandrene and limonene whereas ketone (calc. as carvone) in the oil increases from 12% (vegetative stage) to 22% (maximum bloom) and rises to 35% at the milky-wax stage, when its herb character predominates. In trade, the oils containing 20% or less carvone have been found to be of finest flavour (Guenther, 1950). The herb oil has a powerful sweet-spicy, peppery and aromatic odour, reminiscent of spearmint oil with a sweet nutmeg-like undertone. The taste is warm and slightly burning, but pleasant and not pungent. For flavouring purposes, the herb oil with low ketones (carvone) is preferred. The typical flavour of the oil is due to -phellandrene (terpine) as the oil resembles the fresh herb in aroma. Haupalehti (1986) determined that -phellandrene, limonene, myrsticin and dill furan were the most significant contributors of dill herb aroma. Later, Blank et al. (1991) determined that the aroma of dill herb was directly related to concentration of five components namely dill-furan, -phellandrene, limonene, myrsticin and p-mentha dienbutyrate. The seed oil is very mobile, light yellow to pale-yellow in colour, becoming dark on ageing; and its taste is less sharp than caraway oil. Its aroma is warm and spicy, slightly burning but pleasant and powerfully aromatic sweet. The oil contains large quantities of carvone (4060%) which is its principal flavour constituent. There is no difference in odour value between dill and Sowa seed oils. The aroma of dill seed oil was characterized by carvone but 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol (which gives it a spicy meat-like note), 4hydroxy-3-methyl-6(l-methylethyl) cyclohexenlone (responsible for dill like sweet note) and dill furan contribute to its characteristic flavour. Dill 15.5 177 Functional properties and toxicity The leaves are rich in minerals, mainly calcium, phosphorous and iron; they contain nine amino acids as well as flavanoids. However, both these oils have anti-bacterial property and are known to protect prepared food from contamination during storage. In traditional medicine dill fruit has carminative, aromatic stimulant, stomachic and diuretic properties. The emulsion of seed oil in water (dill water) is useful in relieving flatulence, colic pain, vomiting and is a household remedy to correct gastric disorders in children. The dill fruit contains petroselinic acid triglyceride, -sitosterol, glucoside, coumarins and flavanoids as well as large quantities of fats and proteins. It is also used in veterinary medicine. The oil of east Indian dill (Sowa) has an additional component called dillapiole (C12H14O4, molecular weight 222.23) in high proportion (20%) and, compared to dill, has lower carvone content (3045%). The dillapiole is toxic when taken in large doses. But being heavier than water with high boiling point (285C), it is easily separated through fractional distillation. The oil free of dillapiole approaches physical constants of European dill (seed) oil (Shah et al., 1972) and being a cheaper source, is employed in production of gripe water. The dillapiole is a viscid colourless substance and is found to have a synergic action on pyrethrins (used in insecticides), making it more effective over synthetic synergics like piperonyl butaoxide. 15.6 Quality indices and standards The presence of a minimum of 5.0% 3,9,epoxy-p-menthene in dill herb oil is a good indicator of its purity. There is no commercial source of this compound available to enable reconstitution of the oil. Lawrence (1981) has opined that examination of the percentage ratio of, -phellandrene to limonene to -phellandrene is another test for quality determination; the acceptable ratio was found to be 20:25:3 in dill herb oil. Dill herb oil is easily differentiated from caraway oil as carvone content in the latter ranges from 47.3% to 59.5%, while in dill oil it is 27.2 to 53.3%. Further, the -pinene and -phellandrene in the caraway oil is very meagre (traces to 0.1%) whereas these are between 0.1 to 0.2% and 1.02.3% respectively in dill herb oil. The east Indian dill seed (Sowa) oil contains large quantity of dillapiole (20%) and the oil has three flavanoids, viz. quercetin, kaempterol and isorhamnetin, which produce distinct spots on TLC (Shah and Quadri, 1994). The presence of high carvecrol is usually an indicator of an aged, partially oxydised, seed oil. The LD50 of dill seed oil is 300 mg per kg body weight (tested on mice). According to the British Pharmaceutical Codex (Anon. 1963), the dill fruits should contain not less than 2.5% (volume by weight) of volatile oil and not more than 3.0% of acid soluble ash. The commercial powdered dill should be ground fine enough to pass through a mesh of 54 screen. It should contain not less than 43.0% (w/w) and not more than 63% (w/w) of carvone. The physical constants of dill are (Anon., 1964): specific gravity (25C) 0.8900.915 (temp. correction factor 0.00056 per C) optical rotation +70 to +82 refractive index (20C ) 1.48301.490 carvone content 42 to 60 (by neutral sulphide method) soluble in two or more volumes of 80% alcohol (occasionally) with slight opalescence. 178 Handbook of herbs and spices As a rule, organoleptic evaluation of the oil can easily identify variations introduced through addition or substitution of any flavour compounds in the oil. The specification of oil of east Indian dill seed (Sowa) is (Anon. 1992): specific gravity (27C) 0.93600.9800 optical rotation +50 to 65 refractive index (20C) 1.4261.495 ester value before acetylation 3542 ester value after acelylation 50 to 65 total ketone (calc. as carvones) min. 35% soluble in 0.5 and more vols of 90% alcohol. 15.7 ANON. References (1963) British Pharmaceutical Codex. The Pharmaceutical Press, London, pp. 2623. ANON. (1964) Revised and New Standard of the Essential Oils Association of the USA. EOA: 158 (dill seed European) ANON. (1991) Dry Culinary Herbs an overview of selected western European markets. International Trade Center (ITC), Geneva, p. 5. ANON. (1992) Oil of dill seed (Sowa) specification. Bureau of Indian standards (BIS) Manak Bhavan, New Delhi, IS:3147, 13. ATANASOV, Z.H., ZLATEV, S, ZLATEV, M. and STOYANOV, M. (1976) The effect of mineral fertilization on the yield and essential oil content of dill. Restoniv dni Nauki, 13(1), 13843 (Hort. Abstr.) 47, 765. BASLAS, R.K., GUPTA, R. and BASLAS, K.K. (1971) Chemical examination of essential oil from plants of genus Anethum (Umbelliferae): Oil of seed of Anethum graveolons. (Pt I) Flavour Ind. 2(4), 2415. BLANK, I. and GROSCH, W. (1991) Evaluation of potent odorants in dill seed and dill herb Anethum graveolons L.) by aroma extract dilution analysis. J. Food Sci. 56(1), 637. GUENTHER, E. (1950) The Essential Oils. Van Nostrand Co, New York, pp. 61934. GUPTA, R. (1976) Studies in cultivation and improvement of dill (Anethum graveolons L.) in India (Part III) Indian Perfum, 20(A&B), 859. GUPTA, R. (1982) Studies in cultivation and improvement of dill (Anethum graveolons) in India. In Cultivation and Utilization of Aromatic Plants, Eds. C.K. Atal and B.M. Kapur, Regional Research Laboratory, Jammu, pp. 5458. HAUPALEHTI, R. (1986) Gas chromatographic and sensory analysis in the evaluation of dill herb (Anethum graveolons L.) Lebensmitt. Wiss. Technol., 19, 2730. LAWRENCE, B.M. (1980) New trends in essential oils. Perfumer & Flavourist, 5(4), 616. LAWRENCE, B.M. (1981) Progress in essential oils. Perfumer & Flavourist, 6(1), 3741 RANDHAWA, G.S. and KAUR, S. (1995) Dill. In Advances in Horticulture. Vol 11. Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, Eds. K.L. Chadha and R. Gupta, Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi, pp. 91732. SHAH, C.S. and QUADRI, J.S. (1994) A Textbook of Pharmacognosy (10th edn.) B.S. Shah Prakashan, Ahemdabad, pp. 198200. SHAH, C.S., QUADRI, J.S. and CHAUHAN, M.G. (1972) Dillapiole-free Indian dill. Indian, J. of Pharm, 34(5) 778. Dill TIMOSHENKO, M.A. 179 (1970) Prometryne in dill cultures. Zaschita Rastenic, 17(5), 28 (Hort. Abstr.) 43, 2315. VARSHNEY, S.C. (2000) Vision 2005: Essential oil industry in India. Indian Perfum. 44(3), 10118. ZLATEV, S.K. (1976) Influence of meterological factors on the quantity and quality of the essential oil synthesized in dill (Anethum graveolons Linn), Rastenien dni Nauki. 14(5), 5763 (Hort. abstr.) 58, 1652. 16 Garlic U. B. Pandey, National Horticultural Research and Development Foundation, Nashik 16.1 Introduction Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is the second most widely cultivated Allium after onion. According to FAO estimates for the year 1999, the world area cultivated is 889,000 ha and production is 8,776,000 mt. China, Korea, India, USA, Spain, Argentina and Egypt are the major garlic growing countries. China ranks first in area (424,000 ha) and production (5,690,000 mt) followed by India in area (113,000 ha) and Korea in production (484,000 mt) (Table 16.1). In productivity, Egypt tops the list (25,366 kg/ha) followed by USA (16,250 kg/ha), China (13,421 kg/ha) and Korea Republic (11,916 kg/ ha). Korea Republic has the highest per capita availability, i.e. 10.50 kg per year followed by Argentina (5.01 kg) and China (4.53 kg). The world garlic area, production and productivity trends during the past decade show that since 1986 they have improved by about 115.78%, 245.92% and 60.41%, respectively (Table 16.2). Garlic is in demand almost all the year round all over the world both in fresh form and also in dehydrated form. Today, garlic is used for its flavour, aroma and taste being prepared domestically or forming a raw material for a variety of food manufacturing processes (dehydration and pickling). Fresh garlic is widely used in cooking. In India and other Asian and Middle East countries, it is used in pickles, curry powder, curried vegetables, meat preparation, tomato ketchup. In the Philippines, Central Eastern Asia and in parts of the tropics, the green tops as well as bulbs of garlic are used. Dehydrated garlic in powdered or granulated form has replaced the use of fresh bulbs for industrial and home use in many countries. Dehydrated products of garlic are common as a condiment and in the food industry. It is reported that in America about 50% of the total production of garlic is dehydrated and sent to food processors. Garlic is a frost-hardy bulbous perennial erect herb of 30100 cm in height with narrow flat leaves and bears small white flowers and bulbils (Janick, 1979). It is a herbaceous annual for bulb and a biennial for seed production. The shape of garlic is smooth, round and solid for its entire length unlike onion which is hollow. Many cloves of garlic do not produce flowerstalks. The inflorescence may be partially or not at all Garlic 181 Table 16.1 Area, production, productivity and per capita availability of garlic in different countries during 1999 Country Area (000 ha) Africa Algeria Egypt Morocco N.C. America Mexico USA South America Argentina Brazil Peru Asia China India Indonesia Korea Rep. Turkey Myanmar Bangladesh Thailand Europe Italy France Yugoslavia Russian Fed. Romania Spain Ukraine Oceania New Zealand World Production (000 mt) Productivity (kg/ha) 17 8 5 2 25 9 14 178 30 114 7 301 65 224 10311 3750 25366 3829 12218 7647 16250 15 11 5 682 424 113 11 41 14 14 13 21 125 4 6 12 25 12 25 21 889 181 63 30 7280 5690 452 38 484 106 53 40 131 699 34 45 44 161 58 170 79 1 1 8776 Per capita availability (kg/year) 11727 5563 5883 10667 13421 3996 3599 11916 7571 3782 3022 6235 5594 8550 7759 3631 6381 4833 6827 3762 7143 7143 9875 1.00 1.73 0.26 0.68 0.82 5.01 0.38 1.21 4.53 0.46 0.18 10.50 1.64 1.19 0.32 2.17 0.59 0.77 4.14 1.09 2.58 4.29 1.55 0.26 1.49 Source: FAO Quarterly Bulletin of Statistics (3/4) 1999. exerted, its bulbils forming a swelling somewhere within the false stem a few cm above the bulbs. The bulb consists of 635 smaller bulblets called cloves and is surrounded by a thin white or pinkish papery sheath (Bose and Som, 1986). Alliums have been cultivated for thousands of years for therapeutic and prophylactic properties, religious significance, and flavour and taste. The Chinese, Table 16.2 Trend of area, production and productivity of garlic in the world 1986 Area (million ha) Production (million ton) Productivity (ton/ha) World 1999 Increase (%) 0.41 2.54 6.16 0.89 8.78 9.88 115.78 245.92 60.41 Sources: FAO Quarterly Bulletin of Statistics (3/4) 1999 and FAO Production Year Book 1988. 182 Handbook of herbs and spices Sumerians, Indians and Ancient Egyptians are all known to have consumed garlic over 4000 years ago. Among others, Hippocrates (430 BC) and Theophras Tuso (322 BC) have described the consumption of garlic in the Greek and Roman period (Rabinowitch and Brewster, 1990). Garlic is thought to have originally come from Central Asia and Southern Europe, especially the Mediterranean region (Thompson and Kelly, 1957). Some authorities consider that Allium longicuspis Regel, which is endemic to Central Asia, is the wild ancestor and spread in ancient times to the Mediterranean region. Garlic presents an interesting problem of classification and quality given the wide range of cultivars, differing in maturity, bulb size, clove size and number, scale colour, bolting, number and size of inflorescence bulbils and presence or absence of flowers (Bose and Som, 1986). Taxonomists have recognised at least four botanical varieties within Allium sativum L., namely A. sativum L., Var sativum, A.sativum L. Var., Ophioscorodon (Link) Doll, A. sativum L. Var Pekinense (Prokh) Maekawa and A. sativum L. Var nipponicum Kitamura. Jones and Mann (1963) could not satisfactorily classify many garlic cultivars into clearly defined botanical varieties, because many show combinations of characteristics from two or more varietal groups. It appears, then, that the above botanical classification has little advantage. Following criteria may be of practical use for distinguishing different garlic cultivars (Rabinowitch and Brewster, 1990): Morphological characteristics such as: Bolting type, number and size of cloves, number of leaf axils, forming cloves, number of secondary cloves formed in a lateral bud, bulb weight, colour of the outer protective leaf of the cloves, number of protective leaves, width and length of foliage, plant height and tenderness of the green leaves. Physiological and ecological characteristics: Time of bulbing and maturity, low temperature and long day requirements for bulb formation, winter hardiness and bulb dormancy. 16.2 Chemical structure Garlic or any other Allium is characterised by the remarkable sulphur-containing compound present in it which gives distinctive smell and pungency. Uninjured bulb of garlic contains a colourless, odourless water soluble amino acid Alliin which includes the presence of the volatile flavour compounds. These precursors are of the general name S-alk(en)yl cysteine sulphoxide. The general structure of the flavour precursor is: O | RSCH2CH (HH2) COOH The group to the right of R moiety is the L-cysteine sulphoxide group. The group R can be: 1. 2. 3. 4. CH3 CH3CH2CH2 CH3CH=CH CH2=CHCH -called -called -called -called (+)-S-methyl (+)-S-propyl trans (+)-S-(1-propenyl) (+)-S-(2-propenyl) Garlic 183 When the fresh tissue is damaged, the flavour precursors react under the control of the enzyme alliinase (S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulphoxide Lyase) to release the highly reactive sulphenic acids plus ammonia and pyruvate. Alliin, or S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide, was the first sulphur compound isolated from Allium sativum (garlic). The enzyme alliinase is confined to the cell vacuole, whereas the flavour precursors are confined to the cycloplasm probably within small vesicles associated with their presence in the cell. Hence the enzyme has access to the precursors only when cells are disrupted. In garlic, alliinase catalyses the formation of allicin, which gives fresh garlic its characteristic smell (Brewster, 1994). Alliinase (E.C., S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulphoxide cyase is the enzyme ultimately responsible for the development of the flavour compounds. The reaction catalysed by the enzyme is a beta elimination of the S-alk(en)yl sulphoxide group from the substrate: O || RSCH2CHCOOHRS=O: + CH3CCOOH | || NH2 NH Both products of the reaction are chemically unstable; the Ketimore product spontaneously hydrolyses to pyruvate and ammonia while the reactive sulphur species will combine with any of a number of co-reactants, most often another of the same species, to give a range of flavour components. Thus the reaction is commonly described as: O O O || || || 2RSCH2CHCOOH+H2O>RSSR+2CH3CCOO+2NH4 | NH2 Rabinowitch and Brewster (1990) have elaborated the details about the alliinase solubility and stability, purification, physical, chemical and catalytic properties. They report that alliinase from Alliums is less soluble. It is difficult to maintain this enzyme in aqueous solution. A cosolvent is required to maintain the enzyme activity. It is further reported that alliinase enzyme has a tendency to aggregate and precipitate and gets totally inactivated by freezing. Alliinase from garlic was first prepared by Stoll and Seebeck in 1947; however, the preparation was relatively crude. A common feature of the preparation is the use of a polyalcohol cosolvent, 10% glycerol in the case of garlic enzyme. The purification of garlic enzyme also required the presence of 10M pyridoxal phosphate in the buffers. The garlic enzyme has been described as having a molecular weight of 130,000 with two subunits of 65,000. Spectral studies on alliinase from garlic revealed an absorption peak at 420 nm characteristic of pyridoxal phosphate. Garlic alliinase has been reported to contain no carbohydrate. However, the presence of a subunit band giving a periodic acid schiff base stain on SDS gels of the purified enzyme indicates that the enzyme is a glycoprotein. The general catalytic properties of alliinase were well described long before the enzyme was purified to homogeneity. A broad pH optimum of 58 was described by Stoll and Seebeck (1947) for the garlic enzyme with a temperature optimum under the 184 Handbook of herbs and spices condition of assay of 37C. They also made observations on the specification of the reaction: the substrate must be a derivative of (-)L-cysteine, the sulphur atom must be linked to an aliphatic group, the amino group of cysteine must not be substituted and the sulphur atom must be in the sulphoxide form with the + and configurations both being substrate. 16.3 Processing Raw garlic no doubt has the ideal flavour and provides desirable textural and water retaining properties when incorporated into food products, bulk of raw garlic is water and lacks flavour and aroma. Also handling and storage costs are more when garlic is used in raw form. Dehydration or flavour extraction reduces the quantity which ultimately lowers the transportation and storage costs. Processing, however, may introduce undesirable changes in appearance. It may also modify the natural balanced aroma and flavour. Many modern automated food processing plants are not able to handle the raw form of garlic as such a range of garlic products are available to meet the particular needs of the market. Garlic flakes, garlic powder, garlic oil and garlic juice are some of the processed forms of garlic which are widely used by the food industry. Garlic capsules and tablets are also prepared and these products have a ready market in view of their high medicinal values. 16.3.1 Garlic dehydration A schematic representation of the process for garlic dehydration is shown in Fig. 16.1. The garlic bulb is broken into individual cloves by passing between rubber covered rolls which exert throughpressure to crack the bulb without crushing the cloves. The loose paper shell is removed by screening and aspirating. The cloves are then washed in a flood washer. At this stage the root stubs are floated off. Slicing is then done on a specially designed high-speed cutter. The sliced garlic cloves are then spread on drying trays which in turn are stacked on transfer cans. Tunnel type dehydrators are used for dehydration. The cans are placed in these tunnels and hot air is blown across the trays. The sliced garlic cloves are dried down to about 10% moisture in this operation which takes about 1015 hours at 6065C. It is, however, preferable to keep the temperature below 57C while drying (Pandey, 1997). Part of the remaining moisture is usually removed in a finishing operation for which garlic cloves are placed in large bins. Warm air is forced upward through the bins. This bin drying and conditioning operation may take about 30 hours. In these drying operations temperature must be controlled so that browning or scorching do not occur. After the slices are dried, they may be screened for removal of large partially dried slabs and fines. The fines may account for one third of the total dehydrated product. Usually fines are ground into powder. The slabs may be broken up and redried. The slices are prepared in the form of flakes. Grinding and packaging of powder is done in low humidity surroundings to avoid gumming and caking. Garlic is commercially dried to 6.5% moisture. It is reported that dehydrated garlic is available in six forms: powdered, minced, coarse, granulated, chopped and diced. It is generally considered that about 5 kg fresh garlic bulbs from the field make 1 kg of dried product. On the basis of chemical, microbial and sensory studies, it is also reported that 60C is the maximum temperature Garlic 185 Fig. 16.1 A schematic representation of the process for garlic dehydration. (From Van Arsdel et al., 1973). for dehydration of garlic. Hot air drying technique is considered to be the most economical. Storage of garlic powder was best achieved in cans, the use of sealed polyethylene bags being considered unsatisfactory. Odourless garlic powders as health supplements may be produced by inactivating alliinase by contacting garlic with fumaric acid/fumarate or by physically separating garlic powder and alliinase. Freeze drying of the garlic/cyclodextrin (70:30) mixture has also been claimed to produce an odourless product. Dehydrated garlic is prone to discoloration. Darkening is associated with non- 186 Handbook of herbs and spices enzymic Maillard reactions and may be prevented by reducing temperature. A green discoloration associated with the maceration of garlic tissue may be minimised if dormant tissue is processed (Rabinowitch and Brewster, 1990). There are reports that there is adverse effect of processing on quality and intensity of flavour. Dehydration has been associated with loss of more than 90% of the flavour intensity (Pruthi, 1980). This represents both a potential environmental problem and a significant economic loss. The origins of such losses has been examined and it has been concluded that they occur prior to the realisation of a critical moisture content, wherefrom the flavour may be envisaged as being sealed within the product (Mazza and Le Maguer, 1979). 16.3.2 Garlic oils Volatile oils comprise 0.1 to 0.25% of the fresh weight of garlic. Garlic oil is recovered by steam distillation of freshly ground cloves. It is a reddish brown overpowering liquid. One gram of oil is equivalent in flavouring terms to 900 g fresh garlic or 200 g dehydrated garlic powder. The high pungency of garlic oil makes it difficult to use directly. The oil is commonly diluted in vegetable oil. It is being used in ice-cream, ices, confectionery, baked goods, chewing gum and condiments. The rates of 6 ppm in baked products, 0.010.3 ppm in beverages, 16 ppm in condiments, 12 ppm in chewing gums, 12.9 ppm in confectionery and 40 ppm in ice-cream are being used. 16.3.3 Other products Garlic is also processed in the form of garlic juice and garlic salt. Garlic oleoresin is a dark viscous liquid, having 12 times the flavour of dehydrated garlic or 50 times that of fresh garlic cloves. Garlic paste is formulated from suitable flavours and viscous edible base. Garlic salt is comprised of a free flowing, uniformly blended dry mixture of noniodised salt, the approximate composition of which is shown in Table 16.3. Garlic salt should not contain more than 2.5% moisture, more than 81% salt and should have moisture-free white garlic powder between 1819%, and 12% calcium stearate. Garlic Table 16.3 Approximate composition (100 g) of garlic salt Garlic salt Water Energy Protein Fat Carbohydrate Fibre Ash Ca Fe Mg P K Na Zn Vitamins 1.4 g 63 kcal 3.2 g 0.1 g 13.8 g 0.4 g 81.5 g 220 mg 1 mg 11 mg 79 mg 212 mg 31.4 g 1 mg Garlic 187 salt has much wider culinary potential than powder and one tablespoon is equivalent to a clove of fresh garlic. 16.4 Uses Garlic is used practically all over the world for flavouring various dishes. In America about 50% of the entire output of fresh garlic is dehydrated and sold to food processors for use in mayonnaise products, salad dressings, tomato products and in several meat preparations. Raw garlic is used in preparation of garlic powder, garlic salt, garlic vinegar, garlic cheese croutons, potato chips, garlic bread, garlicked meat tit-bits and garlicked bacon, etc., which have been boosted in the American market. Spray-dried garlic products including garlic preparations are also available in the market. In Italy, Europe and Latin America, the spectacular popularity of garlic is shown by the methods by which it is boosted by the garlic growers. In India and other Asian and Middle East countries, garlic is already being used in several food preparations notably in pickles, curry powders, curried vegetables, meat preparations and tomato ketchup, etc. There has been increasing demand for garlic by the food industries for garlic powder as a condiment. Oil of garlic has now been appreciated as a valuable flavouring agent, for use in all kinds of meat preparations, soups, canned foods and sauces (Pruthi, 1987). 16.5 Functional properties and toxicity Garlic has been considered as a rich source of carbohydrate, proteins and phosphorus. Ascorbic acid content was reported to be very high in green garlic (Prodan et al., 1977). The nutritive composition of fresh and peeled garlic cloves and dehydrated garlic powder as reported by Pruthi (1987) is given in Table 16.4. Studies suggest that garlic, which contains more than 200 different compounds, has biological activities that can have medically important effects. Garlic has been used as an excellent carminative, a nerve tonic and an antiseptic agent in Hindu medicine for centuries (Aman, 1969). However, it has been only recently that its medical benefits have been explored in detail. The functional properties of garlic have been reviewed by Agarwal (1996), Koch and Lawson (1996) and Lawson (1998a). These properties include the following: cholesterol lowering properties reported by numerous studies (including Reuter and Sendl, 1994; Han et al., 1995; Adler and Holub, 1997). These studies have reported an average 10% reduction in total serum cholesterol. Evidence suggests that these effects are due to allicin or allicin-derived compounds (Yeh and Yeh, 1994; Gebhardt and Beck, 1996). Some recent studies, however, have produced contradictory results (Berthold and Sudhop, 1998), though this may be due to the composition of the garlic supplements studied (Lawson, 1998b) garlic significantly lowers blood pressure (Silagy and Neil, 1994; Das et al., 1995a and 1995b) garlic has an influence on platelet aggregation, an important factor in cardiovascular disease (Lawson et al., 1992; Han et al., 1995; Batirel et al., 1996). It also has an effect on blood coagulation and fibrinolytic activity which are factors in the development of thrombosis (Han et al., 1995; Breithaupt-Grogler et al., 1997) 188 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 16.4 Nutritive composition of fresh/peeled garlic cloves and garlic powder (Pruthi, 1987) Nutrients Fresh peeled garlic cloves Garlic powder 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 62.8 6.3 0.1 1.0 0.8 29.0 0.03 0.31 0.001 0 0 0 13.00 0.4 142 calories/100 g 5.2 17.5 0.6 3.2 1.9 71.4 0.1 0.42 0.004 0.01 1.1 0.7 17510/100 g 0.68 0.08 12.00 Moisture (%) Protein (%) Fat (%) Mineral matter (%) Fibre (%) Carbohydrates (%) Calcium (%) Phosphorus (%) Iron (%) Sodium (%) Potassium (%) Niacin (%) Vitamin-A Vitamin-B (mg/100 g) Vitamin-B2 (mg/100 g) Vitamin-C (mg/100) Nicotinic acid (mg/100 g) Caloric value (food energy) 380 calories/100 g epidemiological studies have suggested a link between garlic consumption and a reduced risk of stomach cancer (Steinmetz et al., 1994; Han et al., 1995; Milner, 1996). Various constituents of garlic have been identified as inhibiting tumour growth, notably garlic-derived organosulphides (Srivastava et al., 1997; Pinto et al., 1997; Riggs et al., 1997; Hu and Singh, 1997; Sakamoto et al., 1997). Garlic also has antioxidant properties which are helpful in preventing cancer and cardiovascular disease (Horie et al., 1992; Phelps and Harris, 1993; Imai et al., 1994). garlic has antibiotic properties and has been used to treat wounds when other antibiotics were not available (Fenwick and Hanley, 1985a; Han et al., 1995). Although anticarcinogenic activity of garlic has been well documented (Lau et al., 1990), the mechanism by which garlic compounds prevent carcinogenisis of many chemicals is not entirely clear. One possible mechanism is the ability of sulphurcontaining garlic compounds to block the activation of procarcinogens to carcinogens by hepatic mixed function oxidases. It is interesting to note that diallyl sulphide has been found to inhibit hepatic mixed function oxidases at high doses (Dalvi and Salunkhe, 1993). Garlic is also effective against gastric cancer. 16.5.1 Toxicity of garlic Since the consumption and level of sulphur-containing ingredients of garlic that are supposed to be toxic are so low, acute or fatal garlic poisoning in humans is very rare. A case report on wild garlic poisoning in sheep indicates that the poisoned animals showed hemolytic anemia, jaundice, very dark discoloration of the kidneys and hemoglobinuria (Stevens, 1984). Histopathological examination of the dead animals showed a marked tubular necrosis and hemoglobin casts in the kidneys and centrilobular necrosis of the liver. These toxic effects were attributed to a high level of S-methylcystein sulphoxide, a sulphur-containing amino acid which is a precursor of hemolytic anemia factor dimethyl Garlic 189 disulphide found in garlic. Compounds such as di(prop-2-enyl) disulphide present in garlic have been found to cause contact dermatitis (Mitchell, 1980; Hjorth and RoedPeterson, 1976) and may also be responsible for occupational allergy. The mechanism of toxic action of sulphur-containing compounds of garlic, especially allicin, has been reported to lie in their ability to react with SH groups of enzymes and properties. Therefore, though garlic has many medicinal properties, it has serious toxic effects, if taken in large quantities for medicinal uses, which may present as anemia, stomach ulcers, severe allergic reaction and suppression of testicular functions. Further studies on safety of garlic are thus needed. 16.6 Quality issues The quality of the raw material used in the processing industry determines to a large extent the quality of the finished product. Raw materials of poor quality cannot be expected to result in a final product of high quality even with the best processing methods. Therefore, gaining an understanding of the nature of the raw material and of its possible defects is an essential step in building quality into a product. Likewise thorough knowledge of the likely effects of defects, defective raw materials on both processing efficiency and quality of finished product is important. The bulb of garlic should have been harvested at proper maturity stage and tacked in windrows to cure. After about a week or when they have dried thoroughly, the bulbs are topped by cutting off leaves and roots with shears. Diseased and damaged bulbs are sorted out in the field. The bulbs of a variety should be thoroughly sorted and graded. The cloves of garlic variety should be sound and practically free from mould, disease, soil outer skins, stems, leaves and roots as per International Standard ISO-5560: 1997. General: Dehydrated garlic shall conform to the requirement of this International Standard and on rehydration shall regain characteristics similar to those of fresh garlic. Colour: The colour of dehydrated garlic shall be the characteristic of the cultivar used, i.e. between white and pale cream. The product shall be practically free from scorched, toasted and baked particles. Odour: Dehydrated garlic after rehydration by the method specified under the International Standard shall have a characteristic, pungent odour, free from foreign odour and off odour such as those coming from mouldy, rancid, fermented or burnt particles. Flavour: The flavour of the dehydrated garlic is assessed after rehydration in accordance with the method specified under the International Standard. It shall be the characteristic of parboiled garlic and free from foreign flavour and off flavour such as those coming from mouldy, rancid, fermented or burnt particles. Freedom from insects, moulds, etc.: Dehydrated garlic shall be free from live insects and practically free from moulds, dead insects, insect fragments and rodent contamination visible to the naked eye or with such magnification as may be necessary in any particular case. In case of dispute, the contamination of garlic in powder form shall be determined by using the method specified in ISO-1208. Extraneous matter: The total percentage of extraneous matter, i.e. vegetable matter originating exclusively from plants, such as particles from skins and roots shall not exceed 0.5% (m/m). 190 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 16.5 Chemical requirements of dehydrated garlic Characteristic Requirement Moisture content, % (m/m), max. Total ash, % (m/m), on dry basis, max. Acid-insoluble ash, % (m/m) on dry basis, max. Volatile organic sulphur compounds content, % (m/m) on dry basis, min. Cold-water-soluble extract, % (m/m) on dry basis, min., max. Test method 8 5.5 0.5 0.3 70 90 ISO ISO ISO ISO 939 928 930 5567 ISO 941 Dehydrated garlic may be divided into the broad categories given below: Dehydrated garlic slices It is a product obtained by cutting garlic cloves into slices and removing broken pieces smaller than 4 mm by sieving. Dehydrated garlic flakes or pieces These are the products passing through a sieve of aperture size from 1.25 mm to 4 mm according to the case. The particles do not have any definite shape. Dehydrated garlic grits It is a product passing through a sieve of aperture size 250 m to 1.25 mm. Powdered garlic It is a homogenous product 95% of which passes through a sieve of aperture size 250 m. Dehydrated garlic shall comply with the requirements for chemical and physical properties specified in Table 16.5 when tested by the specified method. M/s. Garlico Industries, Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh, India has also given the specifications of garlic powder as required in the United States (Table 16.6). Requirements for sampling are as follows: Dehydrated garlic powder or grits: Sampling of the product is done in accordance Table 16.6 Specifications of garlic powder Parameter Standard Description Allicin yield Alliin Gamma Gluamylcysteins Total Thiosulphinates Total Sulphur Moisture Granulation Off-white/Yellow colour powder Not less than 12,500 ppm Not less than 28,000 ppm Not less than 6,000 ppm Not less than 13,000 ppm Not less than 6,000 ppm 6% maximum +35 Mesh-max. 1% +45 Mesh-max. 1% +80 Mesh-max. 15% 100,000 Cfu/g maximum 1000 Cfu/g maximum None Detected None Detected Total Plate Count Mould Content E.Coli Salmonella Garlic 191 with ISO 948 using a conical sample or other suitable implement to remove aseptically or representative sample. Dehydrated garlic slices, flakes or pieces: Certain problems arise as a result of the friability of the product and the danger of settling within the container. It may, therefore, be necessary to take the entire contents of a single container because, during transport, the garlic may settle with the larger pieces towards the top and smaller pieces towards the bottom. Test methods: The samples of dehydrated garlic shall be tested for conformity with the requirement of this International Standard by following the methods of physical, organoleptic and chemical analysis specified above and in Table 16.5. As far as packing and marking are concerned, dehydrated garlic shall be placed in clean, sound and dry containers made of a material which does not affect the product but which protects it from light and from ingress of moisture. The packaging shall also comply with any national legislation relating to environmental protection. The following particulars shall be marked directly on each package or shall be marked on a label attached to the package: name of the product, botanical name and trade names, if any; name and address of the producer or packer or trademark, if any; code or batch number; net mass; producing country; any other information requested by the purchaser, such as year of production and date of packing, if known; reference to this International Standard; and whether the product contains additives, and if so, which ones, in the case of countries where they are permitted. Methods of rehydration and sensory evaluation of dehydrated garlic are: Garlic slices: Vessel, of about 500 ml capacity made of a material which will not impart a foreign taste or affect the colour of the preparation, dish made of porcelain or white earthenware and stainless steel spoon are the apparatus used in rehydration. Natural, potable water as neutral as possible is used. Sample of 10 g 0.1 g is weighed and transferred to the vessel containing 500 ml of cold water. It is then boiled at 99C, keeping the vessel covered for 10 minutes 1 min. Volume is made up to 500 ml with cold water and then poured into the dish. Immediately then sensory evaluation of appearance of the cooking water (colour and clarity), colour of the preparation, odour, tenderness and flavour is carried out. Garlic powder, grits, flakes or pieces: Vessel of about 1000 ml capacity made of a material which will not impart a foreign taste or affect the colour of the preparation, dish made of porcelain or white earthenware, and stainless steel spoon are the apparatus used in rehydration. Flour made from durum wheat from the most recent harvest and known to be of good quality is used along with natural, potable water as neutral as possible are used as reagents. 1000 ml of cold water is transferred to the vessel and 30 g of the flour is added while stirring continuously. The mixture is then heated and stirred continuously until it reaches boiling point and then simmered for 2 minutes. Weighing is done to the nearest 0.001 g, 0.4 g of the garlic then placed in the dish. 250 ml of the medium prepared is added and allowed to stand for 5 minutes. Stirring is done from time to time. Sensory evaluation is then done for odour and flavour. 192 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 16.7 Microbiological characteristics of dehydrated garlic Characteristic Recommended specification M M Test method Microorganisms at 30C, per gram, max. Presumptive Escherichia coli, per gram, max. Yeasts and moulds at 25C, per gram, max. Clostridium perfringens, per gram, max. Staphylococcus aureus, in 1 g Salmonella, in 25 g 105 10 103 10 Absent Absent ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO 106 102 104 102 4833 7251 7954 7937 6888 6579 Tests conducted in laboratories representing the producers and the users of this product have shown that the microbiological characteristics as given in Table 16.7 can be considered as acceptable. These are for information only. Packages of dehydrated garlic should be stored in covered premises, well protected from the sun, rain and excessive heat. The storeroom should be dry, free from unpleasant odours and protected against the entry of insects and other vermin. While transporting, the containers should be clearly marked with warning against careless handling which might lead to perforation of the containers. They should be dry and cool and stored well away from ships boilers and bilges. 16.7 References and HOLUB, B.J. (1997). Effect of garlic and fish-oil supplementation on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 65: 44550. AGARWAL, K. C. (1996). Therapeutic actions of garlic constituents, Med. Res. Rev. 16: 11124. AMAN (ed.) (1969), Medicinal Secrets of Your Food, Mysore, The Wesley Press, 598 605. ANON. (1985) Wealth of India. Rev Vol. I CSIR, 1845. BATIREL, H.F., AKTAN, S., AYKUT, C., YEGAN B.C. and COSKUN, T. (1996). The effect of aqueous garlic extract on the levels of arachidonic acid metabolites (Leukotriene C4 and prostaglandin E2) in rat forebrain after ischemia-reperfusion injury, Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Essent. Fatty Acids. 54: 28992. BERTHOLD, H.K. and SUDHOP, T. (1998). Garlic preparations for prevention of atherosclerosis, Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 9: 5659. BOSE, T.K. and SOM, M.G. (1986). (ed.) Vegetable Crops in India, Calcutta, Naya Prokash, 583. BREIHTAUPT-GROGLER, K., LING, M., BOUDOULAS, H. and BELZ, G.G. (1997). Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly, Circulation. 96: 264955. BREWSTER, J.L. (1994) Onions and Other Vegetable Alliums, Wallingford, Oxon, CAB International, pp. 2034. DALVI, R.R. and SALUNKHE, D.K. (1993) An overview of medicinal and toxic properties of garlic, J. Maharashtra Agril. University, 18(3), 37881. DAS, I., KHAN, N.S. and SOORANNA, S.R. (1995a) Nitric oxide synthase activation is a unique mechanism of garlic action, Biochem. Soc. Trans. 23: 136S. ADLER, A.J. Garlic 193 and SOORANNA, S.R. (1995b) Potent activation of nitric oxide synthase by garlic: A basis for its therapeutic applications. Curr. Med. Res. Opin. 13: 25763. FENWICK, G.R. and HANLEY, A.B. (1985) Genus Allium Part 1, CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 22: 199271. GEBHARDT, R. and BECK, H. (1996) Differential inhibitory effects of garlic-derived organosulfur compounds on cholesterol biosynthesis in primary rat hepatocyte cultures, Lipids. 31: 126976. HAN, J., LAWSON, L., HAN, G. and HAN, P. (1995) A spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of allicin and total garlic thiosulfinates, Anal. Biochem. 225: 15760. HJORTH, N. and ROED-PETERSON, J. (1976) Occupational protein contact dermatitis in food handlers. Contact. Dermat. 2: 28. HORIE, T., AWAZU, S., ITAKURA, Y. and FUWA, T. (1992) Identified diallyl polysulfides from an aged garlic extract which protects the membranes from lipid peroxidation, Planta Med. 58: 4689. HU, X. and SINGH, S.V. (1997) Glutathione S-transferases of female A/J mouse lung and their induction by anticarcinogenic organosulfides from garlic, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 340: 27986. IMAI, J., IDE, N., NAGAE, S., MORIGUCHI,T., MATSUURA, H. and ITAKURA, Y. (1994) Antioxidant and radical scavenging effects of aged garlic extract and its constituents, Planta. Med. 60: 41720. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANISATION (1997) ISO-5560, Switzerland. JANICK, J. (1979) Horticultural science, San Fransisco, Freeman & Co., p. 544. JONES, H.A. and MANN, L.K. (1963) Onions and their Allies, London. Leonard Hill (Books), p. 37. KOCH, H.P. and LAWSON, L.D. (eds.) (1996) Garlic: The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. and Related Species, Second Edition. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins. LAU, B.H.S., TADI, P.P. and TOSK, J.M. (1990) Allium sativum (garlic) and cancer prevention. Nutri. Res. 10: 937. LAWSON, L.D., RANSOM, D.K. and HUGHES, B.G. (1992) Inhibition of whole blood plateletaggregation by compounds in garlic clove extracts and commercial garlic products, Thromb. Res. 65: 14156. MAZZA, G. and LE MAGUER, M. (1979) Volatile retention during the dehydration of onion (Allium cepa L.), Lebensm. Wiss. Technol. 12, 333. MILNER, J.A. (1996) Garlic: Its anticarcinogenic and antitumorigenic properties, Nutr. Rev. 54: S826. MITCHELL, J.C. (1980) Contact sensitivity to garlic (Allium). Contact Dermat. 6: 356. PANDEY, U.B. (ed.) (1997) Garlic Cultivation in India, New Delhi. National Horticultural Research and Development Foundation, 278. PHELPS, S. and HARRIS, W.S. (1993) Garlic supplementation and lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility, Lipids. 28: 4757. DAS, I., KHAN, N.S. PINTO, J.T., QIAO, C., XING, J., RIVLIN, R.S., PROTOMASTRO, M.L., WEISSLER, M.L., TAO, Y., THALER, H. and HESTON, W.D. (1997) Effects of garlic thioallyl derivatives on growth, glutathione concentration, and polyamine formation of human prostate carcinoma cells in culture, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 66: 398405. PURSEGLOVE, J.W. (1975) Tropical Crops. Monocotyledons, London, ELBS Longman, 526. PRODAN, G.E., FLORESCU, E., MIHALACHE, M., VISARION, M., BACUE, E., DOROBANTEE, N. and TUDOR, T. (1977) Nicobalcescu Hort., 17, 715. 194 Handbook of herbs and spices (1980) Spices and condiments, chemistry, microbiology and technology, Adv. Food. Res. Supp., 4, 198. PRUTHI, J.S. (1987) Spices and Condiments, New Delhi, National Book Trust of India, 1301. RABINOWITCH, H.D. and BREWSTER, J.L. (eds.) (1990) Onions and Allied Crops Vol.III. Biochemistry, Food Science and Minor Crops. Boca Raton, Florida. CRC Press, 42 4, 74, 767, 79, 812, 856, 88, 99. REUTER, H.D. and SENDL, A. (1994) Allium sativum and Allium ursinum: Chemistry, pharmacology and medicinal applications, Econ. Med. Plant Res. 6: 56113. RIGGS, D.R., DEHAVEN, J.I. and LAMM, D.L. (1997) Allium sativum (garlic) treatment for murine transitional cell carcinoma, Cancer. 79: 198794. SAKAMOTO, K., LAWSON, L.D. and MILNER, J.A. (1997) Allyl sulfides from garlic suppress the in vitro proliferation of human A549 lung tumor cells, Nutr. Cancer. 29: 1526. SILAGY, C.A. and NEIL, H.A. (1994) A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic on blood pressure, J. Hypertens. 12: 4638. SRIVASTAVA, S.K., HU, X., XIA, H., ZAREN, H.A., CHATERJEE, H.L., AGARWAL. R. and SINGH, S.V. (1997). Mechanism of differential efficacy of garlic organosulfides in preventing benzo(a)pyrene-induced cancer in mice, Cancer Lett. 118: 6167. STEINMETZ, K.A., KUSHI. L.H., BOSTICK, R.M., FOLSOM, A.R. and POTTER, J.D. (1994) Vegetables, fruit, and colon cancer in the Iowa Womens Health Study, Am. J. Epidemiol. 139: 115. STEVENS, H. (1984) Suspected wild garlic poisoning in sheep. Vet. Record . 115: 363. STOLL, A. and SEEBECK, E. (1947) Alliin, The pure mother substance of garlic oil, Experientia, 3, 114. THOMPSON, H.C. and KELLY, W.C. (1957) Vegetable Crops, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc. 36870. VAN ARSDEL, B.S., COPLEY, M.J. and MORGAN, A.I. (eds.) (1973) Food Dehydration: Practices and Applications, Vol. 2, 2nd edn, AVI Publishing, Westport, C.T. YEH, Y.Y. and YEH, S.M. (1994) Garlic reduces plasma lipids by inhibiting hepatic cholesterol and triacyglycerol synthesis, Lipids. 29: 18993. PRUTHI, J.S. 17 Ginger P. A. Vasala, Kerala Agricultural University 17.1 Introduction The spice ginger is obtained from the underground stems or rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (Rosc.), a herbaceous tropical perennial belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. In cultivation, it is usually grown as an annual. The whole plant is refreshingly aromatic, but it is the underground rhizome, raw or processed, that is valued as spice. Its medical value is increasingly being recognized. Ginger originated in South-East Asia, probably in India (Burkill, 1966; Purseglove et al., 1981). The name itself supports this view. The Sanskrit name Singabera gave rise to Greek Zingiberi and later the generic name Zingiber. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a monocotyledon belonging to the family Zingiberaceae and to the order Zingiberales. In the Zingiberaceae, it belongs to the subfamily Zingiberoideae, which are aromatic with unbranched aerial stems, distichous leaves, open sheaths and hypogeal germination, mainly confined to the old world tropics with the centre of distribution in Indo-Malaysia (Purseglove et al., 1981). Among them, ginger is a slender perennial herb, 30100 cm tall with palmately branched rhizomebearing leafy shoots. The leafy shoot is the pseudostem formed by leaf sheath and bears 812 distichous leaves. The inflorescence is a spike which generally springs directly from the rhizome. The subfamily Zingiberoideae is also noted for two important spice crops, turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton). It also includes a number of subsidiary spice plants belonging to the genera Aframomum, Amomum, Kaempferia, Languos (Alpinia) and Phaeomena (Nicolaia). The genus Zingiber Boehm has about 8090 species of perennial rhizomatous herbs distributed throughout SouthEast Asia and extending to Queensland and Japan (Purseglove et al., 1981). 17.2 Chemical structure The ginger rhizome contains steam volatile oil, fixed fatty oil, pungent compounds, resins, proteins, cellulase, pentosans, starch and mineral elements. The composition of 196 Handbook of herbs and spices these components varies with type of cultivar, region, agroclimatic conditions, maturity and nature of rhizome, i.e. fresh or processed (Purseglove et al., 1981). The dry ginger on average contains moisture (10.85%), volatile oil (1.8%), oleoresin (acetone extract) (6.5%), water extract (19.6%), cold alcohol extract (6.0%), starch (53%), crude fibre (7.17%), crude protein (12.4%), total ash (6.64%), water soluble ash (5.48%) and acid insoluble ash (0.14%) (Peter and Kandiannan, 1999). The characteristic organoleptic properties of ginger are due to steam volatile oil and non-volatile solvent extractable pungent components. The pleasant aroma of ginger is caused by more than 70 constituents present in steam volatile oil. Among them the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (-)--zingiberene predominates and accounts for 2030% of the oil obtained from dry ginger (Purseglove et al., 1981). The warm pungent taste is caused by a number of components predominated by gingerols followed by shogaols and zingerone (Kulka, 1967). The aroma and flavour of fresh ginger will be different from dry ginger as some of the volatile oils will be lost by evaporation during drying (Purseglove et al., 1981). 17.3 Production Ginger is cultivated in several parts of the world, the most important producing regions being India, China, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Australia, Fiji, Jamaica and Nepal. Among them India and China are the dominant suppliers to the world market (Table 17.1). In terms of quality, Jamaican and Indian ginger are considered superior followed by West African. Jamaican ginger possesses delicate aroma and flavour and is sometimes considered as first grade. Indian ginger, entering the world market as Cochin and Calicut ginger, has a lemon-like byenote for which some have a preference over Jamaican ginger. Chinese ginger is low in pungency and mainly exported as preserves in sugar syrup or as sugar candy. Nigerian and Sierra Leone dried ginger possess somewhat camphoraceous and coarser odour and is rich in aroma and pungency factors. There is demand for them for oil distillation and oleoresin extraction. Primary products of ginger rhizomes for flavouring purposes are fresh ginger, preserved ginger in syrup or brine and the dried ginger. Secondary products are ginger powder, oils and oleoresins from dry ginger. Table 17.1 Area and production of ginger in the important ginger producing countries (1990, 1995, 1999) Country 1990 Area (ha) Production (tonnes) India 54,000 China 5,333 Nigeria 84,000 Bangladesh 6,967 Jamaica 274 Nepal 1,250 Indonesia 9,612 154,000 54,284 42,000 42,830 865 3,500 79,891 Area (ha) 1995 Production (tonnes) 90,100 12,502 140,000 6,900 161 1,000 10,000 170,800 130,698 79,000 39,000 452 3,000 82,631 Source: FAO Statistical Database lllp;// 1999 Area (ha) Production (tonnes) 70,000 13,450 145,000 7,700 180 1,200 9,900 235,000 157,018 80,000 39,000 620 3,200 80,351 Ginger 197 17.3.1 Fresh ginger Fresh ginger is outstanding for flavouring as it contains the full note of the spice compared to other products from it. Fresh rhizomes with low fibre content but rich in aroma, pungency, fat and protein are preferred for green ginger purposes. The crop for this purpose can be harvested from 180 to 195 days after planting. Further maturity causes a progressive increase in crude fibre and decrease in protein and fat content. 17.3.2 Preserved ginger Immature green ginger is preserved in brine or sugar syrup. Crystallized ginger is also made from the ginger in sugar syrup by further processing. Crystallized ginger is the peeled ginger impregnated with sugar syrup, dried and coated with crystalline sugar. Succulent ginger rhizomes with very little fibre and less pungency are preferred for preserved ginger. The raw material has to be harvested within 195 days of planting. The processing technology of preserved ginger varies with country. (A basic idea will be obtained from Chinese technology.) 17.3.3 Dry ginger Dry ginger obtained by drying of fresh ginger comes in the spice trade for the preparation of ground ginger and extraction of oleoresin and oil. It is available in a number of physical forms. It can be peeled (scraped or uncoated) or non-scraped (coated or nonpeeled) and sometimes partially peeled or rough scraped. In the scraped grade, the cork skin has been removed clearly without damaging the underlying tissue. Grades designated as bleached or limed are also available. They are prepared from clean peeled or partially peeled whole rhizomes by treating with lime or sulphurous acid to achieve white colour. Physical grades like black ginger, splits and slices are also available. Dried ginger is prepared from mature rhizomes which have developed full aroma, flavour and pungency, and harvesting is usually carried out at between eight to nine months after planting. For dry ginger making, cultivars with medium-sized rhizomes with high curing percentage are preferred. The processing of dry ginger involves the following steps: 1. 2. 3. Removal of roots and thorough washing of rhizomes. Preparation of rhizome for drying, which involves either peeling, splitting or slicing. When whole-coated rhizomes are to be dried, preparation is by immersing in boiling water for about 10 minutes. Black ginger is prepared like this. Sun drying: during drying, rhizomes lose moisture, about 6070% of their weight, and achieves a final moisture of 712%. Jamaican ginger is clean peeled using a special knife and, after thorough washing, sun dried. Indian ginger is rough scraped, non-bleached or bleached (limed). In this, the skin is partially scraped off with a sharpened piece of bamboo. Steel knives are not used as they stain the produce. Mechanization is possible in dry ginger processing, in grading, peeling and drying. But mechanical grading and peeling produce an inferior quality produce. Most of the producing countries resort to traditional methods which employ manual labour mainly. The appearance, the content of volatile oil and fibre, the pungency level and a subjective assessment of aroma and flavour are important in the quality evaluation of 198 Handbook of herbs and spices dried ginger. Cleanly peeled dried ginger in the whole form possessing the best appearance generally find a place in the grocery trade. Lower grades of clean peeled, coated whole, split and sliced types are used for blending in the preparation of powdered mixed spices. All types may be used for oil distillation and oleoresin extraction, but the coated types are the most extensively used for these purposes. 17.3.4 Ginger powder Ginger powder is made by pulverizing dry ginger to a mesh size of 50 to 60. Ginger is ground to release the flavour, the finer the powder, the more readily available the flavour and readily dispensable in the matrix. Some flavour may be lost by heat development during grinding. This can be minimized by adopting cryomilling and freeze grinding. 17.3.5 Ginger oil Ginger oil is produced commercially by steam distillation of freshly ground dry ginger. The yield of oil varies from 1.5 to 3.0% with an average of 2.0%. The oil obtained is a green or yellow mobile liquid which becomes viscous on ageing (Purseglove et al., 1981). The most suitable material for oil distillation is coated African ginger, followed by Nigerian splits and Cochin ginger. Ginger oil can also be recovered by steam distilling fresh ginger peelings and the yield is 1.5 to 2.8%. 17.3.6 Ginger oleoresin Ginger oleoresin is obtained by extraction of powdered dry ginger with suitable organic solvents like alcohol, acetone and ethylene dichloride, etc. Concentration of solvent extract under vacuum and complete removal of traces of solvent yields oleoresin of ginger. The yield, flavour and pungency of extracted oleoresin vary with cultivars, maturity of rhizome, choice of solvent and the method of extraction employed. Generally a yield of 3.99.3% with an average of 6.5% on dry weight of ginger is obtained. Commercial ginger oleoresin usually has a volatile oil content of 2530% and a replacement strength of 1 kg oleoresin for 28 kg good quality ground spice. They are offered to the consumer in liquid form or dispensed on sugar or salt. 17.4 Main uses in food processing The refreshing pleasant aroma, biting taste and carminative property of ginger make it an indispensable ingredient of food processing throughout the world. Fresh ginger, ginger powder from dry ginger, oleoresin and oil are all used for this purpose. Fresh ginger is unique for its flowery flavour and spicy taste. Hygienic oleoresin and oil in convenient consumer friendly packing and dispenser system find a place in the culinary art of developed countries and upper society strata of developing countries. Ginger preserve and candy are also in great demand for use in confectionery. Chocolate manufacturers utilize the preserve for enrobing. It is also used in jams and marmalades. The syrup in which ginger is preserved is valued for pickle and sauce making. It is also used in the production of ginger bread (Pruthi, 1993). In western countries ginger is used widely for culinary purposes in gingerbread, biscuits, cakes, puddings, soups and pickles. It is also used in the production of alcoholic Ginger 199 beverages like ginger beer, ginger ale, and ginger wine. Earlier it was much favoured for spicing wines and possets (Purseglove et al., 1981). In the East, fresh ginger chopped into small bits and in the ground form are very much used in vegetarian and non-vegetarian food preparations. It is also used in pickling, soft drink making, confectionery and curry powder preparations. The unique speciality of Chinese cookery owes very much to the use of fresh ginger as ground paste. In India, in meat and fish dishes it is indispensable to make it palatable and digestible. Buttermilk containing crushed fresh ginger, green chillies, salt and curry leaf is a delicious drink and appetizer of South India. Puliyingi a curry prepared from finely chopped fresh ginger and ripe tamarind fruit extract as main ingredients is unique in taste and is indispensable in social and festival feasts of the Malabar coast. Certain Indian recipes for ginger wine, fish, meat and tomato curry preparations are given below: Ginger wine Ingredients Fresh ginger cut into pieces Yeast Sugar Water 1 kg small pinch 1 kg 1.5 litre Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Cook the ginger pieces in a pressure cooker for 10 min. When cold, keep for fermentation along with 3 kg sugar and yeast for 21 days. 4 Every other day the contents are turned. On completion of fermentation, wine is squeezed out from the fermented ginger. To improve the appearance, the remaining 1 kg sugar is burned to brown colour and 4 mixed with the wine. Consuming one teaspoon of ginger wine daily is good for digestion and health. Spicy Lamb Fry Masala Ingredients Lamb Onions Ginger Garlic Green chillies Garam masala powder Curry leaves Coriander powder Red chilli powder Turmeric powder Capsicum Fresh tomatoes Ground black pepper Coriander leaves Lemon juice Salt 750 g 2 medium size 20 g 4 cloves 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon 10 g 1 tablespoon 4 teaspoon teaspoon teaspoon 2 2 teaspoons to garnish to taste to taste 200 Handbook of herbs and spices Oil Fresh lemon 20 g 1 Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Cut the meat into half-inch cubes and wash them. Cook meat with salt along with sliced onions, ginger, garlic, red chilli powder, turmeric powder, garam masala powder and coriander powder on a slow fire until meat is tender and all water has evaporated. Slice some onions and saute them in a little oil. Add cooked meat and saute it until well fried. Add sliced tomatoes, capsicum, green chillies and fry them. Add ground black pepper, chopped coriander leaves and lemon juice. Serve with a garnish of onion rings, curry leaves and sliced fresh lemon. Garcinia fish curry Ingredients Fish Chilli powder Turmeric powder Garlic flakes Ginger julienne Garcinia Coconut oil Mustard Fenugreek Curry leaves Salt Water kg 4 tablespoons 1 teaspoon 10 1 inch piece 4 pods 2 tablespoons 1 tablespoon 4 seeds 1 spring to taste 2 glasses Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Cut the fish into dices and wash under running water. Heat up an earthenware pot, pour the coconut oil, crackle mustard, fenugreek. Saute garlic, ginger and curry leaves and add chilli powder and turmeric powder. Stir till it gets cooked and add water to it. Add cleaned garcinia pods and the diced fish into it. Cover the pot and boil it until fish gets cooked. Check for the seasoning and finish it off with a dash of coconut oil. Tomato curry Ingredients Onions Tomatoes Cumin powder Ginger Coriander powder Turmeric powder Dry red chillies 2 medium 4 medium 1 teaspoon 10 g 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon 4 Ginger Mustard Oil Cashew nut Chilli powder Yoghurt 201 1 teaspoon 2 tablespoons 10 g 1 tablespoon 2 tablespoons Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Fry sliced onions until brown. Grind coriander powder, chilli powder and turmeric powder with sliced ginger into a smooth paste along with yoghurt. Add ground condiments to browned onions. Cut tomatoes into quarters and add to brown mixture. Fry for 2 minutes. Add 2 cups of water and boil for 5 minutes. Add salt. Give a tempering of mustard, red chillies and cashew nuts. 17.5 Functional properties The nutritive value of ginger is given in Table 17.2. Ginger is much used in traditional Indian (Ayurveda) and Chinese medicine (Sivarajan and Balachandran, 1994). Recent research has supported its functional value in the following areas: Ginger has excellent antioxidant properties. Antioxidants are increasingly linked to the prevention of certain cancers (Kikuzaki et al., 1994) and coronary heart disease, as well as their more established role in preserving lipid-based foods. Studies include the role of components such as gingerol in inhibiting linoleic acid autoxidation (Kikuzaki and Nakatani, 1993), extending the shelf-life of meat (Ziauddin et al., 1995), dehydrated pork (Fuijo et al., 1969) and fermented meat sausage (Al-Jalay et al., 1987). Table 17.2 Nutritional composition of dry ginger (per 100 g) Composition Quantity Water (g) Food energy (k cal) Protein (g) Fat (g) Carbohydrates (g) Ash (g) Calcium (g) Phosphorus (mg) Sodium (mg) Potassium (mg) Iron (mg) Thiamine (mg) Riboflavin (mg) Niacin (mg) Vitamin activity (RE) 7.0 380 8.5 6.4 72.4 5.7 0.1 150 30 1400 11.3 0.05 0.13 1.90 1.5 202 Handbook of herbs and spices There are a number of studies of the antimicrobial activity of gingerols, for example in relation to Bacillus subtillis and E. coli (Yamada et al., 1992) and Mycobacterium (Galal, 1996; Hiserodt et al., 1998) Ginger has a known influence on the eicosanoid cascade which influences such functions as wound healing, inflammation and platelet aggregation, and is involved in conditions such as arteriosclerosis (Srivasta, 1986; Sankawa, 1987; Kiuchi et al., 1992; Kawakishi et al., 1994). Ginger has beneficial effects on the digestive system, enhancing gastrointestinal motility, and is used traditionally for the treatment of stomach ache, vomiting and indigestion (Yamahara et al., 1990). It has also been investigated for its gastroprotectant and anti-ulcer activity (Yamahara et al., 1988; Yamahara et al., 1992; Yoshikawa et al., 1994). A recent study has investigated antitumour properties in gingerol, notably in inhibiting skin cancer (Park et al., 1998). Ginger checks cholesterol biosynthesis and thereby inhibits hypercholesterolema (Tanabe et al., 1993). Its role in Chinese herbal medicine in controlling obesity has also been investigated (Wijaya and Wu, 1995). The various functional properties of ginger are discussed in detail in Kikukazi (2000). 17.6 Quality specifications India and China are the worlds largest producers and exporters of ginger. Other important producers are Jamaica, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Thailand and Australia. USA, United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Hong Kong and Canada are the major importers of ginger. The importing countries give top priority to the health of their citizens and it is important that the ginger imported conforms to the quality standards prescribed by the particular country. Exporting countries also fix standards to supply required quality products to the consumers. 17.6.1 Indian standards In India, the world leader in ginger export, the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has AGMARK grading system for dry ginger and ginger powder. It categorizes Calicut ginger and Cochin ginger to different grades as given in Table 17.3 based on the size of rhizome, extraneous matter, lime content as calcium oxide and very light pieces present. Among them only garbled non-bleached Cochin and Calicut meet the United Kingdom Standards. 17.6.2 United States standards The United States Government Standard defines ginger as the washed and dried or decorticated and dried rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. The standards stipulated for ginger are given in Table 17.4. The ginger imported to the United States should also conform to the cleanliness specifications stipulated by the American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) (Table 17.5) and also the regulations enforced by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA has fixed defect action levels for whole ginger as shown in Table 17.6. Ginger 203 Table 17.3 Grades of whole dry ginger with specifications as per the ISI specification No. IS:1908-1961 Grade Special characteristics Size of rhizome Extraneous matter in percentage (max.) Light pieces by count in percentage (max.) Lime as CaO by weight in percentage (max.) 1. NGK/NGC Garbled, nonbleached Calicut/Cochin Pieces irregular in shape and size. Pale brown, fibrous with peel not entirely removed. Light pieces removed by garbling Not less than 20 mm in length 2 Not allowed Nil 2. BGK/BGC Garbled bleached Calicut/Cochin Pieces irregular in shape and size. Pale brown, fibrous with peel not entirely removed. Lime bleached. Light pieces removed by garbling Not less than 20 mm in length 2 Not allowed 2.5 3. NUGK/K Ungarbled nonbleached Calicut/Cochin a) Special b) Good c) Nonspecified Pieces irregular in shape and size. Pale brown, fibrous with peel not entirely removed. Not less than 20 mm in length 3 4 Not specified 5 10 4. BUGK/C Ungarbled Bleached Calicut/Cochin a) Special b) Good c) Nonspecified Pieces irregular in shape and size. Pale brown, fibrous with peel not entirely removed. Lime bleached. Not less than 20 mm in length 3 4 Not specified 5 10 Table 17.4 4 6 US government specifications for dry ginger and powder Total ash per cent not > Acid insoluble ash per cent > Crude fibre per cent not > Volatile oil expressed as ml per 100 g not < Moisture per cent not > Starch per cent not < Sieve test (for powdered ginger only) US standard sieve size Percentage required to pass through not < 7.0 1.0 8.0 1.5 12.0 42.0 110.30 95.0 From US Federal Specifications: Spices ground and whole and spice blends. No.EE-S-531 H, June 5, 1975 (Purseglove et al., 1981). 204 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 17.5 ASTA cleanliness specifications Factors specified (not >) Ginger Mammalian excreta, mg per 1b Other excreta, mg per 1b Extraneous matter, per cent by weight Whole dead insects, per 1b by count Insect defiled/infested, per cent by weight Mouldy ginger, per cent by weight 3 3.0 1.00 4 SF (3) SF (3) Source: Sivadasan (1998). Table 17.6 Defect action levels fixed by FDA Defect Action level 1) Insect and mould infestation (MPM-V 32) Average of 3% or more of pieces by weight are insect infested and/or mouldy Average of 3 mg or more of mammalian excreta per pound 2) Mammalian excreta (MPM-V 32) Source: Sivadasan (1998). Table 17.7 Tolerance limits for certain pesticides and aflatoxin Pesticides Tolerance limit Aldrin Dieldrin BHC Chlordane Heptachlor Malathion Parathion Carbonde DDT, Endrin Aflatoxin B1 B1+B2+G1+G2 0.05 ppm 0.05 ppm 0.05 ppm 0.1 ppm 0.1 ppm 0.1 ppm 0.3 ppm 0.3 ppm Not permitted 2 ppb (max.) 4 ppb (max.) Source: Spices Board (1995). Table 17.8 Cleanliness and commercial specifications for whole dry ginger imported to some European countries Sl. No. Factors Germany The Netherlands UK ESA 1 2 3 4 5 Extraneous matter (% wt) Moisture (% wt) Total ash (% wt) Acid insoluble ash (% wt) Volatile oil (% wt) (min.) 12.5 7.0 1.0 2.0 10.0 8.0 3.0 1.5 1.0 12.0 6.0 1.0 1.5 1.0 12.0 8.0 2.0 Source: Kalyanaraman (1998). Ginger 205 Besides the above the FDA has also specified tolerance limits for pesticide and aflatoxin as shown in Table 17.7. 17.6.3 European Standards Importers in Germany, The Netherlands, United Kingdom and the ESA have laid down specifications for whole dry ginger and powder regarding commercial, cleanliness and health requirements (Table 17.8). 17.7 References and AL-KHAYAT, M. (1987) Antioxidant Activity of Selected Spices Used in Fermented Meat Sausage, J. Food Protection, 50(1): 25 7. BURKILL, I.H. (1966) A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula, Kuala Lumpur, Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives. FUIJO, H., HIYOSHI, A., ASARI, T. and SUMINOE, K. (1969) Studies on the Preventative Method of Lipid Oxidation in Freeze-Dried Foods Part III. Antioxidative Effects of Spices and Vegetables, Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi, 16(6): 2416. GALAL, A.M. (1996) Antimicrobial Activity of 6-paradol and Related Compounds, Int. J. Pharmacogn., 34(1): 649. HISERODT, R.D., FRANZBLAU, S.G. and ROSEN, R.T. (1998) Isolation of 6-, 8-, 10-Gingerol from Ginger Rhizome by HPLC and Preliminary Evaluation of Inhibition of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, J. Agric Food Chem., 46(7): 25048. KALYANARAMAN, K. (1998) Quality specifications for spices and spice products in Europe. Quality requirements of Spices for Export. (Eds Sivadasan, C.R. and Madhusudana Kurup, P.), Spices Board, India, Cochin. KAWAKISHI, S., MORIMITSU, Y. and OSAWA, T. (1994) Chemistry of Ginger Components and Inhibitory Factors of the Arachidonic Acid Cascade, in Food Phytochemicals for Cancer Prevention II, Teas, Spices, and Herbs, ACS Symposium Series 547. C.T. Ho, T. Osawa, M.T. Huang and R.T. Rosen (eds.), Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. KIKUZAKI, H. (2000), Ginger for drug and spice purposes, in G. Mazza and B. D. Oomah (eds), Herbs, Botanicals and Teas. Technomic Publishing Co. Ltd, Lancaster, USA. KIKUZAKI, H. and NAKATANI, N. (1993) Antioxidant Effects of Some Ginger Constituents, J. Food Sci., 58(6): 140710. KIKUZAKI, H., KAWASAKI, Y. and NAKATANI, N. (1994) Structure of Antioxidative Compounds in Ginger, in Food Phytochemicals for Cancer Prevention II, Teas, Spices, and Herbs, ACS Symposium Series 547. C.T. Ho, T. Osawa, M.T. Huang, and R.T. Rosen (eds.), Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. KIUCHI, F., IWAKAMI, S. SHIBUYA, M., HANAOKA, F. and SANKAWA, U. (1992) Inhibition of Prostaglandin and Leukotriene Biosynthesis by Gingerols and Diarylheptanoids, Chem. Pharm. Bull., 40(2): 38791. KULKA, K. (1967) Aspects of functional groups and flavour. J. Agric. Food Chem. 15: 48 57. PARK, K.K., CHUN, K.S., LEE, J.M., LEE, S.S. and SURH, Y.J. (1998) Inhibitory Effect of [6]Gingerol, a Major Pungent Principle of Ginger, on Phorbor Ester-Induced AL-JALAY, B., BLANK, G., MCCONNELL, B. 206 Handbook of herbs and spices Inflammation, Epidermal Ornithine Decarboxylase Activity and Skin Tumor Promotion in ICR Mice, Cancer Letter, 129(2): 13944. PETER, K.V. and KANDIANNAN, K. (1999) Ginger. Tropical Horticulture Vol.1. (Eds Bose, T.K., Mitra, S.K., Farooqi, A.A. and Sadhu, M.K.), Naya Prokash, Calcutta. PRUTHI, J.S. (1993) Major Spices of India Crop Management Post-harvest Technology, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi. PURSEGLOVE, J.W., BROWN, E.G., GREEN, C.L. and ROBBINS, S.R.J. (1981) Spices Vol.2. Longman Inc. New York. SANKAWA, U. (1987) Biochemistry of Zingiberis Rhizoma, The J. Traditional SinoJapanese Medicine, 8(1): 5761. SIVADASAN, C.R. (1998) Important regulations and quality requirements of spices in USA. Quality requirements of Spices for Export. (Eds Sivadasan, C.R. and Madhusudana Kurup, P.) Spices Board, India, Cochin. SIVARAJAN, V.V. and BALACHANDRAN, I. (1994) Ayurvedic Drugs and their Plant Sources. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., Calcutta. SPICES BOARD (1995) Dried Ginger for Export Guidelines on Quality Improvement, Spices Board, India, Cochin. SRIVASTA, K.C. (1986) Isolation and Effect of Some Ginger Components on Platelet Aggregation and Eicosanoid Biosynthesis, Prostaglandins, Leukotrienens Med. 25(23): 18798. TANABE, M., CHEN, Y.D., SAITO, K. and KANO, Y. (1993) Cholesterol Biosynthesis Inhibitory Component from Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Chem. Pharm. Bull., 41(4): 71013. WIJAYA, E. and WU, Z.M. (1995) Effect of Slimax, a Chinese herbal mixture on obesity. International J. Pharmacognosy. 33(1): 416. YAMADA, Y., KIKUZAKI, H. and NAKATANI, N. (1992) Identification of Antimicrobial Gingerols from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), J. Antibact. Antifung. Agents, 20(6): 30911. YAMAHARA, J., HATAKEYAMA, S., TANIGUCHI, K., KAWAMURA, M. and YOSHIKAWA, M. (1992) Stomach-ache Principles in Ginger. II. Pungent and Anti-Ulcer Effects of Low Polar Constituents Isolated from Ginger, the Dried Rhizoma of Zingiber officinale Roscoe Cultivated in Taiwan. The Absolute Stereostructure of a New Diarylheptanoid, Yakugaku Zasshi, 112(9): 64555. YAMAHARA, J., HUANG, Q., LI, Y., XU, L. and FUJIMURA, H. (1990) Gastrointestinal Motility Enhancing Effect of Ginger and its Active Constituents, Chem. Pharm. Bull., 38(2): 4301. YAMAHARA, J., MOCHIZWKI, M., HUANG, Q.R., MATSUDA, H. and FUJIMURA, H. (1988) The anti-ulcer effect in rats of ginger constituents. J. Ethnopharmacology 23(23): 299 304. YOSHIKAWA, M., YAMAGUCHI, S., KUNIMI, K., MATSUDA, H., OKUNO. Y., YAMAHARA, J. and MURAKAMI, N. (1994) Stomach-ache Principles in Ginger III. An Anti-Ulcer Principle, 6Gingersulfonic Acid, and Three Monoacyldigalactosylglycerols, Gingerglycolipids A, B, and C, from Zingiberis Rhizoma Originating in Taiwan, Chem. Pharm. Bull., 42(6): 122630. ZIAUDDIN, K.S., RAO, D.N. and AMLA, B.L. (1995) Effect of lactic acid, ginger extract and sodium chloride on quality and shelf life of refrigerated buffalo meat. J. Food Science and Technology, Mysore 32(2): 1268. 18 Kokam and cambodge V. K. Raju and M. Reni, Kerala Agricultural University 18.1 Introduction Kokam (Garcinia indica Choisy) is a slender evergreen small tree with drooping branches which attain a pyramidal shape on maturity. It is a dioecious tree growing up to 18 m in height. The fruit is spherical, as large as a small orange, purple throughout, not grooved, having 58 seeds compressed in an acid pulp. It is a crop of oriental origin preferring warm and moderately humid tropical climate with a total rainfall range of 25005000 mm. It grows under a mean annual temperature of 2030C, 6080% humidity and up to an altitude of 800 m from mean sea level. Kokam plants originate and grow wild in the tropical forests of Western Ghats of India. It prefers partial shade, and is more associated with fire protected secondary forests.1 Extreme acidity is harmful to the crop. The tree grows extensively in the Konkan region of Maharashtra, Goa, coastal areas of Karnataka and Kerala, evergreen forests of Assam, Khasi, Jantia hills, West Bengal and Gujarat.2 It is a popular tree spice having tremendous potential and in South Indian curries, it is used instead of tamarind, and also has many medicinal properties. The juice of the fruit is used as a mordant and the expressed oil of the seed is the kokam oil of the natives, extensively used to adulterate ghee.3 The seeds of the fruit yield valuable edible fat known in commerce as kokam butter. Cambodge (Garcinia cambogia Desr.) is a tropical fruit commonly known as Malabar tamarind and belongs to the family Clusiaceae4 earlier known as Guttiferae.5 It is a medium-sized evergreen dioecious tree with rounded crown and horizontal or drooping branches generally attaining a height of 18 m. The fruit is a berry having the size of a small apple, yellow or red, 68 grooves forming blunt lobes with tough rind, 68 seeds and succulent aril.6 The fruits may vary in size weighing 50180 g. It is a native of Western Ghats of Kerala (India) and Malaysia. It grows in the evergreen forests of the Western Ghats in South India and its habitat extends from Konkan southward to Travancore and into the Shola forest of Nilgiris where it can reach an altitude of up to 2000 m above mean sea level.4 In Kerala, it is very popular in the Central Travancore areas and Kerala seems to be one of the centres of origin of cambodges where maximum diversity is seen.7 It is fairly common and abundant in the forests of western Sri Lanka 208 Handbook of herbs and spices from sea level to 600 m and in Malaysia.8 It is widely distributed in the evergreen forests of Western Ghats from South Kanara and Mysore to South Kerala up to the low lying reclaimed lands bordering the backwaters.9 The plant flowers in the hot season and the fruits ripen in the rains. Cambodge fruit has excellent therapeutic value and the dried rind is a popular fruit spice used in cookery as an important ingredient in many dishes for flavouring curries in place of tamarind or lime. 18.2 Chemical structure Kokam contains about 10% malic acid and a little tartaric and citric acid.10 Composition of fresh kokam rind is as follows (as reported by Sampathu and Krishnamurthy11): moisture (%) protein (%) (N 6.25) crude fibre (%) total ash (%) tannins (%) pectin (%) starch (%) crude fat (%) pigment (%) ascorbic acid (%) (hexane extract) acid (as hydroxy citric acid) pigment (%) ascorbic acid (%) carbohydrates by difference (%) (Values are expressed on moisture-free basis.) 80 1.92 14.28 2.57 2.85 5.71 1.00 10.00 2.00 0.64 22.80 2.4 0.06 35 Cambodge rind is rich in non-volatile acids.12 The fruit rind which is of commercial value contains 30% acid (citric acid) on the dry basis and it is essentially (-)-hydroxycitric acid.13 The dried rind also contains 10.6% tartaric acid, 15% reducing sugars and 1.52% phosphoric acid.14 Of the total acids present in the rind, nearly 90% is non-volatile. Sherly15 reported that the rind of G. cambogia had an average of 6.68% acidity, 7.2 mg/ 100 g ascorbic acid, 8 brix T.S.S and 1.04% reducing sugar. Mucilage around the seed contains 2.64% reducing sugar and 3.3% acidity and on average, a loss of 75% weight was recorded on drying. The rind of garcinia fruits such as kokam and cambodge are the richest sources of (-)hydroxycitric acid (HCA), which has an excellent therapeutic value against obesity. Earlier the acid present in the rind was misidentified as citric acid. Later Lewis and Neelakantan16 isolated the acid and identified it as hydroxycitric acid, which is present in the isomeric form. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid is valued for its taste characteristics and health benefits. The isolated HCA is unstable leading to formation of (-)hydroxycitric acid lactone (HCAL) and organic acids in the garcinia fruits and garcinia products (extracts and salt derivatives) co-occur. The structures of HCA and HCAL are shown in Fig. 18.1. The sour taste components are due to HCA13,16,17 present in the range of 1030% in the rinds. HCA and HCAL co-occur in fruits and extracts and HCA is rapidly converted into lactone during the concentration process.17 Varying amounts of citric acid (13%) are present in the fruit and in the products. The total acids expressed as HCA in the fruits Kokam and cambodge Fig 18.1 209 Structure of (a) (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) and (b) (-)hydroxycitric acid lactone (HCAL)18 ranged from 19 to 26% and HCAL content ranged from 9 to 12%. HCAL can be converted to HCA by the addition of NaOH and heating.18 Kokam butter is rich in combined stearic and oleic acids. It contains about 75% of mono-oleodisaturated glycerides and possesses a fairly low melting point and considerable brittleness. The chemical characteristics of the fat are:19,20 melting point sap value iodine value unsap matter (%) free fatty acids as (%) as oleic 3943C 189 34.736.7 1.4 7.2 The component fatty acids percent by weight are: myristic palmitic oleic linoleic 0 to 1.2 2.5 to 5.3 39.4 to 41.5 1.7 The seed cake after the extraction of oil contained crude protein 16.6%, crude fibre 4.4%, ether extract 1.6%, nitrogen-free extract 70.0% and ash 7.4%. The seeds of cambodge yield 31% of edible fat, resembling kokam butter, and are rich in oleic and stearic acid. The fat has a granular structure and the following properties:21 melting point acid value sap value acet value iodine value R.M. value unsap matter (%) titre 29.5C 5.0 203.5 nil 52.5 0.2 1.0 51.2 210 18.3 Handbook of herbs and spices Production India is the major producer of kokam and cambodge. The important producing areas for kokam in India are Western Ghats, Coorg, Wynad and Ratnagiri.21 It is estimated that in the Konkan region alone about 4000 tonnes are produced.11 Western Ghats region contains about 15 lakh trees and the estimated yield is 10,000 bags each with 100 seers of seeds.19 Kokam is exported mainly in the forms of fruit, oil (kokam butter) and syrup. Indian kokam is popular in several countries like UK, Canada, Australia, Hong Kong and the Middle East. Zanzibar is the main importer of kokam from India. It is also reported that Italy and some other foreign countries are importing kokam fat from India for use in confectionery preparations.11 In the case of cambodge, sizeable quantities are exported from parts of South India (particularly Alleppy in Kerala State) to meet the demands of Bombay (presently known as Mumbai) and Gujarat markets; it offers bright prospects for expansion of the market in North India.6 18.3.1 Kokam The kokam fruit has an agreeable flavour and sweetish acid taste. The normal shelf-life of the fresh fruit is about five days. Hence sun drying is practised for preservation. For sun drying the fresh fruits are cut into halves and the fleshy portion containing the seed is removed. The rind, which constitutes 5055% of the whole fruit, is repeatedly soaked in the juice of the pulp during sun drying. About 68 days are required for complete drying. The product so dried constitutes the unsalted kokam of commerce. A salted variety wherein common salt is used during soaking and drying of the rind is also marketed.11 Lonaval kokam, Pakali kokam, Khanee kokam and Khoba kokam are a few of the trade varieties. The seed contains about 3235% fat and is extracted by one of several methods boiling, cold extraction/churning of the powdered seeds by water or simple extraction:8 Boiling process: The seed is cracked and the shell removed. The white kernel is then pounded in a large specially-made stone mortar and pestle. The pulp is put into an earthen or iron pan with some water and boiled. After some time it is poured into another vessel and allowed to cool. The oil which rises to the surface on cooling becomes gradually solid, and is strongly moulded by hand into egg-shaped balls or concavo-convex cakes. Cold extraction/churning process: The kernel is pounded as above and the pulp with some water is kept in a large vessel and allowed to settle for the night. During the night the oil rises to the surface and forms a white layer, which is removed in the morning. The mixture is then churned, and the oil which, like butter, rises to the surface in a solid form, is removed by hand. This process gives the best product and is most favourably performed in the cold season. Simple extraction: In this process, the kernels are pressed in an ordinary oil mill, like other oil seeds, and the oil is extracted. Extraction is mostly on a cottage industry basis by crushing the kernels, boiling the pulp in water and skimming off the fat from the top; or by churning the crushed pulp with water.21 Nowadays it is obtained by solvent extraction also. After extraction the crude kokam butter is sold as egg-shaped lumps, having a characteristic yellowish colour and greasy in nature. It also has a faint but not disagreeable odour. Refined and deodorized fat is white in colour and compares favourably with high-class hydrogenated fat. It is readily soluble in ether and slightly in rectified spirits, more in hot than in cold.22 Kokam and cambodge 211 18.3.2 Cambodge Harvesting of cambodge coincides with the monsoon in South India. The fruits are harvested at ripening stage for getting good quality rind. Ripening takes five months from flowering. On abscission, the fruits are collected, then seeds and rinds are separated. A good percentage of fruits are wasted due to lack of proper processing and preservation technologies in the humid areas.23 The rind is detached from the kernel of under-ripe fruits, cut into half or sectioned into thicknesses varying inversely with the humidity of the weather. These are then spread in thin layers and dried in the sun for three to seven days to a moisture level of 15 to 20% and smoked.24 Rinds are dried until they attain a coal black colour and characteristic acid taste. In Kerala mainly three types of drying procedures are practised.25 They are sun drying, smoke drying and alternately under sun and smoke: Sun drying: In this method under-ripe fruits are harvested and the rind is detached. After removing the succulent aril and seeds, the fruit is cut into two equal halves. The rind is spread on a specially prepared floor or mat. If there is sufficient sunlight it takes six to seven days for complete removal of moisture and the rind attains a coal black colour. In some places the rind is hanged in the midrib of coconut leaves, the ends of which are tied to poles or trees. As the rind hangs on the midrib all parts get uniform heat. Cambodge dried by this method is considered to be the best by the locals. This method is followed in Thodupuzha and Vazhakulam areas of Kerala. Smoke drying: Since the harvest coincides with the monsoon, enough sunlight is not available for drying. In these conditions, after removal of seeds, the rinds are smoked on lofts above the fireplace. The rind gets dried by the heat and smoke from the hearth. It takes one week or more for complete drying. When large quantities are to be dried, lofts are prepared in such a way that heat is distributed uniformly on the platform. Coconut husk, shell and other wooden logs are used for burning. Along with this, fresh Eupatorium and Loranthus are used and by the slow burning of these, the rind is dried. This practice is followed in Parur, Kodungallur, Thiruvalla and Vazhakulam areas of Kerala. Sun and smoke: When there is no rain the rinds are dried under the sun and during the night smoke drying is practised. The dried rinds are preserved by rubbing with 50 ml of coconut oil and 150 g of common salt (sodium chloride) per kilogram of rind for storing for long periods. In some areas turmeric powder is also used.25 Commercially, cambodge concentrate is synthesized from the dried rind of cambodge largely capturing the flavour profile of the dried rind, which is used for preparing a variety of HCA products. The procedure is to extract the acid from the dry fruit rind by washing with water and to hydrolyse this extract by refluxing with alkali to convert any lactone present back into the acid. This is followed by precipitation with calcium chloride and drying. A properly prepared (-)HCA salt will be more stable and effective than the liquid form.26 18.4 Main uses in food processing 18.4.1 Kokam The kokam rind is the richest source of natural red pigment anthocyanin, which has great market potential in developed countries.2 Kokam rind contains two to three per cent anthocyanin pigments and is a promising source of natural colourant for acid foods. 212 Handbook of herbs and spices Cyanidin-3-sambudioside and cyanidin-3-glucoside are the major pigments present in the ratio 4:1.27 A new fat-soluble yellow pigment, namely garcinol, has been isolated from the fruit rind.28 Kokam fruit serves as a flavouring substitute and also used as acidulant in certain foods. It is a good source of acid and contains a substantial amount of malic acid (10%) and a little tartaric acid and citric acid.21 The ripened rind and juice of kokam fruit are commonly used in cooking for preparing Soikadi, a popular everyday food for each household in Konkan region. Kokam syrup has potential demand in the market. The dried and salted rind (amsol) is being used as a condiment in curries.2 It is used as a garnish to give an acid flavour to curries and also for preparing attractive red pleasant flavoured cooling syrups for use during hot months. The seed contains about 32 to 35% fat having food and non-food applications. Kokam butter is mainly used as an edible fat. It is also used as an adulterant of ghee. Kokam fat remains solidified at room temperature. It is edible, nutritive, demulcent, astringent and emollient.10 It is also used as confectionery butter, and also for candle and soap manufacture. It can be used for the production of stearic acid from the fat with a yield of 45.7%. It can also be employed in the sizing of cotton yarn.21 The cake left after the extraction of oil is used as manure. The barks of the trees are astringent and are kept and brought overseas to make vinegar.8 The juice of the fruit is used by blacksmiths for melting iron and wood is well suited for paper making. Young leaf is acid and used in Amboyana in cooking fish.29 18.4.2 Cambodge The dried rind is used as a condiment for flavouring curries in place of tamarind and lime. In Sri Lanka, the dried rind with salt is used for curing fish. The cured fish does not require prolonged washing prior to use.24 The fruits are characterized by a sharp pleasant acidity. Though it is not eaten raw, it is included in curries as an appetizer in East India. The processed and dried pericarp is of great value for its delicate taste and flavour. The dried slices of this fruit, when used in place of tamarind in the preparation of fish and non-vegetarian curries is supposed to impart a special flavour and taste.6 The dried rind with its rich acidity possesses marked antiseptic properties and it also counteracts the tang of salt.12 It is also employed in veterinary medicine as a rinse for diseases of mouth in cattle. The dried rind is also used for polishing gold and silver. It is also a substitute for acetic and formic acids in the coagulation of rubber latex. The wood is used for posts and is suitable for matchboxes and splints. A translucent yellow resin obtained from the tree has purgative properties and is soluble in turpentine and makes a good varnish.14,21,29 The yield of ordinary cambodge in colouring resin varies from 40 to 75%. Cambodge is used as a pigment in the manufacture of lacquer and in medicine.22,29 18.5 Functional properties Garcinia fruit such as kokam and cambodge contains (-)hydroxycitric acid chemically similar to the citric acid found in oranges. One of the factors for fat accumulation in the body is increased quantities of the key enzyme known as ATP citrate lyase which facilitates the process of conversion of carbohydrates and sugar into fats and cholesterol. The fruit extract of Garcinia cambogia (containing 50% HCA as the chief ingredient) competitively blocks ATP citrate lyase enzyme making it ineffective which in turn Kokam and cambodge 213 hinders the production and storage of body fats. By inhibiting this enzyme the fruit extract shifts the conversion of calories from fat to glycogen. This increased production of glycogen stimulates the glucoreceptors in the liver and sends satiety signals to the brain. Thus appetite and food craving are suppressed. Besides promoting glycogen production it also signals the Krebs cycle to initiate beta oxidation which burns the bodys stored fat. Thus the fruit extract containing highest concentrations of HCA promotes weight loss and assists the bodys natural cycles in proper metabolism of fats.4 Research on hydroxycitric acid shows three benefits that should be of great interest to anyone concerned with weight management. It: decreases appetite inhibits the conversion of excess carbohydrates into fat increases stores of the bodys energy fuel (glucose). Extract containing HCA has proven its strength to reduce fat synthesis in the body from 40 to 70%. Garcinia fruit lowers blood lipids such as cholesterol and triglycerides by triggering fatty acid oxidation in the liver via thermogenesis (raising body temperature to speed up the bodys metabolism which increases burning of fats). It burns the fat slowly and gently without stimulating the central nervous system. It also blocks the enzymes responsible for storing fat in our body from glucose. It mobilizes the bodys fat stores and dissolves fat in the liver and throughout the body. It paves the way for slower weight loss and supports the bodys natural appetite suppression mechanism. In addition it promotes the growth of lean muscles and also it is safe for diabetics.30 The extract from the rind forms a major ingredient in herbal medicines. A variety of HCA products both in liquid form and salt of acid form is available in the market. Citrin and Natures Own are popular products, which consists of calcium salt of (-)HCA and the recommended dosage is 250 to 500 mg after meals, three times a day. Among the gum resins cambodge, may be mentioned as containing , and -garcinolic acids. An essential oil was found to consist of terpene and camphor. The kokam fruit is used in the Ayurveda system of medicine. The syrup prepared from the fruit is used in bilious infection.21,31 The oil of the seed is much used for the preparation of ointments, suppositories and for other pharmaceutical purposes. It has been used as a local application to ulcerations, fissures of the lips, hands, etc., by partly melting it and rubbing on the affected part.2,21,22,31 Oil from seeds is used as a remedy in PhthisisPulmonalis, scrofulous diseases, dysentery, mucous diarrhoea and as a substitute for spermaceti.29 The oil is used as a healing application and from its powerfully absorbing heat it might be usefully employed in such wounds or sores as are accompanied with inflammation. The bark and root is astringent and the young leaves are used as a remedy for dysentery.21 18.6 Quality issues Cambogin, a toxic resin, has been obtained from Garcinia.31 This requires further investigation. The structure of cambogin has been given by Rastogi and Mehrotra32 (Fig. 18.2). Muthulakshmi7 compared the different methods of drying, viz. smoke drying, sun drying and oven drying. It was found that smoke drying recorded maximum rind recovery (24.3%), highest total acidity (21.33%) and (-)-HCA content (18.90%). The rind obtained by this method was soft, flexible and dark black in colour. The rind was superior in appearance and retained the original shape of the rind. By sun drying the rind recovery was 214 Handbook of herbs and spices Fig 18.2 intermediate in texture with pale brown colour and shape retention was also intermediate. Oven drying recorded minimum values for rind recovery (21.59%), total acidity 19.72%, (-)HCA content 17.1%, rind texture was hard and brittle with brown colour. By oven drying the rind could not retain the rind shape and showed shrunken appearance. 18.7 References 1 CHANDRAN, M. D. S. Nature watch, The Kokam Tree. Resonance 1996 1: 869. 2 NAWALE, R. N., PARULEKAR, Y. R, and MAGDUM, M. B. Kokam (Garcinia indica Choisy) Cultivation in Konkan Region of Maharashtra. Indian Cocoa, Arecanut & Spices Journal 1997 21(2): 423. 3 HOOKER, J. D. Flora of British India, Vol. 1. Dehra Dun, International Book Distributors, 1872. 4 MAJEED, M. Citrin A Revolutionary Herbal Approach to Weight Management. Burlingame, New Edition, 1994. 5 TRIMEN, H. A Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon. London, Dulal & Co, 1893. 6 THOMAS, C. A. Kodampuli Little known but pays much. Indian Fmg 1965 15: 335. 7 MUTHULAKSHMI, P. Variability analysis in Garcinia cambogia Desr M. Sc. (Hort.) thesis Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur, Kerala, India, 1998. 8 WATT, G. Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, Vol. III. Delhi, Periodical Expert, 1972. 9 GEORGE, S. Garcinia a neglected acid fruit of Kerala. Indian Cocoa Arec. Spices J. 1988 11: 1013. 10 PRUTHI, J. S. Spices and Condiments. New Delhi, National Book Trust, 1979. 11 SAMPATHU, S. R. and KRISHNAMURTHY, N. Processing and utilisation of Kokam (Garcinia indica). Indian Spices 1982 19(2): 1516. 12 CHANDRARATNA, M. F. Garcinia in Ceylon. Trop Agriculturist 1947 103: 34. 13 LEWIS, Y. S., NEELAKANTAN, S. and ANJANAMURTHY, C. Acids in cambogia. Curr. Sci. 1964 3: 823. 14 KENNEDY, R. R., NAGESWARI, S. K. and BALAKRISHNAMURTHY, G. Kudampuli A fruity spice. Spice India 1999 12(10): 15. 15 SHERLY, R., Growth, flowering, fruit set and fruit development in Kodampuli (Garcinia cambogia Desr.) M.Sc. (Hort) Thesis. Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur, Kerala, India, 1994. Kokam and cambodge 215 16 LEWIS, Y. S. and NEELAKANTAN, S. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid, the principal acid in the fruits of Garcinia cambogia Desr. Phytochem. 1965 4: 61925. 17 LEWIS, Y. S. Methods in Enzymology. New York, Academic Press, 1969. 18 ANTONY, J. I. X., JOSAN, P. P. and SHANKARANARAYANA, M. L. Quantitative analysis of (-)hydroxycitric acid and (-)hydroxycitric acid lactone in garcinia fruits and garcinia products. J. Food Sci. Technol. 1998 35 (5): 399402. 19 MURILIDHARA, H. G. Raw material survey of resources and newer sources of fat and oil Kokam. Proceedings of the symposium on Fats and oils in relation to food products and their preparation, Association of Food Scientists and Technologists India, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, India, 1976. 20 JAMIESON, G. S. Vegetable Fats and Oils. New York, Reinhold, 1943. 21 CSIR. The Wealth of India (Raw Materials). Vol. IV. Publications and Information Directorate, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, 1956. 22 DRURY, H. The Useful Plants of India. Dehra Dun, Allied Book Centre, 1991. 23 SAJU, K. A. Kodampuli cultivation in Kodagu. Spice India 1998 11(7): 15. 24 VERGHESE, J. Garcinia cambogia (Desr) Kodampuli. Indian Spices 1991 28(1): 19 21. 25 JOY, C. M. and JOSE, K. P. Kudampuliyekurichu Kurachu Kariyangal, Spice India (Malayalam) 1998 11(5): 2, 1920. 26 VERGHESE, J. The world of spices and herbs. Indian Spices 1997 34(1&2): 1113. 27 KRISHNAMURTHY, N., LEWIS, Y. S. and RAVINDRANATH, B. Chemical constitution of Kokam fruit rind. J. Food Sci. and Technol. 1982 19: 97100. 28 KRISHNAMURTHY, N., LEWIS, Y. S. and RAVINDRANATH, B. On the structure of garcinol, isogarcinol and camboginol, Tetrahedron Letters 1981 22(8): 793. 29 RAO, R. M. Flowering Plants of Travancore. India International Book Distributors, 1987. 30 MUTHULAKSHMI, P. and GEORGE, S. T. Kodampuli: A multipurpose fruit tree. Indian Horticulture 1999 44(2): 78. 31 KIRTIKAR K. R. and BASU, B. N. Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol. I. India, International Book Distributors, 1987. 32 RASTOGI, P. R. and MEHROTRA, B. N. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants: Vol. 2, 19701979. New Delhi, Publications and Information Directorate, 1991. 19 Marjoram S. N. Potty and V. Krishna Kumar, Indian Cardamom Research Institute, Kerala 19.1 Introduction Sweet marjoram (Majorana hortensis (M.)) of the Labiatae family, is indigenous to Mediterranean countries and was known to the ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans (Tainter and Grenis, 1993). They cultivated it as a pot herb and used it not only to flavour food but also prized it as a miraculous herb with the power to heal practically all diseases, especially colds and chills. The Greeks felt it a symbol of happiness and that if grown on the grave, the deceased would be eternally happy. Hemphill and Hemphill (1984) mentioned that marjoram was one of the strewing herbs once used to give houses a pleasant, clean smell, and it was a favourite in sweet bags for the linen cupboard. Marjoram was popular during the Middle Ages as a medicine and as a culinary herb in England during the sixteenth century. Now marjoram is grown in central Germany, Hungary, southern France and in the USA. It is also grown in western Asia, South and North America, France, Spain, Portugal, the UK, North Africa, Morocco, Tunisia, China, Russia and India. For many years both marjoram and oregano were known as Origanum majorana L. Today marjoram is identified as Majorana hortensis as a member of the mint family (Pruthi, 1976; ElKeltawi and Khalil, 1986; Kybal and Kaplicka, 1990; Prakash, 1990). It has often been mistaken for oregano in botanical description (Tainter and Grenis, 1993). According to Pruthi (1976) it is the dried leaves of marjoram or sweet marjoram with or without flowering tops in small proportions that constitute the spice of commerce. It is an aromatic herb of the mint family and grows to a height of 30 to 60 cm. The herb develops a large number of leafy stalks with small leaves. The leaves are whole and the large ones are always fragmented. Leaves are light, greyish green and oblate to broadly elliptical, margin entire, reaching about 21 mm in length and 11 mm breadth (Parry, 1969). The flowers are small, white or pinkish or red. Essential oil is very strong and of very pleasant fragrance. The highest percentage is found in the leaves, whereas only traces are found in flowers and stalks. Long periods of blooming encourage the accumulation of oil in seeds (Guenther, 1974). Marjoram 217 Sweet marjoram is characterized by a strong spicy and pleasant odour. The flavour is fragrant, spicy, slightly sharp, bitterish and camphoraceous. Though a perennial, it is treated as an annual under cultivation. The colour of the dried herb is light green with a slight greyish tint. The whole leaves are small with hairs on both sides of the leaf. When examined under the low power of a microscope, many dot-sized oil glands are seen on the leaf. They yield 3.5% volatile oil (Pruthi, 1976). The colourless oil is obtained from the whole plant, including the square stem, the long leaves, and the white labiated blossoms. The scent is reminiscent of a mixture of lemon and lavender. What is most striking about marjoram is that it has an anaphrodisiac effect, yet in spite of this, it is fragrantly employed in the production of perfumes (Junemann, 1997). Marjoram is known by the following names: English: Marjoram French: Marjolaine German: Majoran Italian: Maggiorana Spanish: Mejorana 19.1.2 Other species Wild marjoram Wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare) is a perennial herb native to Europe and West Asia and is commonly found in dry places and as hedge banks in England and has been naturalized in the United States. Pot marjoram This is also a Mediterranean plant growing to about 30 cm in height. Pot marjoram is cultivated for its aromatic leaves and is used for flavouring food. The plant is not very hardy and produces white flowers. Its taste is slightly bitter and can be used to some extent for the same purpose as sweet marjoram especially in strong flavoured dishes as with onion, wine and garlic, where the delicate perfume of sweet marjoram would, in any case, be largely lost. In Greece there are no fewer than ten different species of origanum growing wild and they are commonly known as rigani. One of these, known as winter marjoram (Origanum heraclesticum) is sometimes cultivated in gardens. Other species are Origanum smyrnaicum and Origanum paniflorum. Rigani are used with grilled meats and other Greek dishes, but it is almost impossible at present to buy the authentic herb and reproduce exactly the flavour of such dishes outside that country. Another species of origanum commonly known as certain dittany is cultivated particularly on the island of Crete (it is known as dictamo, ditamo, eronatus, stomatochorto and malliaro-chorto) and is used mainly for medicinal purposes though also as a food flavouring. 19.2 Harvesting and post-harvest management 19.2.1 Harvesting Marjoram grown in Egypt is harvested from March to July. French marjoram is harvested in September to November. Guenther (1974) mentioned that if marjoram is harvested prior to seed formation, the leaves usurp the volatiles. Kybal and Kaplicka (1990) opined 218 Handbook of herbs and spices that the herb might be harvested and dried in early summer before flowering. The foliage is cut off about 6 cm above the ground and it will put out new shoots and yield another crop in autumn. According to Prakash (1990) the first harvest of the leaves and tender tops of the herb is done as flowering commences. The plants are cut 5 to 8 cm above ground level and, with favourable conditions, a second cutting may be made two months later. In North Europe marjoram is usually replanted annually. Aharoni et al. (1993) have pointed out that young fresh green marjoram becomes a highly perishable produce due to senescence-accelerated metabolism accompanied by loss of freshness, chlorophyll and culinary quality and hence post-harvest management is necessary. Omer et al. (1994) studied the effect of harvesting periods on the essential oil of marjoram in newly reclaimed lands of Egypt. It was observed that though the best yields of herb, leaves and oil were obtained from the second and third harvest of each season, the oil content of leaves was lower in the second year. Usually only one cut of marjoram can be made in a growth period. However, in years with favourable climatic conditions, a second and third cut may be made, although plants in these cuts reach only a preflowering stage. The influence of successive cuts on intrinsic quality characteristics and post-harvest behaviour are of special interest. Bottcher et al. (1999) in Germany observed that freshly harvested marjoram, though having a slightly woody stem, was characterized by an unusually high respiration rate and it was maintained throughout the post-harvest period of 72 to 80 h. The greatest decrease in the rates occurred during the first 18 h after cutting. The essential oil balance measured over the post-harvest period increased slightly (10%). Even 72 to 80 h after harvest, at 10C the plant material was maintained in a fresh green state, whereas at 20 and 30C degradation was accelerated due to the onset of senescence. They observed that at 20C, the acceptable marjoram quality after harvest could be maintained for only 48 h. A uniform deep green colour and an excellent anatomical appearance (without signs of wilt) were best maintained, as in dried material, when the herbs were kept at 10C throughout the post-harvest period. Essential oils and their composition are the most important characteristics that determine the economic value of marjoram as an aromatic plant. They further noticed that these characteristics did not decline in spite of the high respiration rate, but were relatively stable under the chosen post-harvest conditions between 10 and 30C for 72 h. At 30C, first harvesting at the optimal stage (10 to 30% flowering) gave a higher essential oil (22%) than freshly harvested dried material, but physiologically younger plants (second cut) even showed a 35% increase. In some cases the proportion of cissabinenic hydrate and sabinenic hydrate-acetate increased slightly at 20C and 30C while there was only a minor influence on - and -terpinenes and 4-terpineol. They have opined that respiration energy is involved actively in synthesis of essential oil in plant tissue and that the high respiration rate has to be considered in the development of future equipment and technologies for ventilating, cooling and drying during the post-harvest period. 19.2.2 Post-harvest drying and storage After the harvest the leaves are dried, carefully cleaned and stored. Methods of drying depend on the size of the crop and climatic conditions in the producing countries. Cut plants may be tied as bunches in small quantities and dried in the open air or spread on wire trays in ventilated rooms and dried by regulated circulation of warm air. Sun drying may take two to four days for drying and in the case of ventilating drying sheds it may take more than a week. Stems or stalks are separated from leaves by rubbing on hand Marjoram 219 sieves of 1 to 2 cm mesh. Chaff is removed by using a fan and extraneous sand, earth and dust are removed by shaking in wide-meshed sacks (Guenther, 1974). More recently in Egypt the harvested material is pre-dried in the field and then in a solar drier to reduce the microbial load to less than 50% in comparison with the traditionally dried material. Buckenhuskes et al. (1996) used a solar greenhouse drying system for marjoram in Egypt and found that the shoot essential oil content after drying was 98% of the initial value. Microbial load could also be reduced considerably by this improved method. Singh et al. (1996) found that microwave blanching of marjoram gave the maximum retention of ascorbic acid (21.5% which is 79.4% of the composition of fresh herb). Blanching resulted in better retention of the original green colour of the fresh herb compared to direct drying of the herb. The herb had firmer texture when microwave blanched than when blanched by other methods and when fresh. Paakkonen et al. (1990), while studying the effect of drying, packing and storage on quality of herbs, found that odour and taste of freeze-dried marjorams were sensitive to storage conditions. Freeze-dried marjoram exhibited a much more intensive colour than air-dried marjoram. After nine months of storage in the light or raised temperature, the colour tone of the freeze-dried marjoram had changed only slightly. They could not notice any significant difference in odour and taste intensities for the frozen and air-dried products after eight months of storage, whereas the taste of the freeze-dried marjoram differed from the marjoram stored frozen. The intensity of the odour and taste of the airdried marjoram stored under vacuum was higher relative to the marjoram in glass jars or paper bags. An elevated storage temperature of 35 C was found to have a more detrimental effect on sensory quality than packaging. It was concluded that the intensity of odour and taste of dried herbs could be maintained for two years at 23C in airtight packaging. Malmsten et al. (1991) demonstrated that freeze-drying was more effective than airdrying as a means of preserving the herb and also for microbial decontamination. Raghavan et al. (1997) noticed that convection drying at about 45C for 6 h preserved the flavour quality of marjoram to a greater extent than microwave drying. 19.2.3 Irradiation processing Only limited information is available regarding irradiation of marjoram. Bachman and Gieszczynska (1973), while studying various aspects of irradiation of different spices including marjoram, noticed that irradiation at 7.5 to 12.5 kGy produced a change in flavour of marjoram. Frag et al. (1995) evaluated the effect of irradiation on microbial loads of herbal spices and found that irradiation at 10, 20 and 30 kGy caused complete elimination of microorganisms whereas 5 kGy was less effective. They observed a noticeable reduction in the amounts of terpenes present in irradiated marjoram, which were converted to monoterpenes alcohols. The results proved that 10 kGy was a sufficiently high dose to eliminate the microorganisms, causing only slight changes in the flavouring materials. 19.3 Essential oil Sweet marjoram essential oil, known in the trade as Oil of sweet Marjoram, is obtained by steam distillation of the dried leaves and the flowering tops of the herb yielding 0.3 to 0.4% oil from fresh and 0. 7 to 3.5% from dry herb. It is a pale yellow or pale amber 220 Handbook of herbs and spices coloured rather mobile liquid (Shankaracharya and Natarajan, 1971; Farrell, 1985). Dayal and Purohit (1971) obtained 0.8% essential oil from marjoram seeds, which was also a pale yellow mobile liquid with a characteristic smell. Considerable variations in the compositional pattern are observed depending on the origin of herb, climatic and drying conditions, production procedure of the oil and many other factors. The aroma and taste are spicy, fragrant, warm, aromatic, penetrating and resemble that of lavender. The taste has a slightly bitter aftertaste. 19.3.1 Composition Many investigators have made studies on the composition of essential oil of marjoram and the important findings have been compiled by Lawrence (1981, 1983, 1984, 1989, 1997) and Prakash (1990). Verghese (2000) has reported the following types of compounds in sweet marjoram. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Monoterpenes: terpinolene, -phellandrene, -terpinene, -terpinene limonene, sabinene, -thujene, -pinene, -pinene, camphene, myrcene, ocimene Monoterpene alcohols: linalool, geraniol, -terpineol, terpinene-4-ol, cis- and trans2-p-menthen-1-ol, cis- and trans-sabinene hydrate, cis- and trans-piperitol, borneol, p-cymene-8-ol Monoterpene carbonyls: carvone, -thujone, camphor Monoterpene esters: neral acetate, geranyl acetate, linalyl acetate, and terpenyl-4acetate Sesquiterpenes: -caryophyllene, -humulene, -copaene, farnesene, ledene, elemene, -bisabolene, bicyclogermacrene, allo-aromadendrane Terpinoid ether/oxides: 1,8-cineol, aryophyllene epoxide Benzoid compounds: p-cymene, eugenol, thymol, carvacrol, methyl chavicol, anethole. Subramanian et al. (1972) studied the polyphenols of the leaves of marjoram and a new flavone designated majoranin, shown to be 4H ,5,7-trihydroxy-3H ,6,8-trimethoxyl flavone and the 7-glucuronides of dinatin and diosmetin have been isolated. Salehian and Netien (1973) compared major components of French, Hungarian and Egyptian marjoram essential oils and found that the ratio between the percentage composition of terpinen-4ol to linalool and linalyl acetate decreased in the order Hungarian, French and Egyptian marjoram. Study on marjoram by Taskinen (1974) from Bulgaria and Turkey by distillation with steam and by extraction and distillation with alcohol-water mixture disclosed 53 compounds. The amount of monoterpene alcohols in the alcoholic distillate was only around 20% compared to about 60% in the steam distillate. Granger et al. (1975) reported that oil existed in two forms, one predominant in cis-sabinene hydrate (cis-thujanol) and the other in terpinen-4-ol. They suggested that these two compounds could be thought of as being biogenetically related and the chemical composition of various marjoram oils as quantitative variations on a central biosynthetic theme. In addition to these compounds, ten monoterpene hydrocarbons, five oxygenated compounds and two sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were also isolated and identified. Karawya and Hifnawy (1976) reported the chemical composition of essential oil of marjoram from Egypt. Sarer et al. (1982) found that the oil of marjoram from Turkey contained monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes and phenols. Ramachandraiah et al. (1984) reported the physico-chemical characteristics of Indian Marjoram 221 Sweet marjoram oil from dried leaves. In a study by El-Keltawi and Khalil (1986) the highest percentage of essential oil in Egypt was recorded by applying 50 ppm of 2-styryl cyanine. Nykanen (1986) identified a total of 56 compounds and the most prominent components were cis-sabinene hydrate and 4-terpineol. Later in 1987, Nykanen and Nykanen reported the composition of fresh and dried cultivated marjoram from Finland. While comparing the yield and other attributes of different forms of marjoram from various regions of USSR and abroad, Voronina (1988) found that the highest essential oil yield was 1.6% from Crimea, followed by 1.56% from Czechoslovakia. The oil yield was 1.52% and 1.20% for marjoram from Romania and Egypt respectively as reported by Refaat et al. (1990). Egyptian marjoram oil was richer in the main component, terpinen4-ol (28.85%), in the first cut than the Romanian sample (20.80%). Franz (1990) from Austria confirmed the importance of cis-sabinene hydrate and other compounds in giving the characteristic flavour of marjoram leaves. The essential oil composition of different lines of marjoram grown in Turkey was analysed by Kiryaman and Ceylan (1990) and it was found that linalool content ranged from 17.53 to 48.05% and carvacrol content from 7.34 to 38.42%. Yadava and Saini (1991b) reported 18 components of essential oil of marjoram and their percentages varied from 2.84 to 36.7. There was one unidentified compound whose concentration was 1.10%. Karwowska and Kostrzewa (1991) noticed that essential oil of marjoram grown in Poland had no identical analogue, and the nearest in composition was essential oil from marjoram grown in Egypt. Komatis et al. (1992) studied the composition of essential oil of marjoram in Greece. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed 65 compounds. The most prominent component was 4-terpineol (37%) and together with -terpineol and cis- and trans-sabinene hydrate, constituted 50% of the essential oil. Three substances, viz., santalol, verbenone and carvacrol, were identified for the first time in marjoram. Pino et al. (1997) analysed the essential oil of marjoram grown in Cuba and found that among the 41 compounds identified, terpinen-4-ol (17.6%), linalool (16.41%) and thymol (11.55%) were the main constituents. Croteau (1977) studied the site of monoterpene biosynthesis in the leaves of marjoram. Excised epidermis of marjoram leaves incorporates label from (U-14C) sucrose into monoterpenes as efficiently as leaf discs, while mesophyll tissue has only a very limited capacity to synthesize monoterpenes from exogenous sucrose. These results strongly suggest that epidermal cells, presumably the epidermal oil glands, are the primary sites of monoterpene biosynthesis in marjoram. Khanna et al. (1985) obtained 1.9 per cent of oil for marjoram grown in saline alkali soils (pH 9.0 to 10.5). The main constituents identified by them were -terpinene, peymene, geraniol, linalool, -terpineol, carvacrol and thymol. El-Bilay (1985) noticed that young leaves of marjoram contained high levels of terpinen-4-ol, whereas aged leaves contained high levels of cis-sabinene hydrate. The young leaves had an appreciably greater capacity to synthesize volatile oil than aged leaves. Although oil glands were not the centres of monoterpene biosynthesis, it was suggested that they are the main stores of terpenes in the plant. Fischer et al. (1987) demonstrated that cissabinene hydrate and its acetate represent the original flavour compounds of the intact leaf. They opined that most of the monoterpenes described in the literature as being components of marjoram oil appear to be artifacts. Arnold et al. (1993) observed marjoram flowers to be richest in essential oil. They could identify 39 components, of which cis-sabinene hydrate (7.4 to 33.3%) and terpinen- 222 Handbook of herbs and spices 4-ol (16.6 to 21.6%) were characteristic of Origanum majorana var. tennifolium, while the main compound in O. dubium was carvacrol (81%). Carvacrol (69.4 to 81.6%) was also the major constituent of O. onites. Omer et al. (1994) identified nine components from the essential oils, and although there were qualitative and quantitative differences, the main constituent of all oils was terpinen-4-ol (26.7 to 41.6%). Cis-sabinene hydrate, the main component of essential oil of marjoram, a long-day plant (Circella et al., 1995) was produced in larger quantities in plants grown under 16 h light conditions than under conditions of 13 h and 10 h. However, terpinenes decreased with increasing day length. They opined that this effect on oil composition appeared as a reflection of the growth and development stage of the plants under the different photoperiods. Lower (older) leaves contained an essential oil with a relatively higher terpinene concentration. The essential oil composition of the inflorescences was found to be different from that of the leaf oils. The inflorescences were richer in sabinene and linalyl acetate, but poorer in cis-sabinene hydrate and -terpinene. As cis-sabinene hydrate is considered to be the key component for the typical marjoram flavour and fragrance (Fischer et al., 1987), the photoperiod influences the quality of marjoram to some extent. This explains partly why marjoram grown in northern environments is sensorally preferred. Studies by Rahgavan et al. (1997) of hydrosteam distillation analysis revealed that fresh marjoram volatiles contained 95 to 97% monoterpenes and their derivatives and 3 to 5% sesquiterpenes. They observed that cis-sabinene hydrate; trans-sabinene hydrate and terpinen-4-ol were the major components responsible for the characteristic flavour of the herb. Indian marjoram contained more cis-sabinene hydrate (23.6%) than any other sample referred to in the literature and this compound was retained in the convection and microwave (175 W) dried samples to a great extent. Rupasova et al. (1998) observed changes in biochemical composition of marjoram upon introduction in Belarus. Harvesting at the full flowering stage gave the highest yield of active compounds compared to the vegetative or budding phase. Molina et al. (1999) from northwest Argentina reported an essential oil content of 0.28 to 1.55% on fw basis. Vera and ChaneMing (1999) from Reunion Islands observed that the essential oil was rich in terpinen-4ol, cis-sabinene hydrate, p-cymene and -terpinene together with sabinene, -terpineol and -terpinene. They constituted about 80% of the total essential oil. Ozguven and Tansi (1999), in Turkey, obtained the highest essential oil yield at the post-flowering period. The main components of the oil were -terpinene, p-cymol and terpineol. 19.3.2 Extraction The steam distillable essential oil gives the subtle and delicate flavour of marjoram (Raghavan et al., 1997). Fischer et al. (1987) opined that carefully controlled extraction of flavour using supercritical carbon dioxide could maximize the content of cis-sabinene hydrate and minimize that of terpinen-4-ol. The formation of rearranged monoterpenes in essential oil of marjoram was due to two activated forms, viz. Z-sabinene hydrate pyrophosphate, Z-sabinene hydrate acetate along with Z-sabinene hydrate (Fischer et al., 1988). Ikeda et al. (1962) used retention time data to characterize the hydrocarbons (36.4% of the oil) found in sweet marjoram. Jimenez-Carmona et al. (1999) made comparisons of marjoram oil by continuous subcritical water extraction (CSWE) of ground marjoram leaves (0.4 g) by subjecting them to dynamic extraction with water at 50 bar, 150C and 2 ml/min for 15 min. and hydrodistillation of 140 g of marjoram leaves with 1000 ml of water for three hours. It Marjoram 223 was found that when CSWE was used, the compounds were removed from the aqueous extract by a single extraction with 5 ml of hexane, detected by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and identified by mass spectrometry, electronic impact. The CSWE method was quicker (15 min. vs 3 h), provided a more valuable essential oil (with higher amounts of oxygenated compounds and no significant presence of terpenes) and allowed substantial savings on cost, in terms of both energy and plant material. The efficiency, in terms of volume of essential oil/l g of plant material, of CSWE is 5.1 times higher than that provided by hydrodistillation. 19.4 Use in food Marjoram is used in many foods where a well-rounded herb note is desired. Nowadays, marjoram is added to soups, salad dressings, sauces for stewed meats (mainly mutton) and stuffings. Its widest use, however, is in seasoning sausages and salamis. Sometimes it is used together with other fresh herbs in bouquet garni. It has been used as a substitute for oregano when prices for that spice go up. Marjoram can be added to practically any dish in which one would use thyme (Stobart, 1970). Marjoram has a delicate perfume, which can be lost easily while cooking. Hence it is at its best when added shortly before the end of cooking or used in dishes which are cooked very little, such as an omelet. It may also be used raw and it is particularly delicious when finely chopped and with lemon juice. Pruthi (1976) reported that fresh leaves are employed as garnish and incorporated in salads. Dried flowering tops are used for sachets and potpourri. The aromatic seeds are used in confectionery and French confitures. Marjoram has pleasantly aromatic and distinctly mint-sweet flavour with slightly bitter undertones (Anon., 1989). This subtle aroma makes it an ideal addition to many herb mixtures as it helps give body and depth to a variety of dishes. Kybal and Kaplicka (1990) mentioned that marjoram was used in brewing beer before hops were known, and in France for making a wine called hippocras. It was also added to water used to rinse the fingers at the table during banquets. They also reported that marjoram is used more often in western cooking than in eastern cooking and finds more use in the UK, Germany and Italy. They described the use of marjoram according to ingredient, cooking technique and use for flavouring plant or animal food. Marjoram is used in Italian herb blends and is often a component of pizza and spaghetti sauce mixes. It is used in the whole and ground form and to a limited extent as an essential oil or oleoresin. The dried leaves and floral tops are superb for seasoning all meats, poultry, sea food and baked or grilled fish, egg and tomato dishes, soups such as chicken, mutton, turtle, green vegetables, stews, fruit salads, in flavouring vinegar; in formulation of liqueurs, vermouths. Seed of sweet marjoram finds use in meat products and confectioneries and French confitures make use of its oil. According to Chiej (1984), sweet marjoram oil is used for flavouring of fats, oils, baked foods, coconut foods, meat products, processed vegetables, condiment relishes, soups, vinegars, snack food and gravies. It is also employed in perfumery to introduce a fresh slightly medicinal-aromatic warm note and in medicinal formulations. Hirasa and Takemasa (1998) mentioned use of marjoram in a ground herb blend, which goes well with poultry flavoured foods. Italian sauce contains marjoram with other spices such as onion, oregano, basil, fennel, black pepper, red pepper if heat is desired, and possibly thyme. Greek cuisine uses oregano and marjoram frequently. 224 Handbook of herbs and spices Biacs and Wissgott (1997) noticed that addition of 0.2% (w/w) of marjoram and rosemary could reduce the pigment degradation in tomato products during storage. Dried marjoram gave one of the most efficient protections in light. During the frozen storage marjoram also gave protection against oxidation. The fresh marjoram protected the carotenoid pigment to a lesser extent than dried marjoram, which could be due to the high dry matter content of dried and the high water content of fresh marjoram. After nine weeks of storage the total carotenoid content loss was least in the case of fresh and dried rosemary and dried marjoram (20 to 28%). Shaaya et al. (1991) analysed the fumigant toxicity of 28 essential oils extracted from various spice and herb plants and some of their major constituents, were assessed against four major stored-product insects. The results showed that the compound linalool, terpineol and carvacrol and the essential oils of oregano, basil, Syrian marjoram and thyme were most active against Oryzaephilus surinamensis. 19.4.1 Other uses Studies were made by Kraus (1990, 1992), Quedzuweit (1994), Long et al. (1997) and Long and Long (1998) on the control of Varroa jacobsoni infestation in bees. Though Quedzuweit could not get any successful control under a simulated field condition, the other workers observed control of varroasis of honey bees (Apis mellifera) using formic acid and marjoram oil. Chiej (1984) reported the use of sweet marjoram for disinfesting beehives. Osmani et al. (1978) studied the effect of marjoram oil on metamorphosis of Aedes aegypti and found that though oil of marjoram is a poor inhibitor of growth at early larval stages, the fourth stage larvae, when treated with 60 or 80 ppm, produced either malformed pupae or malformed adults which were found to be dead within the pupal cases. The oil partially arrested the normal development of mosquito and is a good larvicide. El-Maksoud et al. (1999) observed that the highest weight gain of fingerlings of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was obtained when they were fed with 3% marjoram leaves of the total diet. This also resulted in the best protein and energy utilizations apart from having a significant effect on body composition. Marjoram oil is also employed to a small extent in high grade flavour preparations and perfumes and in the soap and liquor industries (Pruthi, 1976). 19.5 Functional properties Essential oils from aromatic and medicinal plants have been known since antiquity to possess biological activity, notably antibacterial, antifungal as well as antioxidant properties (Tiziana and Dorman, 1998). With the increasing interest in the use of essential oil in both the food and the pharmaceutical industries, a systematic evaluation of plant extracts for these properties has become increasingly important. Bacterial and fungal infections pose greater threats to health and hence the use of natural antimicrobial compounds is important in the control of human and plant diseases of microbial origin. 19.5.1 Antimicrobial properties Yadava and Saini (1991a) studied the antimicrobial effect of marjoram and found that fungi which were inhibited are A. fumigatus and A. niger. Studies by Ueda et al. (1982) Marjoram 225 revealed that the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) required for fungi such as S. cerevisiae, C. paracrusei, C. krusei and A. oryzae was <4.0%. Tiziana and Dorman (1998) reported antifungal activity of marjoram oil against the common spoilage fungus Aspergillus niger (strain IMI 17454) even at concentration of 1 micro litre/ml broth. Huhtanen (1980) observed that the MIC of hexane extract of marjoram needed for control of bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella sp., S. aureus, B. cereus and Campylobacter was 10% while Ueda et al. (1982) reported that only a lower concentration of 4% was necessary for control of bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, S. aureus 209P, E. coli, S. tphimurium, S. marcescens, P. aeruginosa, P. vulgaris and P. morganii at pH levels of 5 or 7. B. subtilis and S. aureus were the most vulnerable and at pH 5.0 the MIC for these two bacteria were 0.5 and 0.2% respectively. The antibacterial effect of marjoram oil was reported by many other workers (Galli et al., 1985; Deans and Ritchie, 1987; Deans and Svoboda, 1990; Yadav and Saini, 1991a). Tiziana and Dorman (1998) noticed that marjoram oil was most active in inhibiting the growth of Acinobacter calcoacetica, Beueckea natriegens and Staphylococcus aureus. However, Deans and Svoboda (1990) noticed marjoram oil to be least effective against S. aureus, which is a food poisoning bacterium. 19.5.2 Antioxidant properties The discovery of inhibition of lipid oxidation by some phenolic compounds during the late 1940s has contributed to the application of synthetic antioxidants in the food industry (Dapkevicius et al., 1997). Widely used artificial antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (Chan, 1987) are very effective in their role. However, their use in food products has been falling off due to their instability, strict legislation on the use of synthetic food additives, as well as due to a suspected action as promoters of carcinogenesis (Namiki, 1990; Pokorny, 1991; Duh and Yen, 1997). For these reasons there is a growing interest in the study of natural additives as potential antioxidants. The antioxidant properties of many herbs and spices are reported to be effective in retarding the process of lipid peroxidation in oils and fatty acids and have gained interest of many research groups. Shahidi et al. (1992) and Madsen et al. (1997) suggested that the antioxidant effect of aromatic herbs is due to the presence of hydroxy groups in their phenolic compounds. Tsimidou and Boskou (1994) concluded that among the herbs and spices extensively studied, the plants obtained from the Lamiaceae (Labiatae) family possess a significant antioxidant activity. Some natural polyphenols have therapeutic effects or a protective action against cardiovascular diseases and some cancers (Heinonen et al., 1998) and their use as a means of increasing the shelf-life of food products, improving the stability of fats and oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in slowing down the ageing process and in the treatment of human diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer was also reported (Tiziana and Dorman, 1998). They observed that in egg yolk assay, the antioxidant activity of marjoram was much higher than that of -tocopherol and comparable with that of BHT at all concentrations tested (100 to 1000 ppm). Saito et al. (1976) have obtained a higher antioxidant activity of marjoram at 0.02% against lard than tocopherol. Similar reports of effectiveness of marjoram as an antioxidant are available from other workers (Dapkevicius et al., 1997; Trombetta et al., 1998). Biacs and Wissgott (1997) noticed that ground tomato seeds with rosemary and marjoram stabilized the carotenoid pigments by way of their antioxidizing power. ElAlim et al. (1999) studied the effect of different dried spices and noticed that utilization 226 Handbook of herbs and spices of spices such as marjoram, wild marjoram and caraway and their mixtures or extracts in semi-prepared meat products intended to be frozen for up to six months or more before consumption is proved to be advantageous in regard to shelf-life of the food as well as for human health. Even though many workers noticed favourable antioxidant effect of marjoram as described above, Baardseth (1989) could not replace the antioxidant BHA in potato flakes production if stored for up to 24 months by others like TBHQ, -tocopherol, Prolong P (rosemary, thyme, marjoram mixture) or ascorbyl palmitate. Economou et al. (1991) found that marjoram extract was much less effective as an antioxidant than rosemary or oregano extract. 19.5.3 Control of platelet aggregation Okazaki et al. (1998) investigated the inhibitory effect of methanol extracts of 20 herbal species on human platelet aggregation, a factor in conditions such as thrombosis. Allspice, basil, marjoram, tarragon and thyme strongly inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by collagen. Basil, marjoram and tarragon strongly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP. They isolated an active compound, arbutin, from sweet marjoram as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. 19.5.4 Other therapeutic properties Yamazaki (1995) studied the effect of both medicinal and edible herbs and plants of the Labaiatae family including marjoram against HIV. Though he found non-inhibitory action on HIV for 70% ethanol extract of marjoram, at a concentration of 31 g/ml of water extract showed effects of inhibition of HIV-1 on Molt 4 (MT-4) cells. Formation of giant cell was also found to be inhibited by concentration of marjoram extract at 125 g/ ml. He suggested that the mechanism of their anti-HIV activity is due mainly to their inhibitory action on cell-to-cell adsorption. Anderson et al. (2000) evaluated the effect of massage with essential oil on children with atopic eczema and found that aromatherapy massage is a good treatment for the control of atopic eczema. Pruthi (1976) reported that intravenous injection of dogs with a saturated solution of essential oil in 33% ethyl alcohol (1 cc/kg body weight) increased peristaltic movement of intestine. Studies by Krukowski et al. (1998) in Poland have shown that mineral herbal supplements including nettle, St. Johns wort, camomile, salvia, agrimony and marjoram tended to increase the immunoglobulin G (IgG) serum level of reared calves. 19.5.5 Uses in traditional medicine Herbal medicines are being used by about 80% of the world population for primary health care and particularly in the developing countries. These drugs are popular for their safety, efficacy, and cultural acceptability as well as fewer side effects, and they cure age-related diseases for which modern medicines have not been completely successful. Ghos (2000) estimated that the herbal medicine market in Europe and America is worth ten and four billion US$ respectively. Use of marjoram in medicinal preparations was in vogue from many years back. Chopra et al. (1956) reported the use of marjoram oil in hot fomentations, for acute diarrhoea, and as an expectorant. Parry (1969) described marjoram to have properties of Marjoram 227 antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, stimulant, expectorant and nerve tonic. It functions as cure for asthma, coughs, indigestion, rheumatism, toothache and heart conditions. According to Mabey (1988) marjoram contains tonic and astringent bitter principles, which rouse the appetite and hence it is helpful for invalids. The leaves and seeds of marjoram are considered as astringent and a remedy for colic (Dayal and Purohit, 1971). Chiej (1984) reported that the powder acts as a sternulatory (inducing sneezing) if inhaled, and is, therefore effective against head colds. Prakash (1990) mentioned the use of volatile oil as an aromatic stimulant in colic, dyspepsia, flatulence and dysmenorrhoea. Sweet marjoram appears to have a stronger effect on the nervous system than its wild cousin (Balz, 1999; Chevallier, 1996). Sweet marjoram is a good general tonic, helping to relieve anxiety, headaches and insomnia. The herb is also thought to reduce sexual desire (Mahindru, 1994). Junemann (1997) mentioned that marjoram oil relaxes and alleviates tension, both mental and physical, and is used in natural healing for many complaints accompanying or caused by tension. Guba Ron (2000) reported that essential oil of marjoram has menstrual-regulating or hormone-like effects. 19.6 Quality issues 19.6.1 Quality control and adulteration As the vegetative parts of marjoram are used in the food and pharmaceutical industries, maintenance of quality of the produce is of utmost importance right from the harvesting stage onwards. All possible means should be taken to eliminate any chance of physical or microbial contamination. El-Kady et al. (1995) highlighted the importance of quality control to prevent growth of fungi and bacteria in food products. They analysed 120 samples belonging to 24 kinds of spices collected from different places at Assuit Governorate (Egypt) for the natural occurrence of mycotoxins and reported for the first time the presence of aflatoxins (8 35 g/kg) and sterigmatocystin (1023 g/kg) in different samples including marjoram. However, they could not detect the presence of ochratoxin and zearalenone. Glaze (1976) developed an improved method for extraction of light filth from whole, cracked, or flaked spices including marjoram. It involves a chloroform or isopropanol defatting, followed by a direct flotation from 40% isopropanol with Tween 80-EDTA (1+1) and mineral oil-heptane (85+15). The results showed that the proposed method is more rapid to perform and helps in better recoveries of filth than the official first action method for ground spices. Subsequently, Dent and Glaze (1985) mentioned that the present method for separating filth in underground marjoram is conducted in two steps, the first of these, which is for heavy filth and sand, requires the spice to be boiled with petroleum ether, then floated off with chloroform and, if needed, carbon tetrachloride. The second step, which is for light filth, is dependent on completion of the heavy filth section. After the spice is air dried, the light filth is extracted with heptane and water. The proposed method was developed to make light filth independent of heavy filth analysis, to improve filth recovery, and to reduce microscopic examination time. The light filth is extracted by ethanol defatting followed by a combination of 11560% ethanol/mineral oil extraction in a Wildman trap flask. The proposed method gave average recoveries of 73% for rodent hairs and 70% for insect fragments and it has been adopted as official first action to replace AOAC 13th edition sections 44.142 and 44.120(b) for underground marjoram only. 228 Handbook of herbs and spices Ravid et al. (1987) developed a method for finding out the adulteration of natural marjoram oil with racemic synthetics. They found that the determination of the enentiomeric composition of natural terpinen-4-ol, which is the major constituent in the essential oil of the fresh leaves and flowers from sweet marjoram, linalool and linalyl acetate by H-NMR spectroscopy using a chiral lanthanide shift reagent is a fast and nondestructive method. With the help of the method developed, it could be possible to make quantitative detection of adulteration of essential oil with synthetic racemic alcohols and acetates. Tietz et al. (1991) standardized a flavour profile analysis method for the evaluation of carbon dioxide extracts of marjoram. The method used for the development of a high-pressure extraction is quite suitable for the characterization of marjoram extracts as well as for the evaluation of commercial marjoram samples for any possible adulteration. Pank et al. (1999) suggested that an intensive green colour was typical of high quality in marjoram. They also observed a positive correlation between taste and smell. From another study Pank et al. (2000) opined that marjoram originated and processed in the northern region of the Harz Mountains and in the area of Madeburger Borde, Germany, has a high reputation in the world market due to its very high quality. They pointed out that the colour of the dried marjoram is of outstanding importance and a light green colour is preferred by consumers than a darker product. 19.6.2 Chemical and physical specifications Marjoram should consist of the dried leaves, with or without a small portion of the flowering tops of Majorana hortensis Moench. According to Heath (1978) the odour should be fresh and sweetly aromatic, slightly floral, penetrating but not irritating, cooling and pleasantly green, herbaceous with soft woody, fruity back tones, lingering and does not change much on airing from a smelling strip. The flavour should be warm, spicy, herbaceous but not particularly green, slightly bitter but not unpleasantly so. Farrell (1985) suggested that the round, light green to grey-green leaves should possess a pleasant aromatic odour and have a warm, slightly bitter taste. The ground product shall contain not more than 10% of stems by weight; and it must be uniformly ground to allow for a minimum of 95% by weight, to pass through a US standard no. 30 sieve. Various researchers have made analysis of quality parameters of dry herb and the results are summarized in Table 19.1. Wide variations are noticed in the mineral content of Indian, French and German sweet marjoram as reported in Table 19.2. Table 19.3 outlines the typical chemical and physical specifications, including FDA DALs. Table Table 19.1 Analysis of dry herb Merory (1968) Pruthi (1976) Farrell (1985) Water Protein Fixed oil Volatile oil 14.5% 5.6% 7.6g 12.714.3 g Pentosans Fibre Ash Fat 7.68% 7.0% 14.31% 5.60% 1.72% in tops, 0.05% in stem) 7.68% 22.06% 9.69% 7.68% 1822 g 1213 g 5.67.0 g Marjoram 229 Table 19.2 Mineral composition of marjoram from different sources (all values in per cent except for those given separately) Pruthi (1976) Total ash Sand Sand-free ash Potash Sodium Iron Calcium Silica Phosphorus Magnesium Manganese Chlorine Mahindru (1994) Farrell (1985) Winton & Winton (1939) German French 6.324 0.6614 5.414.3 18.320.2 0.650.68 6.17.3 17.624.8 19.426.5 8.99.1 4.86.7 trace-1.05 1.512.05 0.65 67000 ppm 21.2 9.1 57500 ppm 77 mg 83 mg 1990 mg 306 mg 346 mg 20.18 0.68 7.30 16.70 8.88 4.76 2.05 18.34 0.65 6.06 24.80 9.10 6.74 1.51 19.4 gives the ESA specifications of quality minima of marjoram in whole form. Table 19.5 details the chemical and physical specifications of ground marjoram and the nutritional information is given in Table 19.6. Different workers have reported the physico-chemical properties of marjoram oil, which are presented in Table 19.7. Table 19.3 Whole marjoram: chemical and physical specifications Specification Suggested limits ASTA cleanliness specifications Whole dead insects, by count Mammalian excreta, by mg/lb Other excreta, by mg/lb Mould, % by weight Insect defiled/infested % by weight Extraneous, % by weight 3 1 10.0 1.00 1.00 1.00 FDA DALs (6 subsamples) Insect infested and/or mouldy pieces by weight (unprocessed) Av. of 5% Mammalian excreta per lb. identified as to source when possible (unprocessed) Av. of 1 mg Insect fragments and/or rodent hairs (processed) Av. of 250 per 10 g subsample (processed) Av. of 2 Volatile oil 1.0% min Moisture 1 10.0% max Ash 15.0% max Acid insoluble ash 5.0 % max Federal specification < 10% of stems (EE-S-6311, 1981) by weight Average bulk index (mg/100 g) 660 1 ASTA suggested maximum moisture level. 230 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 19.4 ESA specifications of quality minima (marjoram whole form) ISO Ash (% w/w max) Acid insoluble ash (% w/w max) Water (% w/w max) Volatile oil (% v/w min) Table 19.5 10 2 12 1 Ground marjoram: chemical and physical specifications Specification Suggested limits FDA DALs (6 subsamples) Insect fragments Rodent hairs Volatile oil Moisture Total ash Acid insoluble ash Av. of 1175 or more/10 g Av. of 8 or more/10 g 0.8% 10.0% max 15.0% max 5.0% max Military specifications (EE-S-631J, 1981) Volatile oil (ml/100 g) Moisture Total ash Acid insoluble ash Non-volatile ether extract Granulation Bulk index1 (ml/100 g) 0.6 min 10.0% max 15.0% max 4.0% max 2035 95% min. through a U.S.S # 30 270 1 Average bulk index. Granulation will affect number. Table 19.6 Nutritional composition of marjoram per 100 g Composition USDA Handbook 8-21 ASTA2 Water (g) Food energy (kcal) Protein (g) Fat (g) Carbohydrate (g) Ash (g) Calcium (g) Phosphorus (mg) Sodium (mg) Potassium (mg) Iron (mg) Thiamine (mg) Riboflavin (mg) Niacin (mg) Ascorbic acid (mg) Vitamin A activity (RE) 7.64 271 12.66 7.04 60.56 12.10 1.990 306 77 1522 82.71 0.289 0.316 4.120 51.43 807 6.5 365 12.5 6.8 64.4 9.7 2.5 230 110 1400 72.7 0.290 0.320 4.10 51 807 1 2 Composition of Foods: Spices and Herbs. USDA Agricultural Handbook 8-2, January 1977. The Nutritional Composition of Spices. ASTA Research Committee, February 1977. Table 19.7 Typical physico-chemical properties for the oil Reference Specific gravity Optical rotation Refractive index (220) Acid number Ester number Solubility Guenther (1974) 0.892 to 0.901 (15/15) + 142H to +1940H 1.4707 to 1.4738 1.4 to 2.8 Gildemeister & Hoffmann (1961) EOA Book of Standards, USA Fenarolis Hand Book of Flavor Ingredients (1985) 0.894 to 0.910 (15) +150H to +250H 1.470 to 1.476 Up to 1.5 0.890 to 0.906 (15/15) +14 to +24 1.4700 to 1.4750 >2.5 81.2 86.8* 10 to 38 41 to 78* 68 to 86 0.886 to 0.902 (20) +13 to +24 1.4000 to 1.4760 <1.4 Soluble in 1 to 2 vol. of 80% alcohol Soluble in 1 to 2 vol. of 80% alcohol Soluble in 2 vol. of 80% alcohol 1:1 to 1:2.2 vol. of 80% alcohol * after acetylation. 232 19.7 Handbook of herbs and spices References and AHARON Z (1993), Coping with post harvest physiology of fresh culinary herbs, Acta Horti-Culturae, 344, 6978. ANDERSON C, LIS-BALCHIN M and KIRK-SMITH M (2000). 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YADAVA R N and SAINI V K (1991b), Gas chromatographic examination of leaf oil of Majorana hortensis Moench, Indian Perfumer, 35(2), 1023. YAMAZAKI K (1995), Aromatopia, 13, 64. 20 Nutmeg and mace B. Krishnamoorthy and J. Rema, Indian Institute of Spices Research, Kerala 20.1 Introduction Nutmeg and mace are two different parts of the same fruit of the nutmeg tree, Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae). The nutmeg tree is indigenous to the Banda islands in the Moluccas. The species of the genus Myristica are distributed from India and SouthEast Asia to North Australia and the Pacific Islands. Sinclair (1958) listed a total of 72 species distributed in these areas. The major nutmeg growing areas are Indonesia and Grenada (West Indies). It is also grown on a smaller scale in Sri Lanka, India, China, Malaysia, Western Sumatra, Zanzibar, Mauritius and the Solomon Islands. Nutmeg belongs to a small primitive family Myristicaceae with about 18 genera and 300 species. Myristica is the most primitive genus of the family (Sinclair, 1958). Warming (1890) and Talbot (1902) opined that Myristicaceae is closely related to Lauraceae. But there is evidence from morphological and anatomical studies that Myristicacea is more closely related to Annonaceae and Canellaceae (Wilson and Maculans, 1967). At present Myristicaceae is considered as a member of Magnoliales or its taxonomical equivalents (Cronquist, 1981; Dahlgren, 1983). Nutmeg is a conical tree reaching a height of 4 to 10 metres. The tree is dioecious with male and female flowers occurring on different trees. Nutmeg tree is obligatory cross pollinated and an ant mimicking flower beetle (Formicomum braminus Anthridae) is an effective pollinator in South India (Armstrong and Drummond, 1986). The fruits are pendulous, broadly pyriform, yellow, smooth, 710 cm long, fleshy splitting open into two halves when ripe, showing the ovoid 23 cm long dark brown shining seed with hard seed coat, surrounded by a lanciate red aril attached to the base of the seed. The seed of nutmeg is large with ruminate endosperm and is considered as the most primitive among the flowering plants (Corner, 1976). Nutmeg and mace 20.2 239 Production and chemical structure Nutmeg and mace are the two major primary products of Myristica fragrans and are commercially considered as spice. Nutmeg is the dried kernel of the seed and mace is the dried aril surrounding the seed. Both the spices have similar flavour. However, nutmeg is reported to be slightly sweeter than mace and is more preferred in food. Besides nutmeg and mace a number of other products are commercially important. Oleoresins, nutmeg butter and essential oils are also derived from M. fragrans and they find varied uses in the food, medicine and perfume industries. Nutmeg is produced in the tropical areas of Indonesia and the West Indies. World production of nutmeg is about 12 000 tons per year with an annual world demand of 9 000 tons. Production of mace is about 2 000 tons. Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and export both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producing countries include India, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka and a few Caribbean Islands. The East Indian islands of Siauw, Sangihe, Ternate, Ambon, Banda and Papua produce highly aromatic nutmeg, traded as East Indian nutmeg. Grenada produces the West Indian nutmeg which is milder in flavour and lighter in colour. International trade in nutmeg is either of the East Indian or the West Indian nutmeg, with a negligible quantity of wild Bombay nutmeg imported by USA. The principal import markets are the European Community, the USA, Japan and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are the major re-exporters. USA is the biggest individual market for whole nutmegs. US importers prefer the East Indian type of deep brown, aromatic nutmeg and orange red mace in their whole form. Indonesia has traditionally been the principal supplier of nutmeg and mace to the US market, accounting for an average 65% of total US imports of nutmeg per year in terms of volume. 20.2.1 Nutmeg Fruits are harvested when they split open on ripening. The split fruits are either plucked from the tree with a hook bill or are collected soon after they drop onto the ground. Nutmeg is dried in large trays by various procedures. The unshelled nutmegs are dried in the sun until the seeds inside rattle on shaking. Normally nutmeg dries in about a week. The seed cover is removed by breaking the hard seed coat mechanically. Nutmeg is usually packed in double layered linen, jute, sisal or polythene bags. If other packing materials are used, care must be taken to avoid materials which might lead to sweating and mould development. Packaging should be such that the maximum weight loss is 10%. Spices must be dried thoroughly prior to shipment. They can then be transported in conventional vessels. Powdered nutmeg is prepared by grinding at ambient temperature. Since during traditional grinding, most of the volatile oil escapes and quality deteriotes, chill conditioning and cryogenic grinding are alternative methods followed at present (McKee and Harden, 1991). The myristicin fraction of the volatile oil together with elemicin is responsible for the hallucinogenic property of the seed. 20.2.2 Mace Mace is detached from the nut carefully soon after harvest, washed, flattened by hand or between boards and then sun dried until they become brittle. Hot air ovens can be used 240 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 20.1 Composition of nutmeg and mace (%) Composition Nutmeg Mace Moisture Volatile oil Non-volatile ether extract Starch Sugars Glucose Fructose Total reducing sugars Sucrose Total sugars Protein Crude fibre Total ash Ash insoluble in HCl Polyphenols Total tannins True tannins 40.00 11.00 33.60 30.20 40.00 15.30 21.98 44.05 0.10 0.07 0.17 0.72 0.89 7.16 11.70 2.57 0.20 0.17 0.10 0.27 0.39 0.65 9.91 3.93 1.56 0.15 2.50 1.00 Source: Gopalakrishnan (1992). for drying and the colour retention is much better than sun dried mace. Dried mace is graded and packed. The fixed oil content of mace ranges from 20 to 35%. The general composition of nutmeg and mace are given in Table 20.1. 20.2.3 Nutmeg oil and mace oil The essential oil from nutmeg is steam distilled usually from substandard nutmeg and nutmeg oil ranges from 5 to 15% of the seed weight. The essential oil is highly sensitive to light and temperature and yields a colourless, pale yellow or pale green oil with a characteristic odour of nutmeg. The oil is soluble in alcohol and insoluble in water. The essential oil of East Indian nutmeg and West Indian nutmeg differ in their flavour and odour characteristics. The East Indian nutmeg oil is considered superior to the West Indian nutmeg oil, having a better aroma and a higher amount of phenyl propanoid ethers (Masada, 1976) and terpenes (Lewis, 1984). The physico-chemical properties of the two oils are reported to be different (Table 20.2). East Indian nutmeg oil is also reported to Table 20.2 Specifications of British Standards Institutions for nutmeg oil Specification East Indian Oil West Indian Oil Colour BS 2999/37:1971 Colourless to yellow BS 2999/38: 1971 Colourless to pale yellow 0.885 to 0.915 8.0 to 25.0 1.4750 to 1.4880 0.860 to 0.880 25.0 to 45.0 1.4720 to 1.4760 3.0 volumes 4.0 volumes Apparent density (mass per ml) at 20C Optical rotation at 20C Refractive index at 20C Solubility in ethanol (90 per cent (v/v) at 20C) Source: Purseglove et al. (1981). Nutmeg and mace Table 20.3 Source component 241 Composition of nutmeg oils of different geographical origins (%) Grenada St. Vincent -pinene 10.6 Camphene 0.2 -pinene 7.8 Sabinene 50.7 Myrcene 2.5 -phellandrene 0.4 -terpinene 0.8 Limonene 3.1 1,8-cineole 2.5 -terpinene 1.9 p-cymene 3.2 Terpinolene 1.7 trans-sabinene 0.8 hydrate Copaene 0.3 Linalool 0.9 cis-sabinene 0.7 hydrate cis-p-menth0.4 2-en-ol Terpinen-4-ol 6.1 cis-piperitol 0.5 Safrole 0.2 Methyl eugenol 0.2 Eugenol 0.2 Elemicin 1.4 Myristicin 0.5 Malay Papua seedlings Indonesia Penang Singapore (1) (2) 12.6 0.2 12.1 49.6 2.8 0.6 1.9 3.3 2.3 3.1 0.7 1.2 0.3 12.8 0.2 9.3 44.1 2.9 0.6 1.8 3.1 2.1 2.8 0.8 1.2 0.5 21.3 0.3 14.3 30.0 2.4 0.5 1.1 2.7 1.9 1.9 0.5 1.1 0.1 18.0 0.3 9.7 27.0 2.2 0.5 2.0 2.7 1.8 3.3 0.7 1.1 0.6 19.9 0.3 17.7 36.3 2.5 0.4 0.8 2.8 1.5 1.3 0.3 0.6 0.2 21.2 0.3 12.7 17.8 2.6 1.0 4.0 3.6 3.2 6.8 1.8 2.1 0.3 19.2 0.4 11.0 15.4 2.3 0.7 2.5 3.4 2.7 4.1 2.7 2.6 0.5 * 0.4 0.2 * 0.2 0.4 0.2 1.0 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.6 * 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.8 0.2 0.2 0.9 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.1 0.3 0.3 3.5 0.4 0.1 0.1 * 1.3 0.8 6.0 0.4 0.8 0.5 0.3 1.7 4.1 3.9 0.6 1.5 0.2 0.1 0.4 10.4 7.3 0.4 2.1 1.2 0.7 0.5 13.5 2.0 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.3 4.6 3.3 9.3 0.5 1.9 0.6 * 0.3 6.3 10.9 0.3 3.2 * * 0.3 12.4 * Traces detected Source: Lewis (1984). have a higher concentration of myristicin (up to 13.5%), than West Indian nutmeg oil (less than 1%) (Table 20.3) Mace oil is obtained by steam distillation of dried aril and yields 4 to 17% oil. It is a clear red or amber dark red liquid with characteristic odour and flavour. Mace oil is more expensive than nutmeg oil. Leaves also yield oil (0.340.65%), chemically similar to nutmeg oil, but its flavour and odour are inferior to both mace and nutmeg oil. Extraction of essential oil can be carried out by different methods. However, mace oil extracted using liquid and dense carbon dioxide was superior in quality and flavour compared with the steam distilled oil (Naik et al., 1988). Essential oil has got several compounds, most of which are invaluable to industries. Because of its aroma, the essential oil is used as a natural flavouring extract in cosmetic industries. In addition to its use in cosmetic industries, nutmeg is also used in the pharmaceutical industry. The pharmacological properties of nutmeg are attributed to the compounds found in the essential oil. The first report on nutmeg constituents was by Frederick Power and Henry Salway (Power and Salway, 1907, 1908). Numerous compounds have been isolated from nutmeg and mace. The yield and quality of the oil depends on the geographical location (Table 20.3), grades and the distillation process involved. The major constituents of both nutmeg and mace oil are monoterpene hydrocarbons, together with smaller amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes and aromatic ethers (Purseglove et al., 1981). 242 Handbook of herbs and spices Major constituents of the monoterpene hydrocarbons are pinene and sabinene and the major aromatic ether constituent is myristicin. Aromatic ethers, myristicin, safrole and elemicin determine the flavour and medicinal properties to a great extent. A recent GC analysis of the oils of nutmeg and mace showed 33 constituents in nutmeg oil and 51 in mace oil. Both the oils are qualitatively similar in composition, differing only in their quantity. Nutmeg oil consists of 76.8% monoterpenes, 12.1% oxygenated monoterpenes and 9.8% phenyl propanoid ether whereas mace oil contains 51.2% monoterpenes, 30.3% oxygenated monoterpenes and 18.8% phenyl propanoid ethers (Table 20.4) (Mallavarapu and Ramesh, 1998), and the composition varies with the geographical location (Baldry et al., 1976; Masada, 1976; Lawrence, 1981; Kumar et al., 1985; Gopalakrishnan, 1992). The Indonesian nutmeg contained 2% myristicin compared with 0.13% in M. argentea. No myristicin was reported in M. muelleri. The safrole content, a suspected carcinogen, was 0.13, 0.51 and 0.245 in M. fragrans, M. argentea and M. muelleri, respectively (Archer, 1988). The myristicin fraction together with the elemicin is responsible for the hallucinogenic properties of nutmeg seed. The composition of essential oil changes on prolonged storage. The structure of some of the compounds are given in Fig. 20.1. During storage and transportation, oils should be protected from light and stored in tightly-packed containers at a temperature not exceeding 25C. Prolonged storage deteriorates the composition of the oil. 20.2.4 Nutmeg oleoresin Nutmeg oleoresin is obtained by solvent extraction of spices. Oleoresins contain saturated volatile oil, fatty oil and other extractives soluble in the particular solvent employed. Nutmeg oleoresins, obtained by solvent extraction from the dried spice of nutmeg, are used in colouring and flavouring in the food industry. The spice oleoresin can be used in place of the dried spice. The commercial products exhibit a range in their essential oil and fixed oil content depending on the method of extraction and solvents employed. Nutmeg extracted with benzene yields 31 to 37% of oleoresins and with cold ethanol yields 18 to 26%. A higher fatty oil is obtained by hydrocarbon solvents while polar solvents like alcohol and acetone yield low fatty oils and resins. Commercial mace oleoresins are available with volatile oil content ranging from 10 to 55%. When extracted with petroleum ether, it yields 27 to 32% and contains 8.522% volatile oils, and after chilling the yield reduces to 1013% (Naves, 1974). Oleoresins extracted with non-polar solvents are preferred in flavouring processed foods since they are more stable to heat, whereas the perfume industry prefers polar solvents since they are soluble in most perfume materials and do not deposit any fatty materials in the bottles or containers (Purseglove et al., 1981). 20.2.5 Nutmeg butter The fixed oil of nutmeg is known as nutmeg butter. Nutmeg butter contains 25 to 40% fixed oil, which is obtained by expressing the crushed nuts or by extracting with solvents. Fixed oil is a semi solid, or reddish brown fat with both the aroma and taste of nutmeg. It is completely soluble in hot alcohol and sparingly soluble in cold alcohol. The fixed oil is freely soluble in ether or chloroform and is composed of trimyristin (84%), unsaponifiable constituents (9.8%), oleic acid (3.5%), resinous materials (2.3%), linolenic acid (0.6%) and formic, acetate and cerotic acids in traces. Trimyristicin is a Nutmeg and mace Fig. 20.1 243 Chemical structures. triglyceride of myristic acid and is volatile to yellowish grey solid. Reports say that the best nutmeg butter is imported from the East Indies. The fixed oils are also used in perfumes and medicines. In medicines, it is used for external application for sprains and rheumatism. 244 20.3 Handbook of herbs and spices Main uses and functional properties 20.3.1 Food Nutmeg, mace, their oleoresins and essential oils are used in the food and beverage industries. Although whole nutmeg is available, ground nutmeg is more popular. The spice in the ground form is mainly used in the food processing industry. In South-East Asia, China and India, both the spices are used sparingly. Nutmeg is a standard seasoning in many Dutch dishes. Nutmeg and its oleoresin are used in the preparation of meat products, soups, sauces, baked foods, confectioneries, puddings, seasoning of meat and vegetables, to flavour milk dishes and punches. The fleshy outer cover of the fruit is crystallized or pickled or made into jellies. Mace is sold either as whole or as ground spice and is used in savory dishes. Mace is used to flavour milk-based sauces and processed meats like sausages. Soups, pickles and ketchup, pickles and chutneys are also seasoned with mace. Because of its aroma, the essential oil is used as a natural flavouring extract and is employed for flavouring food products and liquors. Nutmeg oil and mace oil are used mainly in flavouring soft drinks, canned foods and meat products. 20.3.2 Functional properties and toxicity Both nutmeg and mace are used in the pharmaceutical industries. Powdered nutmeg is rarely administered alone but it enters into the composition of numerous medicines as aromatic adjuncts. The use of essential oils in aromatherapy is gaining importance. The main constituents of nutmeg and mace, myristicin, elemicin and isoelimicin when presented in aroma form, act as stress relievers. In Japan, many companies diffuse such aromas through air ventilation systems to improve the work environment as well as the quality of air. It is more commonly used in Oriental than in Western medicine. Medicinally it is known for its stimulative and carminative properties. The seeds are carminative, stomachic, astringent, deodorant, narcotic, aphrodisiac and useful in flatulence, nausea, and vomiting. The antioxidant properties of nutmeg have been discussed by various authorities (Madsen and Bertelsen, 1995; Lagouri and Boskou, 1995). Oil of nutmeg is useful in the treatment of inflammation of the bladder and urinary tract, halitosis, dyspepsia, flatulence, impotence, insomnia and skin diseases. It is also used externally as a stimulant and the ointment as a counterirritant. Essential oil has got several compounds, most of which are valuable in industry. Most of the pharmacological properties of nutmeg are attributed to the compounds found in the essential oil. Mace oil possesses almost identical physiological and organoleptic properties as nutmeg oil. Nutmeg butter is a mild external stimulant used in the form of ointments, hair lotions and plaster, and used against rheumatism, paralysis and sprains. Both nutmeg and mace contain the active ingredient myristicin which possesses narcotic properties. Nutmeg butter contains elemicin and myristicin which are also narcotic and cause psychotropic effects. Ingestion in large quantities produces narcosis, delirium, drowsiness, epileptic convulsions and even death. It also causes temporary constipation and difficulty in urination and increased fat deposition in liver. Powdered nutmeg is used occasionally as a hallucinogenic drug, but such use is dangerous as excessive dose of mace has a narcotic effect and symptoms of delirium and epileptic convulsions appear after 16 hours of consumption. Nutmeg and mace 245 20.3.3 Perfume and other uses Nutmeg oil is used in cosmetics, mens perfume and toiletries due to its aromatic properties. Mace oil possesses almost identical physico-chemical and organoleptic properties as nutmeg oil. Mace oil is also used to a limited extent in perfumes and soaps. The myristicin component which imparts the hallucinogenic properties is also reported to be an effective insecticide. The lignin type of constituents in the nut are anticarcinogenic. Camphene present in the oil is used in the manufacture of camphor and related compounds and has strong antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal properties. Pinene of the essential oil of nutmeg is used to make camphor, solvents, plasticizers, perfume bases and synthetic pine oil. Dipentene is used in the manufacture of resins and is used as wetting and dispersing agent. Myristic acid is used in the preparation of soaps, liquid detergents, shampoos, shaving creams, perfumes, plastics, in compounding rubber, paints and greases, in the synthesis of esters for flavours and perfumes and as a component of food grade additives. Resorcinols (malabaricone and malabaricone C) isolated from the mace exhibited strong antibacterial and antifungal activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Candid (Orabi et al., 1991). Larvicidal properties are also reported in mace, the larvicidal principle in mace was identified as diarylnonanoid, malabaricone C against second stage larvae of Toxocara canis (Nakamura et al., 1988). 20.4 Quality issues Nutmeg and mace are classified by origin (East Indian nutmeg and West Indian nutmeg) and grade. Good quality has to be maintained for trade of nutmeg and mace. Whole nutmegs are grouped under three broad quality classifications: Sound: Nutmegs which are used mainly for grinding and to a lesser extent for oleoresin extraction. Substandard: Nutmegs which are used for grinding, oleoresin extraction and essential oil distillation. Distilling: Poor quality nutmegs used for essential oil distillation. In Indonesia, high quality of sound whole nutmeg are traded in grades which refer to their size in numbers of nutmeg per pound: 80s, 110s and 130s or ABCD which is an assortment of various sizes. Substandard nutmegs are traded as sound, shrivelled, which in general have a higher volatile content than mature sound nutmegs and are used for grinding, oleoresin extraction and oil distillation, and BWP (broken, wormy and punky) which are used mainly for grinding as volatile oil generally does not exceed 8%. Distilling grades of nutmeg are of poor quality: BIA or ETEZ with a volatile oil content of 8% to 10% and BSL or AZWI which has less shell material and a volatile oil content of 1213%. In Grenada, sound nutmegs are sold as sound unassorted which corresponds to the Indonesian grade ABCD. Substandard nutmegs are classified as floats and as defective, the latter is similar to the Indonesian BWP grade but considered of high quality. Distilling grades of nutmegs are primarily exported to the USA and consist of floats. Mace is classified as whole pale mace, No. 1 broken mace, selected, unassorted or siftings (Indonesia) and as whole, broken blades or siftings (Grenada). The International Standards applicable for trade in spices of nutmeg and mace are ISO 6577:1990. Though national standards are available for maintaining the quality (see Tables 20.2, 20.5, 20.6 and 20.7), the European traders prefer the ASTA cleanliness specifications 246 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 20.5 Product American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) cleanliness specifications Insect (by count) Nutmeg (broken) 4 Nutmeg (whole) 4 Mace 4 Excreta Excreta mammalian other (mg/lb) (% wt) Mould (% wt) Insect infested (% wt) Foreign matter (% wt) 5 0 3 * * 2.0 * * 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 0.0 1.0 * Not more than 5% by weight insect defiled and mould infected. Source: Sivadasan and Kurup (1999). Table 20.6 Defect Action Levels prescribed by US Food and Drug Administration for spices Mace Insect filth and/or mould Mammalian excreta Nutmeg (whole) Insect filth and/or mould Average of 3% or more pieces by weight are insect infested and/or mouldy Average of 3 mg or more of mammalian excreta per pound Average of 10% or more pieces by count are insect infested and/or mouldy Source: Sivadasan and Kurup (1999). (Table 20.5) as they are more strict than the National standards. The Quarantine System and Plant Protection Law and the Food Sanitation Act set the quality standard in Japan. Aflatoxin (The Netherlands, Japan) and salmonella (United Kingdom) are the common complaints on the imports of nutmeg. The presence of insects is a major complaint for US importers. Adulteration is common in the nutmeg trade. The essential oil has often been extracted before they are marketed and such nuts can be detected by their light weight and are more subjected to insect attack. M. fragrans is adulterated with M. argentea, M. malabarica and M. otaba which can be identified by their poor quality. The mace from M. argentea is imported as Papuan nutmeg from Papua New Guinea, M. malabarica is traded as Bombay nutmeg from India and from M. otaba as Otaba nutmeg. Trade of wild nutmeg exists and they are marketed as long, female, Macassar, Papua, Guinea, or Norse nutmeg. All these have been traced to M. argentea of New Guinea from where they enter into the market as Macassar nutmegs. M. malabarica, M. otaba and M. argentea are devoid of any aroma of M. fragrans. Table 20.7 Dutch regulations for cleanliness specifications Product Ash content (max. %) Sand content (max. %) Volatile oil (min. %) Others Nutmeg Mace 3.5 3.5 0.5 0.5 4.0 4.0 NVEE * 5.0 NVEE * 4.0 * NVEE Non-volatile ether extract Source: Sivadasan and Kurup (1999). Nutmeg and mace 20.5 247 References 1988. Determination of safrole and myristicin in nutmeg and mace by high performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography, 438(1): 11721. ARMSTRONG J.E. and DRUMMOND B.A. 1986. Floral biology of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae), the nutmeg of commerce. Biotropica, 18(1): 328. BALDRY J.L., DOUGAN J., MATTHEWS W.S., NABNEY J., PICKERING G.R. and ROBINSON F.V. 1976. Composition and Flavour of Nutmeg oils. International Flavours and Food Additives, 7: 28. CORNER F.J.H. 1976. The Seeds of Dicotyledons. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. CRONQUIST A. 1981. An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. Columbia. University Press, New York. DAHLGREN R. 1983. General aspects of angiosperm evolution and macro systematics. Nordic Journal Botany, 3: 11949. GOPALAKRISHNAN M. 1992. Chemical composition of nutmeg and mace. Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops, 1(1): 4954. KUMAR S.J., JANSZ E. and DHARMADASS H.S. 1985. Some physiological and chemical characteristics of Sri Lankan nutmeg oil. Journal Science Food Agriculture, 36: 93100. LAGOURI V. and BOSKOU D. (1995) Screening for antioxidant activity of essential oils obtained from spices. In Food Flavors: Generation, Analysis and Process Influence (ed. Charalambous G.), Amsterdam, Elsevier, pp. 86979. LAWRENCE B.M. 1981. Progress in essential oils. Perfum and Flavorist, 22: 689. LEWIS Y.S. 1984. Spices and Herbs for the Food Industry, Food Trade Press, Orpington, England. MADSEN H.L. and BERTELSEN G. 1996. Spices as antioxidants. Trends Food Sci Technol, 6: 2717. MALLAVARAPU G.R. and RAMESH S. 1998. Composition of essential oils of nutmeg and mace. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences, 20: 7468. MASADA Y. 1976. Application of Gas-Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry to the Identification of Essential Oils. Plenum Press, John Wiley and Sons, New York. MCKEE L.H. and HARDEN M.L. 1991. Nutmeg: a review. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft und Technologie, 24(3): 198203. NAIK S.N., MAHESHWARI R.C. and MAHESHWARI M.L. 1988. Extraction of essential oils in liquid and dense carbon dioxide. Indian Perfumer, 32(1): 7485. NAKAMURA N., KIUCHI F., TSUDA Y. and KONDO K. 1988. Studies on crude drugs effective on visceral larva migrans. V. The larvicidal principle in mace (aril of Myristica fragrans). Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 36(7): 26858. NAVES Y.R. 1974. Technologie et Chimie des Parfums Naturels, Paris, Masson et Cie. ORABI K.Y., MOSSA J.S. and EL-FERALY F.S. 1991. Isolation and characterization of two antimicrobial agents from mace (Myristica fragrans). Journal Natural Products, 54(3): 8569. POWER F.B. and SALWAY H.S. 1907. The constituents of nutmeg. Chemical Society Journal, 91, 203758. POWER F.B. and SALWAY H.S. 1908. The constituents of the expressed oil of nutmeg. Journal of the Chemical Society, 83, 16539. PURSEGLOVE J.W. BROWN E.G. GREEN C.L. and ROBBIN S.R.L. 1981. Spices, Vol. 1. Longman, New York. SINCLAIR J. 1958. A revision of the Malaysian Myristicaceae. Singapore Gard. Bull, 16: 205472. ARCHER A.W. 248 Handbook of herbs and spices and KURUP M. P. 1999. Quality Requirement of Spices for Export. Spices Board, India. TALBOT W.A. 1902. The Tree Shrubs and Woody Climbers of Bombay Presidency, 2nd edn. Govt. Central Press, Bombay. WARMING E. 1890. Cited by Garratt, 1933. Bearing of wood anatomy on the relationships of the Myristicaceae. Tropical Woods, 36: 2040. WILSON T.K. and MACULANS L. 1967. The morphology of Myristicacea. Flowers of Myristica fragrans and M. malabarica. American Journal Botany, 54: 21420. SIVADASAN C.R. 21 Onion K.E. Lawande, National Research Centre for Onion and Garlic, Pune 21.1 Introduction Onion is a famous spice commodity grown all over the world and consumed in various forms. It has been in cultivation for more than 4000 years. The maximum diversity of Allium species is found in a belt from the Mediterranean basin to Iran and Afghanistan, i.e. Iran, north Iraq, Afghanistan, Soviet middle-Asia and west Pakistan,1 indicating the primary centre of origin. The earliest record comes from Egypt where onions appear as carvings on pyramid walls and in tombs from the third and fourth dynasties (2700 BC).2 It is thought that Romans took the onion north of the Alps. The onion was among the first cultivated plants taken to the Americas from Europe. Europeans took the species to East Asia during the last century. The distinctive flavour of alliums have established plants as an essential part of the cuisine of the world. It is used as immature, mature bulbs as vegetable and spice as well as food for poultry and non-milking cattle. In India and China, onion is the basis of many dishes. Nearly every Indian recipe starts with the same procedure. Fry chopped or sliced onion slowly, add spices (frequently fresh garlic and ginger and dried spices like cumin, turmeric, chillies) and fry until the onion turns golden. The mixture (wet masala) may afterwards be pureed, simmered with tomatoes or yogurt or just added to boiled or fresh vegetables, meat, chicken and fish to form curry. The onion rings can be fried and used as fast food. Onion pakodas made out of sliced onion and chickpea flour is an important snack item in Indian hotels. Onion can be eaten raw or cooked; mild flavoured or coloured bulbs are often chosen for salad. Alliums are also used widely in food processing. However, handling of bulk of onion and storage of bulbs for 56 months is cumbersome. Losses of fresh onion in storage have been reported to be about 25 to 30%.3 Value addition of raw onion in the form of processed products is the most practical solution. Whilst onion is traded in its raw form, the international market is increasingly focused on dehydrated products such as flakes, rings, granules, powder, etc., and processed onion as frozen or canned, or onions in vinegar and onions in brine. Allium cepa is cultivated mainly as a biennial, but some types are treated as perennials. It is propagated by seeds, bulbs or sets (small bulbs). Very wide variation in shape, size 250 Handbook of herbs and spices and colour is observed in this species. Intensive selection during domestication and natural hybridization might have created variability. There is a lot of controversy regarding the taxonomic position of Allium and related genera. In early classification onion was placed in the Liliaceae. Some British and American botanists included onion in Amaryllidaceae . In a more recent taxonomic treatment of monocotyledons, Allium and its close relatives are recognized as the distinct family Alliaceae , close to Amaryllidaceae. Robinowitch and Brewster1 suggested the following hierarchy: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Class: Super order: Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Monocotyledones Liliiflorae Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium Jones and Mann4 gave simple classification of genus Allium cepa for the use of horticulturists as under: a. Common Onion Group (Allium cepa L. var. Cepa; Allium cepa L. ssp. Cepa, and ssp. Australe Trofim): Bulbs are large, normally single. Plants produce from seeds or from seed grown sets. The majority of cultivars grown for dry bulbs belong to this group. This is the most important group of trade grown all over the world. It includes hundreds of open pollinated varieties, land races and commercial F1 hybrids. Maximum diversity exists in southwest Asia comprising countries like India, Pakistan, the former Soviet Republics and also Mediterranean countries. b. Aggregatum Group or Shallots (Allium ascalonicum auct. Non strand; Allium cepa L. ssp orientale kazak): Bulbs are smaller than common onions and several to many form an aggregated cluster. Reproduction is almost exclusively vegetative via daughter bulbs. Occasionally scapes are developed and in some types, seed production is possible. This group is of minor importance. Locally adapted cultivars are grown mainly in home gardens. Cultivars are more suited to humid tropical regions of Asia, West Africa and the Caribbean area. c. Ever-Ready Onion (Allium cepa L. var. perutile stearn): Bulbs are narrow with shorter flower stalks and smaller umbel. Bulbs or leaves can be gathered at all times of the year. It is used mainly as salad onion. This group is again sub-divided into potato or multiplier onion and shallots. (i) Potato or Multiplier Onion: The bulbs divide into between 3 and 20 bulb sets that are wider than they are long. They are covered by outer dry skins. (ii) Shallot: Shallots form cultures of narrow, separate bulbs. The leaves and flowers are usually smaller than common onion. Shallots are suitable for high latitude and short season regions. 21.2 Chemical structure and influences on flavour The importance of onion lies in the flavour that it imparts to various other dishes. A common onion contains the following nutrient components:5 Moisture Protein Fat 88.692.8% 0.91.6% Trace0.2% Onion Carbohydrates Ash Energy 5.29.0% 0.6% 2338 cal 100g1 Elements Ca P K Na Mg Al Ba Fe Sr B Cu Zn Mn S mg 100g1 fresh weight 190540 200430 80110 3150 81150 0.51 0.11 1.82.6 0.87 0.61 0.050.64 1.52.8 0.51.0 5051 Vitamins Vitamin D Riboflavin Nicotinic acid Vitamin C Folic acid Biotin Pantothenic acid 251 100g-1 0.3 mg 0.05 mg 0.2 m 10.0 mg 16.0 g 0.9 g 0.14 mg Among various free amino acids which vary greatly, glutanic acid and orginine are abundant in onion. The concentration of these amino acids is higher at the centre of the bulb and decreases towards the outer scales. Onion is characterized by its distinctive flavour and pungency which is due to sulphur containing compounds available in the scales of bulbs. The sulphur is in the form of various non-protein amino acids which include the precursors of volatile flavour compounds. These precursors are odourless, non-volatile amino acids of general name Salk(en)yl cysteine sulphoxides.6 The precursors occur naturally in four types: 1. 2. 3. 4. O j CH3SCH2CH(NH2) COOH{(+)-S-Methyl} O j CH3CH2CH2SCH2CH(NH2) COOH {(+)-S-Propyl} O j CH3CH = CHSCH2CH(NH2) COOH{trans(+)-S-(1-propenyl} O j CH2CHCH2SCH2CH(NH2) COOH {(+)-S-(2-propenyl} 252 Handbook of herbs and spices Intact onion cells have no odour, but when cells are disrupted the enzyme alliinase is released. This enzyme hydrolyses the S-alk(en)yl cysteine sulphoxides to produce pyruvate, ammonia and many volatile sulphur compounds associated with flavour and odour.7 The enzyme is confined to cell vacuole, whereas the flavour precursors are confined to cytoplasm. The enzyme has access to precursors only when cells are disrupted. Boiled onion does not produce flavour as the enzyme is destroyed before having access to the flavour precursors. The tear-producing character of onion on cutting is known as the lacrimatory factor. Lacrimator is formed enzymatically during the hydrolysis of S-propenyl cysteine sulphoxide.8 Thus alliums with S-propenyl cysteine sulphoxide have a tear-producing effect and alliums with S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide resemble the taste of garlic. Besides the bulb, the flavour precursors are also available in leaf blades, base plate, and roots of onion. However, they are absent in seeds.9 The taste of onion differs from variety to variety and within varieties grown under different conditions and different growth stages. Flavour precursors are synthesized in leaf blades and transported to the scales of bulb where they are stored.10 Younger blades are more productive than older ones. Precursor content increases during bulbing and then gradually decreases towards maturity. During storage of bulbs, the flavouring compounds increase; although the bulb is in a resting stage, it is still metabolically active. The increase in sulphur content is maximum until the sprouting of bulbs. The level of sulphur suddenly drops after sprouting. The reduction of flavour at the end of storage period may be due to metabolism and translocation of the flavour precursors themselves for nutrients for developing roots.11 Kopsell et al.12 observed increase in trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-1-cysteine sulphoxide in seven cultivars under study. There was decrease in S-methyl-L-cysteine sulphoxide. As well as genotype and stage of growth, environmental factors exercise great effect on flavour strength. The bulbing response in onion is a function of temperature and photoperiod. Plants grown at higher temperature under optimum photoperiod bulb more rapidly than those grown at lower temperatures. A threefold increase in volatile sulphur at higher temperature was observed by Platenius.13 The varieties grown in India and Pakistan produce bulbs with higher pungency as they mature during temperature range between 2535C. Similarly high amount of watering produce bulbs with less flavour.13 Soil fertility status and high amount of sulphur containing fertilizers alter the flavour strength. More pungent bulbs were produced by Platenius on peat than sandy soil.13 Addition of sulphur in major nutrients was found to increase pungency in onion bulbs.14 21.3 Production A global review of area and production of onion shows that it is grown in 126 countries over an area of 2.3 million hectares producing 40.0 million tons of dry onion. Sixty-two per cent of the worlds production is from Asiatic countries. Among them, China (19.3%) and India (17.8%) are the giants by area as well as by total production. The worlds onion productivity is 17.16 tons/hectare.15 About 90% of onion is consumed within the countries of production. Total import of dry onion in the world is worth $1121.8 million, while export is $910.5 million.16 Onion cultivation and processing is at its most advanced in countries such as the United States. Systematic breeding programmes for the development of high TSS white onion varieties launched by various research organizations and seed companies in the United States has been the backbone of the processing industry. Development of suitable Onion 253 varieties in short-day onion grown in Asiatic countries holds good promise with the available input. India exports dehydrated onion (4124 tons) and processed onion (9095 tons) worth Rs.178.11 million and 191.85 million, respectively.17 21.3.1 Dehydrated onion Onion is dehydrated in the form of flakes, rings, kibbles and powder. A large part of dehydrated onion production is used as seasoning in production of catsup, chilli sauce and meat casseroles as well as cold cuts, sauces, soup, mayonnaise, salad dressing, sweet pickles, dog food, potato chips, crackers and other snack items. Food service outlets also use dehydrated onion because of its convenience in storage, preparation and use. Processing units require white onion varieties with important attributes: white onion with globose shape, free from greening high total soluble solids (>20%) high degree of pungency high insoluble solids low reducing to non-reducing sugars ratio to avoid caramelization high yields good storage quality Important cultivars for dehydration include white Creole, Southport White, Dehydrator No. 8, Dehydrator No. 14, VH-12, etc. Indian varieties are of short-day type and do not possess total soluble solids more than 15%. However, due to high pungency they make good quality dehydrated flakes and granules. The coloured varieties like dark red, red and yellow are also used for dehydration purposes but the quality of dehydrated produce is inferior to white varieties. Traditionally onion dehydration is performed by sun drying in India, on a domestic scale. Various types of solar driers have also been designed for dehydration purposes.18 However, controlled drying under optimum temperature and time gives good quality product. Cabinet drying at 5560C for 1015 hours gives a better quality dehydrated product than sun drying and drying in solar huts.19, 20 Commercial dehydration is achieved by forced hot air with the total process divided into three stages: drying at 75, 65 and 5560C, the conditions of dehydration becoming milder as the moisture content falls.5 Van Arsdel et al. 21 have given a schematic representation of the process for onion dehydration as shown in Fig. 21.1. The process is completed by placing the dehydrated onion pieces in bins where the final moisture content (~4%) is achieved via the circulation of warm air currents. The approximate composition (100 g1) of dehydrated onion should be as shown in Table 21.1.22 21.3.2 Onion oils and other onion products There are a number of other onion products. Onion oils: Concentrated oils extracted from onion can be used to impart the flavour of onion to processed food without the difficulties of handling a large bulk of fresh bulbs.6 Onion oil is obtained by the distillation of minced onions which have been allowed to stand for a number of hours before distillation. The oil is of dark amber 254 Handbook of herbs and spices Fig. 21.1 Onion dehydration process. coloured liquid. The yield of oil varies from 0.002 to 0.03%. One gram of oil is equivalent to 4.4 kg fresh onions or 500 g onion powder.22 Use of onion oil is very safe from a microbiological contamination point of view, but there is the problem of flavour being lost. Onion oil is also used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice creams, confectionery, baked goods, condiments, meats and pickles.5 Onion juice: Onion juice with low flavour component is another processed product. Massarated pulp of onion is flash heated (140160C) and then cooled at 40C. The product is evaporated to 7275% solids to facilitate preservation. During processing aromatic components may be removed so that the product has a low flavour profile.22 Onion salt: Onion salt is prepared by mixing 1920% onion powder with 78% free flowing pulverized refined table salt and 12% anti-caking agent which prevents water absorption, and caking, etc.23 Onion Table 21.1 255 Composition of dehydrated onion22 Water Energy Protein Fat Carbohydrates Fibre Ash Ca Fe Mg P K Na Zn Vitamins (ascorbic acid) 5.0 g 347 Kcal 10.1 g 1.1 g 80.7 g 5.7 g 3.2 g 363 mg 3 mg 122 mg 340 mg 943 mg 54 mg 2 mg 15 mg Onion pickles: Pickled onions are eaten in large quantities in many European countries. Onion pickles are prepared out of two types, namely (i) brown or dark red onion 2845 mm diameter and white or silver skin (pearl or cocktail) onions between 10 and 28 mm in diameter.5 These onions are produced by planting with high plant density. The onions are first peeled and allowed to ferment in 10% brine solution for 2496 hours. During fermentation sugars from the bulbs are converted to lactic acid and a small amount of acetic acid and alcohol. The fermentation is controlled by adding small quantities of lactic acid. The pickled bulbs are bottled in vinegar, possibly darkened with caramel and pasteurized at 80C.6 Vinegar from onion: A new type of vinegar can be produced from onions that have been rejected for other conventional purposes because of low quality.24 Horiuchi et al.24 tested several types of onion as raw material for vinegar production. Vinegar was produced successfully from juice of red onion cv. Kurenai by batch culture using yeast and Acetobacter aceti. The vinegar produced from onion had a higher potassium content, while sodium was lower than in conventional vinegars. The total amino acid and organic acid contents of onion vinegar was much higher than in other kinds of vinegars. The commercial feasibility of this new type of product needs to be assessed. In a country like India a colossal quantity of red onions go to waste during the lean season and these can best be utilized for value addition. 21.4 Functional properties Besides use as a condiment and spice for flavouring and enriching various cuisines, onion has been known for its high medicinal properties for thousands of years. Chinese, Indians and Egyptians have known about its various medicinal properties since antiquity and these have been well documented. Charak Samhita, an ancient Indian medical treatise describes many curative uses of onion. Augusti25 listed various traditional uses of onion, including: It acts as stimulant, diuretic and expectorant and mixed with vinegar, it is useful in the case of sore throat. Essential oil from onion contains a heart stimulant, increases pulse volume and frequency of systolic pressure and coronary flow. 256 Handbook of herbs and spices Onion consumption lowers blood sugar, lipids and cholesterol. Fresh onion juice has antibacterial properties due to allicin, disulphide and cysteine compounds and their interactions. Antiplatelet aggregation effect in human and animal blood has been reported due to regular consumption of onion.26, 27 The antioxidant activity of onion (Allium cepa) and onion scales has been studied in lipid oxidation models2833 and in radical scavenging assays.34, 35 Both yellow and red onion were poor antioxidants towards oxidation on methyl linoleate33 contradictory to high antioxidant activity towards oxidation of LDL.35 Onion had also a poor antioxidant score in the ORAC activity test while garlic (Allium sativum L) expressed a score four times higher.34 Yin and Cheng36 reported that the presence of garlic bulb, garlic greens, Chinese leek, scallion, onion bulb, and shallot bulb significantly delayed lipid oxidation of phosphatidylcholine liposomes. While allicin 4 is responsible for the antioxidant activity of garlic bulb,37 compounds other than allicin are involved in determining the antioxidant effect of other Allium members. According to Velioglu et al.38 anthocyaninrich vegatables including red onion scales generally showed very strong activities towards oxidation of -carotene linoleic acid model systems. Similarly, green onion tops were reported twice as active as green onions with quercetin 5 included in the antioxidant substances.28, 29 21.5 Quality issues 21.5.1 Dry onions For export from India the following specifications have been defined by the Agricultural Processed Products Export Development Authority (APEDA).39 A. General big onions: 1. 46 cm bulb diameter, light red to dark red colour, globular, pungent onions are suitable for Asian markets and Arab countries. 2. 34 cm bulb diameter, globular, pungent and light red colour onions are suitable for Bangladesh market. 3. 78 cm bulb diameter, globular and oval round shape, yellow or brown colour onions are suitable for European and Japanese markets. B. Small onions: 23 cm bulb diameter, dark red to violet red, globular shape onions are suitable for Malaysia and Singapore markets. C. Multiplier onions: 2.53.5 cm bulb diameter, dark red colour, bigger size bulblets onions are suitable for Malaysia, Singapore, and Sri Lanka markets. As per international quality standards40 dry onions should be intact, sound, clean, sufficiently dry for intended use, free from abnormal external moisture, free from off odours and the stem must be twisted or clean cut. Shape and colour should be typical to the variety. The size should be uniform with minimum variation in the group. The size of group can be of 1020 mm, 1525 mm, 2040 mm, 4070 mm and 70 mm plus. They should be free from abnormal swelling, doubles, sprouting and saprophytic fungus. The bulbs should be packed in sacks of jute or nylon nets with appropriate capacity varying from 2540 kg. Consumer prepacks of 12 kg capacity, such as nets, plastic film bags or stretch-wrapped trays can be used. Onion 257 Table 21.2 American Dehydrated Onion and Garlic Association quality standards and grade specifications Products Colour (optical index) Bulk index (ml/100 g) Sliced Large chopped Minced Granulated Agglomerated coarse Agglomerated fine Powdered products 90 90 150 150 150 150 150 400 300 180 140 140 140 140 21.5.2 Dehydrated products The American Dehydrated Onion and Garlic Association have standardized quality and grade specifications for dehydrated onion products.41 Based on particle size the products are classified as shown in Table 21.2. In all products moisture should be 5.0%. The products should be free from black or dark brown pieces, seed stems, sediment or sediment attached to onion, extraneous vegetable matter (such as tops, rootlets, and other harmless vegetable matter), outer roots, metallic particles, hair, etc. The material should be packed in moisture barrier material like multi-walled polythene bags, fibre drums and stored under cool and dry conditions. Exposure to high temperature and light reduces the colour quality of dehydrated products. Freshly harvested as well as stored bulbs are used for dehydration. During harvesting, handling and storage, the bulbs carry a heavy load of harmful bacteria, fungi yeast and mould. There is every possibility of passing these microbes to the final product. The count of various microbes should be at tolerable levels as follows: Aerobic plate count Yeast and mould Coliforms Salmonella E. Coli < 500.000/g < 5000/g < 200/g Absent/25g Absent/g 21.5.3 Other onion products Onion is processed in the form of pickled onion, as onion in brine and onion in acetic acid. For processing, bright white onions with globose shape, fully cured, free from rots, mould, fungus, external damage, sprouting and greening are used. Bulbs of 1625, 2545 and 4570 mm diameter grade are used for processing. Smaller grade fetches better Table 21.3 Chemical composition of onions in brine and acetic acid42 Composition Onions in brine Onions in acetic acid Salinity as NaCl Acidity as acetic acid CaCl2 SO2 pH 16% 0.5% 0.3% 0.5% 0.5% 250 ppm max below 3.5 5% 0.5% 4% 0.2% 0.5% 250 ppm max below 3.5 258 Handbook of herbs and spices prices. The chemical composition of onions in brine and acetic acid should be as shown in Table 21.3.42 The processed onions are packed in food grade HMHDPE barrels of 220240 litre capacity. 21.6 References 1. ROBINOWITCH, H.D. and BREWSTER, J.L. 1990. Onions and Allied Crops, Vol. I. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 2. TACKHOLM, V. and DRAR, M. 1954. Flora of Egypt, Vol. 3, 94, Cairo University Press, Cairo. 3. CHADHA, M.C. and SIDHUS, A.S. 1990. Studies of the storage life of onion under ambient conditions. Proc. of National Symposium on Onion and Garlic, 23 June, 1990, pp. 18795. 4. JONES, H.A. and MANN, L.K. 1963. Onions and their Allies. Chapter 2 and 3, New York. 5. FENWICK, G.R. and HANLEY, A.B. 1990. Chemical composition. Chapter 2 of Onions and Allied Crops, Vol. III (eds J.L. Brewster and H.D. Robinowitch). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 6. BREWSTER, J.L. 1994. The biochemistry and food science of alliums. Chapter 9 of Onions and Other Vegetable Alliums. CAB International, Cambridge, UK. 7. LANCASTER, J.E. and BOLAND, M.J. 1990. Flavour biochemistry. Chapter 3 of Onions and Allied Crops Vol. III, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 8. MOISIO, T., SPACE, C.G. and VITENAN, A.I. 1962. Mass spectral studies of chemical nature of the lacrimatory factor formed enzymatically from S-(1-propenyl)-cysteine sulfoxide isolated from onion (Allium cepa), Suom. Kemistil B, 35, 29. 9. MCCALLION, B.J. and LANCASTER, J.E. 1984. Changes in content and distribution, in different organs, of the flavour precursors, the S alk(en)yl-1 cysteine sulfoxides, during seedling development of onions (Allium cepa) grown under light and dark regimes. Physiol. Plant. 62, 370. 10. LANCASTER, J.E., MCCALLION, B.J. and SHAW, M.L. 1986. The dynamics of flavour precursors the S alk(en)yl-1-cystein sulfoxides, during leaf blade and scales development in the onion (Allium cepa). Physiol. Plant, 66, 293. 11. FREEMAN, G.G. and WHENHAM, R.J. 1996. Effect of overwintering storage at three temperatures on the flavour intensity of dry bulb onions. J. Sci. Food-Agric., 27, 37. 12. KOPSELL, D.E., RANDLE, W.M. and EITEMAN, M.A. 1999. Changes in S-alk(en)yl cystein sulfoxide and their biosynthetic intermediates during onion storage. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 124(2): 17783. 13. PLATENIUS, H. 1944. Factors affecting onion pungency. J. Agric. Res. 62, 371. 14. PETERSON, D.R. 1979. Sulphur fertilization effects on onion yield and pungency. Tex. Agric. Exp. Stn. Prog. Rep . 3551, June 1979. 15. ANON. 1999. FAO QBS, Vol. 12, No. 314: 912. 16. ANON. 1997. FAO Trade Yearbook, Vol. 51: 1301. 17. ANON. 1999. Agro Exports Statistics, APPEDA, pp. 2506. 18. PAWAR, V.N., SINGH, N.I., DEV, D.K., KULKARNI, D.N. and INGALE, U.M. 1988. Solar drying of white onion flakes. Ind. Food. Packer, JanFeb, 1524. 19. GAIKWAD, R.S. 1988. Studies on some aspects of storage and preservation of onion (Allium cepa L.) M.Sc. Agri. Thesis submitted to M.P.K.V., Rahuri, M.S. India. 20. MASALKAR, S.D. 1999. Effects of levels of potash and season on processing qualities Onion 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 259 of white onion cv. Phule Safed. Ph.D. thesis submitted to M.P.K.V., Rahuri, M.S. India. VAN ARSDEL, B.S., COPLEY, M.J. and MORGAN, A.I. (Eds) 1973. Food dehydration: Practices and Applications, Vol .2, 2nd ed., AVI Publishing, Westport, CT. FARRELL, K.T. 1985. Spices, Condiments and Seasonings, AVI Publishing, Westport, CT. PRUTHI, J.S. 1987. Spices and Condiments Onion, National Book Trust, India, pp. 1735. HORIUCHI, J.L., KANNO, T. and KOBAYASHI, M. (1999). New vinegar production from onions. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 88(1): 1079. AUGUSTI, K.T. (1990). Therapeutic and medicinal values of onion and garlic. In Onions and Allied Crops, Vol. III (eds J.L. Brewster and H.D. Robinowitch), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. MITTAL, M.M., MITTAL, S., SARIN, J.C. and SHARMA, M.L. 1974. Effect of feeding onion on fibrinolysis, serum cholesterol, platelet aggregation and adhesion. Indian J. Med. Sci. 28:144. BAGHURST, K.I., RAJ, M.J. and TRUSWELL, A.S. 1977. Onion and platelet aggregation. Lancet, 2:101. PRATT D.E. and WATTS B.M.J. 1964. The antioxidant activity of vegetable extracts. 1. Flavone aglycones, J. Food Sci. 29: 2733. PRATT D.E. 1965. Lipid antioxidants in plant tissues, J Food Sci, 30: 73741. AL-SAIKHAN M.S., HOWARD L.R. and MILLER J.C. JR. 1995. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in different genotypes of potato (Solanum tuberosum L), J Food Sci, 60: 3417. RAMARATHNAM N., OCHI H. and TAKEUCHI M. 1997. Antioxidant defence system in vegetable extracts, in: Natural antioxidants. Chemistry, Health Effects, and Applications, Ed Shahidi F, Champaign, Illinois, AOCS Press, pp. 7687. GAZZANI G., PAPETTI A., MASSOLINI G. and DAGLIA M. 1998. Anti- and pro-oxidant activity of water soluble components of some common diet vegatables and the effect of thermal treatment, J Agric Food Chem, 46: 411822. KAHKONEN M.P., HOPIA A.I., VUORELA H.J., RAUHJA J.-P., PIHLAJA K., KUJALA T.S. and HEINONEN M. 1999. Antioxidant activity of plant extracts containing phenolic compounds, J Agric Food Chem, 47: 395462. CAO G., SOFIC E. and PRIOR R.L. 1996. Antioxidant capacity of tea and common vegetables, J Agric Food Chem, 44: 432631. VINSON J.A., HAO Y., SU X. and ZUBIK L. 1998. Phenol antioxidant quantity and quality in foods: vegetables, J Agric Food Chem, 46: 36304. YIN M-C. and CHENG W-S. 1998. Antioxidant activity of several Allium members, J Agric Food Chem, 46: 4097101. PRASAD K. LAXDAL V.A., YU M. and RANEY B.L. 1995. Antioxidant activity of allicin, an active principle in garlic, Mo Cell Biochem, 148: 1839. VELIOGLU Y.S., MAZZA G., GAO L. and OOMAH D.B. 1998. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables, and grain products, J Agric Food Chem, 46: 411317. PATIL, R.S. 1998. A position of Maharashtra State for onion storage, dehydration and export importance along with future planning programme. National Seminar on Onion Storage dated 28th & 29th August, 1998, organized by Maharashtra State Agricultural Marketing Board, Pune. pp. 1620. BRICE, J., CURRAH, L., MALINS, A. and BANCROFT, R. 1997. Onion Storage in the 260 Handbook of herbs and spices Tropics. NRI Univ. of Greenwich. pp. 1017. 41. ANON. 1994. Official standards and methods of American Dehydrated Onion and Garlic Association for dehydrated onion and garlic products. San Francisco, California. 42. ANON. 2000. Indian Tropical Agro Products (P) Ltd, Tuticorin, India. Personal discussion. 22 Poppy P. Pushpangadan and S. P. Singh, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow 22.1 Introduction Poppy is the common name for several species of the genus Papaver of the family Papaveraceae. It includes many species which are grown as garden flowers (garden poppies) and the species P. somniferum and its different varieties grown for the production of the important narcotic medicine opium (the dried latex exudate from the fully grown green capsule) and its edible seeds and seed oil. Opium is one of the oldest known painkillers and is the source of several alkaloids used for analgesic, antitussive and antispasmodic purposes in modern medicine. P. somniferum is named as the opium poppy. The opium poppy was cultivated by the ancient civilizations of Greece, Egypt, Italy, Persia and Mesopotamia. Poppy is now cultivated mainly for the production of opium and for the edible seed and seed oil. Poppy seeds are highly nutritive having no narcotic effect and used in breads, curries, sweets and confectioneries, and seed oil for culinary purposes. Opium poppy is widely distributed in the temperate and subtropical regions of the old world extending from 60N in North-West Soviet Union to the southern limit reaching almost the tropics. The centre of origin of Papaver somniferum (L.) is believed to be somewhere in the western Mediterranian region of Europe from where it spread through the Balkan Peninsula to Asia Minor as early as the tertiary period (Bazilevskays, 1976; Morton, 1977). The plant poppy belongs to the genus Papaver of the dicot family Papaveraceae. There are about 100 species of Papaver distributed all over the world. Feede (1909) divided the genus papaver into nine sections, of which two sections Mecones and Mycrantha (Oxytona) are the only economically important groups. Valuable alkaloid yielding and edible seed producing species like P. somniferum, P. setigerum D.C. belong to the section Mecones, but P. somniferum is the only species which is commercially cultivated. P. somniferum is not found in the wild state. But other members of this genus under the section Mecones, P. setigerum, P. glaucum, P. glacile and P. dicaisnei are found wild in the Mediterranean region. The species under the section Oxytona are P. bracteatum, P. orientale, P. pseudo-orientale and they also contain some opium alkaloids. P. 262 Handbook of herbs and spices somniferum and P. setigerum shows close similarity and are now believed to have originated from a common ancestral stock (Vesselovskaya, 1976; Husain and Sharma, 1983; Singh et al., 1995a). The species which contains alkaloids are morphine, codeine, thebane, narcotine and papaverine. P. somniferum is an erect, annual herb, 30150 cm long with 0.5 to 1.5 cm thick stem. The root is either shy branched or much branched, tapering and yellow. The stem is glabrous with thick waxy coating. The leaves are numerous, alternate, sessile, spreading horizontally; the lower ones are about 15 cm long oval oblong deeply pinnatisect with acute segments. The upper ones reaching as much as 25 cm in length, gradually wider and with more cordate base, the uppermost ones in very broadly ovate, amplexicaul prominent veins, midrib very wide, nearly white. Puri (1983) noticed that in the race Safaid patta, the leaves are variegated with white streaks or blotches. In Kutila or Kutapatta, the foliage is deeply cut into more or less narrow segments up to midrib and primary veins. A wide variation of leaf serration in Indian poppy was noticed by Nigam et al. (1989). Flowers are few, solitary on a 1015 cm long penducle. Flower buds are ovate-ovoid dropping, hermaphrodite, regular with two caducous sepals, smooth, green, petals four, very large, polypetalous, generally white. Stamens are numerous, hypogynous, arranged in several whorls; anthers are linear attached with filament, cream coloured becoming pale brown and twisted after dehiscence. Ovary large depressed, globular, smooth pale green, one-celled with large spongy parietal placentae. Stigma is sessile, capitate with 8 20 short obtuse oblong rays. The fruit is a capsule varying in colour, shape and stigmatic rays. The immature capsule is covered with a waxy coating which imparts greyish-blue line to the capsule. The mature capsule is pale-brownish and sometimes may be variegated. The mature capsule may be globose or roundish, spherical, oblong to ovate oblong, depressed in some cases. The capsule has a rounded base but ends abruptly at the apex, opening by pore beneath the stigmatic rays. The stigmatic rays vary from 7 to 18. Seeds are numerous, very small, white grey, violet or black in colour, testa with a raised reticulated network, its embryo is slightly curved in the axis of the oily endosperm. Poppy is generally considered as a self-pollinated plant, but there occurs a certain degree of outcrossing in poppy as has been reported by some workers (Singh et al., 1999). Nyman and Hall (1976) have reported as much as 97% outcrossing. Since the insects play a major role in outcrossing, more outcrossing is expected in this species. Khanna and Shukla (1983) and Bhandari (1990) observed highly variable degrees of outcrossing in poppy and reported as high as 79% outcrossing. However, planned breeding of opium poppy is very recent. Different selection methods for opium yield and quality and oil seed yield were the objectives of the breeding work. Extensive breeding work on poppy has been carried out by many European and Indian breeders (Hlavackova, 1959, 1978; Sip et al., 1977; Khanna, 1978, 1981; Khanna and Gupta, 1981; Saini and Kaicker, 1982; Sharma et al., 1988; Bohm, 1965; Johnson and Loof, 1973; Goldblatt, 1974; Khanna and Shukla, 1989a, b; Singh et al., 1999). Singh et al. (1995b) reported heterosis in poppy for many economic characters. Exploiting this aspect, a number of high yielding cultivars of poppy have thus been made by selection and breeding. Development of an opiumless variety producing high seed yield and food quality oil is considered to be very important considering the high nutritional value of the poppy seed and seed oil. Poppy 22.2 263 Cultivation Poppy is cultivated for the legal pharmaceutical use of opium latex in India, USSR, Egypt, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Germany, the Netherlands, China, Japan, Argentina, Spain, Bulgaria, Hungary and Portugal (Vesselovskaya 1976, Ramanathan and Ramachandran, 1977). Many European countries, however, grow poppy for its seed and seed oil. Poppy is also grown illegally for the narcotic trade and is categorized mainly in two groups: Golden Triangle (Burma, Thailand and Laos region) Golden Crescent (Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran region) There exist no records about the extent of illegal poppy cultivation and production. Poppy can be cultivated in well-drained soil in open sunny locations in subtropical regions, being irrigated during dry spells. Direct sowing is better as transplanted ones do not grow well. It is a six-months crop and sowing is done mostly in autumn. In India sowing is carried out at the beginning of November and seed is harvested in April the following year. Poppy is primarily cultivated in India for opium as a rich source of morphine for medical use and for seeds and seed oil. There are a number of varieties of P. somniferum L. under cultivation in India. The races with white flowers are commonly grown in Uttar Pradesh. The races with red or purple flowers were common in Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan, but now these too are replaced by white flower types. No comprehensive taxonomic treatment on the cultivars of Indian opium poppy is available. Asthana (1954) described the different cultivars grown in India and broadly classified the races of opium poppy into Sabzadhari (green, i.e., non-waxy capsules) and Safaidhari (white, i.e. waxy capsules) types. During the last two to three decades, there has been a great erosion of poppy germplasm in India and many of the races described earlier by Asthana are no longer available today. To pinpoint the different races under cultivation in recent years, a detailed and classified investigation has been carried out by Khanna and Gupta (1981). They evaluated a large collection of germplasm from the various states which they categorized into basic cultivars. Not more than 2025 basic cultivars could be recognized. Singh et al. (1997) has prepared a key for these cultivars on the basis of most salient features and some problems with regard to existing local names. India is one of the largest producers of opium alkaloids in the world. As well as meeting the domestic demand, India exports opium to other countries. Its production and distribution is controlled by the Narcotic Controller of Govt. of India. At present poppy is cultivated mainly in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. The area under poppy cultivation is controlled by the Narcotics Department, Government of India who give annual renewable licences to the farmers. The area under opium poppy cultivation is divided into 12 (opium) divisions covering the districts of Faizabad, Barabanki, Barelly and Shajahanpur in Uttar Pradesh, Neemuch I and II, Mandsaur I and II and Ratlam in Madhya Pradesh, and Kotah, Chittorgarh and Jhalawar in Rajasthan. 22.3 Chemical structure and uses Cultivated poppy (P. somniferum) has great economic value because of the opium latex and also for the edible seed and seed oil. The capsule is the major organ for the opium latex, but the alkaloids are also present in other parts of the plants like stem, leaves, roots, 264 Handbook of herbs and spices etc. The seeds do not contain any alkaloid, but are rich in edible oil of high quality. The straws of poppy also contain some alkaloids and are variously used in medicine. 22.3.1 Opium Opium is brownish in colour when fresh and turns to brownish black when dried. It has a fruity odour. The total alkaloid content varies from 510%. It has a very complex chemical composition containing sugars, proteins, fats, water, meconic acid, plant wax, latex, gum, ammonia, sulphuric and lactic acids and numerous alkaloids (about 40 have been identified so far), most important among them including morphine (1015%), codeine (13%), noscapine (45%), papaverine (13%) and thebaine (13%). The range of major alkaloids contained in the Indian species are morphine (717%); codeine (2.14.4%); thebaine (1.03.0%); noscapine (3.010%) and papaverine (0.53%). Papaver straw (dry capsule with 7.5 cm stem) contains a small quantity of alkaloid. All these compounds except thebaine are used medicinally as analgesics. The opioid analgesics are of inestimable value because they reduce or relieve pain without causing a loss of consciousness. They also relieve cough, spasm, fever and diarrhoea. Opium is used as a narcotic, sedative, antispasmodic, hypnotic, sudorific and antidiarrhoeal. The opium is official in pharmacopoeias of several countries. Opium tincture and camphorated opium tinctures are the most generally used in dosage forms for coughs. Suppositories of opium with lead are employed to relieve rectal and pelvic pains and ointment of opium with gall is applied in haemorrhoids. Opium is also used in veterinary practice. 22.3.2 Poppy seed Poppy seeds are free from narcotics and are highly nutritious and taken by preparing various preparations. Poppy seeds are tiny, kidney shaped, generally white, occasionally red or pink to grey. They are attached to the lateral projections from the inner walls of the capsules and are produced in abundance. The seeds have well developed endosperm filled with aleurone grains. About 3300 seeds weigh 1 gm (Husain and Sharma, 1983). The poppy seeds do not contain opium. Poppy seeds are devoid of any narcotic compounds, but have high nutritive value and are used as a food and a source of edible oil. They are used in breads, curries, sweets and confectioneries. Analysis of Indian poppy seeds showed moisture 4.35.2%, protein 22.324.4%, crude fibre 4.85.8%, calcium 1.031.45%, phosphorus 0.790.89% and iron 8.911.1 mg/100 g. Seeds also contain thiamine, riboflavin, nicotininc acid and lecithin. Minor minerals in the seeds include iodine (6 g/kg). The seeds have a high protein content, the major component being globulin which accounts for 55% of the total nitrogen. The amino acid make-up of the globulin is similar to that of the whole seed protein and is as follows, arginine (10.41%), histidine (2.9%), lysine (1.5%), methionine (2.3%), theonine (4.2%) and valine (7.1%). The protein are deficient in lysine and methionine. At 10% level of intake they have a biological value of 57.5% and digestibility coefficient of 81%. The oil cake after extraction of oil from seeds contains about 32.5% protein and is used as a concentrate in feeding pigs and other animals reared for meat. Poppy seeds are utilized as food and as a source of fatty oil. They are considered to be highly nutritive and used in breads, curries, sweets and confectionery. Seeds are demulcent and are used in the form of emulsion as an emollient and as specific against obstinate constipation and in catarrh of the bladder. The whole seeds are sometimes used in pharmaceuticals. Poppy 265 22.3.3 Seed oil Poppy seeds contain 50% of edible oil with a pleasant aroma and taste like almond oil. The oil is a rich source of linoleic acid (68%) which makes it a good oil for nutrition, as a high percentage of linoleic acid is desirable for lowering the cholesterol content in the human system and thus prevent coronary heart trouble. Seeds from capsule which have not been sacrificed for opium give a higher yield of oil than from those sacrificed. Poppy seed oil is used widely for culinary purposes. It is free from narcotic compounds and used as a cooking medium or as salad oil. It is free from narcotic properties. It is mixed with olive oil and used as a salad oil. It has a high digestibility coefficient of about 96% at a daily intake of 50 g. On hydrogenation, it yields a product similar to groundnut oil, which may also be useful for industrial purposes. The chemical composition of seed oil of Indian poppy is reported by Singh et al. (1999) as follows: Palmitic acid (16:0): 8.9021.48% Stearic acid (18:0): 1.4010.80% Oleic acid (18:1): 13.2236.79%; Linoleic acid (18:2): 41.0060.00%; Linolenic acid (18:3): 0.009.40% Manganese (29 mg/kg) Copper (22.9 mg/kg) Magnesium (15.6 g/kg) Zinc (130 mg/kg). In India the oil is expressed by the cold process, the yield being about 90%. In France, three stages are observed. 1. 2. 3. First cold expression a very superior oil used for the table purposes and in the manufacture of very high quality paints Second cold expression lower grade edible oil also used for paints and illumination Third hot expression a much inferior oil to either of the others used chiefly in soap making. The oil is rendered perfectly colourless by exposure to sun. Although both white seeded and black seeded are used for oil pressing, black seed is mostly preferred. Cold pressing seeds of fine quality yields 30 to 40% of virgin white oil, a transparent limpid fluid with a slight yellowish tinge, bland and pleasant to taste and with almost no perceptible odour. On second pressure with the aid of heat an additional 20% to 25% of inferior oil is obtained. This oil is somewhat reddish in colour and possesses a biting taste, and a linseed-like smell. Poppy seed oil has specific gravity (15/25C): 0.924 0.927, and refractive index 1.467 to 1.47, iodine value 132142; sap value 188196, and acid value 3.13%. Banerji et al. (1999) studied and characterized the unsaponified matter of the seeds of poppy and found a total of 15 constituents of which seven major constituents were identified. Sitosterol was found to be the major constituent (59.2%) followed by campsterol (14.2%), avenasterol (7.2%), cholestanol (4.9%), stigmasterol (2.5%), cholesterol (0.6%) and D7-campsterol (0.9%). 22.3.4 Capsule husk Capsule husk is used in tea. Bonda Chai (Bonda tea), prepared by powdered capsules and then brewed with tea, has been prevalent in Punjab and Madhya Pradesh, mainly among 266 Handbook of herbs and spices truck and lorry drivers and farm labour. Poppy tea has been a common home remedy for many hundreds of years in Europe and is still practised in many of these countries. It is considered to be helpful in detoxing the heroin addiction. To make poppy tea, after removing the seeds the poppy capsules are powdered in a coffee grinder or spice grinder into a fine powder. The powder is added to boiling water and stirred into a brew. The brew is left to cool while stirring occasionally and then filtered through a wire mesh strainer. The liquid thus obtained is bitter and taken with licorice or mixed with tea. Stem ground powder is also used to make poppy tea. The leftover pulp can be used again to make another cup of tea by adding boiling water. 22.3.5 Other parts of poppy plant Poppy straw (unlaced capsule) has been made use of in Europe and other places as a source of morphine where it is cultivated mainly for seed and oil. Poppy plants are used in production of paper-pulp to make handmade boards. Poppy plants are sometimes eaten like lettuce leaves. It is grown as a pot herb in Iran. The red poppy flowers are used in medicine for making syrup. The red and lilac flower contains a colouring matter and are suitable for use as indicator. Poppy leaves were at one time in the French Pharmacopoeia. It contains morphine (0.030.2%) and other alkaloids in small quantities. 22.4 References ASTHANA, S.N. 1954. The cultivation of opium poppy in India. Bull Narcotics, 6 (34): 1 10. and SINGH, S.P. 1999. Characterization of unsaponifiable matter in F8 genotype of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 69 (11): 7845. BAZILEVSKAYS, N.A. 1976. On the Races of the Opium Poppy growing in Semireche and the origin of their culture (translated from Russian). Amrind Publishing Co, Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. BHANDARI, M.M. 1990. Out-crossing in opium poppy (P. somniferum L.). Eupytica, 48 (2): 1679. BOHM, H. VON. 1965. Uber Papaver brecteatum Lindl. III Mitteilung. Die Alkaloide des reifen Bastards aus der reciproken kreuzeng dieser Art Mlt Papaver brecteatum L. Planta Medica, 13: 21520. FEEDE, F. 1909. In Das Pflanzenreich, vol. 40 (Engler, A.D., Ed). Wiehelm Englemann, Leipzig. GOLDBLATT, P. 1974. Biosystematic studies in Papaver section Oxytona. Annals of Missouri Botanic Garden, 61: 26496. HLAVACKOVA, Z. 1959. The crossing of poppy with a view to increasing the morphine content of dry poppy heads. Sb. Cst. Akad. Zemed, Ved. Rada. Rotilinna Vyroba, 32: 52136. HLAVACKOVA, Z. 1978. Application of three and six parameter test to the genetical analysis of seed weight per plant and plant height in seed poppy. Genetika a Slechteni, 14 (2): 15360. HUSAIN, A. and SHARMA, J.R. 1983. The Opium Poppy. CIMAP, Lucknow Publishing House, Lucknow. JOHNSON, R. and LOOF, B. 1973. Poppy hybrid. Plant Breeding Abstract, 44: 248. BANERJI, R., DIXIT, B.S., SHUKLA, S. Poppy 267 1978. Status report on genetics and breeding of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). In Status Report on Opium Poppy. Ist ICAR Workshop on Opium Poppy, Udaipur, pp. 1421. KHANNA, K.R. 1981. Multilocational varietal trials in opium poppy conducted at Mandsaur, Udaipur, Delhi, Faizabad and Lucknow. IVth ICAR workshop on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Madurai, 1981. KHANNA, K.R. and GUPTA, R.K. 1981. An assessment of germplasm and prospects for exploitation of heterosis in opium poppy (P. somniferum L.) Contemporary Trends in Plant Sciences (Verma, S.C., Ed.). Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, pp. 36881. KHANNA, K.R. and SHUKLA, S. 1983. The degree of out-crossing in opium poppy. New Botanist, 10 : 657. KHANNA, K.R. and SHUKLA, S. 1989a. Genetic studies and economic potential of interspecific crosses in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). Prospectives in Plant Sciences in India (Bir and Saggo, Eds.). Today and Tomorrows Printers and Publishers, New Delhi, pp. 8191. KHANNA, K.R. and SHUKLA, S. 1989b. Genetic studies in F6 generation of a cross between Papaver somniferum and P. setigerum with emphasis on characteristics of important selections. Plant Science Research in India (Trivedi, Gill and Saini, Eds.). Today and Tomorrows Printers and Publishers, New Delhi, pp. 30118. MORTON, J.F. 1977. Major Medicinal Plants. Botany, Culture and Uses. C.C. Thomas Publishers, USA. NIGAM, S., KANDALKAR, V.S. and NIGAM, K.B. 1989. Germplasm evaluation for leaf serration and estimation of leaf area by different methods in opium poppy (P. somniferum L.). Indian J. Agric. Sci., 59 (2): 7979. NYMAN, V. and HALL, O. 1976. Some varieties of P. somniferum L. with changed morphine alkaloid. Hereditas. 84: 6976. PURI, O.P. 1983. Botanical description. In The Opium Poppy (Husain and Sharma, Eds.). CIMAP. Lucknow Publishing House, Lucknow, pp. 2937. RAMANATHAN, V.S.S. and RAMACHANDRAN, C. 1977. Opium poppy cultivation, collection of opium, improvement and utilization for medicinal purposes. In Cultivation and Utilization of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Atal, C.K. and Kaul, B.M., Eds.). R.R.L., Jammu Tawi, pp. 3874. SAINI, H.C. and KAICKER, U.S. 1982. Manifestation of heterosis in exotic x indigenous crosses in opium poppy. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 52: 5648. SHARMA, J.R., LAL, R.K., MISHRA, H.O. and SHARMA S. 1988. Heterosis and gene action for important traits in opium poppy (P. somniferum L.) Indian J. Genet. Plant Breding, 48 (3): 2616. SINGH S.P. SHUKLA, S. and KHANNA R.R. 1995a. Opium poppy. In Advance in Horticulture Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (eds K.L. Chadha and R. Gupta) Vol. 11: 53574, Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi. SINGH, S.P., KHANNA, K.R., SHUKLA, S., DIXIT, B.S. and BANERJI, R. 1995b. Prospects of breeding opium poppies (Papaver somniferum L.) as a high-linoleic-acid crop. Plant Breeding, 114 : 8991. SINGH S.P., SHUKLA, S and KHANNA, K.R. 1997. Characterization of Indian land races and improved varieties in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L). Journal Medicinal & Aromatic Plant Science, 19 (2): 36986. SINGH, S.P., SHUKLA, S. and KHANNA, K.R. 1999. Breeding strategies in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) at National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India. Applied Botany Abstracts, 19 (2): 12139. KHANNA, K.R. 268 Handbook of herbs and spices and SKORPIK, M. 1977. A study of the inheritance of economically important charcters in poppy. Genetika a slechteni, 13: 20718. VESSELOVSKAYA, M.A. 1976. The Poppy. American Publishing Co., New Delhi, New York (translated from Russian). SIP, V., MARTINEK, V. 23 Rosemary and sage as antioxidants N. V. Yanishlieva-Maslarova, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia and I. M. Heinonen, University of Helsinki 23.1 Introduction Rosemary is one of the most effective spices, widely used in food processing. It is the only spice commercially available for use as an antioxidant in Europe and the United States. One of the main potential uses is the suppression of warmed over flavour (WOF).1 However, because of their prime use as flavouring agents, rosemary extract products are not technically listed as natural preservatives or antioxidants. 23.2 Extraction methods The first use of an extract of rosemary leaves as an antioxidant was reported by Rac and Ostric-Matijasevic in 1955.2 Berner and Jacobson3 obtained a patent in 1973 for production of an antioxidant extract from rosemary using oil as a solvent. Chang et al.4 reported a process for the extraction of rosemary and sage, followed by vacuum steam distillation in an edible oil or fat to obtain a colourless, odourless natural antioxidant. Bracco et al.5 described an extraction process using peanut oil, followed by micronization, heat treatment and molecular distillation. Inahata et al.6 obtained a patent in 1996 for production of odourless and safe antioxidants from rosemary by repeated extraction, evaporation, purification and dissolving procedures. More recently another technique, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, has been used to product extracts of rosemary and sage.7,8 23.3 Antioxidant properties Antioxidant properties of rosemary have been well documented.915 Rosemary was considered both lipid antioxidant and metal helator.12 Rosemary extract was found also to scavenge superoxide radicals.15 The application of rosemary extracts in food has resulted in a variability in the results depending on the test model being used. 270 Handbook of herbs and spices Many different solvents have been used for the extraction of the antioxidative compounds.4,16-19 Chang et al.4 extracted rosemary leaves with hexane, benzene, ethyl ether, chloroform, ethylene dichloride, dioxane and methanol. The extracts (0.02%) were tested during oxidation of lard at 60C in the dark. It was established that the greatest antioxidant activity was located in the methanol extract. The methanol extract was further purified, and the resultant fraction showed an outstanding activity in potato chips fried in sunflower oil and held at 60C in the dark for 60 days. Marinova et al.,17 Chen et al.,18 and Pokorny et al.19 found that the hexane extracts from rosemary were better antioxidants for lard,17,18 rapeseed and sunflower oils,19 than methanol18 or ethanol19 extracts. Hexane extract (0.05%) caused a 35-fold increase of the oxidation stability of lard determined at 100C, and the use of 0.05% ethanol extract resulted in a 20-fold increase.17 In bulk rapeseed oil hexane extracts from rosemary and sage were also more efficient than ethylacetate or acetone extracts.20 It was established that rosemary extracts were more active than sage extracts,19,20 and that rapeseed oil was more efficiently stabilized than sunflower oil.19 The antioxidative effect of rosemary ethanol extract on butter,21, 22 as well as on filleted and minced fish during frozen storage was studied.23 Rosemary antioxidants were found suitable for deep frying in edible oils,24 especially in the presence of ascorbyl palmitate. 25 Reblova et al.26 investigated the effect of acetone and ethyl acetate extracts on the changes in rapeseed oil and in an oil containing polysiloxanes during frying of potatoes. The authors established that the rosemary extract inhibited the formation of polar substances, polymers and decomposition of polyunsaturated triacylglycerols, especially in the case of rapeseed oil, and improved the sensory attributes of French fries. Barbut et al.11 studied the effectiveness of rosemary oleoresin (RO) in turkey breakfast sausages. The authors found that RO was as effective as the combination of BHA, or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), with citric acid in suppressing oxidative rancidity. A standardized RO has many different phenolic components. It is thought that they act in synergy to provide antioxidant activity. Results from the oxidation of stripped soybean oil exposed to fluorescent light, in the presence of rosmariquinone (RQ) and RO27 indicated that RO contained compounds, such as chlorophyll, pheophytin and mono- and diglycerides, which under light interfere with the antioxidant components, thus reducing the antioxidant activity. This was confirmed by the highest level of antioxidant activity exhibited by the RQ in comparison to RO. Lai et al.28 and Murphy et al.29 investigated the antioxidant properties of RO alone or in combination with sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) in controlling lipid oxidation in restructured chicken nuggets28 and in precooked roast beef slices29 during refrigerated and frozen storage. Stoick et al.30 studied the oxidative stability of restructured beef steaks processed with RO, tertiary butylhydroxyquinone (TBHQ), and STPP. They found that the addition of RO gave no benefit over STPP. The RO/STPP combination was equivalent to TBHQ/STPP treatment in preventing oxidation. Wada and Fang31 observed a strong synergistic effect between rosemary extract (0.02%) and -tocopherol (0.05%) in sardine oil at 30C and in frozen-crushed fish meat models. The authors suggested that rosemary extract functions as a hydrogen atom donor regenerating the -tocopheroxyl radical to -tocopherol. Synergistic effects were also found between rosemary and sage extracts, and tocopherols or soybean meal hydrolysates in a linoleic acid emulsion.32 Basaga et al.15 reported that rosemary extract and BHT, when added as mixtures of 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 had a synergistic effect on preventing oxidation of soybean oil. A very pronounced synergistic effect was seen between citric acid and rosemary extract.33 Rosemary and sage as antioxidants 23.4 271 Chemical structure Concurrent with the evaluation of rosemary extracts as antioxidants to inhibit lipid oxidation in food systems, research was also focused on isolation, identification and testing of the active compounds contained in the extracts. In a study of 16 compounds isolated from rosemary Bracco et al.5 concluded that the antioxidant activity of rosemary extracts is primarily related to two phenolic diterpenes, carnosol and carnosic acid. This conclusion was confirmed by other investigators.18,34 Nakatani and Inatani35 identified rosmanol and carnosol and found that both were more effective than -tocopherol, BHT and BHA. The same authors also isolated rosmadial from rosemary. Several other antioxidative diterpenes such as epirosmanol and isorosmanol,36 rosmaridiphenol37 and rosmariquinone38 have been reported to contribute to the antioxidant activity of rosemary extracts. During the storage and extraction of rosemary carnosic acid is partially converted either into carnosol or into other diterpenes such as rosmanol.5,3941 Rosmarinic acid (RA) was reported by Gerhardt and Schroter42 to be the second most frequently occurring caffeic acid ester, following chlorogenic acid, and to have antioxidant activity equivalent to that of caffeic acid. The authors detected RA in rosemary, balm, sage, thyme, oregano, marjoram, savory, peppermint, and for the first time in basil. There are many data in the literature concerning the antioxidative properties of the individual compounds isolated from rosemary. Brieskorn and Domling43 showed that carnosic acid and carnosol were as effective as BHT and that their effectiveness was concentration dependent. The authors noted that the activity of both compounds was due to the cooperation of their ortho phenolic groups with their isopropyl group. It was also reported that rosmanol had greater antioxidant activity than carnosol,35 with carnosic acid being more potent than carnosol.40,44 In soybean oil carnosic acid was found to be more active than BHT and BHA, but less active than TBHQ. Carnosic acid and carnosol showed the ability to chelate iron and were effective radical scavengers of peroxyl radicals.34 It has been established17 that the molecules of carnosol and the radicals formed from them participate in the reactions of chain initiation and propagation to a much lower degree than is the case with most natural and synthetic antioxidants. Houlihan et al.37 found rosmaridiphenol to be more active than BHA in lard and equivalent to BHT in this test system. They reported also that RQ was superior to BHA and equivalent to BHT in controlling the oxidation of lard.38 RQ has been shown to have good antioxidant activity also in soybean oil.27 Hall et al.45 proved that RQ acted as a hydrogen-donating antioxidant. Isorosmanol and epirosmanol showed high activity in both lard and linoleic acid;36 in lard they were four times more active than BHA and BHT. Nakamura et al.46 reported that RA exhibited a significantly higher superoxide scavenging activity than ascorbic acid. As far as the complex food systems are concerned, it is important to clarify the antioxidative behaviour not only in bulk oil, but also in oil-in-water emulsions,47-49 as well as in microsomal and liposomal systems.34 Frankel et al.47 reported that in bulk corn oil rosemary extract, carnosic and rosmarinic acids were significantly more active than carnosol. In contrast, in corn oil-in-water emulsion, the rosemary compounds were less active than in bulk oil, and the rosemary extract, carnosic acid and carnosol were more active than rosmarinic acid. The decreased antioxidant activity of the polar hydrophilic rosemary compounds in the emulsion system may be explained by their interfacial partitioning into water, thus becoming less protective than in the bulk oil system.47 272 Handbook of herbs and spices Carnosol and carnosic acid were powerful inhibitors of lipid peroxidation in microsomal and liposomal systems.34 Cuvelier et al.50 found no correlation between the antioxidative effectiveness of the rosemary extracts from different pilot-plant or commercial sources and their composition in 20 specific phenols, a finding which illustrates the complex influence of the various factors on lipid oxidation stability. 23.5 Sage: antioxidant properties Salvia officinalis L, commonly known as sage (Dalmatian sage), is used in foods for flavouring and seasoning. It was found that, along with rosemary, it had the best antioxidant activity among the numerous herbs, spices and teas tested.33,51 Its extracts are also well known as efficient antioxidants.33,50-53 Since methanol and ethanol were found to be the most suitable solvents for extraction of antioxidants from the plant materials, a number of publications have dealt with further purification of the alcohol extracts. Vacuum steam distillation4 or molecular distillation5 are recommended for use on production scale. Since rosemary and sage belong to the Labiatae family, it is not surprising to find the same antioxidants in both plants: carnosol,50,54 carnosic acid,40,43,55-57 rosmanol,50,57 rosmadial,50 rosmarinic acid.56 Various methyl and ethyl esters of carnosol, rosmanol, and carnosic acid can be found in sage, as well as in other Labiatae plant extracts; in most cases the compounds are believed to be artefacts from the extraction procedures.39,40,43 The main antioxidative effect of sage was reported to relate to the presence of carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid.50,56 23.6 References 1 VALENZUELA A B and NIETO S K, Synthetic and natural antioxidants: food quality protectors, Grasas y Aceitas, 1996 47 18696. 2 RAC M and OSTRIC B, Les proprietes antioxigenes du romarin, Rev Franc Corps Gras, 1955 2 796803. 3 BERNER D L and JACOBSON G A, Spice antioxidant principle and process for the extraction thereof, US Patent, 1973 3 732 111. 4 CHANG S S, OSTIC-MATIJASAVIC B, HSIEH O A L and HUANG C L, Natural antioxidants from rosemary and sage, J Food Sci, 1977 42 11026. 5 BRACCO U, LOLIGER J and VIRET J-L, Production and use of natural antioxidants, J Amer Oil Chem Soc, 1981 58 68690. 6 INAHATA K, NAKASAKI T, MATSUMORA S and NAKAHARA T, Odorless and safe antioxidants derived from rosemary and their preparation, Jpn Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP, 1996 08 67 874. 7 GERARD G, QUIRIN K-W and SCHWARZ E, CO2-extracts from rosemary and sage, Food Market Technol, 1995 (10) 4652. 8 LOREZ-SEBASTIAN S, RAMOS E, IBANEZ E, BUENO J M, BALLESTER L, TABERA J and REGLERO G, Dearomatization of antioxidant rosemary extracts by treatment with supercritical carbon dioxide, J Agric Food Chem, 1998 46 1319. 9 HUISMAN M, MADSEN H L, SKIBSTED L H and BERTELSEN G, The combined effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L) and modified atmosphere packaging as Rosemary and sage as antioxidants 10 11 12 13 273 protection against warmed over flavour in cooked minced meat, Z Lebensmittel Untersuch Forsch, 1994 198 579. 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LAI S-H, GRAY J I, SMITH D M, BOOREN A M, CRACKEL R L and BUCKLEY D J, Effect of oleoresin rosemary, tertiary butylhydroquinone, and sodium tripolyphosphate on the development of oxidative rancidity in restructed chicken nuggets, J Food Sci, 1991 56 61620. MURPHY A, KERRY J E, BUCKLEY D J and GRAY J I, The antioxidative properties of rosemary oleoresin and inhibition of off-flavors in precooked roast beef slices, J Sci Food Agric, 1998 77 23543. STOICK S M, GRAY J I, BOOREN A M and BUCKLEY D J, Oxidative stability of restructed beef steaks processed with oleoresin rosemary, tertiary butylhydroquinone and sodium tripolyphosphate, J Food Sci, 1991 56 597600. WADA S and FANG X, The synergistic antioxidant effect of rosemary extract and tocopherol in sardine oil model system and frozen-crushed fish meat, J Food Process Preserv, 1992 16 26374. KORCZAK J, JANITZ W and NOGALA-KALUCKA M, Synergism of natural antioxidants in preserving of lipids, Proceedings of the 27th Annual Meeting of Polish Academy of Science, Szczecin, Poland, 1996, 2728 June, pp. 41821. CHIPAULT J R, MIZUNO G R, HAWKINS J M and LUNDBERG W O, The antioxidant properties of natural spices, Food Research, 1952 17 4655. ARUOMA O I, HALLIWELL B, AESCHBACH R and LOLIGER J, Antioxidant and prooxidant properties of active rosemary constituents: carnosol and carnosic acid, Xenobiotica, 1992 22 25768. NAKATANI N and INATANI R, Structure of rosmanol a new antioxidant from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L), Agric Biol Chem, 1981 45 23856. NAKATANI N and INATANI R, Two antioxidative diterpenes from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L) and a revised structure for rosmanol, Agric Biol Chem, 1984 48 20815. HOULIHAN C M, HO C-T and CHANG S S, Elucidation of the chemical structure of a novel antioxidant, rosmaridiphenol, isolated from rosemary, Amer Oil Chem Soc, 1984 61 10369. HOULIHAN C M, HO C-T and CHANG S S, The structure of rosmariquinone a new antioxidant isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis L, Amer Oil Chem Soc, 1985 62 968. WENKERT E, FUCHS A and MCCHESNEY J D, Chemical artefacts from the family Labiatae, J Organ Chem, 1965 30 293440. SCHWARTZ K and TERNES W, Antioxidative constituents of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis II Isolation of carnosic acid and formation of other phenolic diterpenes, Z Lebensmittel Untersuch Forsch, 1992 195 99103. HALL III C A and CUPPETT S L, Structure-activities relationship of natural antioxidants, in: Antioxidant Methodology: in vivo and in vitro Concepts, Eds. Auroma O I and Cuppett S L, Champaign, Illinois, AOCS, 1997, pp 14172. GERHARDT U and SCHROTER A, Rosmarinic acid an antioxidant occurring naturally in herbs, Fleischwirtschaft, 1983 63 162830. BRIESKORN C H and DOMLING H-J, Carnosolsaure, der wichtige antioxidativ wirksame Inhaltsstoff des Rosmarin- und Salbeiblattes, Z. Lebensmittel Untersuch Forsch, 1969 141 1016. RICHHEIMER S L, BERNERT M W, KING G A, KENT M C and BAILEY D T, Antioxidant activity of lipid soluble phenolic diterpenes from rosemary, J Amer Oil Chem Soc, 1996 73 50714 Rosemary and sage as antioxidants 275 45 HALL III C A, CUPPERT S L and DUSSAULT P, Hydrogen-donating mechanism of rosemariquinone, an antioxidant found in rosemary, J Amer Oil Chem Soc, 1998 75 114754. 46 NAKAMURA Y, OHTO Y, MURAKAMI A and OHIGASHI H, Superoxide scavenging activity of rosmarinic acid from Perilla frutescens Britton Var. acuta f. viridis, J Agric Food Chem, 1998 46 454550. 47 FRANKEL E N, HUANG S-W, AESCHBACH R and PRIOR E, Antioxidant activity of rosemary extract and its constituents, carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmarinic acid, in bulk oil-in-water emulsion, J Agric Food Chem, 1996 44 1315. 48 HOPIA A I, HUANG S-W, SCHWARZ K, GERMAN J B and FRANKEL E N, Effect of different lipid systems on antioxidant activity of rosemary constituents carnosol and carnosic acid, J Agric Food Chem, 1996 44 20306. 49 HUANG S-W, FRANKEL E N, SCHWARZ K, AEASCHBACH R and GERMAN J B, Antioxidant activity of carnosic acid and methyl carnosate in bulk oils and oil-in-water emulsions, J Agric Food Chem, 1996 44 29516. 50 CUVELIER M-E, RICHARD H and BERSET C, Antioxidative activity and phenolic composition of pilot-plant and commercial extracts of sage and rosemary, J Amer Oil Chem Soc, 1996 73 64552. 51 CHIPAULT J R, MIZUNO G R, HAWKINS J M and LUNDBERG W O, Antioxidant properties of spices in oil-in-water emulsion, Food Research, 1955 20 4438. 52 DJARMATI Z, JANKOV R M, SCHWIRTLICH E, DJULINAC B and DJORDJEVIC A, High antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from sage by supercritical CO2 extraction, J Amer Oil Chem Soc, 1991 68 7314. 53 ABDALLA A E and ROOZEN J P, Effect of plant extracts on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil and emulsion, Food Chemistry, 1999 64 3239. 54 BRIESKORN C, FUCHS A, BREDENBERG J, MCCHESNEY J and WENKERT E, The structure of carnosol, J Organ Chem, 1964 29 22938. 55 LINDE H, Ein neues Diterpen aus Salvia officinalis L und eine Notiz zur Konstitution von Pikrosalvin, Helv Chim Acta, 1964 136 12349. 56 CUVELIER M-E, BERSET C and RICHARD H, Separation of major antioxidants in sage by high performance liquid chromatography, Sci Aliments, 1994 14 81115. 57 CUVELIER M-E, BERSET C and RICHARD H, Antioxidant constituents in sage (Salvia officinalis), J Agric Food Chem, 1994 42 6659. 24 Saffron A. Velasco-Negueruela, Universidad Complutense, Madrid 24.1 Introduction Saffron, the most expensive spice in the world, is derived from the dry stigmata of the saffron crocus Crocus sativus L., a member of the family Iridaceae. The plant is a sterile autotriploid cultigen, 2n = 24, possibly selected from C. cartwrightianum Herbet, of Greek origin. The family Iridaceae is included in the order Liliales, subclass Liliidae (Monocots), and is divided into four subfamilies; Crocus L. belongs to subfamily Ixioideae tribe Ixieae.1 C. sativus is a plant of 1030 cm and has a corm-tunic finely fibrous; the fibres reticulate. It has 610 leaves present at anthesis, 12 flowers of a lilacpurple colour, with perianth segments of 3.55 cm and style branches of 2.53.2 cm. The yellow style is deeply divided into three branches, and the stigmata are bright red. The flowering season is from October to December.2 The first mention of the crop of saffron dates back to 2300 BC. Sargon, founder of the Accadian empire, was born at an unknown village, the City of Saffron, Azupirano, near the river Euphrates in Babylon. The Harvester of saffron appears in the Minoan pottery and frescoes (17001600 BC) of the Palace of Minos in Knossos (Crete). Another fresco dated about 1500 BC is at Akrotini on the Island of Thera (Santorini). Krokos was the Greek word for saffron and appears in the songs IX and XII of the Iliad by Homer. In Greek mythology, Krokos, the lover of nymph Esmilax, was transformed into the plant saffron by Hermes. Saffron was also known in ancient Egypt and mentioned in the Ebers papyrus. In the Bible, saffron was karkon (in Hebrew) and is referred to in the Song of the Songs (4:14) of King Solomon X or IX century BC. There is evidence of its medicinal use in Kashmir in 500 BC.3 The word saffron is derived from the arabic word Za.feraan and the Arabs are sometimes credited with the introduction of saffron in Spain around the tenth century. 24.2 Chemical structure In ancient times saffron was an important dye, but nowadays its main uses are cooking and colouring foods, especially Spanish rice (paella), bouillabaisse and in Cornwall, Saffron 277 traditional saffron cakes and loaves. The major components responsible for the colouring strength of saffron are cis and trans crocins. Crocins are unusual water-soluble carotenoids. With concentrated sulphuric acid their red colour changes to blue (polychroit). The molecular formula of the most common crocin (a digentiobiosyl ester of crocetin) is C44H64O24. This crocin is a bis-(6-O--D-glucopyranosyl--Dglucopyranoside) ester of crocetin (= di-(-gentiobiosyl)-crocetin), C20H24O4 a carotenoid 8,8H -diapo- , H -carotendioic acid (trans-crocetin). In addition to crocin there are some more esters (all-trans and 13-cis isomers) of crocetin in saffron (Fig. 24.1). Crocins are produced in the plant kingdom from a glucoside derivative of zeaxanthin (all-trans- -carotene-3,3H -diol, C40H56O2) named protocrocin, which by enzymatic oxidative degradation (Fig. 24.2) produces one molecule of crocin and two molecules of picrocrocin, the substance responsible for saffrons bitter taste. Crocins have also been found in the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Rubiaceae), in Nycthanthus arbor-tristis L. (Oleaceae) from India, in Crocus albiflorus Kit var. neapolitanus Hort., and in C. lutens Lam.46 Fig. 24.1 The crocins. All-trans-crocins and 13-cis-isomers. (Adapted from Tarantilis P A et al., J Chromatography, 1995 699 10718.) 278 Handbook of herbs and spices Fig. 24.2 Biosynthesis of crocin, picrocrocin and safranal. Fig. 24.3 Characteristic cyclohexane derivatives of saffrons aroma. (Adapted from Tarantilis et al., J Agric Food Chem, 1997 45 45962.) Saffron 279 Picrocrocin or saffron bitter C16H26O7 (R-4-(-D-glucopyranoxyloxy)-2,6,6-trimethyl1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde), is responsible for the bitter taste of the spice. By submitting picrocrocin to hydrolysis and dehydration, safranal, the principal substance responsible for the aroma of saffron, is obtained. Safranal (C10H14O) corresponds to 2,6,6-trimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxaldehyde (= -dehydrocyclocitral). By enzymatic hydrolysis of picrocrocin with a -glucosidase, 4-OH--cyclocitral is produced and this component gives safranal by dehydration. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of saffron contains safranal as main constituent and many other derivatives of cyclohexane (Fig. 24.3). In addition to crocin, safranal and picrocrocin, Spanish saffron with a water content of 15.6% contains protein (1014%), sugars (13 14%), starch (67%), gums and dextrin (910%), pentoses (67%), ash (58%), fibre (4 5%), volatile oil (0.8%), fatty oil (813%) with glycerin esters of palmitic, stearic, lauric, and oleic acids; 56138 /g vitamin B2, 0.74.0 /g vitamin B1 xanthophylls, carotenes (, and ), lycopine and zeaxanthin; Ca (111 mg), Fe (11.1 mg), P (252 mg), Na (148 mg), K (1724 mg). Saffron is the richest known source of vitamin B2.47 Picrocrocin and crocin are easily oxidized by direct contact with oxygen in the air. As saffron is used chiefly as a food additive for flavouring and colouring, the process of autooxidation is undesirable. Samples of saffron stored at 0C and 17C and 0% relative moisture showed no change in crocin and picrocrocin content. Therefore, low moisture content and low temperature are the best storage conditions. The colouring strength and bitter taste of dehydrated saffron are five times more concentrated than those of fresh saffron.8, 9 24.3 Production At present, the major saffron cultivating countries for trade are Spain, Iran, Greece, India, China and Morocco. Minor producers are Italy, Switzerland, France, Argentina and Azerbaijan. The spice is also produced in the southern hemisphere in New Zealand.10 In Spain the crop of saffron is of considerable importance, and it is mainly grown in the provinces of Albacete, Ciudad Real, Cuenca and Toledo (La Mancha region, southeastern Spain) and also in Teruel. One of the best quality saffrons are those harvested in La Mancha, traditionally regarded as Saffron Mancha or Azafran Mancha. Saffron in Spain is harvested and processed according to the following process.11 The corms are planted in furrows. There are two rows of corms in each furrow and the depth of the furrow is 1215 cm. The distance between furrows is 2530 cm. The space between corms in a row is 10 cm and the distance between rows in each furrow is 810 cm. The planting season is from July to September. Large amounts of organic manure are incorporated into the soil before planting the corms. The artificial fertilizers used are a mixture of potassium sulphate and ammonium nitrate. In Spain, saffron is grown in dry temperature conditions (dry farming), but irrigation in March, April and August is frequent. In Spain the major pest is the common vole (a field mouse). Farmers usually fumigate their burrows or use traps to solve the problem. In other countries, rabbits are also a major pest problem. Rabbit-proof fencing may be required in areas where these pests are found. Saffron can suffer from a range of diseases, especially several fungi such as Rhizoctocnia and Sclerotinia (Phoma). Dipping corms in fungicide before planting, and using raised beds to improve drainage help minimize these problems. No herbicides have been tested for weed control in actively growing saffron. 280 Handbook of herbs and spices Saffron is hand-harvested at the flowering season (still the only method for harvesting the crop) at the end of October and beginning of November. The process of picking the stigmata is done on the same day as harvesting. Once the stigmata have been separated from the flowers, careful drying is needed to produce a product of good quality. In Spain the traditional method involves gently toasting the stigmata in a silk sieve over the embers of a charcoal fire. The loss of weight in this process is about 80% with respect to fresh weight of stigmata. The final product may be stored in paper, cloth or plastic containers. In other countries, Iran for example, saffron is prepared by removing the whole style with the stigmata binding them together in bunches and sun drying. In New Zealand, saffron is dried in an airflow oven at 30C for 34 hours.10, 11 Most commercial production of saffron occurs in Spain and Iran. Saffron is grown successfully under rain-feed conditions in Kashmir (India), with an annual rainfall of 10001500 mm. Spring rain is favourable for corm production while rain immediately before flowering encourages high flower yield. Average yields of saffron in Spain and other commercial values, can be seen in Table 24.1.12 In Kashmir the yield amounts to only 1.53.0 kg/ha (average). Between 70 000 and 200 000 flowers are needed to produce 1 kg of dried saffron threads. In New Zealand the rate is 165 000151 000 flowers/kg of dried saffron.10, 11 In India, the total production of saffron rose from 5 t in 1974 to 10 t in 1983. Iran is another major producer, growing 50 t of spice in 1989. Iran uses 1015 t in its domestic market and the rest is exported to Spain. Spain re-exports this product together with its own. Overall Spanish production is in decline mainly due to increasing labour costs and the unwillingness of young people to enter the industry. It is worth remembering that if one stigma of saffron weighs about 2 mg and each flower has three stigmata, 150 000 flowers must be carefully picked by hand one by one to obtain one kg of spice. The price on the international market is ca US$1000/kg. Retail prices, naturally, are much higher. For instance, the price of an envelope of 250 mg saffron in Spain is 260 pesetas, equivalent to 1 040 000 pesetas/kg (1015 US$/1 g).1012 Table 24.1 Commercial values of Spanish toasted saffron Year Area (ha) Yield (kg/ha) Production (kg) Field price Price (euro) Import (euro)/ Millions (tm) kg of euros Export (tm) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 4,233 4,067 4,209 4,229 4,193 3,696 3,298 2,582 1,878 1,406 1,163 1,020 6.18 8.74 8.21 4.82 6.12 5.89 7.17 5.23 7.80 6.71 5.47 5.43 26,145 35,537 34,556 20,374 25,671 21,789 23,654 13,500 14,642 9,431 6,365 5,541 417 422 532 662 701 613 530 493 466 491 563 605 34 34 44 31 35 207 212 64 46 11.023 15.067 18.181 13,487 18,000 13.348 12.543 6.647 6.815 4.628 3.582 3.348 1 2 9 7 11 12 26 23 28 Tm = metric ton; 1 euro = 166. 386 pesetas; ha = hectare Source: Anuario de Estadstica Agraria, MAPA, Servicio de Estadsticas Agrarias, Madrid (Spain), 1997. Adapted into English. Saffron 24.4 281 Uses In modern times saffron is used almost exclusively as a culinary seasoning and to colour foods. The range of foods that have been spiced with saffron is wide, including cream or cottage cheese, bouillabaise, chicken and meat, rice, mayonnaise, liquors and cordials. Spanish, Italian and French cuisine favours the use of saffron. An example is rice (Spanish paella and Zarzuela de pescado) in the Spanish cuisine or Rissotto a la ` Milanesa an excellent Italian dish. It is often used in chicken and fish dishes. When using saffron threads, the recipe preparation must start steeping the stigmata to extract their essence for a minimum of 20 minutes in addition to cooking/baking time. This can be done in alcohol, an acidic liquid or hot liquid.3, 13, 14 However, saffron has found its way into the cuisine of many European and Asian countries, especially in festive fare. Special Christmas bread and buns using saffron are traditional in Sweden. Saffron cakes are another speciality in parts of England. It is an essential commodity in high-quality, milk/cream-based confectioneries and Mughlai dishes in India wherein it imparts a rich colour and distinctive flavour. The average use of this spice in weddings in even a middle-class Indian family in the states of Rajasthan and Gujarat is about 250 g. In the western world, although its major use is as a spice, it is also employed as a health tonic without side effects. About 50 mg of saffron dissolved in a 200 ml glass of milk and a spoonful of sugar makes a very tasty drink which is also a health tonic. In Arab countries visitors are welcomed with a drink prepared from coffee, saffron and cardamom. In Japan it is employed to enhance the taste of fish and give it a golden-yellow colour.13, 14 In the food industry it is one of the ingredients in dehydrated foodstuff mixes, soups, ice cream and many other processed food products. Is also used, mainly in India, as a key ingredient in flavoured chewing tobacco as saffron enhances its taste to a great extent.13, 14 Water-soluble crocins are the main pigments responsible for the colouring strength of the spice. In the ancient world, pigments used as dyes and colouring matters were rare and very expensive and were considered as status symbols often reserved for royalty. The saffron mantle of the Kings of Ireland and saffron-dyed material supplied by the Phoenicians to the Kings of Assyria are good examples. In order to dye wool or silk with saffron the material must first be mordanted with alum and then soaked into the dye solution until the desired colour is obtained. However, the use of saffron as a dye has now been superseded by synthetics because of the high price of the spice. Scientifically, saffron has been employed as an histological stain as a dye for connecting tissues. It has also been reported that saffron was used as a glaze on burnished tint oil as a cheap but effective substitute for gold in medieval illumination.3, 13, 14 Saffron is also used as a perfume and in cosmetics. Safranal, a pleasantly odoriferous component of saffron develops during the process of drying by hydrolysis of the bitter substance picrocrocin, which is present in the fresh stigmata. The Greeks considered saffron as a sensual perfume. It was strewn in Greek halls, courts, theatres and in Roman baths. In Rome the streets were sprinkled with saffron when Nero entered the city. In the Middle East saffron is used to prepare an oil-based perfume called Zaafran Attar, which is a mixture of saffron and sandalwood. An alcoholic tincture of saffron is sometimes used as a fragrance ingredient particularly in oriental-type perfumes. Saffron is used as a perfume ingredient in many famous perfume brands The spice is also employed in some types of incense. Nowadays the use of saffron in the cosmetic industry is increasing owing to its active substances and to the trend to use natural products in cosmetic formulations.3, 13, 14 282 Handbook of herbs and spices 24.5 Functional properties The Ebers papyrus (ca 1550 BC) mentions saffron as an ingredient in a cure for kidney problems. Hippocrates, Theophrastus and Galen considered it to be an appetite stimulant, an aid for easing digestive disorders and praised its calming effects on infants.3 Saffron is an often quoted folk remedy for various types of cancer.7 Extracts of saffron have been reported to inhibit cell growth of human tumour cells. Crocins, the water-soluble carotenoids of saffron, are the most promising components of the spice to be assayed as a cancer therapeutic agent.15 Due to the presence of crocetin it indirectly helps to reduce cholesterol levels in the blood. This finding was connected with the low incidence of cardiovascular disease in parts of Spain where saffron is liberally consumed almost daily.3 In small doses it is considered anodyne, antihysteric, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, balsamic, cardiotonic, carminative, diaphoretic, ecbolic, emmenagogue, expectorant, nervine, sedative, stimulant, and stomachic.7 In India saffron is used as a herb in Ayurvedic medicines which heal a variety of diseases ranging from arthritis to impotence and infertility. Saffron is also employed to cure asthma and coughs, useful for colds, to treat alcoholism and to treat acne and skin disorders. It is known to have aphrodisiac properties and is widely employed in Asia and the Middle East as such. Chinese and Tibetan medicine also find many uses for saffron. In India, the spice is used for bladder, kidney and liver ailments and also for cholera.14 Mixed with ghee it is used for diabetes.7 In Indian Unani medicine it is used to reduce inflammation, for treatment of enlarged liver and in infection of the bladder and kidneys. As an ingredient in recipes it is useful in menstrual disorders, for strengthening the heart and as a refrigerant for the brain. If soaked overnight in water and administered with honey it acts as a diuretic. Pounded with clarified butter it used for treating diabetic patients.14 Saffron blended with opium, cinnamon and clove, commonly known as laudanum was once used as an analgesic and antidiarrhoeic agent.16 Also mixed with cinnamon, orange peel, rose petals, honey and egg yolk it was employed in ancient Iran as a tonic to restore the strength of the body.17 Preparations based on the stigmata may be used topically to relieve teething pains in children. Overdoses of saffron (>5g) are narcotic, and saffron corms are toxic to young animals. Apoplexy and extravagant gaiety are possible aftereffects. Fatalities have resulted from the use of saffron as an abortifacient.7 24.6 Quality issues The most common adulteration practices of saffron are as follows:18, 19 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The place of origin is falsified. For instance, saffron from different Spanish areas or from different countries is sold as saffron Mancha, one of the best-quality saffrons in the world. The spice is mixed with extracted saffron, old saffron or with style material from the saffron flower. Other parts of the saffron flower are added, stamens or dyed perigonia cut into strips. Some substances are mixed to increase the weight. Moisture, syrups, honey, glycerine, oils, barium sulphate, calcium carbonate, gypsum, potassium hydroxide, saltpeter, Glaubers salt, Seignettes salt, borax, lactose, starch or glucose are commonly used. Other plants are added. These include dried petals of safflower (American or Mexican saffron, Carthamus tinctorius L.) and Scotch marigold (Calendula Saffron 6. 7. 8. 283 officinalis L.); stigmata from other species of Crocus, usually shorter and without colouring properties, such as Crocus vernus L.and C. speciossus L. Flowers of poppies (Papaver rhoeas L.); pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.) and Spanish oysters (Scolymus hispanicus L.); stamens of some species of carnation (Dianthus sp.), ground red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.); herbaceous plants cut into pieces and dyed; small roots of leeks (Allium porrum L.), red sandalwood dust (Pterocarpus santalinus L.), logwood particles (Haematoxylon campechianum L.) and curcuma (Curcuma longa L.). Sometimes fibres of salted and dried meat are added. Artificial products such as coloured gelatin are added. Organic colouring matters such as Martius yellow, tropeolin, fuchsin, picric acid and colouring products derived from tar. As saffron is the most expensive of spices, quality control regulations have been proposed in an attempt to avoid these adulterations. The ISO (International Standards Organization) standards are the quality control regulations currently applied in the international saffron business.20 These standards specify microscopic and chemical requirements. Aqueous extracts of saffron are submitted to spectrophotometric scan. Three maximum values are considered which, according to the ISO standards, correspond to the colouring components (crocins at 440 nm), bitter constituents (picrocrocin at 257 nm) and volatile fragrances (safranal at 330 nm). In order to improve this method, high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) has been used to separate picrocrocin, cis/trans crocins and safranal. This method coupled with mass spectrometry is suitable for the determination of picrocrocin, safranal and Table 24.2 ISO standards 3632-1 1993, Chemical requirements Specifications Stigmata Total ashes (%) (w/w), dry matter, max. 8 Moisture and volatiles (%) (w/w), max. 12 Insoluble ashes in acids (%) (w/w), dry matter, max. Categories I and II 1.0 Categories III and IV 1.5 Water solubility (%) (w/w), dry matter, max. 65 Bitterness, picrocrocin absorbance at 257 nm, dry matter, min. Category I 70 Category II 55 Category III 40 Category IV 30 Safranal absorbance at 330 nm, dry matter, all categories Min. 20 Max. 50 Colouring strength, crocins absorbance at 440 nm, dry matter Min. Category I 190 Category II 150 Category III 110 Category IV 80 Crude fibre (%) (w/w), dry matter, max. 6 Total nitrogen (%) (w/w), dry matter, max. 3.0 Source: Adapted from International Standards Organization, Geneva, 1993. Powdered 8 10 1.0 1.5 65 70 55 40 30 20 50 190 150 110 80 6 3.0 284 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 24.3 Spanish specifications of saffron for foreign trade (August 1999) Standards Moisture and volatiles, 100105C (%) (w/w) dry weight Total ashes (%) (w/w), dry matter Insoluble ashes in ClH (%) (w/w), dry matter Ether extract (%) (w/w), dry matter Colouring strength (E1%), absorbance at 440 nm Fine or superior saffron Saffron Rio Saffron Sierra Saffron standard Saffron Coupe Minimum 5 3.5 180 150 110 130 190 Maximum 15 8 2 14.5 Source: Normas de calidad del Comercio Exterior para el Azafran. Ministerio de Economs y Hacienda de Espana. Adapted into English. flavonoids and is the technique of choice for the analysis of crocetin glucosides with one to five glucoses and differentiation of their cis/trans isomers.2123 Methods for the analysis of the aromatic components of saffron have been developed. The best techniques were shown to be headspace chromatographic methods and thermal desorption gas chromatography on line with mass spectroscopy (TD-GC/MS).19, 24, 25 Saffron is classified according to ISO standards (Table 24.2) in four categories on the basis of its floral waste, extraneous matter contents and chemical requirements. Some researchers have demonstrated that colouring strength is the main characteristic to define saffrons categories. Moreover it has been shown that if colouring strength fits with the regulation for a certain category, the other requirements fit too. In Spain the standards that control the quality specifications for saffron foreign trade are listed in Table 24.3. It is worth mentioning that the quality category saffron Mancha has been substituted for Azafran selecto o superior (fine or superior saffron). Powdered saffron must fit the above-mentioned specifications according to its category except moisture that must be less than 8%. Fine or superior saffron is defined as follows: stigmata much longer than the united styles, with an intense red colour. Maximum floral waste matter 4%.26 24.7 Acknowledgements I wish to express my best gratitude to Prof. Dr. G L Alonso, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete, Spain, for his kind help in providing full information about saffron. I am also grateful to all other sources of published work used and particularly to the information from Safinter S.A., Baby Brand Saffron and J. McGimpsey, available from their websites on the Internet. 24.8 References 1 MABBERLEY D J, The Plant Book. A portable dictionary of the vascular plants, 2nd ed, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998. 2 MATHEW B F, Crocus L. in Tutin T G, Heywood V H, Burges N A, Moore D M, Valentine D H, Walters S M and Webb D A (Eds), Flora Europaea, Vol 5, pp. 929, Saffron 285 London, Cambridge University Press, 1980. 3 BASKER D and NEGBI M, Uses of Saffron, Economic Botany, 1983 37(2) 22836. 4 ALONSO G L and SALINAS M R, Color, sabor y aroma del azafran de determinadas comarcas de Castilla la Mancha, Albacete, E. T. S. de Ingenieros Agronomos, 1994. 5 ALONSO G L, SALINAS M R and SAEZ J R, Crocin as coloring in the food industry, Recent Res Devel in Agricultural and Food Chem, 1998 2 14153. 6 STRAUBINGER M, JEZUSSEK M, WAIBEL R and WINTERHALTER P, Novel glycosidic constituents from saffron, J Agric Food Chem, 1997 45 167881. 7 DUKE J A, Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, Florida, CRC Press Inc, 1985. 8 ALONSO G L, VARON R, GOMEZ R, NAVARRO F and SALINAS M R, Auto-oxidation in Saffron at 90C and 75% relative humidity, J Food Sci, 1990 55(2) 5956. 9 ALONSO G L, VARON R, SALINAS M R and NAVARRO F, Auto-oxidation of crocin and picrocrocin in saffron under different storage conditions, Boll Chim Farnaceutico, 1993 132(4) 11620. 10 MCGIMPSEY J, Saffron-Crocus sativus, New Zealand Redbank Research Station, The New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research Ltd, available on the Internet, <http:// www. crop. cri. nz/broadshe/saffron.htm>, New Zealand, 1993. 11 ALONSO G L, SALINAS M R, SANCHEZ-FERNANDEZ, M A and GARIJO J, Tecnicas culturales, metodos de deshidratacion y frormas de conservacion en la produccion del Azafran en Espana, Agricola Vergel, 1998 198 35770. 12 Anuario de Estadstica Agraria, Madrid, MAPA, 1997. 13 SAFINTER S. A. Saffron uses, available on the Internet, <http://www. uses.htm>, Spain, 1999. 14 BABY BRAND SAFFRON, Facts, uses and general information about Saffron, available on the Internet, <http:// www. htm>, India, 1999. 15 ESCRIBANO J, ALONSO G L, COCA-PRADOS M and FERNANDEZ J A, Crocin, safranal and picrocrocin from Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) inhibit the growth of human cancer cells in vitro, Cancer Letters, 1996 100 2330. 16 LITTER M, Farmacognosia, Madrid, El Ateneo, 1975. 17 BOISVERT C and AUCANTE P, Saveurs du Safran, Paris, Albin Michel, 1993. 18 ALONSO G L, CARMONA M, ZALACAIN A, GONZALEZ L V, GONZALEZ M L and SARASADELGADO F, Study of saffron adulteration by increasing its colouring strength, 1st Int Congress, Pigments in Food Technology, Sevilla, 1999, Proceedings, 3416. 19 ALONSO G L, SALINAS M R and GARIJO J, Method to determine the authenticity of aroma of saffron (Crocus sativus L.), J Food Production, 1998 61(11) 15258. 20 INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANIZATION, Saffron (Crocus sativus L.), ISO 3632-1 and 3632-2. 1st edition, International Standards Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1993. 21 SUJATA V, RAVISHANKAR G A and VENKATARAMAN V, Methods for the analysis of the saffron metabolites crocin, crocetins, picrocrocin and safranal for the determination of the quality of the spice using thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, J Chromatography, 1992 624 497502. 22 TARANTILIS P A, POLISSIOU M G and MANFAIT M, Separation of picrocrocin, cis-transcrocins and safranal of saffron using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection, J Chromatography A, 1994 664 5561. 23 TARANTILIS P A, TSOUPRAS G and POLISSIOU M G, Determination of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) components in crude plant extract using high-performance liquid chromatography-UV-visible photodiode-array detection-mass spectrometry, J Chromatography A, 1995 699 10718. 286 Handbook of herbs and spices 24 TARANTILIS P A and POLISSIOU M G, Isolation and identification of the aroma components from saffron (Crocus sativus L.), J Agric Food Chem, 1997 45 45962. 25 ALONSO G L, SALINAS M R, ESTEBAN-INFANTES F J and SANCHEZ-FERNANDEZ M, Determination of safranal from saffron (Crocus sativus L.) by thermal desorptiongas chromatography, J Agric Food Chem, 1996 44 18588. 26 Normas de Calidad del Comercio Exterior para el azafran (NCCE), Ministerio de Economa y Hacienda de Espana, BOE 10/Agosto/1999, Madrid, Spain, 1999. 25 Tamarind Y. Saideswara Rao and K. Mary Mathew, Indian Cardamom Research Institute 25.1 Introduction Tamarindus indica L., commonly known as tamarind tree is one of the most important multipurpose tree species in the Indian sub-continent. It is a large evergreen tree with an exceptionally beautiful spreading crown, and is cultivated throughout almost the whole country, except in the Himalayas and western dry regions (ICFRE, 1993, Rao et al., 1999). The tamarind fruit pulp has been an important culinary ingredient in India for a very long time. Almost all parts of the tree find some use or other in food, chemical, pharmaceutical and textile industries, and as fodder, timber and fuel (Dagar et al., 1995; George and Rao, 1997). Tamarind is thought to have originated in Madagascar (Von Maydell, 1986; Hocking, 1993). It is now cultivated throughout semi-arid Africa and South Asia, where it has become naturalized in several regions. It has been planted extensively in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and several African, Australian, Central American and South American countries. The fruit became known in Europe during the Middle Ages. Tamarind fruit was at first thought to be produced by an Indian palm, as the name tamarind comes from a Persian word Tamar-I-hind, meaning date of India. Its name amlika in Sanskrit indicates its ancient presence in the country (Mishra, 1997). In Myanmar it is reported as one of the commonest village trees in the dry zone (Troup, 1921). Commercial plantations are reported in Belize, Central American countries and in north Brazil (Sharma and Bhardwaj, 1997). In India, tamarind is known by a wide variety of vernacular names: Assamese Tetuli; Bengali amli, nuli, textili tentul; Gujrati amali, ambali; Hindi ambli, amli, imli, tamarulhindi; Kannada hunase, hunase-mara, hunse; Malayalam puli; Marathi amli, chinch, chitz; Oriya koya, tentuli; Punjabi imli; Parsian Tamarhindi; Tamil Puli, pulia-maram; Telugu Chinta; Urdu imli. In Arabic it is Tamre-Lindi, in French tamarind, in Spanish and Portuguese tamarindo and English-speaking people call it tamarind (Mishra, 1997). The genus Tamarindus is a monotypic genus and belongs to the sub-family Caesalpinioideae of the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae). Tamarind is a moderate-sized 288 Handbook of herbs and spices to large, evergreen tree, up to 24 m in height and 7 m in girth. The morphology of the tree in detail has been described by several authors (Singh, 1982; Parkash and Drake, 1985; George and Radhakrishna, 1993; ICFRE, 1993; Dubey et al., 1997). The most useful part is the pod. Pods are 7.520 cm. long, 2.5 cm broad and 1 cm thick, more or less constricted between the seeds, slightly curved, brownish-ash coloured, scurfy. There are 312 seeds in each pod contained in loculi, enveloped by a tough, leathery membrane, the so-called endocarp. Outside the endocarp is the light-brownish, red, sweetish acidic, edible pulp, traversed by a number of branched, ligneous strands. The outermost covering of the pod is fragile and easily separable. The pods begin to ripen from February to April (Cowen, 1970; Duke, 1981; 1CFRE, 1993; Dubey et al., 1997; Choudhary and Choudhary, 1997; Rao et al., 1999). 25.2 Production Rough estimates are available on production of tamarind in India. One estimate has production at over 3 lakh tonnes in 199495. Tamarind cultivation is concentrated in the states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa and Kerala (Jambulingam and Fernandes, 1986; Anon., 1997; George and Rao, 1997; Rao, 1997; Vennila and Kingsley, 2000). 25.2.1 Sources Among 52 spices under the purview of the Spices Board (Govt. of India), tamarind occupies sixth position in terms of export earnings (George and Rao, 1997). It is exported as fresh, dry and paste. Export of tamarind seed also takes place both in unground and ground forms. Export of tamarind and seed in different forms for five years from 199293 is provided by Anon. (1996a, 1996b). Tamarind products are exported to around 60 countries. Tamarind fruits begin to ripen during the months of FebruaryMarch. The pods are allowed to ripen on the tree until the outer shell is dry and thereafter harvested and the shells are removed manually. The pulp is separated from the seeds and fibres and dried in the sun to reduce its moisture level. Then it is packed in palm leaf mats, gunny bags or polythene bags and stored in a dry place. The average composition of the pod is accounted as 55% pulp, 34% seeds and 11% shell and fibres (Ishola et al., 1990; Shankaracharya, 1997, 1998). All these operations are manual and therefore very labourintensive. Mechanical methods for extracting pulp (Benero et al., 1972), chemical composition of juice concentrates (Nagaraja et al., 1975), preservation of sweet tamarind in Thailand (Chumsai-Silavanich et al., 1991) and physico-chemical composition of commercial tamarind powder (Manjunath et al., 1991) have been reported. A tamarind dehuller was designed and developed at the Post Harvest Technology Scheme (ICAR), UAS, Bangalore with a hulling capacity of 500 kg/h (Ramkumar et al., 1997). The hulling efficiency of the machine developed was reported to be 80% for the large size curved fruits, while for the small fruits, the efficiency was only 58%. Pulp loss during storage was very low in black polyethylene (0.18%) and plastic (0.17%) compared to phoenix mat (1.35%) and metal (1.53%) (Ramakumar et al., 1997). Feungchan et al. (1996) conducted studies on factors related to colour change of tamarind pulp from brown to black to yellow in storage and recommended mixing of 10% powdered salt and cold storage to prevent this. Based on observations on post-harvest Tamarind 289 physiological and chemical changes in tamarind fruit, Lakshminarayana and HernandezUrzon (1983) had suggested that tamarind may be processed within one week after harvest in order to get maximum yield. Tamarind pulp/concentrate is one of the essential components in Indian culinary habits. It is a common article of trade and is preserved and stored for marketing in a number of ways (Lewis et al., 1957; Lewis and Neelakantan, 1959, 1964; Benero et al., 1972; Patil and Nadagouder, 1997). Patil and Nadagouder (1997) reported that commonly, the pulp freed from fibre and seed is mixed with 10% salt and beaten down with mallets so as to exclude air and packed in gunny bags, lined with palm leafmatting. In another process, the salted pulp is trodden into a mass and made into balls, which are exposed to the sun and dew for about a week. Concentrates of the pulp, more or less jelly-like in consistency, are also marketed. 25.3 Main uses 25.3.1 Pulp The fruit-pulp is the chief agent for souring curries, sauces, chutneys and certain beverages throughout the greater part of India. Tamarind fruit is also reported to be used as a raw material for the preparation of wine-like beverages (Giridharlal et al., 1958; Sanche, 1985; Latino and Vega, 1986; Benk, 1987). According to the research findings of CFTRI (Central Food Technological Research Institute), Mysore, India, the pulp could be preserved well for 68 months, without any treatment, if it is packed in airtight containers and stored in a cool dry place (Shankaracharya, 1997). The edible portion of the ripe pod reportedly contains moisture 63.368.6%; protein 1.63.1%; fat 0.270.69%; total sugars 22.030.4%; sucrose 0.10.8%; cellulose 2.03.4% and ash 1.21.6%. The dried pulp contains moisture 20.921.3%; protein 3.15.0%; fat 0.10.6%; total carbohydrates 67.4 70.7%; fibre 5.618.3%; tartaric acid 818%; invert sugars 3040%; ash 2.42.9% and 270 calories. Lewis et al. (1957b), Shankaracharya (1997, 1998), remarked that the sweetness of the so-called red-variety of tamarind might be due to the presence of lesser amounts of free-acids in the pulp. According to these investigators the colour of the redtamarind pulp is due to an anthocyanin pigment called chrysanthemin. The common variety contains a leucocyanidin pigment. Nearly 60 volatile compounds have been detected in tamarind pulp (Zhang and Ho, 1990; Shankaracharya, 1998). 25.3.2 Concentrate Juice concentrate of tamarind is produced and marketed in India and abroad (Raghuveer, 1997). The product is promoted as being very convenient for culinary purposes and the food industry. The CFTRI, Mysore, has developed processes for the manufacture of juice concentrate and powder of the pulp (Sankaracharya, 1998). Formulae for preparing spiced sauces and beverages from the pulp have also been reported (Patil and Nadagouder, 1997). The approximate composition of the concentrate according to CFTRI report is as follows: total tartaric acid 13%; invert sugars 50%; pectin 2%; protein 3%; cellulosic material 2%; and moisture 30%. Tamarind juice concentrate was found to be more viscous than sucrose solutions (Manohar et al., 1991). 290 Handbook of herbs and spices 25.3.3 Seeds Following the estimation of the composition of seeds and evaluation of its properties, Marangoni et al. (1988) opined that tamarind seeds are potential sources of food or food ingredients. They recorded that seeds formed about 35% of the whole fruit with 30% testa and 70% endosperm (kernel). When analysed seeds were found to contain 17.120.1% protein; 6.08.5% fat; 65.172.2% carbohydrates; 0.74.3% crude fibre and 2.33.2% ash. The chemical composition and nutritive value of tamarind seeds and kernels was determined by several workers (Bose et al., 1954; York et al., 1993; Siddhuraju et al., 1995; Patil and Nadagouder, 1997). Bhattacharya et al. (1993, 1994a) reported that the kernel protein is rich in lysine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine, leucine and potassium, but deficient in sulphur-containing amino acids. Dehusked tamarind seeds have been found to be a rich source of pectin, the jelly-forming constituent of many fruits, vegetables, seeds, etc. (Kumar, 1997). According to him proper utilization, can give an impetus to the jam and jelly industry which until now was dependent upon the imported jelly powder, and can also lead to the development of various other industries which use pectin as one of its raw materials. Methods of isolation and purification of the pectin have been described and its possible commercial uses indicated (Kumar, 1997). 25.3.4 Kernel powder The powder, commercially known as tamarind kernel powder (TKP), is found to be extensively used as a sizing material in the textile industry as well as in the food industry (Rao and Subramanian, 1984; Bal and Mukherjee, 1994; Patil and Nadagouder, 1997). These analysts attribute the sizing properties of TKP to the presence of a polysaccharide (called jellose) to the extent of 6%. Other reported constituents are proteins, fibre, fat and inorganic salts and some free sugars and tannins. The jellose is also much used in confectionery, especially in the United States, and some European countries. Its use has been recommended in preparing jujubes, as a stabilizer in ice creams and mayonnaise (Patil and Nadagouder, 1997). Use of white TKP in three food products, jelly, fortified bread and biscuit was also detailed by Bhattacharya (1997), Bhattacharya et al. (1991, 1994b). It can be used in cosmetics, and in pharmaceutical and insecticidal preparation. It can also be used as an adhesive in bookbinding, cardboard manufacture and plywood industry, and in sizing and weighing compositions in the leather industry (Daw et al., 1994; Patil and Nadagouder, 1997; Prabhanzan and Ali, 1995). The fatty oil from the kernels resembles peanut oil and is reported to be useful in the preparation of paints and varnishes and for burning lamps which can be extracted by solvent extraction (Pitka et al., 1977; Reddy et al., 1979; Patil and Nadagouder, 1997). 25.3.5 Seed testa The testa is reported to contain 40% water solubles, 80% of which is a mixture of tannin and colouring matter (FRI, 1955). In the production of TKP or the jellose, large quantities of testa are left as a residual by-product. The use of testa in dyeing and tanning has been suggested. Several authors (Rao and Srivastava, 1974; Glicksman, 1986; Tsuda et al., 1994, 1995; Sankaracharya, 1998) have suggested that seed coat, a by-product of tamarind gum industries can be used as a safe and low-cost antioxidant for increasing the shelf-life of foods by preventing lipid peroxidation. Studies have been carried out on the utilization of spent (detanned) tamarind seed testa as a substrate to grow Pleurotus florida, in order to convert organic wastes into biofertilizer and also to assess the Tamarind 291 suitability of this testa as a substrate along with spent wattle. The yield of mushroom was 17% when wattle-tamarind seed testa was used. The spent material after harvesting the mushroom degraded easily in the soil indicating its suitability as organic manure (Madhulatha and Pitchai, 1997). 25.3.6 Minor uses The tender leaves, flowers and the young seedlings are eaten as a vegetable. The analysis of tender leaves gave: moisture 70.5%; protein 5.8%; fat 2.1%; fibre 1.9%; other carbohydrates 18.2% and minerals 1.5%. The mineral and vitamin constituents (in mg/ 100 g) were as follows: calcium, 101; magnesium, 71; phosphorus, 140; iron, 5.2; copper, 2.09; chlorine, 94; and sulphur, 63; thiamine, 0.24; riboflavia, 0.17; niacin, 4.1; and vitamin C (Anon., 1976; Karuppaiah et al., 1997). Young leaves of T. indica yielded 1.16 lipids (dry wt.) with chloroform-methanol and differentiated the neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids (Sridhar and Lakshminarayana, 1993). The leaves are eaten by goats and cattle. The flowers are considered to be a good source of honey (Ramanujam and Kalpana, 1992) which is rich golden in colour, but has slight acidity peculiar to its flowers. The tree also yields a valuable timber and the wood is used mostly for agricultural implements, tool-handles, wheels, mallets, rice pounders, and oil-mills and for turnery. 25.4 Functional properties Medicinal values have been claimed for various preparations from the fruit, leaves, flowers, bark such as the antiscorbutic properties of the pulp, laxative action of the fruit juice and diuretic properties of leaf sap (Ghosh, 1987; Lakshmanan and Narayanan, 1990; Lewis et al., 1970; Mustapha et al., 1996; Rajan et al., 1989; Rao, 1995; Sano et al., 1996). An infusion of the leaves is said to be cooling and useful in bilious fever. A poultice of the fresh leaves is applied to swellings and boils, and for relieving pain, and that of the flowers in inflammatory infections of the conjunctiva. The bark is astringent and is given in diarrhoea; in lotions and poultices, it is also applied to sores and boils. In some countries, the bark is reported to be prescribed in asthma, amenorrhoea, and as a tonic and febrifuge (Anon., 1976). The treatment of salted dried fish by TKP was found to be the best in preserving the quality of salted fish (Shetty et al., 1996). While investigating the nutritive value of kernel proteins Sano et al. (1996) and Patil and Nadagouder (1997) remarked that it is comparable to that of cereal proteins based on their observations that replacement of 25% or less of rice by this kernel powder produced a significant improvement in the overall nutritive value of rice diet. 25.5 Quality issues Tamarind has many problems associated with quality parameters due to high moisture level and seed, fibre and rind contents. Tamarind is reported to be adulterated with foreign matter which are both organic and inorganic in nature. They are considered to be due to poor post-harvest management practices including processing (Rao and George, 1996; George and Rao, 1997). Directorate of Marketing and Inspection and Bureau of 292 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 25.1 Agmark specifications (%/wt max) tamarind seedless Character/grade Special A B C Moisture Seed content Foreign matter (organic) Foreign matter (inorganic) 15 5 4 1 17 10 6 1.5 20 15 8 2 20 20 10 2 Table 25.2 Agmark specifications (%/wt max) tamarind dry Character/grade Special A B Seed content Fibres Rind Insect damage Moisture 35 6 3 2 15 40 8 4 3 20 45 10 6 5 25 Table 25.3 Agmark specifications (%/wt max.) tamarind seed Character/grade Special A Extraneous matter Damaged and discoloured Wt/lit Moisture 1 2 900 9 2 5 800 10 Indian Standards have prescribed quality specifications for seedless tamarind (Table 25.1), dry tamarind (Table 25.2) and tamarind seed (Table 25.3) (Anon, 1996c). 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MUSTAPHA A, YAKASAI I A and AGUYE I A (1996), Effect of Tamarindus indica L on the bioavailability of aspirin in healthy human volunteers, European Jour. of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokineties, 21(3), 2236. NAGARAJA K V, MANJUNATH M N and NALINI M L (1975), Chemical-composition of commercial Tamarind juice concentrate, Ind. Fd. Packer, 29, 1720. PARKASH R and DRAKE H (1985), Some Favourite Trees for Fuel and Fodder. International Book Distributors, Dehradun. PATIL S J and NADAGOUDER B S (1997), Industrial Products from Tamarindus Indica, Proc. Nat. Sym. on Tamarindus indica L, Tirupathi (A.P.), organized by Forest Dept. of A.P., India, 2728 June, 1997, pp. 1515. PITKA P M, SINGH P P and SRIVASTAVA H C (1977), Fatty acid composition of Tamarind kernel oil, Jour. Am. Oil Chem. Soc, 54, 5924. PRABHANZAN H and ALI SL (1995), Studies on rheological properties of tamarind kernel powder, its derivatives and their blends with maize starch, Carbohydrate Polymers, 28(3), 24553. RAGHUVEER P (1997), Market survey on tamarind products with special emphasis on tamarind paste, Proc. Nat. Sym. on Tamarindus indica. L, Tirupathi (A.P.), organized by Forest Dept. of A.P., India, 2728 June, 1997, pp. 1847. RAJAN A, SREEKUMARAN T, ABRAHAM M J and VIJAYAKUMAR V (1989), An assessment of the goitrogenic effect of tamarind seed meal Tamarindus indica, Kerala Jour. Vet. Sci., 20(1), 403. RAMAKUMAR M V, BABU C K, SUBRAMANYA S, RANGANNA B and KRISHNAMURTHY K C (1997), Development of a Tamarind Dehuller and Short-term Storage of Pulp, Proc. Nat. Sym. on Tamarindus indica L., Tirupathi (A.P.), organized by Forest Dept. of A.P., India, 2728 June, 1997, pp. 14550. RAMUNAJAM C G K and KALPANA T P (1992), Tamarindus indica L., an important forage plant for Apis florea F. in south Central India, Apidolozie, 23(5), 40313. RAO K H and SUBRAMANIAM N (1984), Nitrogen solubility and functional properties of tamarind seed kernel proteins. In Proceedings of the National Symposium on Protein Foods and Feeds. Madras, India, pp. 6787. RAO P S and SRIVASTAVA H C (1974), Tamarind. In Industrial Gums. Academic Press, New York, pp. 370441. RAO Y S (1995), Tamarind Economics, Spice India, 8, 111. RAO Y S (1997), Cumbum-Lower Camp Variety of Tamarind A Boon to Farmers, Proc. Nat. Sym. on Tamarindus indica L, Tirupathi (A.P.), organized by Forest Dept. of A.P., India, 2728 June, 1997, pp. 1246. RAO Y S and GEORGE C K (1996), Tamarind Ideal for Rainfed Area, The Hindu, India, 13 June. RAO, Y S, MARY MATHEW, K and POTTY S N (1999), Tamarind Tamarindus indica L.) Research A Review, Ind. Jour. of Arecanut, Spices and Medicinal Plants, 1(4), 12745. REDDY G S, JAGANMOHAN RAO S, ACHUTARAMAYYA D, AZEEMUDDIN G and TIRUMALA RAO S D (1979), Extraction, characteristics, and fatty acid composition of Tamarind kernel oil, Jour. Oil. Technol. Assoc., India, 11, 913. SANCHEZ P C (1985), Tropical fruit wines: A lucrative business. Research at Los Banos 3, 1013 (FSTA : 86-05-H 0063). SANO M, MIYATA E, TAMANO S, HAGIWARA A, ITO N, SHIRAI T (1996), Lack of 296 Handbook of herbs and spices carcinogenicity of tamarind seed polysaccharide in B6C3F1 mice. Food Chem. Toxicol., 34(5), 4637. SHANKARACHARYA N B (1997), Chemical and Technological Aspects of Tamarindus Indica Fruit., Proc. Nat. Sym. on Tamarindus indica L, Tirupathi (A.P.), organized by Forest Dept. of A.P., India, 2728 June, 1997, pp. 22630. SHANKARACHARYA N B (1998), Tamarind Chemistry, Technology and Uses a critical appraisal, Jour. Food Technol, 35(3), 193208. SHARMA S and BHARDWAJ R (1997), Tamarind A Suitable Fruit Crop for Dry Arid Regions, Proc. Nat. Sym. on Tamarindus indica L, Tirupathi (A.P.), organized by Forest Dept. of A.P. India, 2728 June, 1997, pp. 46. 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Oil Res ., 21: 1978. 26 Turmeric B. Sasikumar Indian Institute of Spices Research, Kerala 26.1 Introduction Turmeric of commerce is the dried rhizome of the plant Curcuma domestica Val. syn. C. longa L. Turmeric is used in curry powder, chicken bouillon, sauces, gravies, dry seasonings, backing mixes, processed cheese pickles, relishes, breading soups, beverages, and confections (Peter, 1999) in addition to its use in medicine, religious functions and as biopesticide. The genus Curcuma originated in the Indo-Malayan region (Purseglove, 1968). Considerable species diversity of Curcuma occurs in this region. However, about 40 species of the genus including C. longa are indigenous to India indicating the Indian origin (Velayudhan et al., 1999). The antiquity of turmeric dates back to the Assyrians of 600 BC. Ethnobotanical evidence indicates that the use of turmeric has been in India since very ancient days. It is believed that the crop spread out from India to distant Asian countries under the influence of the Hindu religion. According to Marco Polo (1280) the spread of turmeric to China took place in AD 700 (Ridley, 1912). Burkill (1966) believed that the crop spread to West Africa in the thirteenth and to East Africa in the seventeenth centuries, respectively. It was introduced to Jamaica in 1783 (Velayudhan et al., 1999). Though turmeric is now grown in India, Pakistan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, Philippines, Japan, China, Korea, Sri Lanka, Nepal, South Pacific Islands, East and West Africa, Malagasi, Caribbean islands, and Central America, India is the major producer and exporter of turmeric at present. The genus Curcuma belongs to the family Zingiberaceae and contains 49 genera and 1400 species. In addition to Curcuma longa, C. zedoaria Rosc. and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. are also minor sources of curcumin colour. Velayudhan et al. (1999) recognized six taxonomic varieties within C. longa based on numerical taxonomic analysis, namely C. longa var. typica, C. longa var. atypica, C. longa var. camphora, C. longa var. spiralifolia, C. longa var. musacifolia and C. longa var. platifolia. Most of the C. longa found in India belong to C. longa var. typica or atypica. Turmeric is an erect perennial herb, grown as an annual crop. The above ground morphology of the plant is mainly represented by an erect pseudostem bearing leaves and inflorescence. There may be 23 pseudostems (tillers) per plant. The height of the 298 Handbook of herbs and spices pseudostem varies from 90100 cm depending on the variety. Leaf number ranges from 7 12. In fact, it is the leaf sheath which forms the pseudostem. The leaf sheath is usually green in colour. Lamina may be lanceolate or elliptic in shape, thin with acuminate tip. The colour of lamina is usually green above and pale green below, with a length of about 3040 cm and width 812 cm. Inflorescence is a cylindrical, fleshy, central spike of 1015 cm length, arising through the pseudostem. Flowers are subtended by bracts in the spike. The bracts are adnate for less than half of their length and are elliptic, lanceolate and acute. The upper bracts are white in colour while the lower bracts are green. One to four flowers are borne in the axil of the bract, opening once at a time. About 30 flowers are produced in a spike (Nazeem and Rema Menon, 1994). The calyx is short, usually toothed and split nearly halfway down on one side. The corolla is tubular, thin and whitish with a yellow tip. Usually the upper most and lower most bracts will be sterile. Seed set is observed in turmeric and seeds are viable. Seeds are produced in capsules and there will be from one to numerous sunken capsules in an inflorescence depending on the flowers fertilized. At the base of the pseudostem, below the ground, rhizomes are formed consisting of mother rhizome(s), primary, secondary and even tertiary fingers, the whole forming a compact clump. Rhizomes grow symbodically and are of orange brown, pale yellow or reddish yellow colour. C. longa is considered to be a triploid with a somatic chromosome number of 63 (2n = 3x = 63). 26.2 Production India is the major producer and exporter of turmeric in the world. In India turmeric is grown over 1.34 ha with an annual production of 5.43 lakh tonnes. India exported 23 000 t of turmeric during 199697 to 67 countries (Peter, 1999). Turmeric is exported as turmeric dry, turmeric fresh, turmeric powder, turmeric oleoresin and turmeric oil. The major turmeric importing countries from India are Iran, Japan, South Africa, Singapore, Sri Lanka, USA, UAE, Malaysia, Germany and Bangladesh. Export of turmeric by item from India during 199496 is given in Table 26.1. There are about 60 turmeric cultivars (land varieties) available in the country. Some of the important local cultivars are Duggirala, Tekurpet, Sugandham Amalapuram, Lakadong, Alleppey, Rajapuri, Mydukur, Wynad local, etc. Cultivars like Alleppey, Wynad local, Lakadong, Edapalayam, Thodupuzha, etc., are rich in curcumin content (>7%). In addition to these land varieties, there are about 17 improved varieties in India. The important improved turmeric varieties are Prabha, Prathibha (Fig. 26.1), Sudarsana, Suguna, Co-1, Sugandham, BSR 1, etc. (Sasikumar et al., 1996). Maturity of these varieties is 79 months. The yield (fresh) of the improved varieties is 2040 t/ha. Table 26.1 Export of turmeric from India during 199496 Item Turmeric Turmeric Turmeric Turmeric Turmeric 199495 Quantity (t) dry fresh bulk powder oil oleoresin 199596 Quantity (t) 16,727.9 5964.1 6093.7 0.3 159.0 19,189.5 800.9 7385.9 0.1 149.1 Turmeric 26.1 26.3 299 Prathibha Post-harvest processing Harvested turmeric is washed well to remove the adhering soil; roots removed, the fingers and mothers are separated. Mother and finger rhizomes are boiled separately for about 4060 minutes under slightly alkaline condition (100 g of sodium bicarbonate or sodium carbonate in 100 l of water) in copper, galvanized iron or earthen vessels and sun dried on bamboo mat or clean drying floor for 1015 days so as to bring down the moisture content to 10%. Another method of curing is by taking cleaned mother and finger rhizomes (approx. 50 kg) separately in perforated trough of convenient size made of GI or MS sheet with extended parallel handle. The trough containing the fingers are immersed in water using a paddle. The alkaline solution is then poured into the pan so as to immerse the rhizome, which are then boiled until they become soft and dried. The dry recovery of cured turmeric varies between 1530% depending on variety, location and cultural practices. Dried turmeric is subjected to polishing either manually or mechanically in power operated drums (Purseglove et al., 1981). A weight loss of about 58% is expected due to full polishing. Polished rhizomes are made attractive by artificially colouring them with turmeric powder. During polishing itself turmeric is added to the drum either as powder or as emulsion. Rama Rao et al. (1975) described an indigenous method of storing turmeric. The cured product is stored in suitable pits dug on a raised site. The bottom and sides of the pits are lined thickly with dried grass or similar material. After filling up the pits with the cured turmeric they are covered with mat or grass and finally with earth. The produce can be stored for one year like this. At Sangli, India, farmers usually store turmeric like this in pits dug in the field. Dealers usually store the cured turmeric in fresh jute bags or in sound, clean, dry, heat-sealed polythene bags in dry, cool, warehouses (Purseglove et al., 1981). After harvest, fresh turmeric is kept in gunny bags or baskets or heaped open in well-ventilated sheds. 300 Handbook of herbs and spices Turmeric is available as whole, ground, oleoresin and oil. Turmeric is used mainly as fine ground turmeric in cooking in the West while those in the growing countries buy turmeric mostly in whole or split form. Importing countries in the West buy ground turmeric, turmeric oleoresin and oil. 26.3.1 Ground turmeric A sophisticated grinding process is not needed for ground turmeric, since there would not be much loss of quality while grinding turmeric. Usually clean, dry, stone-hard fingers are powdered through the use of hammer mills followed by disc-type attrition mills to obtain 6080 mesh powder. Accessory equipment for pre-cleaning includes an aspiration system (which removes the light extraneous matter), destoners and magnetic separators for fine iron contamination, vacuum fumigators, and the noise reducing fixtures, dust collection systems, mechanical or closed circuit pneumatic conveying system, blending and automatic packaging system, now employed by most big spice grinders for optimizing the output and for assuring hygienic and flavour quality. The smaller spice manufacturers in the West and Asia use simple cleaning and grinding equipment and partly mechanized packaging systems (Govindarajan, 1980). Turmeric powder is packed in bulk in containers such as fibre hard drums, multi-wall bags and tin containers suitably lined or coated to prevent moisture absorption, loss of flavour and colour. For the retail trade the unit packages are in flexible packagings such as low and high density polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, glassine or in glass packages. Storage studies conducted on turmeric powder using different packaging materials have shown that aluminium foil laminate or double pouch of glassine or low density polyethylene offered good protection for the stored product for about six months without loss of quality and colour (Balasubramanian et al., 1979). 26.3.2 Turmeric oleoresin Turmeric oleoresin is being used increasingly by the processed food industries in the West to impart colour and aroma. Oleoresin is a mixture of compounds, namely curcumin, volatile oil and other active ingredients, non-volatile fatty and resinous material extractable by solvents, used singly, in sequence or in combination. Turmeric oleoresin is orange-red in colour and consists of an upper oily layer and a lower crystalline layer (Krishnamurthy et al., 1976). For commercial use, it is usually mixed with a non-volatile edible solvent such as vegetable oil, propylene glycol or polyoxy ethylene sorbitan fatty acid esters in order to disperse the extracted material and to render it free flowing and soluble (Purseglove et al., 1981). Turmeric oleoresin is obtained by solvent extraction of ground spice. Acetone is a good solvent for oleoresin extraction. Soxhlet apparatus or cold percolation is used for extraction. Curcumin, the principal colouring matter forms about one third of a good quality oleoresin. Yield of oleoresin varies from 715% depending on varieties. Govindarajan (1980) has given the detailed steps for industrial extraction of turmeric oleoresin. 26.3.3 Turmeric oil Turmeric contains 35% volatile oil, which is obtained by steam distillation of turmeric powder, for about 810 h. Turmeric oil is pale yellow in colour with peppery and aromatic odour. The oil contains about 60% turmeron, 25% zingiberene and small quantities of d--phellandrene, d-sabinene, cineole and forneol. Turmeric 301 26.3.4 Curry powder Turmeric powder is the major component (about 4050%) of curry powder. Curry powder is a spice mixture used for seasoning dishes containing vegetables, meat, fish, eggs or vegetable plus meat or fish (i.e. curry) in the orient. In the West also curry powder is used for seasoning dishes. India has been the principal exporter of curry powder to many countries like the UK, Australia, Fiji, etc. Turmeric powder provides colour and background aroma to the curry powder. Govindarajan (1980) has given typical curry powder composition, quality standards, packaging details, etc. 26.4 Quality specifications Cured turmeric is sorted as fingers, round, split or non-specified and marketed under its varietal name, which is usually based on the place of production such as Alleppey, Erode, Duggirala, Nizamabad, Rajapuri, Cuddappah, etc., from India. The Indian Agmark, standards include separate gradings for different varieties. Special, good and fair are some of the grade specifications. Govindarajan (1980) has given the specification for turmeric (whole and ground). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Turmeric whole is the primary (bulbs, rounds) and secondary (fingers) rhizomes, harvested at full maturity, cured, dried to about 10% moisture level, polished and either coloured or not coloured. The cured rhizomes, cleaned and dried, are ground to powder without any added matter. Whole or powdered turmeric should have the characteristic fresh aroma and taste of turmeric and be free from foreign aroma such as mustiness. It must also be free from living insects, moulds; practically free from dead insects, insect fragments and rodent contamination visible to the naked eye or specified magnification. Turmeric fingers should not be less than 15 mm in length, hard, smooth and the core colour should be lemon yellow or bright yellow with only admissible levels of small pieces and bulbs (Table 26.2). Turmeric whole should not contain more than 2% by weight (lower limit for superior grade) extraneous matter. The admissible level of defective rhizome allowed in different varieties of turmeric is given in Table 26.2. The limits for chemical characteristics specified for turmeric powder are presented in Table 26.3. American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) cleanliness specification effective from 21 May 1997 for turmeric allows only a maximum of three dead whole insects; 5 mg/1b mammalian or other excreta, 3% by wt. mould, 2.5% by wt. insect defiled or infested material and 0.5% by wt. extraneous foreign matter in turmeric (Sivadasan, 1998). Whole, dried or fresh turmeric is usually free from adulteration. However, turmeric powder is adulterated with foreign starch (tapioca, arrowroot, cereal floor), husks, coal tar colours, lead chromate, etc. Adulterated turmeric powder will have low curcumin content. Depending upon the adulterant used, the curcumin content of the samples vary from 0.372.07% (Balasubramanian et al., 1979). Gas chromatographic methods are available to detect volatile oil of other Curcuma sp. used for admixing the turmeric powder. Similarly, specific tests are now available to detect each of the above adulterants in ground turmeric (Govindarajan, 1980). 302 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 26.2 Indian specification for turmeric grade Pieces Foreign Defectives (max. matter (max. wt. %.) wt. %.) (max. wt. %.) Grade Bulks Characteristics (max. wt. %.) Finger-like shape, breaks with a metallic twang; well set and close grained; perfectly dry, free from weevil damage, over boiling, etc. Fingers (general) Special Good Fair 2.0 3.0 5.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 5.0 Fingers (Alleppey) Good Fair 5.0 7.0 1.0 1.5 3.0 5.0 4.0 5.0 As above Fingers (Rajapuri) Special Good Fair 3.0 5.0 7.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 As above, admixture of other turmeric varieties are allowed at a maximum of 2.5 and 10% in 3 grades, respectively. Bulbs (rounds) Special Good Fair 1.0 1.5 2.0 1.0 3.0 5.0 Be well developed, smooth round and free from rootlets The Rajapuri type has higher allowance of 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0% defectives in 3 grades, respectively. Source: Govindarajan (1980). 26.5 Chemical structure Turmeric is valued mainly for its principal colouring pigment, curcumin, which imparts the yellow colour to turmeric, besides other nutritive constituents like potassium (Peter, 1999) (Table 26.4). The main colouring constituent of turmeric and other yellow Curcuma species is curcumin, having a molecular formula of C21H2O O6. In fact, besides curcumin there are a few other related pigments which imparts the yellow colour, all together called curcuminoids (Verghese, 1999). Curcumin [1,7-bis (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-1,6heptadiene-3,5-dione]; demethoxy curcumin [4-hydroxy-cinnamoyl (4-hydroxy-3methoxycinnamoyl) methane and bis-demethoxy curcumin [bis-(4-hydroxy cinnamoyl methane] together make the colouring pigment in the turmeric rhizomes (see Fig. 26.2). The curcumin content in different turmeric varieties varies from 2 8% (spectrophotometric estimation). However, Verghese (1999) reported the total colour in eight C. longa varieties ranging from only 2.33.9%, by HPLC analysis. Alleppey type recorded maximum colour. The distribution of the curcuminoids is also reported to vary with different samples (Table 26.5) (Verghese, 1999). In the pure form curcuminoids separate as an orange yellow crystalline powder, insoluble in water, slightly soluble in ether, soluble in alcohol and in glacial acetic acid. Verghese (1999) is of the opinion that the melting point of curcumin is an unworthy Table 26.3 Sample Whole BP US DDR Powder India WHO Analytical specification for turmeric (whole and powder) Moisture max. (% wt.) 810 9 10 10 Ash Total max. (% wt.) Acid insol. max. (% wt.) 69 7 7 7 7 0.5 1.5 1.5 Starch max. (% wt) Crude fibre max. (% wt.) Vol. oil max. (% wt.) Colour as curcumin min. (% wt.) Lead max. ppm Chromate test 60.0 46 6 25 4 2.6 5 34 1.5 3 Negative Negative Note: The chromate test is negative if there is no violet colour developed when dilute acid soluble ash from 2 g of sample (45 ml) is reacted with 1 ml of 0.2% alcoholic solution of diphenyl carbazide. Source: Govindarajan (1980). 304 Handbook of herbs and spices Table 26.4 Nutritional composition of turmeric Constituent Quantity per 100 g Water (g) Food energy (Kcal) Protein (g) Fat (g) Carbohydrate (g) Ash (g) Calcium (g) Phosphorous (mg) Sodium (mg) Potassium (mg) Iron (g) Thiamine (mg) Riboflavin (mg) Niacin (mg) Ascorbic acid (mg) 6.0 390 8.5 8.9 69.9 6.8 0.2 260 30 2000 47.5 0.09 0.19 4.8 50 Source: Peter (1999). Fig. 26.2 Structures of (a) curcumin, (b) demethoxy curcumin and (c) bis-demethoxy curcumin. Turmeric Table 26.5 305 Concentration of curcuminoids in typical curcumin samples by HPLC analysis Sample Curcumin (%) Demethoxy curcumin (%) bis-demethoxy curcumin (%) Total (%) 1. Curcumin puriss (Fluka) 2. Curcumin crys. natural (Koch-light) 3. Pure curcumin (Chr. Harsen) 4. Curcumin/(Syndiferuloyl methane (ICN) (1) 5. Curcumin (ICN) 6. Curcumin (Biomol) 7. Synthite 1 8. Synthite 2 53.5 80.8 17.2 7.1 9.6 1.0 80.3 89.9 64.9 79.6 11.3 12.2 6.4 1.6 82.6 93.4 58.3 66.3 71.0 68.6 16.6 15.3 23.2 23.0 7.0 4.0 2.8 3.0 81.9 85.6 97.0 94.6 Source: Verghese (1999). quality parameter and need not be mentioned in any specifications, as many different melting points are reported by many workers for curcuminoids! Curcumin exhibits strong absorption between 419 and 430 nm in organic solvents and on this property revolves the spectrophotometric methods of the American Spice Trade Association (1968) and Essential Oil Association (EOA) (1965), though now the HPLC method is available (Tonnesen and Karlson, 1983). The EOA stresses the fact that turmeric extracts are evaluated strictly in colour and this is best expressed in terms of colour value (cv), which is equivalent to ten times the specific extinction coefficient in ethanol at 422 nm (c.f. Verghese, 1999). Verghese (1999) further reported that the specific extinction coefficient in ethanol of curcumin at 420430 nm varies between 1528 and 1586, of demethoxy curcumin at 420430 nm between 1513 and 1580, and of bis-demethoxy curcumin at 419430 nm between 1565 and 1682. By repeated crystallization from ethanol, the dye yielded specific extinction coefficient 1596 at 425 nm in ethanol (c.f. Verghese 1999). Coupling this observation and the values already reported in the literature, specific extinction coefficient 1600 was recommended as a reasonable yardstick for assaying curcumin and this fits the HPLC data excellently (Verghese, 1999). However, for most routine, quality control work, it is sufficient to measure the extinction of an alcohol extract at the absorption maximum at 420455 nm, taking the precautions of using neutral alcohol and avoiding exposure to direct sunlight, and calculate the curcumin content by using the molecular absorption value (Govindarajan, 1980). Turmeric oil has a major role in the aroma and flavour of turmeric though the oil as such is not used. Turmeric oil is comprised of oxygenated sesquiterpenes which are accompanied by smaller quantities of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes (Purseglove et al., 1981). Among the various constituents of the oil, sesquiterpenes, ar-turmerone and turmerone comprise 50 per cent of the oil (see Fig. 26.3) (Purseglove et al., 1981). 26.6 Use in the food industry Turmeric powder is used in mustard paste and curry powder as both colour and aroma are important in these products. Turmeric oleoresin is used mainly in the brine pickles 306 Handbook of herbs and spices Fig. 26.3 (a) Turmerone, (b) ar-Turmerone. (Eiserle, 1966; Cripps, 1967) and to some extent in mayonnaise and relish formulations; in non-alcoholic beverages such as orangeades and lemonades; gelatins; in breading of frozen fish sticks; potato croquettes; butter and cheese in the form of powder or granules for garnishing and even in ice creams (Perotti, 1975). In all these cases, its function is predominantly to colour the product and it merely replaces the synthetic colours such as tartrazine, formerly used (Govindarajan, 1980). In Asian countries whole, dry or fresh turmeric, ground or turmeric powder with other spices like chillies, coriander, pepper, cumin, etc., are used for making vegetable and meat dishes and soup-like dishes. Turmeric powder mixed with seasame, coconut or groundnut oil is used for pickling mango, lime, gooseberry, garlic, etc. (Govindarajan, 1980). The colours in the Food Regulation Act came into force in UK in 1996. Part III, Schedule 5 of this Regulation specifies the limits for curcumin in various food items (Table 26.6) (Henry, 1998). Curcumin is included in the list of colours with a restricted use because of the fact that it has been allocated only a temporary, low ADI value (acceptable daily intake). The ADI value indicates the amount of a food additive that can be taken daily in the diet without risk, expressed as mg/kg/bodyweight (Henry, 1998). The Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has allotted curcumin a temporary ADI value of 01.0 mg/kg/bodyweight/day. Curcumin is specifically permitted as a colour in the EU though many countries simply list it without a specification for its colour strength. Pure 95% curcumin, as it is usually obtained, is not an ideal product for direct use by the food industry since it is insoluble in water and has poor solubility in other solvents. Hence in many countries curcumin is dissolved in a mixture of food grade solvent and permitted emulsifier such as Polysorbate 80 for converting into a convenient application form. In this form the product contains about 10% curcumin. Curcumin gives a bright yellow colour even at low doses. The usual dose level of curcumin is in the range of 5200 ppm. Numerous blends are available commercially to suit the colour of the product (Henry, 1998). Vanilla ice cream for example is coloured with a combination of curcumin (200 ppm) and norbixin (12 ppm). Similarly in yoghurt 5 ppm curcumin will give an acceptable colour. For cakes and biscuits the required colour is achieved using a blend of curcumin (1015 ppm) and annatto (10 ppm). Turmeric oleoresins although permitted universally as a spice oleoresin, are not a permitted colour in EU (Henry, 1998). Turmeric powder, extracts and curcumin exhibit antioxidant property as observed by the induction period and oxygen absorption of coconut, groundnut, safflower, sesame, mustard, cotton seed oil and ghee at 95C to 220C for period up to 144 h. In foods, the antioxidant property of turmeric was effective in preventing peroxide developments (Khanna, 1999). Turmeric 307 Table 26.6 Limits specified for curcumin in various food items (Colours in Food Regulation Act 1995 Schedule 5, Part III) Food Maximum level Non-alcoholic flavoured drinks Candied fruits and vegetables, mostarda di frutta Preserves of red fruits Confectionery Decorations and coatings Fine bakery wares (e.g. viennoiseric, biscuits, cakes and wafers) Edible ices Flavoured processed cheese Desserts including flavoured milk products Sauces, seasonings (for example, curry powder, tandoori pickles, relishes, chutney and piccalilli) Mustard Fish paste and crustacean paste Pre-cooked crustaceans Salmon substitutes Surimi Fish roe Smoked fish Snacks: dry, savory potato, cereal or starch-based snack products: extruded or expanded savoury snack products Edible cheese rind and edible casings Complete formulae for weight control intended to replace total daily food intake or an individual meal Complete formulae and nutritional supplements for use under medical supervision Liquid food supplements/dietary integrators Solid food supplements/dietary integrators Soups Meat and fish analogues based on vegetable proteins Spirituous beverages (including products less than 15% alcohol by volume), except any mentioned in Schedule 2 or 3 Aromatized wines, aromatized wine-based drinks and aromatized wine-product cocktails as mentioned in Regulation (EEC) No. 1601/91, except any mentioned in Schedule 2 or 3 Fruit wines (still or sparkling), cider (except cidre bouche) and perry aromatized fruit wines, cider and perry 100 200 200 300 500 200 150 100 150 500 mg/l mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg 300 100 250 500 500 300 100 200 mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg quantum satis 50 mg/kg 50 mg/kg 100 mg/l 300 mg/kg 50 mg/kg 100 mg/kg 200 mg/l 200 mg/l 200 mg/l Source: Henry (1998). The fate of curcumin in vivo is yet to be understood thoroughly. Studies by oral administration of curcumin to rats indicated that curcumin is metabolized to a certain extent in the liver and that curcumin and its metabolites are excreted via bile and faeces (Tonnesen, 1986). 26.7 Functional properties Many reviews are available on the medicinal uses of turmeric (Kirtikar and Basu, 1948; Anon., 1950; Srimal, 1993; Verghese, 1999; Khanna, 1999). In the traditional systems of medicine turmeric is used against many ailments. 308 Handbook of herbs and spices The biological activity of turmeric is as anti-inflammatory, hypocholestremic, choleratic, antimicrobial, antirheumatic, antibacterial, antiviral, cytotoxic, spasmolytic, hypersensitive, antidiabetic and antihepato toxic (Govindarajan, 1980; Tonnessen, 1986; Velayudhan et al., 1999). Turmeric is also credited with anticancerous properties (Kuttan et al., 1985, Rao et al., 1995). Curcuminoids, turmeric oil, total extracts are all credited with medicinal properties (Khanna, 1999). However, the biological activity of the components of these constituents differ considerably (Verghese, 1999). It is reported that the proportions of curcuminoids play a considerable role in optimum bioprotective activity of turmeric. The concept of Curcumin C3 complex stamped with specific concentration limit of the individual curcuminoid is an off shoot of this finding (Verghese, 1999). The dried rhizome of turmeric is used widely as a spice, as a colouring agent and as a folk medicine. The yellow pigment curcumin and demethoxyylated curcumins found in both turmeric and ginger are known to possess potent antioxidant activity (Kikuzaki et al., 1994; Kikuzaki and Nakatani 1993). Curcumin suppressed the oxidation of methyl linoleate in organic homogeneous solution and aqueous emulsions, soybean phosphatidylcholine liposomal membranes and rat liver homoganate induced by free radicals (Noguchi et al., 1994). A mechanism for the dimer production is proposed and its relation to curcumins antioxidant activity is discussed in Masuda et al. (1999). The results indicated that the dimer is a radical-terminated product formed during the initial stage of the process. In vitro and in vivo studies have established the effectiveness of curcumin, volatile oil or total extracts of turmeric against many organisms such as Micrococcus pyogenous var. aureus, Staphylococcus sp., Paramacium caudatum, Trichophyton gypseum, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, Cornybacterium diphtheria, Aspergillus niger, etc. (Khanna, 1999). Aqueous extract, fresh juice and essential oil of turmeric are also credited with biopesticidal properties (Kapoor, 1998; Saju et al., 1998; Bora and Jaya Samuel, 1999). In vitro and in vivo studies have established the efficacy of turmeric constituents against various plant pathogens such as Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Helminthosporium sacchari, Colletotrichum gloesporoides, Rhizoctonia solani, etc. Turmeric oil is also effective as a mosquito repellant, housefly deterrent and in aphid vector control (Khanna, 1999; Saju et al., 1998). 26.8 References AMERICAN SPICE TRADE ASSOCIATION (ASTA). 1968. Official Analytical Methods, 2nd edn, American Spice Trade Association, New York, p. 53. ANON. 1950. The Wealth of India. Raw Materials (Ed.) Sastri, B.N. Vol. II, CSIR, New Delhi, pp. 4025. BALASUBRAMANIAN, N., KUMAR, K.R. and ANANDASWAMY, B. 1979. Packaging and storage studies on ground turmeric (C. longa L.) in flexible consumer packages. Indian Spices, 16(12): 1013. BORA, L.C. and JAYA SAMUEL 1999. Use of medicinal plants for management of bacterial blight in rice and bacterial wilt of tomato in Assam. In: Sasikumar, B. et al. (Ed.) Biodiversity, Conservation and Utilization of Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut, pp. 31521. Turmeric BURKILL, T.H., 309 1966. A dictionary of economic products of the Malay Peninsula Kualalampur, Ministry of Agriculture & Co-operatives, Malaysia. CRIPPS, H.P., 1967. Oleoresin turmeric, application in pickle production. Glass Packer Process, 46: 24. EISERLE, R.J. 1966. The role of oleoresin turmeric in the pickling process. Glass Packer Process, 45: 48. EOA SPECIFICATION STANDARDS, NO. 271 (1965). Essential Oil Association of USA, New York. GOVINDARAJAN, V.S. 1980. Turmeric chemistry, technology and quality. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 12: 199301. HENRY, B. 1998. Use of capsicum and turmeric as natural colours. Indian Spices, 35(3): 7 14. KAPOOR, A. 1998. Antifungal activities of fresh juice and aqueous extracts of turmeric and ginger. J. Physiol. Res. 10(12): 16781. KHANNA, N.M. 1999. Turmeric Natures precious gift. Curr. Sci. 76: 13516. KIKUZAKI, H. and NAKATANI, N. 1993. Antioxidant effects of some ginger constituents. J. Food Sci., 58: 140710. KIKUZAKI, H., KAWASAKI, Y. and NAKATANI, N. 1994. Structure of the antioxidant compounds in ginger. In: Ho, C.-T., Osawa, T., Huang, M. T. and Rosen, R. T. (Eds) Food Phytochemicals for Cancer Prevention II Teas, Spices, and Herbs. ACS Symposium Series No. 547, Washington, ACS Press, pp. 23747. KIRTIKAR, K.R. and BASU, B.D. 1948. Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol IV. Bishen Singh and Mahendrapal Singh, Dehra Dun, pp. 24172426. KRISHNAMURTHY, M.N., PADMA BAI, R., NATARAJAN, C.P. and KUPPUSWAMY, S. 1976. Colour content of turmeric varieties and studies of its processing. J. Food Sci. Technol. (India) 12: 1214. KUTTAN, R., BHANUMATHY, P., NIRMALA, K and GEORGE, M. C. 1985. Potential anti-cancer activity of turmeric (C. longa L.), Cancer Lett. 29: 197202. MASUDA, T., HIDAKA, K. SHINOHARA, A., MAEKAWA, T. TAKEDA, Y. and YAMAGUCHI, H. 1999. Chemical studies of antioxidant mechanism of curcuminoids: analysis of radical reaction products from curcumin. J Agric. Food Chem, 47: 717. NOGUCHI, N., KOMOU, E., NIKI, E. and WILLSON, R.L. 1994. Action of curcumin as an antioxidant against lipid peroxidation. Yukagaku, 43: 104551. NAZEEM, P.A. and REMA MENON. 1994. Blossom biological and hybridization studies in turmeric (C.longa L.). South Ind. Hort. 42(3): 1617. PEROTTI, A.G. 1975. Curcumin A little known but useful vegetable colour. Ind. Ailment. Prod. Veg. 14(6): 66. PETER, K.V. 1999. Informatics on turmeric and ginger. Indian Spices, 36(2&3): 1214. PURSEGLOVE, J.W. 1968. Tropical Crops: Monocotyledons. Longman, London. PURSEGLOVE, J.W., BROWN, E.G., GREEN, C.L. and ROBIN, S.R.J. 1981. Turmeric. In: Spices, Vol. II, Longman, New York, pp. 53280. RAO, C. V., RIVERSON, A., SIMI, B. and REDDY, B. S. 1995. Chemoprevention of colon carcinogenesis by dietary curcumin, naturally colouring plant phenolic compound. Cancer Res . 55: 25966. RAMA RAO, M., RAMA CHENNA, REDDY, K. and SUBBARAYADU, M. 1975. Promising turmeric types of Andhra Pradesh. Indian Spices, 12(2): 25. RIDLEY, H.N. 1912. Spices. Macmillan, London. SAJU, K.A., VENUGOPAL, M.N. and MATHEW, M.J. 1998. Antifungal and insect repellant activities of essential oil of turmeric (C. longa L.). Curr. Sci. 75: 6602. 310 Handbook of herbs and spices and PETER, K.V. 1996. Ginger and turmeric breeding in Kerala. Proc. Sem. Crop Breeding in Kerala (Ed.) P.I. Kuriachan, Dept. of Botany, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, pp. 6572. SIVADASAN, C.R. 1998. Import regulation and quality requirements for spices in USA. In: Quality Requirement of Spices for Export (Eds.) Sivadasan, C.R. and Madhusoodana Kurup, P. Spices Board, Kochi, pp. 520. SRIMAL, R.C. 1993. Curcumin a modern drug. Indian Spices, 30(2&3): 21 and 25. TONNESEN, H.H. 1986. Chemistry, stability and analysis of curcumin: A naturally occurring drug molecule. Oslo, 91. TONNESEN, H.H. and KARLSON, J. 1983. High performance liquid chromatography of curcumin and related components. J. Chromatography, 259: 36771. VELAYHUDAN, K.C., MURALIDHARAN, V.K., AMALRAJ, V.A., GAUTAM, P.L., MANDAL, S. and DINESH KUMAR. 1999. Curcuma Genetic Resources. Scientific Monograph No. 4. National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi. VERGHESE, J. 1999. Curcuminoids, the magic dye of C. longa L. rhizome. Indian Spices, 36(4): 1926. SASIKUMAR, B., RAVINDRAN, P.N., JOHNSON K. GEORGE Index acceptable daily intake (ADI value) 306 acetic acid, onions in 2578 acid insoluble ash (AIA) 14, 20 adulteration 228 adulterants 235 authentication of origins 268 black pepper 81 capsicum, chillies, paprika 120 cardamom (small) 1312 cinnamon 152 detection 256, 27 marjoram 2278 nutmeg 246 saffron 2823 turmeric 301 Aedes aegypti 224 aflatoxin limits 15, 19, 204 Aframomum see cardamom (large) Agmark specifications 129, 130, 292 agriculture, organic 345 see also cultivation alkaloids 169 allergenicity aniseed 467 bay leaves 59 cinnamon 150 see also toxicity allicin 183 alliin 1823 alliinase 1834 Allium cepa see onion Allium sativa see garlic -pinene 74, 78 American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) 16, 1718 amla preserve 1089 Amomum see cardamom (large) amsol 212 analgesic properties 845, 11617, 160, 264 anethole 446, 46, 47 anise oil 423, 446, 47 aniseed 3951 chemical structure 401 functional properties 446 production 414 quality 478 toxicity and allergenicity 467 uses 44 anthocyanin 1389, 211 antibiotic properties 188 antiepileptic properties 85 antifungal properties 45, 54 antimicrobial properties 56 aniseed 45 bay leaves 54 black pepper 85 cinnamon 150 curry leaf 171 dill 177 ginger 202 marjoram 2245 turmeric 308 antioxidant properties aniseed 45 black pepper 845 clove 160 curry leaf 171 garlic 188 ginger 201 marjoram 2256 onion 256 rosemary and sage 26975 312 Index antioxidant properties continued turmeric 308 antipyretic properties 845 antiulcerogenic properties 59 ar-turmerone 305, 306 ash level 14, 20 ASTA colour value 18 atopic eczema 226 ATP citrate lyase 21213 authentication methods 268 authenticity 13 Ayurvedic medicine 149, 213, 282 banana pudding, quick 98 bay leaves 5261 chemical composition 54, 557, 58 cultivation, production and processing 534 functional properties 549 toxicity and allergenicity 59 bay oil 534 beans, green, fried with coconut 109 beef, pickled 967 bees 224 benzoid compounds 220 -caryophyllene 77, 78, 155 -pinene 74, 78 beverages 956 bhatti system 138 bio-dynamic agriculture 35 birds eye chilli 11122 bis-demethoxy curcumin 302, 304, 305 biscuits, pepper 99 black pepper 62110 chemical structure 739 cultivars and varieties 678 cultivation 6872 description 647 functional properties 846 industrial processing 813 pepper products 834 post-harvest handling 723 production 624, 65, 6873 quality 678, 801 recipes with 95110 trade 624, 65 use in food 8692 black pepper fried chicken 107 black pepper pot roast 106 bleached cardamom 125 blood coagulation 187 blood pressure 187 Bonda Chai (Bonda tea) 2656 botanical origins 2, 3, 234 authentication 268 ISO list of plant species 2, 811 breeding, plant 262 brine, onions in 2578 bulk density/bulk index 15, 19 bush cultivation of pepper 70, 71 butter kokam and cambodge 209, 212 nutmeg 2423 Calicut ginger 196, 202, 203 cambodge 20715 chemical structure 2089 functional properties 21213 production 210, 211 quality 21314 uses 212 cambogin 213 camphene 243, 245 cancer-preventing properties 188, 202, 282 capsaicin 112, 113, 116 content/test 18 capsaicinoids (CAPS) 112, 113, 116 capsanthin 112, 113 capsicums 11122 chemical structure 11213 classification 11112 functional properties and toxicity 11617 production 11315 quality 11720 uses 11516 capsorubin 112 capsule husk, poppy 2656 cardamom (large) 13442 chemical structure 1367 cultivation 1378 post-harvest handling 1389 quality 140 trade 137 uses 13940 cardamom (small) 12333, 134 chemical structure 1278 production 1247 quality 12832 cardamom oil 123, 1267 carminative properties 45 carnosic acid 271, 272 carnosol 271, 272 carvone 175, 176 cassia 1434, 151, 152 see also cinnamon Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI) 138, 289 certification 356 chemical structure aniseed 401 bay leaves 54, 557, 58 black pepper 739 capsicums, chillies, paprika 11213 cardamom (large) 1367 cardamom (small) 1278 cinnamon 1446 clove 1545 Index cumin 1645 curry leaf 16970 dill 176 garlic 1824 ginger 1956 kokam and cambodge 2089 marjoram 2202 nutmeg and mace 23943 onion 2502 poppy 2636 saffron 2769 tamarind 28991 turmeric 3025, 306 cherries, pickled 96 chicken, fried with black pepper 107 chillies 11122 dried chilli quality 11920 dry chilli production 11415 chips, cinnamon 147 cholesterol reduction 187, 202, 282 chrysanthemin 289 chutneys 968 cigarette addiction 123 cineole 128, 129 cinnamon 14353 chemical structure 1446 economic species 145 essential oil 28, 1478 functional properties and toxicity 14950 production 1468 quality 1502 uses 1489 cis-sabinene hydrate 220, 221, 222 Citrin 213 classification of spices 1, 2 cleanliness 14, 16, 1718, 19 extraction of light filth from marjoram 227 garlic 189 ginger standards 2025 nutmeg and mace 246 clear dhal soup 104 clove 15463 functional properties 15960 production 1558 quality 1601 uses 1589 Cochin ginger 196, 202, 203 coconut chutney 97 codeine 264 cold expression process 265 colour 189 capsicums, chillies, paprika 115 kokam and cambodge 21112 marjoram 228 pigments 21112, 281, 302 saffron 281, 283, 284 turmeric 302, 3056 colour values 18 colouring strength 283, 284 concentrate, tamarind juice 289 condiments 912 consumption, black pepper 64, 66 continuous subcritical water extraction (CSWE) 2223 coriander chutney 978 cream of vegetable soup 1034 critical region 26, 27 crocins 277, 278, 279, 281, 282 Crocus sativus see saffron cryogrinding 82 crystallized ginger 197 cultivars/varieties black pepper 678 cardamom (large) 1356 cinnamon 145 garlic 182 onion 250 turmeric 298 cultivation aniseed 412 bay leaves 534 black pepper 6872 cardamom (large) 1378 dill 1745 organic agriculture 345 poppy 263 saffron 27980 cumin 1647 chemical structure 1645 functional properties 165 production 165 quality 1667 uses 165 cuminaldehyde 166 Curcuma domestica see turmeric curcumin 300, 3025, 306, 307, 308 content 19, 301 curcuminoids 302, 305, 308 curing cardamom (small) 125 turmeric 2989 curried lamb 1078 curry leaf 16872 chemical structure 16970 functional properties 1701 production 170 uses 1689 curry powder 87, 88, 3001 cysteine sulphoxides 1824, 1889, 2512 dehydration garlic 1846, 1902 onion 253, 254, 255, 257 demethoxy curcumin 302, 304, 305 dhal soup, clear 104 313 314 Index digestive properties 150, 202 dill 1739 chemical structure 176 flavour compounds 176 functional properties and toxicity 177 production 1745 quality 1778 dillapiole 176, 177 dilution of essential oils 25 dipentene 243, 245 diseases of pepper 70 diterpenes 271 dried chillies 11415, 11920 dried clove bud 156 dry ginger 1978 dry onions 256 drying 13 kokam and cambodge 210, 211, 21314 marjoram 21819 dyes 281 E. coli 21 east Indian dill (Sowa) 173, 174, 177, 178 eczema, atopic 226 edible oils 25 eicosanoid cascade 202 elemicin 242, 244 Elettaria cardamomum see cardamom (small) emulsions 2712 essential oils 45, 2233 adulteration problem 228 anise 423, 446, 47 authentication of botanical and geographical origin 268 bay 534 black pepper 749 cardamom (large) 1367, 139 cardamom (small) 123, 1267 cinnamon 28, 1478 clove 1578 cumin 165, 1667 curry leaf 16970 dill 175, 176, 178 garlic 186 ginger 198 marjoram 216, 218, 21923 nutmeg and mace 2402, 244 onion 2534 origins 234 physical properties 303 poppy seed oil 265 turmeric 300, 305 ester number 256, 27, 303 ethyl alcohol 25 ethylene oxide 16, 117 eugenol 1545, 156, 1578, 159, 160 eugenol acetate 1545, 156 European Spice Association (ESA) 1618, 19, 20 European ginger standards 204, 205 ever-ready onion 250 expectorant properties 45 extraneous matter 16, 17, 189 see also cleanliness fat synthesis in the body 21213 featherings, cinnamon 147 fertilizers 70 fish, salted 291 fish curry 200 Five Spice Blend (FSB) 87 flakes, garlic 190, 191 flavonols 79 flavour black pepper 801 cardamom (small) 128, 129 compounds 4, 5 dill 176 garlic 189 paprika and chillies 115 precursors 1824, 1889, 2502 synthetic flavour compounds 22, 234, 166 flue pipe curing 125, 138 food processing uses see uses of spices/herbs freeze-drying 219 freezing point 256 fresh ginger 197, 198 fried chicken with black pepper 107 functional properties 56 aniseed 446 bay leaves 549 black pepper 846 capsicums, chillies, paprika 11617 cardamom (small) 123 cinnamon 14950 clove 15960 cumin 165 curry leaf 1701 dill 177 garlic 1879 ginger 2012 kokam and cambodge 21213 marjoram 2247 nutmeg and mace 244 onion 2556 poppy 2636 rosemary and sage 26975 saffron 282 tamarind 291 turmeric 3078 Garcinia fish curry 200 garcinia fruits see cambodge; kokam garlic 18094 chemical structure 1824 Index functional properties 1879 production 180, 181, 1847 quality 18992 toxicity 1889 uses 180, 187 garlic salt 1867 gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) 245, 267 geographical origins 12, 234 authentication 268 ghee 171 ginger 195206 chemical structure 1956 functional properties 2012 production 1968 quality 2025 uses 198201 ginger wine 199 globulin 264 glutamic acid 251 grading cardamom (small) 12930 cinnamon quills 1501 ginger 202, 203 nutmeg 245 paprika 117, 118 see also quality; standards green beans fried with coconut 109 green pepper based products 834 grits, garlic 1901 Grocers Company 14 ground spices/herbs cardamom 1256 cinnamon 147 clove 157, 1589 cumin seeds 166 garlic 1901 ginger 198 pepper 82 spice mixture 10910 turmeric 300 harvesting black pepper 71, 72 cardamom (small) 1245 cinnamon 1467 dill 175 marjoram 21718 health tonic 281 heat treatment 16, 434 herbal medicines 226 high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) 120 HIV 226 Hungary 11314 hydroxycitric acid (HCA) 2089, 21213 hydroxycitric acid lactone (HCAL) 2089 hypoglycaemic properties 549, 171 315 India black pepper 624, 68 cardamom (small) 123, 124 curry leaf 168 ginger standards 202, 203 kokam and cambodge 210 onion 249 opium 263 organic spices 36, 37 turmeric 297, 298, 301, 302 Indonesia 37 infra-red (IR) spectroscopy 25 insects damage to capsicums, chillies, paprika 120 pests affecting pepper 70 quality specifications 16, 17, 189 inspection on delivery 21 International Standards Organisation (ISO) 15, 20, 283 list of plant species 2, 811 international trade see trade iodine number 25, 26 irradiation 5, 16 aniseed 434 marjoram 219 isotope ratio by mass spectrometry (IRMS) 27 isotopic fingerprint 278 jellose 290 juice onion 254 tamarind juice concentrate 289 kernel powder, tamarind 290, 291 kokam 20715 chemical structure 2089 functional properties 21213 production 210 quality 21314 uses 21112 korma curry 108 labelling 191 lacrimater 252 lamb curried 1078 spicy lamb fry masala 199200 see also mutton balls, pepper larvicidal properties 245 laudanum 282 Laurus nobilis see bay leaves legume preparations 1045 limbolee oil 169 limonene 74, 78, 176 linalool 27, 28, 128, 129 linalyl acetate 27, 28, 129 316 Index mace 23848 functional properties and toxicity 244 production and chemical structure 23943 quality 2456 uses 244 mahanimbinol 169 Malabar tamarind see cambodge marjoram 21637 essential oil 216, 218, 21923 functional properties 2247 harvesting 21718 post-harvest management 21819 quality 22731 uses 2234 masala dhal 1023 masalas 901 mass spectrometry 245 maximum solvent residues 161 meat dishes 967, 1068, 199200 mesh size 15 metals 21 methoxy hydroxy chalcone polymer 149, 150 methyl eugenol 128, 129 microbiological quality 15, 16, 19, 21 microencapsulation 83 milk shake, pepper 95 mineral oils 25 mixed vegetable soup 103 moisture content 14, 20, 139 monoterpene alcohols 220 monoterpene carbonyls 220 monoterpene esters 220 monoterpene hydrocarbons 747, 220, 221, 2412 morphine 264 mould 16, 17, 189 mulugutwanny 105 mutton balls, pepper 1067 see also lamb mycotoxin levels 15, 19, 204 myristic acid 245 Myristica fragrans see mace; nutmeg myristicin 242, 243, 244, 245 narcotic properties 244 Natures Own 213 Nile tilapia 224 noscapine 264 nutmeg 23848 functional properties and toxicity 244 production and chemical structure 23943 quality 2456 uses 2445 nutritional composition black pepper 85 cinnamon 144 clove 15960 curry leaf 1701 garlic 187, 188 garlic salt 186 ginger 201 marjoram 230 onion 2501 turmeric 304 odour 80, 189 off-flavour compounds 801 oil-in-water emulsions 2712 oleic acid 209 oleoresin anise 423 black pepper 82 capsicums, chillies, paprika 112, 114, 11719 cinnamon 148 clove 158, 159 garlic 186 ginger 198 nutmeg and mace 242 rosemary 270 turmeric 300 onion 24960 chemical structure and influences on flavour 2502 functional properties 2556 production 2525 quality 2568 onion salt 254 opium 261, 263, 264 optical rotation 256, 27, 303 oregano 216 organic spices 348 certification 356 future trends 38 organic farming 345 quality 356 standards 35 world trade 367 orginine 251 outcrossing 262 oven drying 21314 oxygenated compounds 748 packaging 19, 191 pain relief 845, 11617, 160, 264 pakodas 249 Papaver see poppy papaverine 264 paprika 11122 production 11314 quality 117, 118 particle size 15 pectin 290 Peermade Development Society 37 pepper, black see black pepper pepper mutton balls 1067 Index pepper products 834 pepper spike pickle 97 pepper steak 106 pepper tea 95 peppers see capsicums peppers guild 14 perfume 245, 281 pesticidal properties 308 pesticide levels 15, 19, 204 phellandrene 176 phenolic components 79 physical properties 256, 303 pickles 967 onion 2545, 2578 picrocrocin 277, 278, 279 pigments 21112, 281, 302 Pimpinella anisum see aniseed pinene 74, 78, 243, 245 Piper nigrum see black pepper piperine 74, 75 levels test 18 plant breeding 262 plant species 2, 811 platelet aggregation 187, 226 polishing 299 pongal 1001 poppy 2618 chemical structure and uses 2636 cultivation 263 pork, pickled 967 post-harvest handling black pepper 723 cardamom (large) 1389 marjoram 21819 turmeric 2989 pot marjoram 217 pot roast 106 potato chips 99100 powdered spices/herbs see ground spices/herbs precursors, flavour 1824, 1889, 2502 preservation 5 preserved ginger 197, 198 prices, saffron 280 processing 45 aniseed 434 bay leaves 534 black pepper 813 capsicums, chillies, paprika 11315 cardamom (large) 1389 cardamom (small) 1257 cinnamon 1478 clove 1568 curry leaf 170 dill 175 garlic 1847 ginger 1978 kokam and cambodge 21011 marjoram 21819, 2223 nutmeg and mace 23943 onion 2535 poppy seed oil 265 rosemary and sage 269 tamarind 2889 turmeric 298301 production aniseed 414 bay leaves 534 black pepper 624, 65, 6873 capsicums, chillies, paprika 11315 cardamom (large) 1379 cardamom (small) 1247 cinnamon 1468 clove 1558 cumin 165 curry leaf 170 dill 1745 garlic 180, 181, 1847 ginger 1968 kokam and cambodge 21011 marjoram 21723 nutmeg and mace 23943 onion 2525 poppy 263 rosemary and sage antioxidants 269 saffron 27980 tamarind 2889 turmeric 298301 protein 264 protocrocin 277 puliyingi 199 pulp, tamarind 289 pulse preparations 1045 pungency 112, 115, 120 quality 1321 aniseed 478 ASTA standards 16, 1718 black pepper 678, 801 capsicums, chillies, paprika 11720 cardamom (large) 140 cardamom (small) 12832 cinnamon 1502 clove 1601 cumin 1667 defining 13 dill 1778 ESA standards 1618, 19, 20 garlic 18992 ginger 2025 indices for essential oils 2233 international specifications 1415 kokam and cambodge 21314 marjoram 22731 nutmeg and mace 2456 onion 2568 organic spices 356 317 318 Index quality continued other tests 1819 saffron 2824 tamarind 2912 turmeric 3012, 303 quality assurance systems 21 quick banana pudding 98 quillings 147 quills, cinnamon 147, 1501 racemic synthetics 228 radish sambar 1045 Rasam 105 recipes with black pepper 95110 with ginger 199201 refractive index 256, 27, 303 regulation see quality; standards rehydration 191 resorcinols 245 rhizomes, turmeric 298, 2989 rigani 217 rind, kokam and cambodge 208, 210, 211, 21112, 21314 roghan josh 1078 rosemary 267, 26975 antioxidant properties 26970 chemical structure 2712 extraction methods 269 rosmanol 271, 272 rosmaridiphenol 271 rosmarinic acid 271, 272 rosmariquinone 270 S-alk(en)yl cysteine sulphoxides 1824, 1889, 2512 sabinene 74, 78 saffron 27686 chemical structure 2769 functional properties 282 production 27980 quality 2824 uses 281 safranal 278, 279 safrole 242, 243 sage 13, 26975 antioxidant properties 272 extraction 269 salad dressings 90 Salmonella 21 salted fish 291 sand content (acid insoluble ash) 14, 20 sauces 90, 912 Scoville heat units (SHU) 18, 112, 120 seasonings 90, 912 seed testa, tamarind 2901 seeds cumin 165, 166 poppy 264 tamarind 290 sensory evaluation 80 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons 778, 220, 305, 306 shallots 250 slices, garlic 1901 smoke drying 211, 21314 snacks 99101 sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) 270 soikadi 212 solubility 303 soluble seasonings 8790 solvent extraction 158, 270 solvent residues, maximum 161 soups 1034 Sowa (east Indian dill) 173, 174, 177, 178 Spain 284 specific gravity 256, 27, 303 specifications see quality; standards spice extracts 4 spice mixes 901 spicy lamb fry masala 199200 spicy water melon juice 956 Sri Lanka 37 standards 1418, 19, 20 capsicums, chillies, paprika 11720 cardamom (large) 140 cardamom (small) 12831 cinnamon 151 clove 160, 161 cumin 166 dill 1778 garlic 18990 ginger 2025 marjoram 229, 230 nutmeg and mace 2456 onion 2567 organic spices 35 saffron 2834 tamarind 292 turmeric 301, 302 see also quality star anise oil 47 steak, pepper 106 steam distillation 42, 1267, 139, 170, 175 stearic acid 209 stimulant properties 45 stomach cancer 188 storage aniseed 43 cinnamon 148 clove 1567 garlic 192 marjoram 219 turmeric 299, 300 suji halwa 989 sulphur-containing compounds 1824, 1889, 2512 Index sun drying 210, 211, 21314 supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) 83, 158, 222 sweet preparations with pepper 989 synthetic flavour compounds 22, 234, 166 tamarind 28796 functional properties 291 production 2889 quality 2912 uses 28991 tamarind kernel powder (TKP) 290, 291 tea Bonda (poppy) 2656 pepper 95 terpenes 169 terpineol 128, 129 terpinoid ether/oxides 220 terpinyl acetate 128, 129 testa, tamarind seed 2901 thebaine 264 thermic effects of food (TEF) 116 thin-layer chromatography (TLC) 25 thyme 13 tomato curry 2001 toxicity 59 aniseed 467 capsicums, chillies, paprika 116 cinnamon 14950 dill 177 garlic 1889 nutmeg and mace 244 trade, international 3 black pepper 624, 65 cardamom (large) 137 cinnamon 146 curry leaf 168 dill 1734 nutmeg and mace 239 organic spices 367 tamarind 288 turmeric 298 traditional medicine 177, 201, 213, 307 black pepper 84, 85 cinnamon 149 clove 160 cumin 165 curry leaf 171 marjoram 2267 onion 2556 saffron 282 trimyristicin 2423 turmeric 13, 297310 chemical structure 3025, 306 functional properties 3078 post-harvest processing 298301 production 298301 quality 3012, 303 uses 3057 turmerone 305, 306 Unani medicine 149, 282 United States ginger standards 2025 urd bonda 100 uses of spices/herbs aniseed 44 bay leaves 534 black pepper 8692 capsicums, chillies, paprika 11516 cardamom (large) 13940 cardamom (small) 123 cinnamon 1489 clove 1589 curry leaf 1689 dill 173 garlic 180, 187 ginger 198201 kokam and cambodge 21112 marjoram 2234 nutmeg and mace 2445 onion 249, 253 poppy 2636 saffron 281 tamarind 28991 turmeric 3057 varieties see cultivars/varieties varroa infestation in bees 224 vegetable crispies 99100 vegetable curry 1012 vegetable hamburger onion hash 101 vegetable khorma 102 vegetable preparations 1013 vegetable soups 1034 veppilakkatti 1689 vinegar from onion 255 vitamins 117 volatile oil (V/O) 14, 20 see also essential oils water availability 1415 water melon juice, spicy 956 water steeping and retting technique 812 weight management properties 21213 wet masala 249 white pepper 812 wild marjoram 217 wine, ginger 199 Zaafran Attar 281 Zingiber officinale see ginger zingiberene 196 319 ... 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Herbs. Handbook of Herbs and Spices Vol 1

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