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1 0 Question out of 3.2 points A principle of learning can best be characterized as: Answer Correct Register to View Answerstatement that describes how a particular factor affects learning Question 2 3.2 out of 3.2 points The best perspective regarding various theories of learning is that: Answer Correct Answer: Different theories may be applicable in different situations. Question 3 0 out of 3.2 points Human beings undoubtedly learn more during the course of a lifetime than any other species on earth. The major result of this capacity to learn is that: Answer Correct Answer: Humans can benefit from their experiences. Question 4 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following are principles of learning. Which one is a theory of learning rather than a principle? Answer Correct Answer: People learn by making mental associations between new information and their existing knowledge. Question 5 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements is the most accurate statement regarding theories of learning? Answer Correct Answer: They are often modified as new data emerge. Question 6 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best describes mirror neurons? Answer Correct Answer: They fire when a person either makes a particular response or observes someone else make that response. Question 7 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best describes the growth of neurons during the prenatal period? Answer Correct Answer: An overabundance of neurons emerges early in prenatal development, but about half of the neurons die before birth. Question 8 0 out of 3.2 points Three of the following describe methods that researchers commonly use to determine how the human brain probably functions. hich one is not a commonly used method to study the brain? Answer Correct Answer: Measuring the levels of various hormones and other substances in the blood Question 9 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements most accurately describes a neuron's threshold of excitation? Answer Correct Register to View Answerneuron fires only when its electrical charge reaches a particular level. Question 10 3.2 out of 3.2 points After a severe head injury, Mary has exceptional difficulty setting goals and in other ways planning her actions. Without knowing anything else about Mary's injury, you might reasonably conclude that it affected her: Answer Correct Answer: forebrain Question 11 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best exemplifies experience-expectant plasticity? Answer Correct Answer: Mastering one's native language Question 12 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best exemplifies experience-dependent plasticity? Answer Correct Answer: Learning how to read Question 13 3.2 out of 3.2 points A smoker is asked to smoke one cigarette after another until she is unable to continue any longer. Which method for breaking bad habits is best illustrated in this situation? Answer Correct Answer: Exhaustion method Question 14 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements best describes the view of early behaviorists about how learning can best be studied? Answer Correct Answer: The study of learning will be more objective and scientific if only observable events are considered. Question 15 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following characteristics of behaviorist learning theories is a direct outgrowth of the equipotentiality assumption? Answer Correct Answer: Conclusions derived from research with rats are applicable to human learning. Question 16 3.2 out of 3.2 points After a painful experience at one dentist's office, Teresa's mother takes Teresa to a different dentist, who takes great care to make her visits painless. Teresa is anxious at first, but after a few visits, Teresa gradually becomes less resistant about going to the new dentist. Teresa's change in behavior can probably best be explained in terms of _____. But then Teresa does not go to see the dentist for three years. On her first visit to the painless dentist after that time interval, she is anxious once again, even though she had not been anxious in her previous visits. The return of this response after it had previously disappeared is known as _____. Answer Correct Answer: extinction; spontaneous recovery Question 17 0 out of 3.2 points Classical conditioning typically occurs when: Answer Correct Answer: Two stimuli are presented at about the same time. Question 18 3.2 out of 3.2 points Ivan Pavlov conducted a series of studies that led him to propose his theory of classical conditioning. In these studies, Pavlov observed how a dog learned to: Answer Correct Answer: Salivate to a simple stimulus such as a light or bell Question 19 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements best reflects behaviorists' notion of tabula rasa? Answer Correct Answer: Organisms inherit few predispositions to behave in particular ways; instead, the behaviors they exhibit are largely the result of environmental experiences. Question 20 0 out of 3.2 points Warren has earned himself a reputation for being the class clown. His teacher, Ms. Washington, used to laugh at Warren's funny remarks, but is now trying to discourage Warren's disruptive behavior by ignoring his jokes. But sometimes Warren tells a joke so funny that Ms. Washington laughs in spite of herself. Rather than decreasing his joke-telling, Warren begins telling even more outrageous jokes. Inadvertently, Ms. Washington is modifying Warren's joketelling behavior through: Answer Correct Answer: shaping Question 21 0 out of 3.2 points Bill's behaviors in Ms. Kennedy's class are really distracting to other students. For example, he whispers to the boy beside him when Ms. Kennedy is giving directions on how to do any assignment. He flings paper clips at a girl across the room. He makes strange grunting noises that a few classmates find amusing. Ms. Kennedy glares at him or admonishes him whenever he behaves in a distracting way, yet his inappropriate behaviors are increasing rather than decreasing. Which one of the following interpretations of this situation best explains why Bill's behaviors are increasing? Answer Correct Register to View Answerfew classmates are positively reinforcing him for the distracting behaviors. Question 22 0 out of 3.2 points George has learned that if he pesters his father about using the family Cadillac enough times, his father will eventually break down and give George the keys to the Cadillac. George's "pestering" behavior is apparently being reinforced on a ___________ schedule. Answer Correct Answer: variable ratio Question 23 3.2 out of 3.2 points Tiffany is a hyperactive child who rarely sits still for more than 30 seconds at a time. Ms. Garcia decides to use positive reinforcement to help Tiffany learn to sit quietly in her seat during class time. Which one of the following approaches will bring about the fastest change in Tiffany's behavior? Answer Correct Answer: Continuous reinforcement Question 24 0 out of 3.2 points Joshua stays in his dorm room rather than going to his required English composition class because he has difficulty with writing assignments. Joshua's lack of class attendance is an example of: Answer Correct Answer: passive avoidance Question 25 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is a primary reinforcer? Answer Correct Register to View Answercookie Question 26 3.2 out of 3.2 points Mark's previous girlfriend always told him how handsome he looked whenever he wore his green sweater. Tonight Mark is going out with a new girlfriend and puts on the same green sweater. In behaviorist terminology, Mark is: Answer Correct Answer: showing generalization Question 27 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following examples best illustrates the concept of baseline as behaviorists use the term? Answer Correct Answer: Justin talks in class all the time, even though his teacher and classmates do nothing to encourage him. Question 28 0 out of 3.2 points For which of the following students would behaviorist approaches to instruction be least helpful? Answer Correct Answer: Dana has always been an excellent student. Question 29 0 out of 3.2 points In Marcia's first tennis lesson, her instructor Keith is trying to teach her the correct way to swing a tennis racket. Keith praises Marcia every time she hits the tennis ball over the net and onto the opponent's side of the court using the correct body position. Marcia shows little improvement during the one-hour lesson. From a behaviorist perspective, what mistake is Keith probably making in teaching Marcia to play tennis? Answer Correct Answer: He should shape the behavior rather than expect immediate mastery. Question 30 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following instructional objectives most clearly focuses on students' higher-level thinking skills? Answer Correct Answer: "Students will use the laws of momentum and inertia to explain how objects move." Question 31 3.2 out of 3.2 points Ms. Smythe keeps Eric after school whenever he swears in class. Even though Eric has been kept after school each day for the past three weeks, his swearing has increased rather than decreased. Given what we know about the effects of punishment on behavior, Ms. Smythe should probably conclude that: Answer Correct Answer: Staying after school is not a punishment for Eric. Question 32 3.2 out of 3.2 points Healthier eating habits make people feel better and give them more energy over the long run. Yet many people do not improve their eating habits, especially if healthful foods are difficult and time-consuming to prepare. Three of the following are possible explanations for the lack of improvement (i.e., behavior change) in people's eating habits. Judging from what you have learned about instrumental conditioning, choose the alternative that is not a likely explanation. Answer Correct Answer: Extrinsic reinforcers are usually more effective than intrinsic reinforcers. Question 33 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following are recommended practices when using punishment to reduce an inappropriate behavior. Which one is not recommended? Answer Correct Answer: Use punishment in many situations frequently to get the point across. Question 34 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following alternatives illustrates the impact of an efficacy expectation? Answer Correct Answer: Christina knows that practice will make her a better softball player. Even so, she doesn't think she's coordinated enough to make the varsity softball team. Question 35 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best illustrates cognitive modeling? Answer Correct Register to View Answerscience teacher thinks aloud, "How can I determine what makes this pendulum swing fast or slowly? Hmm, I'll change the amount of weight on the bottom. But I need to make sure to keep the length the same as before so that I know that any change in speed isn't due to length." Question 36 0 out of 3.2 points In what way does the concept self-efficacy differ from such terms as self-concept and self-esteem? Answer Correct Answer: Self-efficacy varies depending on the specific task to be performed. Question 37 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following alternatives best describes the disinhibition effect that social cognitive theorists describe? Answer Correct Answer: People may engage in a previously prohibited behavior if they see someone else being reinforced for that behavior. Question 38 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is an example of vicarious punishment? Answer Correct Answer: Connie sees her friend Maria scolded for chewing gum in class. She quickly takes her own gum out of her mouth. Question 39 3.2 out of 3.2 points Models can influence an observer's behavior in a number of ways. Which one of the following behaviors is least likely to be the result of modeling? Answer Correct Answer: Luke scratches his mosquito bites, even though his mother continually asks him not to, because it makes them feel better. Question 40 3.2 out of 3.2 points Two boys are fighting on school grounds. Fighting is against school rules, and the boys know this. Even so, a teacher who sees them lets them continue to fight rather than punishing them for doing so. From the perspective of social cognitive theory, these boys will be: Answer Correct Answer: More likely to fight in the future Question 1 0 out of 3.2 points A principle of learning can best be characterized as: Answer Selected Answer: An explanation of the underlying processes through which learning occurs Correct Register to View Answerstatement that describes how a particular factor affects learning Question 2 0 out of 3.2 points Three of the following are principles of learning. Which one is a theory of learning rather than a principle? Answer Selected Answer: Students tend to remember more of a lecture if they take notes on the lecture's content. Correct Answer: People learn by making mental associations between new information and their existing knowledge. Question 3 0 out of 3.2 points Theories are advantageous in several ways. Three of the following describe advantages of learning theories. Which one does not? Answer Selected Answer: Theories help practitioners design interventions that facilitate learning. Correct Answer: Theories promote objective, unbiased reporting of research findings. Question 4 3.2 out of 3.2 points Behaviorists and cognitivists tend to focus on different aspects of learning. Which one of the following statements best describes this difference? Answer Selected Answer: Behaviorism focuses on external behavioral changes; cognitivism focuses on internal mental changes. Correct Answer: Behaviorism focuses on external behavioral changes; cognitivism focuses on internal mental changes. Question 5 3.2 out of 3.2 points Reynelda has trouble tracing a complex shape with a pencil when she is in kindergarten, but she can do it quite well by the time she is in second grade. Is this an instance of learning? Answer Selected Answer: Maybe, although the change may simply be due to physiological maturation. Correct Answer: Maybe, although the change may simply be due to physiological maturation. Question 6 0 out of 3.2 points In which one of the following situations should we be most concerned about missing a critical period in a person's development? Answer Selected Answer: Joey has his first tennis lesson when he is 25. Correct Answer: Rachel is born with a cataract in her left eye that is surgically removed when she is 8 years old. Question 7 0 out of 3.2 points During the elementary and secondary school years, much of the brain's development occurs in the region of the brain that is largely responsible for Answer Selected Answer: generation of emotional responses Correct Answer: thinking and reasoning Question 8 3.2 out of 3.2 points Given what psychologists believe to be true about how information is typically stored in the brain, how is the concept dog probably represented in your brain? Answer Selected Answer: As a network of neurons spread across multiple brain regions Correct Answer: As a network of neurons spread across multiple brain regions Question 9 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following research findings is most consistent with the concept of core knowledge as described in the textbook? Answer Selected Answer: Very young infants appear to have more knowledge of the physical world than they could have gotten from their own, limited experiences with objects. Correct Answer: Very young infants appear to have more knowledge of the physical world than they could have gotten from their own, limited experiences with objects. Question 10 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following describe methods that researchers commonly use to determine how the human brain probably functions. hich one is not a commonly used method to study the brain? Answer Selected Answer: Measuring the levels of various hormones and other substances in the blood Correct Answer: Measuring the levels of various hormones and other substances in the blood Question 11 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best describes mirror neurons? Answer Selected Answer: They fire when a person either makes a particular response or observes someone else make that response. Correct Answer: They fire when a person either makes a particular response or observes someone else make that response. Question 12 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best describes the growth of neurons during the prenatal period? Answer Selected Answer: Neurons begin to develop in the fifth month of pregnancy, and they proliferate rapidly during the third trimester. Correct Answer: An overabundance of neurons emerges early in prenatal development, but about half of the neurons die before birth. Question 13 0 out of 3.2 points At the dentist's office, Teresa has a painful experience that leaves her tense and fearful. The next time her mother brings her to the dentist's office, Teresa begins to get tense and anxious. In this situation, the dentist and dentist's office are _____; Teresa's fear of pain is a(n) _____. Answer Selected Answer: unconditioned stimuli; conditioned response Correct Answer: conditioned stimuli; unconditioned response Question 14 3.2 out of 3.2 points After being bitten by a neighbor's dog, Kathy is now afraid of the puppy her family has just adopted. Kathy's father gives Kathy a hot fudge sundae; then, while she is happily eating it, he brings the puppy about fifteen feet from where she is sitting. On each successive day, Kathy gets another ice cream treat, and her father brings the puppy a little closer than he did on the previous day. Eventually Kathy is able to pet and enjoy the new puppy. Kathy's father is using a procedure known as: Answer Selected Answer: counterconditioning Correct Answer: counterconditioning Question 15 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following situations illustrates extinction of a classically conditioned response? Answer Selected Answer: Carla becomes less afraid of tests over time when she finds that she can succeed at them. Correct Answer: Carla becomes less afraid of tests over time when she finds that she can succeed at them. Question 16 0 out of 3.2 points Matthew once had a teacher who punished him severely whenever he did poorly on a mathematics test. Now he refuses to open a math book, saying he is "too scared" to do so. He has learned to associate mathematics with the pain of punishment. Here, the painful punishment is: Answer Selected Register to View Answerconditioned stimulus Correct Answer: An unconditioned stimulus Question 17 3.2 out of 3.2 points After a painful experience at one dentist's office, Teresa's mother takes Teresa to a different dentist, who takes great care to make her visits painless. Teresa is anxious at first, but after a few visits, Teresa gradually becomes less resistant about going to the new dentist. Teresa's change in behavior can probably best be explained in terms of _____. But then Teresa does not go to see the dentist for three years. On her first visit to the painless dentist after that time interval, she is anxious once again, even though she had not been anxious in her previous visits. The return of this response after it had previously disappeared is known as _____. Answer Selected Answer: extinction; spontaneous recovery Correct Answer: extinction; spontaneous recovery Question 18 0 out of 3.2 points If students associate failure with punishment, and then associate mathematics with failure, they may begin to fear mathematics through a process of: Answer Selected Answer: generalization Correct Answer: higher-order conditioning Question 19 3.2 out of 3.2 points A student who is afraid of mathematics is first given some problems that bear little resemblance to mathematics, then is given a sequence of problems that become increasingly more mathematical in content. The progression of problems is gradual enough that the fear response does not occur, and eventually the student loses his fear of mathematics. Which method for breaking bad habits is best illustrated in this situation? Answer Selected Answer: Threshold method Correct Answer: Threshold method Question 20 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is a primary reinforcer? Answer Selected Register to View Answercookie Correct Register to View Answercookie Question 21 3.2 out of 3.2 points Martin went to two or three school dances but always felt uncomfortable and self-conscious. Martin no longer goes to school dances. His lack of attendance is an example of: Answer Selected Answer: Passive avoidance learning Correct Answer: Passive avoidance learning Question 22 3.2 out of 3.2 points Thorndike's observations of a cat trying to escape from a puzzle box led him to conclude that learning is: Answer Selected Register to View Answergradual process that occurs through trial and error Correct Register to View Answergradual process that occurs through trial and error Question 23 3.2 out of 3.2 points A mother has been paying her daughter Melissa one dollar an hour to shovel snow off the driveway. At the end of January, the mother raises the rate to two dollars an hour. Based on research related to contrast effects, we can predict that Melissa will probably: Answer Selected Answer: Shovel more snow than if the pay for shoveling snow had always been two dollars an hour. Correct Answer: Shovel more snow than if the pay for shoveling snow had always been two dollars an hour. Question 24 3.2 out of 3.2 points Six-year-old Jack has recently learned to appreciate the value of money, so his father assigns him some simple housekeeping chores to be performed throughout the week. He tells Jack that completion of these chores will earn him an allowance of one dollar every Saturday. Jack rarely completes his chores. From an operant conditioning perspective, which one of the following is most likely to be the reason why Jack is not doing his chores? Answer Selected Answer: There is a delay in reinforcement. Correct Answer: There is a delay in reinforcement. Question 25 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best illustrates Skinner's concept of superstitious behavior? Answer Selected Answer: David usually struggles with his geography exams, but he recently got high scores on two occasions when he wore a Denver Broncos sweatshirt to school. He now wears his Broncos sweatshirt whenever a geography test is scheduled. Correct Answer: David usually struggles with his geography exams, but he recently got high scores on two occasions when he wore a Denver Broncos sweatshirt to school. He now wears his Broncos sweatshirt whenever a geography test is scheduled. Question 26 3.2 out of 3.2 points Alex loses his best friend Tyler when he tattles on Tyler at recess. Alex learns that tattling on friends is not a good idea. The loss of Tyler's friendship is an example of: Answer Selected Answer: Punishment II Correct Answer: Punishment II Question 27 3.2 out of 3.2 points In Marcia's first tennis lesson, her instructor Keith is trying to teach her the correct way to swing a tennis racket. Keith praises Marcia every time she hits the tennis ball over the net and onto the opponent's side of the court using the correct body position. Marcia shows little improvement during the one-hour lesson. From a behaviorist perspective, what mistake is Keith probably making in teaching Marcia to play tennis? Answer Selected Answer: He should shape the behavior rather than expect immediate mastery. Correct Answer: He should shape the behavior rather than expect immediate mastery. Question 28 3.2 out of 3.2 points Teachers and other practitioners must be very careful in their use of punishment as a means of changing behavior. Three of the following are potential disadvantages in using punishment. Which statement about punishment is false? Answer Selected Answer: Punished behaviors typically decrease slowly, if at all. Correct Answer: Punished behaviors typically decrease slowly, if at all. Question 29 3.2 out of 3.2 points Healthier eating habits make people feel better and give them more energy over the long run. Yet many people do not improve their eating habits, especially if healthful foods are difficult and time-consuming to prepare. Three of the following are possible explanations for the lack of improvement (i.e., behavior change) in people's eating habits. Judging from what you have learned about instrumental conditioning, choose the alternative that is not a likely explanation. Answer Selected Answer: Extrinsic reinforcers are usually more effective than intrinsic reinforcers. Correct Answer: Extrinsic reinforcers are usually more effective than intrinsic reinforcers. Question 30 3.2 out of 3.2 points Applied behavior analysis can best be described as a group of techniques that can change people's behavior by changing their: Answer Selected Answer: Environment Correct Answer: Environment Question 31 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the best illustration of synthesis within Bloom's taxonomy? Answer Selected Answer: Georgette writes a justification for corporal punishment using information from her sociology and psychology classes. Correct Answer: Georgette writes a justification for corporal punishment using information from her sociology and psychology classes. Question 32 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following are recommended practices when using punishment to reduce an inappropriate behavior. Which one is not recommended? Answer Selected Answer: Use punishment in many situations frequently to get the point across. Correct Answer: Use punishment in many situations frequently to get the point across. Question 33 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following are almost always found in applied behavior analysis (ABA). Which one is not necessarily characteristic of ABA? Answer Selected Answer: Exploring underlying causes of behavior Correct Answer: Exploring underlying causes of behavior Question 34 3.2 out of 3.2 points Mark often comes to school wearing sandals instead of sneakers on days he has physical education. He is getting angry with himself regarding his chronic forgetfulness about appropriate footwear. His teacher suggests that he treat himself to an hour of television only on days when he has remembered to wear sneakers. Mark's teacher is suggesting that Mark use: Answer Selected Answer: Self-reinforcement Correct Answer: Self-reinforcement Question 35 3.2 out of 3.2 points A guest speaker is coming to Mr. Fisk's third-grade classroom, and he wants his students to treat the speaker with courtesy and respect. He decides to give his students 15 minutes of free time if they show appropriate behavior during the guest's visit. From the perspective of social cognitive theory, Mr. Fisk's reinforcement is likely to work only if his students: Answer Selected Answer: Expect that this consequence will follow their good behavior Correct Answer: Expect that this consequence will follow their good behavior Question 36 3.2 out of 3.2 points Pamela is an average-ability high school student who is having difficulty in her chemistry class. She is beginning to think she should cheat on the next chemistry exam. Four of Pamela's classmates give her advice. Judging from Bandura's findings on how people adopt standards for their own behavior, to which classmate is Pamela most likely to listen? Answer Selected Answer: Amy, a girl of similar ability, tells her that a little cheating now and then is perfectly acceptable. Correct Answer: Amy, a girl of similar ability, tells her that a little cheating now and then is perfectly acceptable. Question 37 3.2 out of 3.2 points Ms. Goodsell is thinking about how she might help the students in her introductory French class learn to pronounce the word bonjour correctly. Which one of her thoughts below is most consistent with a social cognitive perspective of learning? Answer Selected Answer: "Maybe I should show them how I form my mouth and lips as I pronounce the word and then encourage them to imitate me." Correct Answer: "Maybe I should show them how I form my mouth and lips as I pronounce the word and then encourage them to imitate me." Question 38 0 out of 3.2 points In social cognitive theorists' conceptualization of reciprocal causation, which one of the following is the best example of a person factor? Answer Selected Answer: Curt's friend Doug will be in his science class this year. Correct Answer: Alma expects to do well in science this year. Question 39 3.2 out of 3.2 points Listed below are four reasons why students might not want to take their schoolwork seriously or to try very hard to succeed at classroom tasks. Which one of these reasons is most clearly consistent with the concept of self-efficacy? Answer Selected Answer: Carol doesn't believe she has the ability to do the work successfully. Correct Answer: Carol doesn't believe she has the ability to do the work successfully. Question 40 3.2 out of 3.2 points According to social cognitive theorists, learning is unlikely to occur in one of the following situations. Which one? Answer Selected Answer: Corinna's teacher gives her a good grade on her paper because it was neatly written, but Corinna doesn't realize that "neatness counts." Correct Answer: Corinna's teacher gives her a good grade on her paper because it was neatly written, but Corinna doesn't realize that "neatness counts." Theories are advantageous in several ways. Three of the following describe advantages of learning theories. Which one does not? Answer Selected Answer: Theories help to condense large bodies of information. Correct Answer: Theories promote objective, unbiased reporting of research findings. Question 2 0 out of 3.2 points A theory of learning can best be characterized as: Answer Selected Register to View Answerstatement that describes how a particular factor affects learning Correct Answer: An explanation of the underlying processes through which learning occurs Question 3 3.2 out of 3.2 points Reynelda has trouble tracing a complex shape with a pencil when she is in kindergarten, but she can do it quite well by the time she is in second grade. Is this an instance of learning? Answer Selected Answer: Maybe, although the change may simply be due to physiological maturation. Correct Answer: Maybe, although the change may simply be due to physiological maturation. Question 4 0 out of 3.2 points Three of the following are examples of learning. Which one is not? Answer Selected Answer: After many hours of heated debate, Brian begins to advocate political practices he has previously opposed. Correct Answer: Abigail cries when she steps on a sharp pebble. Question 5 3.2 out of 3.2 points Behaviorists and cognitivists tend to focus on different aspects of learning. Which one of the following statements best describes this difference? Answer Selected Answer: Behaviorism focuses on external behavioral changes; cognitivism focuses on internal mental changes. Correct Answer: Behaviorism focuses on external behavioral changes; cognitivism focuses on internal mental changes. Question 6 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements most accurately describes disabilities that result from dysfunctions in the brain (e.g., mental illness)? Answer Selected Answer: Recent technological advances have enabled specialists to detect most of them within the first year of life. Correct Answer: In some instances, they become evident only in adolescence or early adulthood, perhaps as a result of changing hormone levels. Question 7 3.2 out of 3.2 points After a serious motorcycle accident, Tom has trouble making sense of what other people say to him. Without knowing anything else about Tom's injury, you might reasonably conclude that the accident affected his: Answer Selected Answer: frontal lobes Correct Answer: frontal lobes Question 8 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements most accurately describes a neuron's threshold of excitation? Answer Selected Register to View Answerneuron fires only when its electrical charge reaches a particular level. Correct Register to View Answerneuron fires only when its electrical charge reaches a particular level. Question 9 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following statements are consistent with research findings about factors that influence brain development. Which statement has not been supported by research? Answer Selected Answer: Malnutrition in the teenage years (e.g., a heavy dependence on junk food) can depress IQ scores by as much as 5 points. Correct Answer: Malnutrition in the teenage years (e.g., a heavy dependence on junk food) can depress IQ scores by as much as 5 points. Question 10 0 out of 3.2 points According to the textbook, which one of the following conclusions is most warranted from research on brain development? Answer Selected Answer: Children probably won't acquire the academic skills essential to success in the adult world unless they begin developing those skills in the early elementary grades at the latest. Correct Answer: Classroom experiences can affect people's cognitive development throughout the elementary, secondary, and post-secondary school years. Question 11 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best exemplifies experience-dependent plasticity? Answer Selected Answer: Learning syntactical structures of one's native language Correct Answer: Learning how to read Question 12 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best describes the growth of neurons during the prenatal period? Answer Selected Answer: Neurons continue to be generated at a rapid rate throughout the last six months of the prenatal period. Correct Answer: An overabundance of neurons emerges early in prenatal development, but about half of the neurons die before birth. Question 13 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following situations illustrates extinction of a classically conditioned response? Answer Selected Answer: Carla becomes less afraid of tests over time when she finds that she can succeed at them. Correct Answer: Carla becomes less afraid of tests over time when she finds that she can succeed at them. Question 14 3.2 out of 3.2 points After repeatedly being beaten by his father, Edward begins to show signs of fearing other men as well as his father. Edward's fear of other men can be explained by: Answer Selected Answer: generalization Correct Answer: generalization Question 15 0 out of 3.2 points To help Kathy overcome her fear of the new family puppy, her father gives her a hot fudge sundae and then, while she eats it, gradually brings the puppy closer and closer to her. The procedure works because Kathy cannot be happy eating the ice cream and fearful about the puppy at the same time. Being happy and being fearful are, in this situation, Answer Selected Register to View Answerconditioned response and an unconditioned response, respectively Correct Answer: incompatible responses Question 16 3.2 out of 3.2 points Classical conditioning typically occurs when: Answer Selected Answer: Two stimuli are presented at about the same time. Correct Answer: Two stimuli are presented at about the same time. Question 17 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following responses is most likely to be learned through classical conditioning? Answer Selected Answer: Waving to a friend Correct Answer: Feeling anxious around horses Question 18 0 out of 3.2 points A smoker is asked to smoke one cigarette after another until she is unable to continue any longer. Which method for breaking bad habits is best illustrated in this situation? Answer Selected Answer: Incompatible stimulus method Correct Answer: Exhaustion method Question 19 3.2 out of 3.2 points Ivan Pavlov conducted a series of studies that led him to propose his theory of classical conditioning. In these studies, Pavlov observed how a dog learned to: Answer Selected Answer: Salivate to a simple stimulus such as a light or bell Correct Answer: Salivate to a simple stimulus such as a light or bell Question 20 3.2 out of 3.2 points George has learned that if he pesters his father about using the family Cadillac enough times, his father will eventually break down and give George the keys to the Cadillac. George's "pestering" behavior is apparently being reinforced on a ___________ schedule. Answer Selected Answer: variable ratio Correct Answer: variable ratio Question 21 3.2 out of 3.2 points Mark's previous girlfriend always told him how handsome he looked whenever he wore his green sweater. Tonight Mark is going out with a new girlfriend and puts on the same green sweater. In behaviorist terminology, Mark is: Answer Selected Answer: showing generalization Correct Answer: showing generalization Question 22 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is an example of negative reinforcement? Answer Selected Answer: When Kathleen insults another student while waiting in line for lunch, her teacher moves her to the end of the line. Correct Answer: When Lucas complains about a classmate who is picking on him, his teacher allows him to come in from recess on bitterly cold days. Question 23 0 out of 3.2 points Peter does his homework immediately after he gets home from school so he won't have to worry about it anymore. The consequence of Peter's doing his homework can best be categorized as: Answer Selected Answer: Positive reinforcement Correct Answer: Negative reinforcement Question 24 3.2 out of 3.2 points Warren has earned himself a reputation for being the class clown. His teacher, Ms. Washington, used to laugh at Warren's funny remarks, but is now trying to discourage Warren's disruptive behavior by ignoring his jokes. In behaviorist terminology, Ms. Washington is now trying to modify Warren's joke-telling behavior through: Answer Selected Answer: extinction Correct Answer: extinction Question 25 3.2 out of 3.2 points Tammy is scolded for submitting a messy math homework paper, so she tries to stop having messy math homework papers after that. The scolding Tammy received is an example of: Answer Selected Answer: Punishment I Correct Answer: Punishment I Question 26 3.2 out of 3.2 points DeeDee is upset that she has been taken off the basketball team because of a failing grade in her history class. The consequence of DeeDee's failure in history is an example of: Answer Selected Answer: Punishment II Correct Answer: Punishment II Question 27 3.2 out of 3.2 points Applied behavior analysis can best be described as a group of techniques that can change people's behavior by changing their: Answer Selected Answer: Environment Correct Answer: Environment Question 28 3.2 out of 3.2 points If you were to apply the concept of terminal behavior in teaching a lesson, which one of these things would you do? Answer Selected Answer: Identify the things students should be able to do at the end of the lesson. Correct Answer: Identify the things students should be able to do at the end of the lesson. Question 29 3.2 out of 3.2 points In Mr. Medeiros's classroom, students are given play money each time they turn in an assignment; they receive additional amounts of money if the assignment is turned in on time and if it is done correctly. At the end of each week, students can use their "money" to purchase special privileges (free time, field trips, etc.). Mr. Medeiros' approach to teaching can best be characterized as: Answer Selected Register to View Answertoken economy Correct Register to View Answertoken economy Question 30 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following instructional objectives most clearly focuses on students' higher-level thinking skills? Answer Selected Answer: "Students will use the laws of momentum and inertia to explain how objects move." Correct Answer: "Students will use the laws of momentum and inertia to explain how objects move." Question 31 0 out of 3.2 points The major advantage of using Bloom's taxonomy in developing objectives is that the taxonomy: Answer Selected Answer: Specifies the most appropriate instructional method for each topic in the curriculum Correct Answer: Encourages educators to address higher-level skills as well as factual knowledge Question 32 3.2 out of 3.2 points Ms. Delahanty has several students who are chronic misbehavers. She meets individually with each student, and together the teacher and student agree to a plan for improving the student's behavior and a suitable reinforcement for appropriate behavior change. Ms. Delahanty is using: Answer Selected Register to View Answercontingency contract Correct Register to View Answercontingency contract Question 33 3.2 out of 3.2 points Ms. Smythe keeps Eric after school whenever he swears in class. Even though Eric has been kept after school each day for the past three weeks, his swearing has increased rather than decreased. Given what we know about the effects of punishment on behavior, Ms. Smythe should probably conclude that: Answer Selected Answer: Staying after school is not a punishment for Eric. Correct Answer: Staying after school is not a punishment for Eric. Question 34 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following instances of learning can be explained more easily by social cognitive theory than by operant conditioning? Answer Selected Answer: Playing the role of a German soldier in the school play, Andy says his lines using a German accent similar to one he's heard in the movies a few times. Correct Answer: Playing the role of a German soldier in the school play, Andy says his lines using a German accent similar to one he's heard in the movies a few times. Question 35 0 out of 3.2 points A guest speaker is coming to Mr. Fisk's third-grade classroom, and he wants his students to treat the speaker with courtesy and respect. He decides to give his students 15 minutes of free time if they show appropriate behavior during the guest's visit. From the perspective of social cognitive theory, Mr. Fisk's reinforcement is likely to work only if his students: Answer Selected Answer: Have previously been directly reinforced for such behavior Correct Answer: Expect that this consequence will follow their good behavior Question 36 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements best illustrates the concept of reciprocal causation? Answer Selected Answer: The environment alters behavior, but behavior alters the environment as well. Correct Answer: The environment alters behavior, but behavior alters the environment as well. Question 37 0 out of 3.2 points Below are four situations in which a behavior is being imitated. Only one of them can be explained from an operant conditioning perspective. Which one? Answer Selected Answer: Ann sees all the attention her older sister gets for playing varsity basketball. She is too short to make the varsity basketball team, so she works hard to gain a spot on the varsity softball team. Correct Answer: Immediately after she watches her teacher demonstrate how to use a microscope, Debbie uses it correctly and is praised by her teacher for doing so. Question 38 0 out of 3.2 points Bandura proposed that three of the following conditions are necessary for modeling to occur. Which one is not necessary? Answer Selected Answer: Attention to the model Correct Register to View Answerrelatively stress-free environment Question 39 3.2 out of 3.2 points Should students ever be allowed to fail at classroom tasks? According to social cognitive theorists, the answer is: Answer Selected Answer: Yes. Occasional failures interspersed among frequent successes teach students that perseverance pays off. Correct Answer: Yes. Occasional failures interspersed among frequent successes teach students that perseverance pays off. Question 40 3.2 out of 3.2 points Pamela is an average-ability high school student who is having difficulty in her chemistry class. She is beginning to think she should cheat on the next chemistry exam. Four of Pamela's classmates give her advice. Judging from Bandura's findings on how people adopt standards for their own behavior, to which classmate is Pamela most likely to listen? Answer Selected Answer: Amy, a girl of similar ability, tells her that a little cheating now and then is perfectly acceptable. Correct Answer: Amy, a girl of similar ability, tells her that a little cheating now and then is perfectly acceptable. Question 1 3.2 out of 3.2 points The best perspective regarding various theories of learning is that: Answer Selected Answer: Different theories may be applicable in different situations. Correct Answer: Different theories may be applicable in different situations. Question 2 3.2 out of 3.2 points A principle of learning can best be characterized as: Answer Selected Register to View Answerstatement that describes how a particular factor affects learning Correct Register to View Answerstatement that describes how a particular factor affects learning Question 3 3.2 out of 3.2 points Reynelda has trouble tracing a complex shape with a pencil when she is in kindergarten, but she can do it quite well by the time she is in second grade. Is this an instance oflearning? Answer Selected Answer: Maybe, although the change may simply be due to physiological maturation. Correct Answer: Maybe, although the change may simply be due to physiological maturation. Question 4 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following characterize virtually all instances of human learning. Which one is not necessarily an aspect of human learning? Answer Selected Answer: Conscious thought is involved. Correct Answer: Conscious thought is involved. Question 5 0 out of 3.2 points Human beings undoubtedly learn more during the course of a lifetime than any other species on earth. The major result of this capacity to learn is that: Answer Selected Answer: Humans are the only species whose behavior cannot be analyzed completely in terms of stimuli and responses. Correct Answer: Humans can benefit from their experiences. Question 6 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best exemplifies experience-expectant plasticity? Answer Selected Answer: Mastering one's native language Correct Answer: Mastering one's native language Question 7 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following research findings is most consistent with the concept of core knowledge as described in the textbook? Answer Selected Answer: Very young infants appear to have more knowledge of the physical world than they could have gotten from their own, limited experiences with objects. Correct Answer: Very young infants appear to have more knowledge of the physical world than they could have gotten from their own, limited experiences with objects. Question 8 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the best example of the central nervous system (rather than peripheral nervous system) at work? Answer Selected Answer: Some cells in the nose respond to certain kinds of chemicals. Correct Answer: Parts of the hindbrain are involved in regulating heart rate. Question 9 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements most accurately describes a neuron's threshold of excitation? Answer Selected Register to View Answerneuron fires only when its electrical charge reaches a particular level. Correct Register to View Answerneuron fires only when its electrical charge reaches a particular level. Question 10 3.2 out of 3.2 points After a serious motorcycle accident, Tom has trouble making sense of what other people say to him. Without knowing anything else about Tom's injury, you might reasonably conclude that the accident affected his: Answer Selected Answer: frontal lobes Correct Answer: frontal lobes Question 11 3.2 out of 3.2 points During the elementary and secondary school years, much of the brain's development occurs in the region of the brain that is largely responsible for Answer Selected Answer: thinking and reasoning Correct Answer: thinking and reasoning Question 12 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best describes how neurons transmit messages to one another? Answer Selected Answer: By fusing the axon of one with a dendrite of the other Correct Answer: By sending chemical substances across a tiny gap between them Question 13 3.2 out of 3.2 points A student who is afraid of mathematics is first given some problems that bear little resemblance to mathematics, then is given a sequence of problems that become increasingly more mathematical in content. The progression of problems is gradual enough that the fear response does not occur, and eventually the student loses his fear of mathematics. Which method for breaking bad habits is best illustrated in this situation? Answer Selected Answer: Threshold method Correct Answer: Threshold method Question 14 3.2 out of 3.2 points At the dentist's office, Teresa has a painful experience that leaves her tense and fearful. The next time her mother brings her to the dentist's office, Teresa begins to get tense and anxious. In this situation, the dentist and dentist's office are _____; Teresa's fear of pain is a(n) _____. Answer Selected Answer: conditioned stimuli; unconditioned response Correct Answer: conditioned stimuli; unconditioned response Question 15 3.2 out of 3.2 points Classical conditioning typically occurs when: Answer Selected Answer: Two stimuli are presented at about the same time. Correct Answer: Two stimuli are presented at about the same time. Question 16 3.2 out of 3.2 points A mother in Montana wants to teach her four-year-old son to stay away from the bears that occasionally wander into the backyard; in other words, she wants him to be afraid of bears. On the other hand, she does not want her son to fear such other large animals as cows and horses. Below are four possible approaches she might take. Which one is based on Pavlov's view of how stimulus discrimination develops? Answer Selected Answer: She turns on a loud, startling siren every time a bear approaches; she also makes sure the child has numerous contacts with other animals in quieter contexts. Correct Answer: She turns on a loud, startling siren every time a bear approaches; she also makes sure the child has numerous contacts with other animals in quieter contexts. Question 17 3.2 out of 3.2 points A smoker is asked to smoke one cigarette after another until she is unable to continue any longer. Which method for breaking bad habits is best illustrated in this situation? Answer Selected Answer: Exhaustion method Correct Answer: Exhaustion method Question 18 3.2 out of 3.2 points On several occasions Edward is severely beaten by his alcoholic father. Before long, Edward begins to shake whenever his father approaches. In this situation, Edward's shaking at the sight of his father is a(n) _____; the severe beating he has received is a(n) _____. Answer Selected Answer: conditioned response; unconditional stimulus Correct Answer: conditioned response; unconditional stimulus Question 19 0 out of 3.2 points If students associate failure with punishment, and then associate mathematics with failure, they may begin to fear mathematics through a process of: Answer Selected Answer: generalization Correct Answer: higher-order conditioning Question 20 3.2 out of 3.2 points Peter does his homework immediately after he gets home from school so he won't have to worry about it anymore. The consequence of Peter's doing his homework can best be categorized as: Answer Selected Answer: Negative reinforcement Correct Answer: Negative reinforcement Question 21 3.2 out of 3.2 points At the beginning of the school year, Mr. Webber is concerned that Frances rarely does her independent seatwork. He begins praising Frances for each seatwork assignment she completes, and by January she is completing her assignments regularly. To shape the behavior to continue in the years to come, what would behaviorists tell Mr. Webber to do now? Answer Selected Answer: Praise her for only some of her completed assignments. Correct Answer: Praise her for only some of her completed assignments. Question 22 3.2 out of 3.2 points George has learned that if he pesters his father about using the family Cadillac enough times, his father will eventually break down and give George the keys to the Cadillac. George's "pestering" behavior is apparently being reinforced on a ___________ schedule. Answer Selected Answer: variable ratio Correct Answer: variable ratio Question 23 3.2 out of 3.2 points Mark's previous girlfriend always told him how handsome he looked whenever he wore his green sweater. Tonight Mark is going out with a new girlfriend and puts on the same green sweater. In behaviorist terminology, Mark is: Answer Selected Answer: showing generalization Correct Answer: showing generalization Question 24 3.2 out of 3.2 points Bill's behaviors in Ms. Kennedy's class are really distracting to other students. For example, he whispers to the boy beside him when Ms. Kennedy is giving directions on how to do any assignment. He flings paper clips at a girl across the room. He makes strange grunting noises that a few classmates find amusing. Ms. Kennedy glares at him or admonishes him whenever he behaves in a distracting way, yet his inappropriate behaviors are increasing rather than decreasing. Which one of the following interpretations of this situation best explains why Bill's behaviors are increasing? Answer Selected Register to View Answerfew classmates are positively reinforcing him for the distracting behaviors. Correct Register to View Answerfew classmates are positively reinforcing him for the distracting behaviors. Question 25 3.2 out of 3.2 points Warren has earned himself a reputation for being the class clown. His teacher, Ms. Washington, used to laugh at Warren's funny remarks, but is now trying to discourage Warren's disruptive behavior by ignoring his jokes. In behaviorist terminology, Ms. Washington is now trying to modify Warren's joke-telling behavior through: Answer Selected Answer: extinction Correct Answer: extinction Question 26 3.2 out of 3.2 points In Mr. Marshall's classroom, students who acquire 20 points in one day can have a half hour of free time at the end of the day. Mr. Marshall awards points to his students for good behavior and deducts points if they misbehave. The deduction of points for misbehavior is known as: Answer Selected Answer: response cost Correct Answer: response cost Question 27 3.2 out of 3.2 points Ms. Longman is using programmed instruction in teaching her geography class. Which one of the following are students least likely to encounter in their instruction? Answer Selected Answer: One-on-one interactions with their teacher Correct Answer: One-on-one interactions with their teacher Question 28 0 out of 3.2 points A mastery learning approach would probably be most suitable for teaching: Answer Selected Answer: advanced techniques of photography Correct Answer: introductory Russian Question 29 3.2 out of 3.2 points Research indicates that applied behavior analysis: Answer Selected Answer: Is effective in improving both social and academic skills Correct Answer: Is effective in improving both social and academic skills Question 30 3.2 out of 3.2 points For which of the following students would behaviorist approaches to instruction be least helpful? Answer Selected Answer: Dana has always been an excellent student. Correct Answer: Dana has always been an excellent student. Question 31 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following are almost always found in applied behavior analysis (ABA). Which one is not necessarily characteristic of ABA? Answer Selected Answer: Exploring underlying causes of behavior Correct Answer: Exploring underlying causes of behavior Question 32 3.2 out of 3.2 points If you were to apply the concept of terminal behavior in teaching a lesson, which one of these things would you do? Answer Selected Answer: Identify the things students should be able to do at the end of the lesson. Correct Answer: Identify the things students should be able to do at the end of the lesson. Question 33 3.2 out of 3.2 points In Marcia's first tennis lesson, her instructor Keith is trying to teach her the correct way to swing a tennis racket. Keith praises Marcia every time she hits the tennis ball over the net and onto the opponent's side of the court using the correct body position. Marcia shows little improvement during the one-hour lesson. From a behaviorist perspective, what mistake is Keith probably making in teaching Marcia to play tennis? Answer Selected Answer: He should shape the behavior rather than expect immediate mastery. Correct Answer: He should shape the behavior rather than expect immediate mastery. Question 34 3.2 out of 3.2 points Mr. Limpitlaw wants to increase his female students' self-efficacy for mastering simple car maintenance procedures. He can best do this by: Answer Selected Answer: Having the students watch other girls successfully change the oil and the air filter Correct Answer: Having the students watch other girls successfully change the oil and the air filter Question 35 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements best illustrates the concept of reciprocal causation? Answer Selected Answer: The environment alters behavior, but behavior alters the environment as well. Correct Answer: The environment alters behavior, but behavior alters the environment as well. Question 36 3.2 out of 3.2 points Several students in Mr. Samber's class have trouble keeping themselves on task during independent seatwork assignments. Mr. Samber gives each of these students a piece of paper on which they are to make a check mark every time they find themselves doing something other than their assignment during seatwork time. Mr. Samber is using which one of the following techniques for changing behavior? Answer Selected Answer: Self-monitoring Correct Answer: Self-monitoring Question 37 3.2 out of 3.2 points Jim has a high sense of self-efficacy regarding his ability to work with his hands. Based on this information, we would predict three of the following from social cognitive theory. Which one would we not necessarily predict? Answer Selected Answer: Jim will be a bit careless when he works with his hands, so he will frequently make silly little mistakes. Correct Answer: Jim will be a bit careless when he works with his hands, so he will frequently make silly little mistakes. Question 38 3.2 out of 3.2 points Pamela is an average-ability high school student who is having difficulty in her chemistry class. She is beginning to think she should cheat on the next chemistry exam. Four of Pamela's classmates give her advice. Judging from Bandura's findings on how people adopt standards for their own behavior, to which classmate is Pamela most likely to listen? Answer Selected Answer: Amy, a girl of similar ability, tells her that a little cheating now and then is perfectly acceptable. Correct Answer: Amy, a girl of similar ability, tells her that a little cheating now and then is perfectly acceptable. Question 39 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the best example of a symbolic model? Answer Selected Register to View Answerdetective on a television show Correct Register to View Answerdetective on a television show Question 40 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the clearest example of a child working for an incentive? Answer Selected Answer: Doris is studying for a history test with the hope that she'll get an A on it. Correct Answer: Doris is studying for a history test with the hope that she'll get an A on it. Question 1 3.2 out of 3.2 points Sarah needs to learn how to spell 40 words for a spelling test tomorrow. Sarah wants to perform as well as she possibly can on the test. Based on findings from verbal learning research, which one of the following would be the best advice to give Sarah? Answer Selected Answer: "Spell the words until you know them all perfectly, and then continue to practice spelling them several more times." Correct Answer: "Spell the words until you know them all perfectly, and then continue to practice spelling them several more times." Question 2 3.2 out of 3.2 points Frank sees an egg-shaped ball that he later "remembers" as being perfectly round. Frank's mistaken recollection is an example of the Gestalt principle of: Answer Selected Answer: Prgnanz Correct Answer: Prgnanz Question 3 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following are assumptions that underlie contemporary cognitive theories of learning. Which one is not such an assumption? Answer Selected Answer: Researchers can study mental events only by abandoning objectivity. Correct Answer: Researchers can study mental events only by abandoning objectivity. Question 4 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following teaching strategies best reflects the perspective of cognitive psychology? Answer Selected Answer: Mr. Darwin has students recall personal experiences related to the concepts they are studying. Correct Answer: Mr. Darwin has students recall personal experiences related to the concepts they are studying. Question 5 3.2 out of 3.2 points Over the course of history, science has continued to evolve as new data emerge and scientists offer new ideas to explain those data. This continuing process of change in scientific thinking over the years best reflects the idea of: Answer Selected Answer: social constructivism Correct Answer: social constructivism Question 6 3.2 out of 3.2 points Based on findings from verbal learning research, which list of 3-letter syllables should be easiest to learn? Answer Selected Answer: CAR, DOG, BUN Correct Answer: CAR, DOG, BUN Question 7 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following scenarios best reflects the basic idea of individual constructivism? Answer Selected Register to View Answerstudent tries to make sense of a poorly written and confusing magazine article. Correct Register to View Answerstudent tries to make sense of a poorly written and confusing magazine article. Question 8 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best illustrates Tolman's notion of a cognitive map? Answer Selected Answer: After walking around campus for a few days, you learn where buildings are in relation to one another. Correct Answer: After walking around campus for a few days, you learn where buildings are in relation to one another. Question 9 3.2 out of 3.2 points Piaget has described four stages of cognitive development. Which one of the following is an accurate statement about Piaget's view of these stages? Answer Selected Answer: Each stage involves forms of thought qualitatively different from those of other stages. Correct Answer: Each stage involves forms of thought qualitatively different from those of other stages. Question 10 3.2 out of 3.2 points Piaget's sensorimotor stage is characterized by: Answer Selected Answer: Schemes based primarily on perceptions and behaviors Correct Answer: Schemes based primarily on perceptions and behaviors Question 11 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following teachers is definitely keeping in mind Piaget's idea that assimilation and accommodation are both necessary for learning and cognitive development to occur? Answer Selected Answer: Mr. Baretta shows students how a new topic is similar to the things they already know, but also different in certain ways. Correct Answer: Mr. Baretta shows students how a new topic is similar to the things they already know, but also different in certain ways. Question 12 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best illustrates Piaget's concept of accommodation? Answer Selected Answer: Donna revises her understanding of what clouds are like when she studies them in science. Correct Answer: Donna revises her understanding of what clouds are like when she studies them in science. Question 13 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following examples best illustrates Piaget's concept of object permanence? Answer Selected Answer: Two-year-old Jasmine looks for a favorite toy her father has just hidden in a box. Correct Answer: Two-year-old Jasmine looks for a favorite toy her father has just hidden in a box. Question 14 3.2 out of 3.2 points Reasoning about hypothetical situations begins Answer Selected Answer: formal operational Correct Answer: formal operational Question 15 3.2 out of 3.2 points Choose the statement below that most accurately reflects recent research findings concerning Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Answer Selected Answer: The order in which various logical thinking capabilities emerge is consistent with the sequence that Piaget proposed. Correct Answer: The order in which various logical thinking capabilities emerge is consistent with the sequence that Piaget proposed. Question 16 3.2 out of 3.2 points In Piaget's theory, a scheme can best be described as: Answer Selected Answer: An organized group of similar thoughts or actions Correct Answer: An organized group of similar thoughts or actions Question 17 3.2 out of 3.2 points The concept of object permanence is developed Answer Selected Answer: sensorimotor Correct Answer: sensorimotor Question 18 3.2 out of 3.2 points If we look at cognitive development from Piaget's perspective, we would expect a child in the concrete operations stage to have the greatest difficulty with which one of the following questions? Answer Selected Answer: An apple pie is cut into 4 pieces. A blueberry pie of the same size is cut into 12 pieces. How many pieces of blueberry pie do you need to have the same amount as 3 pieces of the apple pie? Correct Answer: An apple pie is cut into 4 pieces. A blueberry pie of the same size is cut into 12 pieces. How many pieces of blueberry pie do you need to have the same amount as 3 pieces of the apple pie? Question 19 3.2 out of 3.2 points Piaget spoke of egocentrism as a characteristic of preoperational thought. Three of the following are examples of egocentrism as Piaget defined it. Which one is not? Answer Selected Answer: Justin is constantly grabbing objects and pulling them toward himself. Correct Answer: Justin is constantly grabbing objects and pulling them toward himself. Question 20 0 out of 3.2 points As a first-grade teacher reads a book about penguins in Antarctica, she points to Antarctica on a globe. Six-year-old John seems really puzzled. "How come they don't fall off the earth?" he asks. From Piaget's perspective, John can best be described as: Answer Selected Answer: Having difficulty with class inclusion Correct Answer: Experiencing disequilibrium Question 21 3.2 out of 3.2 points Jean Piaget's ideas were largely ignored by American psychologists until the 1960s. Three of the following are probable reasons why this was so. Which one is not a likely reason? Answer Selected Answer: Piaget's subjects were children rather than nonhuman species. Correct Answer: Piaget's subjects were children rather than nonhuman species. Question 22 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following examples best illustrates symbolic thought as Piaget described it? Answer Selected Answer: Laura asks herself, "Hmm, could I use my straw for a drum stick?" Correct Answer: Laura asks herself, "Hmm, could I use my straw for a drum stick?" Question 23 3.2 out of 3.2 points According to Piaget, contact with the environment during which information is drawn from objects is Answer Selected Answer: physical abstraction Correct Answer: physical abstraction Question 24 3.2 out of 3.2 points From Piaget's perspective, why might it be wise to postpone the teaching of complex fractions until middle school or high school? Answer Selected Answer: Younger students haven't attained the proportional reasoning of formal operations. Correct Answer: Younger students haven't attained the proportional reasoning of formal operations. Question 25 3.2 out of 3.2 points Ms. Villanueva has her students engage in a variety of activities in her middle school geography class. Three of the activities described below are authentic activities. Which one is not an authentic activity? Answer Selected Answer: Describing the difference between latitude and longitude Correct Answer: Describing the difference between latitude and longitude Question 26 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following strategies is most likely to help students learn from a Vygotsky discovery learning activity? Answer Selected Answer: Providing some structure to guide students' explorations Correct Answer: Providing some structure to guide students' explorations Question 27 3.2 out of 3.2 points Students in a fourth-grade reading group are reading a passage about snakes. Their teacher asks, "Who can think of a good title that summarizes what this passage is about?" After hearing several good suggestions, the teacher says, "The author says that snakes are helpful to farmers. What evidence does she give to support her statement?" If we consider Vygotsky's concept of internalization, we might predict that such a discussion will: Answer Selected Answer: Help students develop their own effective reading comprehension strategies (e.g., summarizing, looking for supporting statements) by working together. Correct Answer: Help students develop their own effective reading comprehension strategies (e.g., summarizing, looking for supporting statements) by working together. Question 28 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the best example of a mediated learning experience? Answer Selected Answer: As Ms. Robinson takes a group of children hiking, she gathers leaves from maple, oak, and elm trees and points out the ways in which the leaves from the trees are distinctly different. Correct Answer: As Ms. Robinson takes a group of children hiking, she gathers leaves from maple, oak, and elm trees and points out the ways in which the leaves from the trees are distinctly different. Question 29 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which of the following pairs of concepts reflects the general idea that challenge is important for cognitive development? Answer Selected Answer: disequilibrium and ZPD Correct Answer: disequilibrium and ZPD Question 30 0 out of 3.2 points Ms. Killian and her fourth graders have been growing sunflowers under various conditions-they have grown sunflowers in different kinds of soil, with different amounts of water, and in varying degrees of sunlight. Below are four statements that Ms. Killian makes related to the sunflowers. Which one is most consistent with the idea of a cognitive apprenticeship? Answer Selected Answer: "Elaine, please give each plant the same amount of water today that you gave it yesterday. Also, be sure that you keep each plant in the same location, so that the amount of sunlight it gets stays the same." Correct Answer: "This sunflower is taller than that sunflower over there. Let's consider what the growing conditions for the two flowers have been and try to figure out what might have led to the difference we see." Question 31 3.2 out of 3.2 points In Vygotsky's theory, three of the following would be considered lower mental functions. Which one would be considered a higher mental function? Answer Selected Answer: Adding 3 and 3 to get 6 Correct Answer: Adding 3 and 3 to get 6 Question 32 0 out of 3.2 points Several parents who are making costumes for an elementary school play ask the young cast members to assist them with such tasks as cutting fabric, pinning pieces together, and sewing simple hems. Using the language of Vygotskian theorists, we can say that the parents are: Answer Selected Answer: Presenting tasks that exceed the students' zone of proximal development Correct Answer: Engaging the students in guided participation Question 33 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following are examples of authentic activities. Which one is least authentic? Answer Selected Answer: Taking an essay test in a history class Correct Answer: Taking an essay test in a history class Question 34 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements best describes Vygotsky's concept of internalization? Answer Selected Answer: Through their social interactions with other people, children develop ways of mentally approaching and thinking about a task. Correct Answer: Through their social interactions with other people, children develop ways of mentally approaching and thinking about a task. Question 35 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the best example of an authentic activity? Answer Selected Answer: Discussing reasons why World War II occurred Correct Answer: Designing a bridge using principles of physics Question 36 3.2 out of 3.2 points Mary Adams takes care of several toddlers and preschoolers while their parents work during the day. One warm spring day, she has the children in a fenced-in area behind her home. A large dog comes running up to the fence. As the dog approaches, 2-year-old Todd looks at Mary. When he sees that she appears frightened, he immediately starts to cry. What phenomenon is Todd displaying in this situation? Answer Selected Answer: social referencing Correct Answer: social referencing Question 37 3.2 out of 3.2 points Nine-year-old Ricky has recently learned how to solve long division problems, and he still struggles with especially difficult problems. At his mother's request, he helps his eight-yearold sister Lucy with the simple long division problems she must do for her math homework. From the perspective of Vygotsky's theory, which one of the following is most likely to result? Answer Selected Answer: Ricky's own long division skills will improve because he will internalize the instructions he received from his teacher and now gives to Lucy. Correct Answer: Ricky's own long division skills will improve because he will internalize the instructions he received from his teacher and now gives to Lucy. Question 38 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following teachers are using scaffolding to help their students learn. Which one is not necessarily providing scaffolding? Answer Selected Answer: Mr. Donaldson takes his students on a field trip to the art museum. Correct Answer: Mr. Donaldson takes his students on a field trip to the art museum. Question 39 0 out of 3.2 points From Vygotsky's perspective, what important role does inner speech play? Answer Selected Answer: By using words mentally as well as orally, children develop more abstract representations of the world. Correct Answer: By giving themselves directions that have been given to them by others about what to do next, children guide themselves through complex tasks. Question 40 3.2 out of 3.2 points From a Vygotskian perspective, scaffolding serves what purpose in instruction? Answer Selected Answer: It supports children as they perform intermediate steps of difficult tasks. Correct Answer: It supports children as they perform intermediate steps of difficult tasks. Question 1 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Reynelda has trouble tracing a complex shape with a pencil when she is in kindergarten, but she can do it quite well by the time she is in second grade. Is this an instance of learning? Answer Selected Answer: Maybe, although the change may simply be due to physiological maturation. Correct Answer: Maybe, although the change may simply be due to physiological maturation. Question 2 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Theories are advantageous in several ways. Three of the following describe advantages of learning theories. Which one does not? Answer Selected Answer: Theories promote objective, unbiased reporting of research findings. Correct Answer: Theories promote objective, unbiased reporting of research findings. Question 3 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Human beings undoubtedly learn more during the course of a lifetime than any other species on earth. The major result of this capacity to learn is that: Answer Selected Answer: Humans can benefit from their experiences. Correct Answer: Humans can benefit from their experiences. Question 4 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Behaviorists and cognitivists tend to focus on different aspects of learning. Which one of the following statements best describes this difference? Answer Selected Answer: Behaviorism focuses on external behavioral changes; cognitivism focuses on internal mental changes. Correct Answer: Behaviorism focuses on external behavioral changes; cognitivism focuses on internal mental changes. Question 5 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Three of the following illustrate various ways that learning might be reflected in a person's behavior. Which one of the following changes does not necessarily reflect learning? Answer Selected Answer: Although it's a school night, Dean plays video games until well past his usual bedtime. As he becomes more tired, he finds it increasingly difficult to concentrate on what he's doing. Correct Answer: Although it's a school night, Dean plays video games until well past his usual bedtime. As he becomes more tired, he finds it increasingly difficult to concentrate on what he's doing. Question 6 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Which one of the following is the best example of a reflex as psychologists define the term? Answer Selected Answer: Pulling your foot away from a painful object Correct Answer: Pulling your foot away from a painful object Question 7 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Naomi wakes up several hours after a severe blow to her head has rendered her unconscious. She can remember nothing about events leading up to the incident, reflecting the importance of ________ in learning and memory. Answer Selected Answer: consolidation Correct Answer: consolidation Question 8 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct As children grow older, many of their neurons begin to transmit messages more rapidly than they did in the early years of life, thanks to: Answer Selected Answer: myelination Correct Answer: myelination Question 9 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Which one of the following statements most accurately describes a neuron's threshold of excitation? Answer Selected Register to View Answerneuron fires only when its electrical charge reaches a particular level. Correct Register to View Answerneuron fires only when its electrical charge reaches a particular level. Question 10 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Which one of the following is the best example of the central nervous system (rather than peripheral nervous system) at work? Answer Selected Answer: Parts of the hindbrain are involved in regulating heart rate. Correct Answer: Parts of the hindbrain are involved in regulating heart rate. Question 11 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Given what psychologists believe to be true about how information is typically stored in the brain, how is the concept dog probably represented in your brain? Answer Selected Answer: As a network of neurons spread across multiple brain regions Correct Answer: As a network of neurons spread across multiple brain regions Question 12 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Three of the following describe methods that researchers commonly use to determine how the human brain probably functions. hich one is not a commonly used method to study the brain? Answer Selected Answer: Measuring the levels of various hormones and other substances in the blood Correct Answer: Measuring the levels of various hormones and other substances in the blood Question 13 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Ivan Pavlov conducted a series of studies that led him to propose his theory of classical conditioning. In these studies, Pavlov observed how a dog learned to: Answer Selected Answer: Salivate to a simple stimulus such as a light or bell Correct Answer: Salivate to a simple stimulus such as a light or bell Question 14 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Which one of the following statements best describes the view of early behaviorists about how learning can best be studied? Answer Selected Answer: The study of learning will be more objective and scientific if only observable events are considered. Correct Answer: The study of learning will be more objective and scientific if only observable events are considered. Question 15 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct A smoker is asked to smoke one cigarette after another until she is unable to continue any longer. Which method for breaking bad habits is best illustrated in this situation? Answer Selected Answer: Exhaustion method Correct Answer: Exhaustion method Question 16 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct After a painful experience at one dentist's office, Teresa's mother takes Teresa to a different dentist, who takes great care to make her visits painless. Teresa is anxious at first, but after a few visits, Teresa gradually becomes less resistant about going to the new dentist. Teresa's change in behavior can probably best be explained in terms of _____. But then Teresa does not go to see the dentist for three years. On her first visit to the painless dentist after that time interval, she is anxious once again, even though she had not been anxious in her previous visits. The return of this response after it had previously disappeared is known as _____. Answer Selected Answer: extinction; spontaneous recovery Correct Answer: extinction; spontaneous recovery Question 17 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Matthew once had a teacher who punished him severely whenever he did poorly on a mathematics test. Now he refuses to open a math book, saying he is "too scared" to do so. He has learned to associate mathematics with the pain of punishment. Here, the painful punishment is: Answer Selected Answer: An unconditioned stimulus Correct Answer: An unconditioned stimulus Question 18 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Which one of the following responses is most likely to be learned through classical conditioning? Answer Selected Answer: Feeling anxious around horses Correct Answer: Feeling anxious around horses Question 19 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct To help Kathy overcome her fear of the new family puppy, her father gives her a hot fudge sundae and then, while she eats it, gradually brings the puppy closer and closer to her. The procedure works because Kathy cannot be happy eating the ice cream and fearful about the puppy at the same time. Being happy and being fearful are, in this situation, Answer Selected Answer: incompatible responses Correct Answer: incompatible responses Question 20 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct A teacher claps his hands together loudly three times as a way of reminding his students that they need to talk more quietly during their free time at the end of the day. In behaviorist terminology, his strategy can best be described as: Answer Selected Answer: cueing Correct Answer: cueing Question 21 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Which one of the following is the best example of punishment as behaviorists define it? Answer Selected Answer: After Nora spends a few minutes in the time-out room for hurting a classmate's feelings, she is more careful not to hurt her peers' feelings in the future. Correct Answer: After Nora spends a few minutes in the time-out room for hurting a classmate's feelings, she is more careful not to hurt her peers' feelings in the future. Question 22 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct At the beginning of the school year, Mr. Webber is concerned that Frances rarely does her independent seatwork. He begins praising Frances for each seatwork assignment she completes, and by January she is completing her assignments regularly. To shape the behavior to continue in the years to come, what would behaviorists tell Mr. Webber to do now? Answer Selected Answer: Praise her for only some of her completed assignments. Correct Answer: Praise her for only some of her completed assignments. Question 23 0 out of 3.2 points Incorrect Sharon has learned that her language arts teacher answers her questions willingly, but that her biology teacher discourages questions. Sharon therefore asks questions in language arts, but not in biology. In behaviorist terminology, Sharon is: Answer Selected Answer: on a fixed interval schedule Correct Answer: under stimulus control Question 24 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Six-year-old Jack has recently learned to appreciate the value of money, so his father assigns him some simple housekeeping chores to be performed throughout the week. He tells Jack that completion of these chores will earn him an allowance of one dollar every Saturday. Jack rarely completes his chores. From an operant conditioning perspective, which one of the following is most likely to be the reason why Jack is not doing his chores? Answer Selected Answer: There is a delay in reinforcement. Correct Answer: There is a delay in reinforcement. Question 25 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Tammy is scolded for submitting a messy math homework paper, so she tries to stop having messy math homework papers after that. The scolding Tammy received is an example of: Answer Selected Answer: Punishment I Correct Answer: Punishment I Question 26 0 out of 3.2 points Incorrect Martin went to two or three school dances but always felt uncomfortable and self-conscious. Martin no longer goes to school dances. His lack of attendance is an example of: Answer Selected Answer: Active avoidance learning Correct Answer: Passive avoidance learning Question 27 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Mr. Richards gives his class fifteen minutes of free time whenever at least 95% of the class gets a passing grade on a test. Mr. Richards is using: Answer Selected Register to View Answergroup contingency Correct Register to View Answergroup contingency Question 28 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Applied behavior analysis can best be described as a group of techniques that can change people's behavior by changing their: Answer Selected Answer: Environment Correct Answer: Environment Question 29 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct An essential element of a contingency contract in the classroom is that: Answer Selected Answer: Both teacher and student agree upon the desired behavior and its consequence. Correct Answer: Both teacher and student agree upon the desired behavior and its consequence. Question 30 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Which one of the following is the best illustration of synthesis within Bloom's taxonomy? Answer Selected Answer: Georgette writes a justification for corporal punishment using information from her sociology and psychology classes. Correct Answer: Georgette writes a justification for corporal punishment using information from her sociology and psychology classes. Question 31 0 out of 3.2 points Incorrect Research indicates that mastery learning approaches are superior to traditional instruction in several ways. Which one of the following conclusions should not be drawn on the basis of research on mastery learning? Answer Selected Answer: Students remember material for a longer period of time when taught with a mastery learning approach rather than with traditional instructional methods. Correct Answer: High-ability students are the primary beneficiaries of mastery learning approaches. Question 32 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Which one of the following examples best illustrates the concept of baseline as behaviorists use the term? Answer Selected Answer: Justin talks in class all the time, even though his teacher and classmates do nothing to encourage him. Correct Answer: Justin talks in class all the time, even though his teacher and classmates do nothing to encourage him. Question 33 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Teachers and other practitioners must be very careful in their use of punishment as a means of changing behavior. Three of the following are potential disadvantages in using punishment. Which statement about punishment is false? Answer Selected Answer: Punished behaviors typically decrease slowly, if at all. Correct Answer: Punished behaviors typically decrease slowly, if at all. Question 34 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Pamela is an average-ability high school student who is having difficulty in her chemistry class. She is beginning to think she should cheat on the next chemistry exam. Four of Pamela's classmates give her advice. Judging from Bandura's findings on how people adopt standards for their own behavior, to which classmate is Pamela most likely to listen? Answer Selected Answer: Amy, a girl of similar ability, tells her that a little cheating now and then is perfectly acceptable. Correct Answer: Amy, a girl of similar ability, tells her that a little cheating now and then is perfectly acceptable. Question 35 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Which one of the following statements best illustrates the concept of reciprocal causation? Answer Selected Answer: The environment alters behavior, but behavior alters the environment as well. Correct Answer: The environment alters behavior, but behavior alters the environment as well. Question 36 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Mark often comes to school wearing sandals instead of sneakers on days he has physical education. He is getting angry with himself regarding his chronic forgetfulness about appropriate footwear. His teacher suggests that he treat himself to an hour of television only on days when he has remembered to wear sneakers. Mark's teacher is suggesting that Mark use: Answer Selected Answer: Self-reinforcement Correct Answer: Self-reinforcement Question 37 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Trudy makes an obscene gesture in class, and the teacher punishes her severely. Other students in class observe both the gesture and the punishment. Based on social cognitive theory, what can we guess about what those students have learned and how they are likely to behave in the future? Answer Selected Answer: They know how to make the gesture, but they are unlikely to make it in class. Correct Answer: They know how to make the gesture, but they are unlikely to make it in class. Question 38 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct In social cognitive theorists' conceptualization of reciprocal causation, which one of the following is the best example of a person factor? Answer Selected Answer: Alma expects to do well in science this year. Correct Answer: Alma expects to do well in science this year. Question 39 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Several students in Mr. Samber's class have trouble keeping themselves on task during independent seatwork assignments. Mr. Samber gives each of these students a piece of paper on which they are to make a check mark every time they find themselves doing something other than their assignment during seatwork time. Mr. Samber is using which one of the following techniques for changing behavior? Answer Selected Answer: Self-monitoring Correct Answer: Self-monitoring Question 40 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Sharon knows that Kathy frequently completes her assignments long after they are due. She has noticed that their teacher willingly accepts Kathy's late assignments because Kathy always has a creative excuse for turning them in late. Sharon begins to do the same thing-she turns in assignments past the due date and makes up excuses for why she is late. Sharon's increase in excuse-making is due to: Answer Selected Answer: Modeling and vicarious reinforcement Correct Answer: Modeling and vicarious reinforcement Question 1 3.2 out of 3.2 points Theories are advantageous in several ways. Three of the following describe advantages of learning theories. Which one does not? Answer Selected Answer: Theories promote objective, unbiased reporting of research findings. Correct Answer: Theories promote objective, unbiased reporting of research findings. Question 2 0 out of 3.2 points Human beings undoubtedly learn more during the course of a lifetime than any other species on earth. The major result of this capacity to learn is that: Answer Selected Answer: Humans are the only species whose behavior cannot be analyzed completely in terms of stimuli and responses. Correct Answer: Humans can benefit from their experiences. Question 3 3.2 out of 3.2 points A theory of learning can best be characterized as: Answer Selected Answer: An explanation of the underlying processes through which learning occurs Correct Answer: An explanation of the underlying processes through which learning occurs Question 4 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following illustrate various ways that learning might be reflected in a person's behavior. Which one of the following changes does not necessarily reflect learning? Answer Selected Answer: Although it's a school night, Dean plays video games until well past his usual bedtime. As he becomes more tired, he finds it increasingly difficult to concentrate on what he's doing. Correct Answer: Although it's a school night, Dean plays video games until well past his usual bedtime. As he becomes more tired, he finds it increasingly difficult to concentrate on what he's doing. Question 5 3.2 out of 3.2 points Behaviorists and cognitivists tend to focus on different aspects of learning. Which one of the following statements best describes this difference? Answer Selected Answer: Behaviorism focuses on external behavioral changes; cognitivism focuses on internal mental changes. Correct Answer: Behaviorism focuses on external behavioral changes; cognitivism focuses on internal mental changes. Question 6 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best exemplifies experience-dependent plasticity? Answer Selected Answer: Learning syntactical structures of one's native language Correct Answer: Learning how to read Question 7 3.2 out of 3.2 points Naomi wakes up several hours after a severe blow to her head has rendered her unconscious. She can remember nothing about events leading up to the incident, reflecting the importance of ________ in learning and memory. Answer Selected Answer: consolidation Correct Answer: consolidation Question 8 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the best example of a reflex as psychologists define the term? Answer Selected Answer: Pulling your foot away from a painful object Correct Answer: Pulling your foot away from a painful object Question 9 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements most accurately describes disabilities that result from dysfunctions in the brain (e.g., mental illness)? Answer Selected Answer: In some instances, they become evident only in adolescence or early adulthood, perhaps as a result of changing hormone levels. Correct Answer: In some instances, they become evident only in adolescence or early adulthood, perhaps as a result of changing hormone levels. Question 10 0 out of 3.2 points In which one of the following situations should we be most concerned about missing a critical period in a person's development? Answer Selected Answer: Phoebe doesn't learn how to write until she is 12 years old. Correct Answer: Rachel is born with a cataract in her left eye that is surgically removed when she is 8 years old. Question 11 3.2 out of 3.2 points During the elementary and secondary school years, much of the brain's development occurs in the region of the brain that is largely responsible for Answer Selected Answer: thinking and reasoning Correct Answer: thinking and reasoning Question 12 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following statements are consistent with research findings about factors that influence brain development. Which statement has not been supported by research? Answer Selected Answer: Malnutrition in the teenage years (e.g., a heavy dependence on junk food) can depress IQ scores by as much as 5 points. Correct Answer: Malnutrition in the teenage years (e.g., a heavy dependence on junk food) can depress IQ scores by as much as 5 points. Question 13 0 out of 3.2 points At the dentist's office, Teresa has a painful experience that leaves her tense and fearful. The next time her mother brings her to the dentist's office, Teresa begins to get tense and anxious. In this situation, the dentist and dentist's office are _____; Teresa's fear of pain is a(n) _____. Answer Selected Answer: unconditioned stimuli; conditioned response Correct Answer: conditioned stimuli; unconditioned response Question 14 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following characteristics of behaviorist learning theories is a direct outgrowth of the equipotentiality assumption? Answer Selected Answer: Conclusions derived from research with rats are applicable to human learning. Correct Answer: Conclusions derived from research with rats are applicable to human learning. Question 15 3.2 out of 3.2 points On several occasions Edward is severely beaten by his alcoholic father. Before long, Edward begins to shake whenever his father approaches. In this situation, Edward's shaking at the sight of his father is a(n) _____; the severe beating he has received is a(n) _____. Answer Selected Answer: conditioned response; unconditional stimulus Correct Answer: conditioned response; unconditional stimulus Question 16 3.2 out of 3.2 points After a painful experience at one dentist's office, Teresa's mother takes Teresa to a different dentist, who takes great care to make her visits painless. Teresa is anxious at first, but after a few visits, Teresa gradually becomes less resistant about going to the new dentist. Teresa's change in behavior can probably best be explained in terms of _____. But then Teresa does not go to see the dentist for three years. On her first visit to the painless dentist after that time interval, she is anxious once again, even though she had not been anxious in her previous visits. The return of this response after it had previously disappeared is known as _____. Answer Selected Answer: extinction; spontaneous recovery Correct Answer: extinction; spontaneous recovery Question 17 3.2 out of 3.2 points To help Kathy overcome her fear of the new family puppy, her father gives her a hot fudge sundae and then, while she eats it, gradually brings the puppy closer and closer to her. The procedure works because Kathy cannot be happy eating the ice cream and fearful about the puppy at the same time. Being happy and being fearful are, in this situation, Answer Selected Answer: incompatible responses Correct Answer: incompatible responses Question 18 3.2 out of 3.2 points Ivan Pavlov conducted a series of studies that led him to propose his theory of classical conditioning. In these studies, Pavlov observed how a dog learned to: Answer Selected Answer: Salivate to a simple stimulus such as a light or bell Correct Answer: Salivate to a simple stimulus such as a light or bell Question 19 3.2 out of 3.2 points A student who is afraid of mathematics is first given some problems that bear little resemblance to mathematics, then is given a sequence of problems that become increasingly more mathematical in content. The progression of problems is gradual enough that the fear response does not occur, and eventually the student loses his fear of mathematics. Which method for breaking bad habits is best illustrated in this situation? Answer Selected Answer: Threshold method Correct Answer: Threshold method Question 20 3.2 out of 3.2 points In Mr. Marshall's classroom, students who acquire 20 points in one day can have a half hour of free time at the end of the day. Mr. Marshall awards points to his students for good behavior and deducts points if they misbehave. The deduction of points for misbehavior is known as: Answer Selected Answer: response cost Correct Answer: response cost Question 21 3.2 out of 3.2 points You are working with Jerome, a student in your classroom for whom the only effective reinforcer is something to eat, such as candy or raisins. You would like Jerome to find your praise reinforcing as well. From an operant conditioning perspective, your best strategy would be which one of the following? Answer Selected Answer: Whenever you give Jerome something to eat, give him praise as well. Correct Answer: Whenever you give Jerome something to eat, give him praise as well. Question 22 3.2 out of 3.2 points Martin went to two or three school dances but always felt uncomfortable and self-conscious. Martin no longer goes to school dances. His lack of attendance is an example of: Answer Selected Answer: Passive avoidance learning Correct Answer: Passive avoidance learning Question 23 3.2 out of 3.2 points DeeDee is upset that she has been taken off the basketball team because of a failing grade in her history class. The consequence of DeeDee's failure in history is an example of: Answer Selected Answer: Punishment II Correct Answer: Punishment II Question 24 3.2 out of 3.2 points Alex loses his best friend Tyler when he tattles on Tyler at recess. Alex learns that tattling on friends is not a good idea. The loss of Tyler's friendship is an example of: Answer Selected Answer: Punishment II Correct Answer: Punishment II Question 25 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is a primary reinforcer? Answer Selected Register to View Answercookie Correct Register to View Answercookie Question 26 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the best example of punishment as behaviorists define it? Answer Selected Answer: After Nora spends a few minutes in the time-out room for hurting a classmate's feelings, she is more careful not to hurt her peers' feelings in the future. Correct Answer: After Nora spends a few minutes in the time-out room for hurting a classmate's feelings, she is more careful not to hurt her peers' feelings in the future. Question 27 3.2 out of 3.2 points An essential element of a contingency contract in the classroom is that: Answer Selected Answer: Both teacher and student agree upon the desired behavior and its consequence. Correct Answer: Both teacher and student agree upon the desired behavior and its consequence. Question 28 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is an example of reinforcing an incompatible behavior as a way of eliminating an undesirable behavior? Answer Selected Answer: Samantha is very shy and socially withdrawn. Her teacher reinforces her with a smile whenever she interacts with her classmates. Correct Answer: Samantha is very shy and socially withdrawn. Her teacher reinforces her with a smile whenever she interacts with her classmates. Question 29 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following are almost always found in applied behavior analysis (ABA). Which one is not necessarily characteristic of ABA? Answer Selected Answer: Exploring underlying causes of behavior Correct Answer: Exploring underlying causes of behavior Question 30 3.2 out of 3.2 points For which of the following students would behaviorist approaches to instruction be least helpful? Answer Selected Answer: Dana has always been an excellent student. Correct Answer: Dana has always been an excellent student. Question 31 3.2 out of 3.2 points When we make important decisions on the basis of students' achievement test results-for instance, when we identify which students to promote, which teachers to reward with salary increases, and so on, on the basis of students' test scores-we are most likely to see: Answer Selected Answer: Improvements only in knowledge and skills specifically addressed in the tests Correct Answer: Improvements only in knowledge and skills specifically addressed in the tests Question 32 3.2 out of 3.2 points Ms. Smythe keeps Eric after school whenever he swears in class. Even though Eric has been kept after school each day for the past three weeks, his swearing has increased rather than decreased. Given what we know about the effects of punishment on behavior, Ms. Smythe should probably conclude that: Answer Selected Answer: Staying after school is not a punishment for Eric. Correct Answer: Staying after school is not a punishment for Eric. Question 33 3.2 out of 3.2 points In applied behavior analysis, it is often important to promote, quite explicitly, the generalization of newly acquired behavior to a variety of contexts. Three of the following are recommended strategies for promoting such generalization. Which one of the following, although possibly beneficial for other reasons, will not necessarily promote generalization? Answer Selected Answer: Reinforce desired responses on a variable interval schedule. Correct Answer: Reinforce desired responses on a variable interval schedule. Question 34 3.2 out of 3.2 points Ms. Jefferson promises her students special treats if they turn in their homework assignments the next day. But the following day Ms. Jefferson forgets to bring the treats she promised. From the perspective of social cognitive theory, what has just happened to the students who turned in their homework assignments? Answer Selected Answer: They have been punished for doing so. Correct Answer: They have been punished for doing so. Question 35 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following are examples of self-regulation as social cognitive theorists describe it. Which one is not a good example of self-regulation? Answer Selected Register to View Answerstudent tries hard to earn the reinforcer his teacher has told him he will get for good behavior. Correct Register to View Answerstudent tries hard to earn the reinforcer his teacher has told him he will get for good behavior. Question 36 3.2 out of 3.2 points A problem with trying to explain modeling solely from an operant conditioning perspective is that: Answer Selected Answer: People sometimes imitate a behavior many hours after they have observed it. Correct Answer: People sometimes imitate a behavior many hours after they have observed it. Question 37 3.2 out of 3.2 points A mother takes her daughter to the grocery store and slips a can of tuna into her purse, yet tells her daughter that she herself should never shoplift. Judging from what research tells us about "practicing versus preaching," is the daughter likely to shoplift on a later occasion? Answer Selected Answer: Yes. Correct Answer: Yes. Question 38 3.2 out of 3.2 points Below are four situations in which a behavior is being imitated. Only one of them can be explained from an operant conditioning perspective. Which one? Answer Selected Answer: Immediately after she watches her teacher demonstrate how to use a microscope, Debbie uses it correctly and is praised by her teacher for doing so. Correct Answer: Immediately after she watches her teacher demonstrate how to use a microscope, Debbie uses it correctly and is praised by her teacher for doing so. Question 39 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following instances of learning can be explained more easily by social cognitive theory than by operant conditioning? Answer Selected Answer: Craig finds that he gets one "special" girl's attention when he shows off on the playground. Correct Answer: Playing the role of a German soldier in the school play, Andy says his lines using a German accent similar to one he's heard in the movies a few times. Question 40 3.2 out of 3.2 points In social cognitive theorists' conceptualization of reciprocal causation, which one of the following is the best example of a person factor? Answer Selected Answer: Alma expects to do well in science this year. Correct Answer: Alma expects to do well in science this year. Question 1 3.2 out of 3.2 points Over the course of history, science has continued to evolve as new data emerge and scientists offer new ideas to explain those data. This continuing process of change in scientific thinking over the years best reflects the idea of: Answer Selected Answer: social constructivism Correct Answer: social constructivism Question 2 0 out of 3.2 points Hermann Ebbinghaus invented nonsense syllables to eliminate the associations that might help him learn a list of words. In studying how people learn nonsense syllables, verbal learning theorists found that: Answer Selected Answer: People learn them almost as easily as they learn real words. Correct Answer: People tend to form associations with them anyway. Question 3 3.2 out of 3.2 points Mark needs to learn the planets of the solar system listed in the order of their proximity to the sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. If we consider the serial learning curve, which planets will probably be the most difficult for Mark to learn? Answer Selected Answer: The middle planets (e.g., Mars, Jupiter) Correct Answer: The middle planets (e.g., Mars, Jupiter) Question 4 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following scenarios best reflects the basic idea of individual constructivism? Answer Selected Register to View Answerstudent tries to make sense of a poorly written and confusing magazine article. Correct Register to View Answerstudent tries to make sense of a poorly written and confusing magazine article. Question 5 3.2 out of 3.2 points Based on findings from verbal learning research, which list of 3-letter syllables should be easiest to learn? Answer Selected Answer: CAR, DOG, BUN Correct Answer: CAR, DOG, BUN Question 6 3.2 out of 3.2 points You perceive a shape as a rectangle even though two of its lines are too short to connect at one corner. Which one of the following Gestaltist concepts best accounts for this phenomenon? Answer Selected Answer: Closure Correct Answer: Closure Question 7 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best illustrates Tolman's notion of a cognitive map? Answer Selected Answer: After walking around campus for a few days, you learn where buildings are in relation to one another. Correct Answer: After walking around campus for a few days, you learn where buildings are in relation to one another. Question 8 0 out of 3.2 points People are more likely to perceive this configuration of shapes: ???? ???? $$$$ as four rows rather than as four columns. Which one of the following Gestaltist concepts best accounts for this phenomenon? Answer Selected Answer: Proximity Correct Answer: Similarity Question 9 3.2 out of 3.2 points Reasoning about hypothetical situations begins Answer Selected Answer: formal operational Correct Answer: formal operational Question 10 0 out of 3.2 points From Piaget's perspective, why might it be wise to postpone the teaching of complex fractions until middle school or high school? Answer Selected Answer: Younger students haven't attained conservation. Correct Answer: Younger students haven't attained the proportional reasoning of formal operations. Question 11 3.2 out of 3.2 points Jean Piaget's ideas were largely ignored by American psychologists until the 1960s. Three of the following are probable reasons why this was so. Which one is not a likely reason? Answer Selected Answer: Piaget's subjects were children rather than nonhuman species. Correct Answer: Piaget's subjects were children rather than nonhuman species. Question 12 3.2 out of 3.2 points If a child can first add 10 and 3 making a total of 13 and then mentally subtract 3 from 13 making a total of 10, the child has demonstrated: Answer Selected Answer: reversibility of thought Correct Answer: reversibility of thought Question 13 3.2 out of 3.2 points Piaget's sensorimotor stage is characterized by: Answer Selected Answer: Schemes based primarily on perceptions and behaviors Correct Answer: Schemes based primarily on perceptions and behaviors Question 14 3.2 out of 3.2 points As a first-grade teacher reads a book about penguins in Antarctica, she points to Antarctica on a globe. Six-year-old John seems really puzzled. "How come they don't fall off the earth?" he asks. From Piaget's perspective, John can best be described as: Answer Selected Answer: Experiencing disequilibrium Correct Answer: Experiencing disequilibrium Question 15 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following would Piaget be least likely to advocate for elementary school children? Answer Selected Answer: Lectures that describe interesting scientific facts Correct Answer: Lectures that describe interesting scientific facts Question 16 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements best illustrates a neo-Piagetian approach to cognitive development? Answer Selected Answer: Children's acquisition of various cognitive abilities occurs in gradual trends, rather than in discrete stages that are qualitatively different. Correct Answer: As children grow older, their increasing working memory capacity enables them to think in qualitatively more sophisticated ways about particular content domains. Question 17 3.2 out of 3.2 points Imagine that you are a third-grade teacher. If you were to make predictions based on Piaget's stages of cognitive development, you would expect most or all of your students to exhibit _______ thinking. Answer Selected Answer: concrete operations Correct Answer: concrete operations Question 18 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best illustrates Piaget's concept of accommodation? Answer Selected Answer: Donna revises her understanding of what clouds are like when she studies them in science. Correct Answer: Donna revises her understanding of what clouds are like when she studies them in science. Question 19 3.2 out of 3.2 points Lack of awareness of contradictory statements occurs frequently Answer Selected Answer: preoperational Correct Answer: preoperational Question 20 0 out of 3.2 points Olivia understands why 3/5 and 9/15 are equivalent fractions. Based on this information, Olivia is probably in Piaget's _______ stage of development. Answer Selected Answer: concrete operations Correct Answer: formal operations Question 21 3.2 out of 3.2 points Thinking about life plans occurs most effectively Answer Selected Answer: formal operational Correct Answer: formal operational Question 22 3.2 out of 3.2 points From Piaget's perspective, why is language critical for children's cognitive development? Answer Selected Answer: It gives them a means for symbolically thinking about objects and events. Correct Answer: It gives them a means for symbolically thinking about objects and events. Question 23 3.2 out of 3.2 points Roger is shown two piles of sand and says that each pile has the same amount. However, when one pile is flattened with a shovel, he now claims emphatically, "The flat pile has less sand." Based on this information, Roger is probably in Piaget's _______ stage of development. Answer Selected Answer: preoperations Correct Answer: preoperations Question 24 3.2 out of 3.2 points According to Piaget, contact with the environment during which information is drawn from objects is Answer Selected Answer: physical abstraction Correct Answer: physical abstraction Question 25 3.2 out of 3.2 points Mary Adams takes care of several toddlers and preschoolers while their parents work during the day. One warm spring day, she has the children in a fenced-in area behind her home. A large dog comes running up to the fence. As the dog approaches, 2-year-old Todd looks at Mary. When he sees that she appears frightened, he immediately starts to cry. What phenomenon is Todd displaying in this situation? Answer Selected Answer: social referencing Correct Answer: social referencing Question 26 0 out of 3.2 points Three of the following teachers are using scaffolding to help their students learn. Which one is not necessarily providing scaffolding? Answer Selected Answer: Ms. Applegate gives her students a guided structure to follow when they write their first essay. Correct Answer: Mr. Donaldson takes his students on a field trip to the art museum. Question 27 3.2 out of 3.2 points Students in a fourth-grade reading group are reading a passage about snakes. Their teacher asks, "Who can think of a good title that summarizes what this passage is about?" After hearing several good suggestions, the teacher says, "The author says that snakes are helpful to farmers. What evidence does she give to support her statement?" If we consider Vygotsky's concept of internalization, we might predict that such a discussion will: Answer Selected Answer: Help students develop their own effective reading comprehension strategies (e.g., summarizing, looking for supporting statements) by working together. Correct Answer: Help students develop their own effective reading comprehension strategies (e.g., summarizing, looking for supporting statements) by working together. Question 28 3.2 out of 3.2 points Nine-year-old Ricky has recently learned how to solve long division problems, and he still struggles with especially difficult problems. At his mother's request, he helps his eight-year-old sister Lucy with the simple long division problems she must do for her math homework. From the perspective of Vygotsky's theory, which one of the following is most likely to result? Answer Selected Answer: Ricky's own long division skills will improve because he will internalize the instructions he received from his teacher and now gives to Lucy. Correct Answer: Ricky's own long division skills will improve because he will internalize the instructions he received from his teacher and now gives to Lucy. Question 29 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the best example of dynamic assessment? Answer Selected Answer: Ms. Vincenti gives her students 20 easier multiple-choice questions, then gives 20 more difficult questions to students who've done very well on the first set, as a way of assessing the upper limits of their knowledge. Correct Answer: Mr. Warren observes and records how Erica's logical thinking changes over time as she experiments with a pendulum. Question 30 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the best example of a mediated learning experience? Answer Selected Answer: As Ms. Robinson takes a group of children hiking, she gathers leaves from maple, oak, and elm trees and points out the ways in which the leaves from the trees are distinctly different. Correct Answer: As Ms. Robinson takes a group of children hiking, she gathers leaves from maple, oak, and elm trees and points out the ways in which the leaves from the trees are distinctly different. Question 31 3.2 out of 3.2 points Kiley is having trouble learning the steps involved in using a microscope correctly. If we consider Vygotsky's description of how children can help themselves through difficult tasks, we should suggest that Kiley: Answer Selected Answer: Work with another person, then talk herself through the steps Correct Answer: Work with another person, then talk herself through the steps Question 32 3.2 out of 3.2 points An effective authentic activity is most likely to be one that: Answer Selected Answer: Requires students to gather and integrate information from a variety of sources Correct Answer: Requires students to gather and integrate information from a variety of sources Question 33 0 out of 3.2 points Ms. Killian and her fourth graders have been growing sunflowers under various conditions-they have grown sunflowers in different kinds of soil, with different amounts of water, and in varying degrees of sunlight. Below are four statements that Ms. Killian makes related to the sunflowers. Which one is most consistent with the idea of a cognitive apprenticeship? Answer Selected Answer: "Elaine, please give each plant the same amount of water today that you gave it yesterday. Also, be sure that you keep each plant in the same location, so that the amount of sunlight it gets stays the same." Correct Answer: "This sunflower is taller than that sunflower over there. Let's consider what the growing conditions for the two flowers have been and try to figure out what might have led to the difference we see." Question 34 3.2 out of 3.2 points Xavier loves to write poetry. Often he uses techniques that his favorite poets use, but typically he modifies these techniques to better suit his own style. This situation illustrates which one of the following concepts in Vygotsky's theory? Answer Selected Answer: appropriation Correct Answer: appropriation Question 35 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following strategies is most likely to help students learn from a Vygotsky discovery learning activity? Answer Selected Answer: Providing some structure to guide students' explorations Correct Answer: Providing some structure to guide students' explorations Question 36 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements most accurately describes Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development? Answer Selected Answer: Children progress, in part, by working on difficult tasks with the assistance of more competent individuals. Correct Answer: Children progress, in part, by working on difficult tasks with the assistance of more competent individuals. Question 37 0 out of 3.2 points Several parents who are making costumes for an elementary school play ask the young cast members to assist them with such tasks as cutting fabric, pinning pieces together, and sewing simple hems. Using the language of Vygotskian theorists, we can say that the parents are: Answer Selected Answer: Creating a cognitive apprenticeship Correct Answer: Engaging the students in guided participation Question 38 0 out of 3.2 points Vygotsky proposed that thought and language are: Answer Selected Answer: Largely independent early in life and totally overlapping thereafter Correct Answer: Largely independent before age two but becoming more closely connected thereafter Question 39 3.2 out of 3.2 points Ms. Villanueva has her students engage in a variety of activities in her middle school geography class. Three of the activities described below are authentic activities. Which one is not an authentic activity? Answer Selected Answer: Describing the difference between latitude and longitude Correct Answer: Describing the difference between latitude and longitude Question 40 3.2 out of 3.2 points Central to Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development is the idea that children increasingly make better sense of their world: Answer Selected Answer: By interacting with more experienced people who mediate their understandings Correct Answer: By interacting with more experienced people who mediate their understandings Wednesday, May 2, 2012 5:23:10 PM EDT OK Question 1 3.2 out of 3.2 points In a series of experiments, Tolman investigated the role of reinforcement in learning. Which one of the following conclusions emerged from his research? Answer Selected Answer: Responses can be learned even when they are not reinforced. Correct Answer: Responses can be learned even when they are not reinforced. Question 2 3.2 out of 3.2 points Tolman was interested in examining the role of expectations in behavior. Which one of the following statements most accurately describes the method he used to study expectations? Answer Selected Answer: He reinforced a response the same way for several trials, then abruptly changed the type or amount of reinforcement. Correct Answer: He reinforced a response the same way for several trials, then abruptly changed the type or amount of reinforcement. Question 3 3.2 out of 3.2 points Frank sees an egg-shaped ball that he later "remembers" as being perfectly round. Frank's mistaken recollection is an example of the Gestalt principle of: Answer Selected Answer: Prgnanz Correct Answer: Prgnanz Question 4 3.2 out of 3.2 points Mark needs to learn the planets of the solar system listed in the order of their proximity to the sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. If we consider the serial learning curve, which planets will probably be the most difficult for Mark to learn? Answer Selected Answer: The middle planets (e.g., Mars, Jupiter) Correct Answer: The middle planets (e.g., Mars, Jupiter) Question 5 3.2 out of 3.2 points These four teachers claim to be practicing principles from cognitivism. Based on the following information, which one is not? Answer Selected Answer: Mr. Danforth, a junior high school soccer coach, asks his players to practice passing the ball to one another as they run down the field, then openly praises those players who are passing skillfully. Correct Answer: Mr. Danforth, a junior high school soccer coach, asks his players to practice passing the ball to one another as they run down the field, then openly praises those players who are passing skillfully. Question 6 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following illustrate the Gestalt notion that "the whole is more than the sum of its parts." Which one does not reflect this idea? Answer Selected Answer: Debby learns that "2 plus 2 equal 4" and repeats this fact to herself over and over again until she knows it perfectly. Correct Answer: Debby learns that "2 plus 2 equal 4" and repeats this fact to herself over and over again until she knows it perfectly. Question 7 3.2 out of 3.2 points Julia sees a set of twelve circles arranged like this: OOOOOO OOOOOO Using Gestalt principles, we can predict that Julia will perceive them as: Answer Selected Answer: 2 groups of 6 circles each. Correct Answer: 2 groups of 6 circles each. Question 8 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best illustrates Tolman's notion of a cognitive map? Answer Selected Answer: After walking around campus for a few days, you learn where buildings are in relation to one another. Correct Answer: After walking around campus for a few days, you learn where buildings are in relation to one another. Question 9 3.2 out of 3.2 points If a child can first add 10 and 3 making a total of 13 and then mentally subtract 3 from 13 making a total of 10, the child has demonstrated: Answer Selected Answer: reversibility of thought Correct Answer: reversibility of thought Question 10 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following examples best illustrates symbolic thought as Piaget described it? Answer Selected Answer: Laura asks herself, "Hmm, could I use my straw for a drum stick?" Correct Answer: Laura asks herself, "Hmm, could I use my straw for a drum stick?" Question 11 3.2 out of 3.2 points Piaget has described four stages of cognitive development. Which one of the following is an accurate statement about Piaget's view of these stages? Answer Selected Answer: Each stage involves forms of thought qualitatively different from those of other stages. Correct Answer: Each stage involves forms of thought qualitatively different from those of other stages. Question 12 3.2 out of 3.2 points As a first-grade teacher reads a book about penguins in Antarctica, she points to Antarctica on a globe. Six-year-old John seems really puzzled. "How come they don't fall off the earth?" he asks. From Piaget's perspective, John can best be described as: Answer Selected Answer: Experiencing disequilibrium Correct Answer: Experiencing disequilibrium Question 13 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements best describes Piaget's view of how children acquire knowledge about the world? Answer Selected actively Answer: Children construct their own view of the world from their experiences with the environment. Correct Answer: Children actively construct their own view of the world from their experiences with the environment. Question 14 3.2 out of 3.2 points Imagine that you are a third-grade teacher. If you were to make predictions based on Piaget's stages of cognitive development, you would expect most or all of your students to exhibit _______ thinking. Answer Selected Answer: concrete operations Correct Answer: concrete operations Question 15 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following reflects class inclusion as Piaget described it? Answer Selected Answer: Realizing that cars are also vehicles Correct Answer: Realizing that cars are also vehicles Question 16 3.2 out of 3.2 points In describing the cognitive abilities of infants, Piaget appears to have: Answer Selected Answer: Underestimated what they know and can do Correct Answer: Underestimated what they know and can do Question 17 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following would Piaget be least likely to advocate for elementary school children? Answer Selected Answer: Lectures that describe interesting scientific facts Correct Answer: Lectures that describe interesting scientific facts Question 18 3.2 out of 3.2 points Lack of awareness of contradictory statements occurs frequently Answer Selected Answer: preoperational Correct Answer: preoperational Question 19 3.2 out of 3.2 points Piaget's sensorimotor stage is characterized by: Answer Selected Answer: Schemes based primarily on perceptions and behaviors Correct Answer: Schemes based primarily on perceptions and behaviors Question 20 0 out of 3.2 points Mr. Jones teaches a class of twenty 8-year-old third graders. His goal for the upcoming school year is to help at least 50% of his students reach formal operations. Judging from Piaget's theory, we would expect that Mr. Jones's goal is: Answer Selected Answer: Attainable only if he emphasizes abstract reasoning throughout the school year Correct Answer: Almost impossible to attain Question 21 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following examples best illustrates Piaget's concept of object permanence? Answer Selected Answer: Two-year-old Jasmine looks for a favorite toy her father has just hidden in a box. Correct Answer: Two-year-old Jasmine looks for a favorite toy her father has just hidden in a box. Question 22 3.2 out of 3.2 points The concept of object permanence is developed Answer Selected Answer: sensorimotor Correct Answer: sensorimotor Question 23 0 out of 3.2 points Carl can correctly answer a question such as, "If all flegs are blats, and if all blats are dulms, are all flegs also dulms?" From Piaget's perspective, Carl is most likely in the _______ stage of cognitive development. Answer Selected Answer: preoperational Correct Answer: formal operations Question 24 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best illustrates Piaget's concept of accommodation? Answer Selected Answer: Donna revises her understanding of what clouds are like when she studies them in science. Correct Answer: Donna revises her understanding of what clouds are like when she studies them in science. Question 25 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following are definite examples of scaffolding. Identify the situation in which no scaffolding is described. Answer Selected Answer: Ms. Ayotte likes to challenge her students by giving them group research projects. She puts her students in groups of three or four students each, and she gives each student a topic to research. She sends the groups to the school library to find out as much as they can about their topic, and then has each group give a report to the entire class. Correct Answer: Ms. Ayotte likes to challenge her students by giving them group research projects. She puts her students in groups of three or four students each, and she gives each student a topic to research. She sends the groups to the school library to find out as much as they can about their topic, and then has each group give a report to the entire class. Question 26 3.2 out of 3.2 points From Vygotsky's perspective, what important role does inner speech play? Answer Selected Answer: By giving themselves directions that have been given to them by others about what to do next, children guide themselves through complex tasks. Correct Answer: By giving themselves directions that have been given to them by others about what to do next, children guide themselves through complex tasks. Question 27 3.2 out of 3.2 points Kiley is having trouble learning the steps involved in using a microscope correctly. If we consider Vygotsky's description of how children can help themselves through difficult tasks, we should suggest that Kiley: Answer Selected Answer: Work with another person, then talk herself through the steps Correct Answer: Work with another person, then talk herself through the steps Question 28 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which of the following pairs of concepts reflects the general idea that challenge is important for cognitive development? Answer Selected Answer: disequilibrium and ZPD Correct Answer: disequilibrium and ZPD Question 29 3.2 out of 3.2 points Eight-year-old Julie lives in a rural area where many people are farmers or in some other way make their living through agriculture. After a lengthy summer drought, it begins to rain heavily one day in late July. "Thank goodness!" Julie hears her father exclaim. "Our prayers have finally been answered!" Julie makes a mental note of the cause-effect relationship her father has implied. This situation illustrates Vygotsky's belief that: Answer Selected Answer: Adults pass along to children the ways in which their culture interprets events. Correct Answer: Adults pass along to children the ways in which their culture interprets events. Question 30 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following examples illustrates a cognitive apprenticeship? Answer Selected Answer: Ms. Lupinsky and a student work together to solve a challenging word problem, with Ms. Lupinsky modeling effective ways of thinking about the problem. Correct Answer: Ms. Lupinsky and a student work together to solve a challenging word problem, with Ms. Lupinsky modeling effective ways of thinking about the problem. Question 31 3.2 out of 3.2 points Ms. Killian and her fourth graders have been growing sunflowers under various conditions-they have grown sunflowers in different kinds of soil, with different amounts of water, and in varying degrees of sunlight. Below are four statements that Ms. Killian makes related to the sunflowers. Which one is most consistent with the idea of a cognitive apprenticeship? Answer Selected Answer: "This sunflower is taller than that sunflower over there. Let's consider what the growing conditions for the two flowers have been and try to figure out what might have led to the difference we see." Correct Answer: "This sunflower is taller than that sunflower over there. Let's consider what the growing conditions for the two flowers have been and try to figure out what might have led to the difference we see." Question 32 0 out of 3.2 points Three of the following are examples of authentic activities. Which one is least authentic? Answer Selected Answer: [None Given] Correct Answer: Taking an essay test in a history class Question 33 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the best example of dynamic assessment? Answer Selected Answer: Mr. Thiessen asks Macy to show him how to use a microscope properly. Correct Answer: Mr. Warren observes and records how Erica's logical thinking changes over time as she experiments with a pendulum. Question 34 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the best example of a cognitive tool? Answer Selected Answer: The concept of pi (p) in a geometry class Correct Answer: The concept of pi (p) in a geometry class Question 35 3.2 out of 3.2 points Xavier loves to write poetry. Often he uses techniques that his favorite poets use, but typically he modifies these techniques to better suit his own style. This situation illustrates which one of the following concepts in Vygotsky's theory? Answer Selected Answer: appropriation Correct Answer: appropriation Question 36 3.2 out of 3.2 points After explaining what sines and cosines are, a high school math teacher shows students how they might use these concepts in constructing a large building. Which one of the following principles does this scenario best illustrate? Answer Selected Answer: Acquiring the cognitive tools of one's culture enables youngsters to live and work more effectively. Correct Answer: Acquiring the cognitive tools of one's culture enables youngsters to live and work more effectively. Question 37 0 out of 3.2 points Vygotsky proposed that thought and language are: Answer Selected Answer: Largely independent early in life and totally overlapping thereafter Correct Answer: Largely independent before age two but becoming more closely connected thereafter Question 38 3.2 out of 3.2 points Ms. Villanueva has her students engage in a variety of activities in her middle school geography class. Three of the activities described below are authentic activities. Which one is not an authentic activity? Answer Selected Answer: Describing the difference between latitude and longitude Correct Answer: Describing the difference between latitude and longitude Question 39 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following strategies is most likely to help students learn from a Vygotsky discovery learning activity? Answer Selected Answer: Providing some structure to guide students' explorations Correct Answer: Providing some structure to guide students' explorations Question 40 3.2 out of 3.2 points If you were interested in how a child's culture influences cognitive development, you would be most likely to consider _______ approach to cognitive development. Answer Selected Answer: Vygotsky's Correct Answer: Vygotsky's Question 1 0 out of 3.2 points Frank sees an eggshaped ball that he later "remembers" as being perfectly round. Frank's mistaken recollection is an example of the Gestalt principle of: Answer Correct Answer: Prgnanz Question 2 3.2 out of 3.2 points Based on findings from verbal learning research, which list of 3letter syllables should be most difficult to learn? Answer Correct Answer: XDP, MFC, RLJ Question 3 3.2 out of 3.2 points Hermann Ebbinghaus invented nonsense syllables to eliminate the associations that might help him learn a list of words. In studying how people learn nonsense syllables, verbal learning theorists found that: Answer Correct Answer: People tend to form associations with them anyway. Question 4 0 out of 3.2 points Ms. McDevitt's class has learned how to calculate the area of a rectangle. Ms. McDevitt then asks Teresa how to calculate the area of a square. Which one of the following alternatives best describes the Gestalt perspective of how Teresa would solve this problem? Answer Correct Answer: She would think about the problem for a while and, once she realized that a square was a kind of rectangle, be able to solve the problem. Question 5 3.2 out of 3.2 points Mr. Fremont tells his French class, "La plume means 'pen.'" Which one of the following students in his class is exhibiting Tolman's notion of latent learning? Answer Correct Answer: Donna says nothing at the time, but she correctly recites the French word for "pen" the next day. Question 6 3.2 out of 3.2 points Julia sees a set of twelve circles arranged like this: OOOOOO OOOOOO Using Gestalt principles, we can predict that Julia will perceive them as: Answer Correct Answer: 2 groups of 6 circles each. Question 7 0 out of 3.2 points You perceive a shape as a rectangle even though two of its lines are too short to connect at one corner. Which one of the following Gestaltist concepts best accounts for this phenomenon? Answer Correct Answer: Closur e Question 8 3.2 out of 3.2 points Based on findings from verbal learning research, which list of 3letter syllables should be easiest to learn? Answer Correct Answer: CAR, DOG, BUN Question 9 0 out of 3.2 points Dr. Bauer asks 9year-old Anne to divide a pitcher of lemonade equally between two glasses, one each for her and her friend Kate. The two glasses are different shapes, with Anne's being tall and thin and Kate's being short and wide. After Anne pours the lemonade, Dr. Bauer says to her, "Look, the lemonade in your glass is higher than the lemonade in Kate's glass. Did you give yourself more than you gave Kate?" "No," Anne replies, "my glass is skinnier." Dr. Bauer continues to ask Anne questions to determine how well she understands that height compensates for width in this situation. Dr. Bauer's strategy can best be described as illustrating: Answer Correct Answer: The clinical method Question 10 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following teachers is definitely keepin g in mind Piaget's idea that assimilation and accommodation are both necessary for learning and cognitive development to occur? Answer Correct Answer: Mr. Baretta shows students how a new topic is similar to the things they already know, but also different in certain ways. Question 11 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements best describes Piaget's view of how children acquire knowledge about the world? Answer Correct Answer: Children actively construct their own view of the world from their experiences with the environment. Question 12 3.2 out of 3.2 points If a child can first add 10 and 3 making a total of 13 and then mentally subtract 3 from 13 making a total of 10, the child has demonstrated: Answer Correct Answer: reversibility of thought Question 13 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best describes Piaget's notion of equilibration? Answer Correct Register to View Answerchild has revised existing schemes and now understands new phenomenon. Question 14 3.2 out of 3.2 points Qualitative identities (a=a) are established Answer Correct Answer: concrete operational Question 15 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following examples best illustrates Piaget's concept of object permanence? Answer Correct Answer: Two-year-old Jasmine looks for a favorite toy her father has just hidden in a box. Question 16 3.2 out of 3.2 points According to Piaget, three of the following are essential for cognitive development. Which one is not? Answer Correct Answer: High selfesteem Question 17 3.2 out of 3.2 points Olivia understands why 3/5 and 9/15 are equivalent fractions. Based on this information, Olivia is probably in Piaget's _______ stage of development. Answer Correct Answer: formal operations Question 18 0 out of 3.2 points According to Piaget, contact with the environment during which information is drawn from objects is Answer Correct Answer: physical abstraction Question 19 0 out of 3.2 points Four-year-old Becky is playing with blocks, stacking them one on top of another until her towers eventually tumble, and then stacking them again. Which one of the following best reflects Piaget's view of how Becky is probably learning in this situation? Answer Correct Answer: She is actively thinking about and interpreting the results of her actions. Question 20 3.2 out of 3.2 points Lack of awareness of contradictory statements occurs frequently Answer Correct Answer: preoperation al Question 21 3.2 out of 3.2 points Piaget has described four stages of cognitive development. Which one of the following is an accurate statement about Piaget's view of these stages? Answer Correct Answer: Each stage involves forms of thought qualitatively different from those of other stages. Question 22 3.2 out of 3.2 points The major role of education in Piaget's view is to Answer Correct Answer: support the child's active construction investigation Question 23 3.2 out of 3.2 points Thinking about life plans occurs most effectively Answer Correct Answer: formal operational Question 24 3.2 out of 3.2 points Carl can correctly answer a question such as, "If all flegs are blats, and if all blats are dulms, are all flegs also dulms?" From Piaget's perspective, Carl is most likely in the _______ stage of cognitive development. Answer Correct Answer: formal operations Question 25 3.2 out of 3.2 points Kiley is having trouble learning the steps involved in using a microscope correctly. If we consider Vygotsky's description of how children can help themselves through difficult tasks, we should suggest that Kiley: Answer Correct Answer: Work with another person, then talk herself through the steps Question 26 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements best describes intersubjectivity? Answer Correct Register to View Answermutual understanding between two people that each one knows what the other one is seeing, thinking, or feeling Question 27 0 out of 3.2 points Three of the following are definite examples of scaffolding. Identify the situation in which no scaffolding is described. Answer Correct Answer: Ms. Ayotte likes to challenge her students by giving them group research projects. She puts her students in groups of three or four students each, and she gives each student a topic to research. She sends the groups to the school library to find out as much as they can about their topic, and then has each group give a report to the entire class. Question 28 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which of the following pairs of concepts reflects the general idea that challenge is important for cognitive development? Answer Correct Answer: disequilibrium and ZPD Question 29 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the best example of a cognitive tool? Answer Correct Answer: The concept of pi (p) in a geometry class Question 30 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements most accurately describes Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development? Answer Correct Answer: Children progress, in part, by working on difficult tasks with the assistance of more competent individuals. Question 31 0 out of 3.2 points Ms. Villanueva has her students engage in a variety of activities in her middle school geography class. Three of the activities described below are authentic activities. Which one is not an authentic activity? Answer Correct Answer: Describing the difference between latitude and longitude Question 32 3.2 out of 3.2 points An effective authentic activity is most likely to be one that: Answer Correct Answer: Requires students to gather and integrate information from a variety of sources Question 33 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following issues reflects a fundamental difference between Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories of cognitive development? Answer Correct Answer: How much children require adult guidance to make cognitive gains Question 34 3.2 out of 3.2 points Central to Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development is the idea that children increasingly make better sense of their world: Answer Correct Answer: By interacting with more experienced people who mediate their understandings Question 35 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following scenarios best reflects the basic idea of social historical construction of meaning? Answer Correct Answer: Two students discuss possible interpretations of the proverb "A stitch in time saves nine." Question 36 0 out of 3.2 points Three of the following are examples of authentic activities. Which one is least authentic? Answer Correct Answer: Taking an essay test in a history class Question 37 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements best describes Vygotsky's concept of internalization? Answer Correct Answer: Through their social interactions with other people, children develop ways of mentally approaching and thinking about a task. Question 38 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the best example of dynamic assessment? Answer Correct Answer: Mr. Warren observes and records how Erica's logical thinking changes over time as she experiments with a pendulum. Question 39 3.2 out of 3.2 points Eight-year-old Julie lives in a rural area where many people are farmers or in some other way make their living through agriculture. After a lengthy summer drought, it begins to rain heavily one day in late July. "Thank goodness!" Julie hears her father exclaim. "Our prayers have finally been answered!" Julie makes a mental note of the causeeffect relationship her father has implied. This situation illustrates Vygotsky's belief that: Answer Correct Answer: Adults pass along to children the ways in which their culture interprets events. Question 40 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following strategies is most likely to help students learn from a Vygotsky discovery learning activity? Answer Correct Answer: Providing some structure to guide students' explorations Wednesday, May 2, 2012 2:04:50 PM EDT Question 1 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct You perceive a shape as a rectangle even though two of its lines are too short to connect at one corner. Which one of the following Gestaltist concepts best accounts for this phenomenon? Answer Selected Answer: Closure Correct Answer: Closure Question 2 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Which one of the following best illustrates Tolman's notion of a cognitive map? Answer Selected Answer: After walking around campus for a few days, you learn where buildings are in relation to one another. Correct Answer: After walking around campus for a few days, you learn where buildings are in relation to one another. Question 3 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Which one of the following statements reflects Tolman's notion of purposive behaviorism? Answer Selected Answer: Organisms behave in order to attain particular goals. Correct Answer: Organisms behave in order to attain particular goals. Question 4 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Tolman was interested in examining the role of expectations in behavior. Which one of the following statements most accurately describes the method he used to study expectations? Answer Selected Answer: He reinforced a response the same way for several trials, then abruptly changed the type or amount of reinforcement. Correct Answer: He reinforced a response the same way for several trials, then abruptly changed the type or amount of reinforcement. Question 5 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Based on findings from verbal learning research, which list of 3-letter syllables should be most difficult to learn? Answer Selected Answer: XDP, MFC, RLJ Correct Answer: XDP, MFC, RLJ Question 6 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Three of the following illustrate the Gestalt notion that "the whole is more than the sum of its parts." Which one does not reflect this idea? Answer Selected Answer: Debby learns that "2 plus 2 equal 4" and repeats this fact to herself over and over again until she knows it perfectly. Correct Answer: Debby learns that "2 plus 2 equal 4" and repeats this fact to herself over and over again until she knows it perfectly. Question 7 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Which one of the following teaching strategies best reflects the perspective of cognitive psychology? Answer Selected Answer: Mr. Darwin has students recall personal experiences related to the concepts they are studying. Correct Answer: Mr. Darwin has students recall personal experiences related to the concepts they are studying. Question 8 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Hermann Ebbinghaus invented nonsense syllables to eliminate the associations that might help him learn a list of words. In studying how people learn nonsense syllables, verbal learning theorists found that: Answer Selected Answer: People tend to form associations with them anyway. Correct Answer: People tend to form associations with them anyway. Question 9 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Which one of the following best illustrates Piaget's concept of accommodation? Answer Selected Answer: Donna revises her understanding of what clouds are like when she studies them in science. Correct Answer: Donna revises her understanding of what clouds are like when she studies them in science. Question 10 0 out of 3.2 points Incorrect Imagine that you are a third-grade teacher. If you were to make predictions based on Piaget's stages of cognitive development, you would expect most or all of your students to exhibit _______ thinking. Answer Selected Answer: preoperational Correct Answer: concrete operations Question 11 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct According to Piaget, three of the following are essential for cognitive development. Which one is not? Answer Selected Answer: High self-esteem Correct Answer: High self-esteem Question 12 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct James is talking about how much better the world would be if everyone just agreed to love everyone else. In Piaget's view, James is most likely to be Answer Selected Answer: 14 years old Correct Answer: 14 years old Question 13 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct As a first-grade teacher reads a book about penguins in Antarctica, she points to Antarctica on a globe. Six-year-old John seems really puzzled. "How come they don't fall off the earth?" he asks. From Piaget's perspective, John can best be described as: Answer Selected Answer: Experiencing disequilibrium Correct Answer: Experiencing disequilibrium Question 14 0 out of 3.2 points Incorrect If we look at cognitive development from Piaget's perspective, we would expect a child in the concrete operations stage to have the greatest difficulty with which one of the following questions? Answer Selected Answer: How are an apple and a blueberry alike? Correct Answer: An apple pie is cut into 4 pieces. A blueberry pie of the same size is cut into 12 pieces. How many pieces of blueberry pie do you need to have the same amount as 3 pieces of the apple pie? Question 15 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Which one of the following statements best illustrates a neo-Piagetian approach to cognitive development? Answer Selected Answer: As children grow older, their increasing working memory capacity enables them to think in qualitatively more sophisticated ways about particular content domains. Correct Answer: As children grow older, their increasing working memory capacity enables them to think in qualitatively more sophisticated ways about particular content domains. Question 16 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct In Piaget's theory, a scheme can best be described as: Answer Selected Answer: An organized group of similar thoughts or actions Correct Answer: An organized group of similar thoughts or actions Question 17 0 out of 3.2 points Incorrect Carl can correctly answer a question such as, "If all flegs are blats, and if all blats are dulms, are all flegs also dulms?" From Piaget's perspective, Carl is most likely in the _______ stage of cognitive development. Answer Selected Answer: concrete operations Correct Answer: formal operations Question 18 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct From Piaget's perspective, why might it be wise to postpone the teaching of complex fractions until middle school or high school? Answer Selected Answer: Younger students haven't attained the proportional reasoning of formal operations. Correct Answer: Younger students haven't attained the proportional reasoning of formal operations. Question 19 0 out of 3.2 points Incorrect Which one of the following best describes Piaget's notion of equilibration? Answer Selected Register to View Answerchild doesn't encounter any new or challenging ideas. Correct Register to View Answerchild has revised existing schemes and now understands new phenomenon. Question 20 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Thinking about life plans occurs most effectively Answer Selected Answer: formal operational Correct Answer: formal operational Question 21 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Which one of the following examples best illustrates Piaget's concept of object permanence? Answer Selected Answer: Two-year-old Jasmine looks for a favorite toy her father has just hidden in a box. Correct Answer: Two-year-old Jasmine looks for a favorite toy her father has just hidden in a box. Question 22 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Which one of the following teachers is definitely keeping in mind Piaget's idea that assimilation and accommodation are both necessary for learning and cognitive development to occur? Answer Selected Answer: Mr. Baretta shows students how a new topic is similar to the things they already know, but also different in certain ways. Correct Answer: Mr. Baretta shows students how a new topic is similar to the things they already know, but also different in certain ways. Question 23 0 out of 3.2 points Incorrect Which one of the following would Piaget be least likely to advocate for elementary school children? Answer Selected Answer: Discussions with classmates Correct Answer: Lectures that describe interesting scientific facts Question 24 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct In describing the cognitive abilities of infants, Piaget appears to have: Answer Selected Answer: Underestimated what they know and can do Correct Answer: Underestimated what they know and can do Question 25 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Which one of the following is the best example of a cognitive tool? Answer Selected Answer: The concept of pi (p) in a geometry class Correct Answer: The concept of pi (p) in a geometry class Question 26 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Mary Adams takes care of several toddlers and preschoolers while their parents work during the day. One warm spring day, she has the children in a fenced-in area behind her home. A large dog comes running up to the fence. As the dog approaches, 2-year-old Todd looks at Mary. When he sees that she appears frightened, he immediately starts to cry. What phenomenon is Todd displaying in this situation? Answer Selected Answer: social referencing Correct Answer: social referencing Question 27 0 out of 3.2 points Incorrect Which one of the following statements most accurately describes Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development? Answer Selected Answer: Cognitive development progresses through four distinct stages; each stage is characterized by increasingly more complex use of operations. Correct Answer: Children progress, in part, by working on difficult tasks with the assistance of more competent individuals. Question 28 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct If you wanted to take a Vygotskian approach to teaching students a new study strategy, you would be most likely to: Answer Selected Answer: Work collaboratively with them in applying the strategy at first, gradually withdrawing your support as they become more proficient in using it. Correct Answer: Work collaboratively with them in applying the strategy at first, gradually withdrawing your support as they become more proficient in using it. Question 29 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Three of the following are definite examples of scaffolding. Identify the situation in which no scaffolding is described. Answer Selected Answer: Ms. Ayotte likes to challenge her students by giving them group research projects. She puts her students in groups of three or four students each, and she gives each student a topic to research. She sends the groups to the school library to find out as much as they can about their topic, and then has each group give a report to the entire class. Correct Answer: Ms. Ayotte likes to challenge her students by giving them group research projects. She puts her students in groups of three or four students each, and she gives each student a topic to research. She sends the groups to the school library to find out as much as they can about their topic, and then has each group give a report to the entire class. Question 30 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Students in a fourth-grade reading group are reading a passage about snakes. Their teacher asks, "Who can think of a good title that summarizes what this passage is about?" After hearing several good suggestions, the teacher says, "The author says that snakes are helpful to farmers. What evidence does she give to support her statement?" If we consider Vygotsky's concept of internalization, we might predict that such a discussion will: Answer Selected Answer: Help students develop their own effective reading comprehension strategies (e.g., summarizing, looking for supporting statements) by working together. Correct Answer: Help students develop their own effective reading comprehension strategies (e.g., summarizing, looking for supporting statements) by working together. Question 31 0 out of 3.2 points Incorrect From a Vygotskian perspective, scaffolding serves what purpose in instruction? Answer Selected Answer: It keeps school tasks within children's actual developmental levels. Correct Answer: It supports children as they perform intermediate steps of difficult tasks. Question 32 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Three of the following are examples of authentic activities. Which one is least authentic? Answer Selected Answer: Taking an essay test in a history class Correct Answer: Taking an essay test in a history class Question 33 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Nine-year-old Ricky has recently learned how to solve long division problems, and he still struggles with especially difficult problems. At his mother's request, he helps his eight-year-old sister Lucy with the simple long division problems she must do for her math homework. From the perspective of Vygotsky's theory, which one of the following is most likely to result? Answer Selected Answer: Ricky's own long division skills will improve because he will internalize the instructions he received from his teacher and now gives to Lucy. Correct Answer: Ricky's own long division skills will improve because he will internalize the instructions he received from his teacher and now gives to Lucy. Question 34 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Central to Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development is the idea that children increasingly make better sense of their world: Answer Selected Answer: By interacting with more experienced people who mediate their understandings Correct Answer: By interacting with more experienced people who mediate their understandings Question 35 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Ms. Villanueva has her students engage in a variety of activities in her middle school geography class. Three of the activities described below are authentic activities. Which one is not an authentic activity? Answer Selected Answer: Describing the difference between latitude and longitude Correct Answer: Describing the difference between latitude and longitude Question 36 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Three of the following teachers are using scaffolding to help their students learn. Which one is not necessarily providing scaffolding? Answer Selected Answer: Mr. Donaldson takes his students on a field trip to the art museum. Correct Answer: Mr. Donaldson takes his students on a field trip to the art museum. Question 37 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct From Vygotsky's perspective, what important role does inner speech play? Answer Selected Answer: By giving themselves directions that have been given to them by others about what to do next, children guide themselves through complex tasks. Correct Answer: By giving themselves directions that have been given to them by others about what to do next, children guide themselves through complex tasks. Question 38 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Several parents who are making costumes for an elementary school play ask the young cast members to assist them with such tasks as cutting fabric, pinning pieces together, and sewing simple hems. Using the language of Vygotskian theorists, we can say that the parents are: Answer Selected Answer: Engaging the students in guided participation Correct Answer: Engaging the students in guided participation Question 39 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Vygotsky proposed that thought and language are: Answer Selected Answer: Largely independent before age two but becoming more closely connected thereafter Correct Answer: Largely independent before age two but becoming more closely connected thereafter Question 40 3.2 out of 3.2 points Correct Which one of the following examples illustrates a cognitive apprenticeship? Answer Selected Answer: Ms. Lupinsky and a student work together to solve a challenging word problem, with Ms. Lupinsky modeling effective ways of thinking about the problem. Correct Answer: Ms. Lupinsky and a student work together to solve a challenging word problem, with Ms. Lupinsky modeling effective ways of thinking about the problem. Question 1 3.2 out of 3.2 points Mr. Wagner stands in front of the class explaining the process of creation. Ellen is sitting in the front row, but her mind is on the fight she had with her best friend just before class. Based on this information, how far in Ellen's memory system did Mr. Wagner's lecture get? Answer Selected Answer: It reached the sensory register. Correct Answer: It reached the sensory register. Question 2 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best illustrates the "working" aspect of working memory? Answer Selected Answer: Alphabetizing five names as you hold them in memory Correct Answer: Alphabetizing five names as you hold them in memory Question 3 3.2 out of 3.2 points William is trying to remember his new nine-digit social security number, and he does so by thinking of it as three groups of three digits each. William is demonstrating: Answer Selected Answer: The use of chunking Correct Answer: The use of chunking Question 4 3.2 out of 3.2 points The textbook recommends a number of ways in which to increase student attention in class. Which one of the following is not recommended? Answer Selected Answer: Have several different activities going on simultaneously. Correct Answer: Have several different activities going on simultaneously. Question 5 0 out of 3.2 points Peter and Paul are both listening to the same lecture. Peter is trying to learn the information being presented so that he can remember it later on. Paul is listening closely but not necessarily trying to remember it. From a levels-ofprocessing perspective, we would predict that: Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Paul is likely to process the information at a deeper level, so will probably remember more. Both boys will remember the same amount if they process the information in the same way. Question 6 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following scenarios reflects the typical duration of working (shortterm) memory? Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Question 7 Barney looks up the correct spelling of the word fossil and closes the dictionary. By the time he finds a piece of paper on which to write the word, he has forgotten how to spell it. Barney looks up the correct spelling of the word fossil and closes the dictionary. By the time he finds a piece of paper on which to write the word, he has forgotten how to spell it. 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following kinds of knowledge is least likely to be dependent on active, conscious processing to be learned? Base your choice on research findings presented in the textbook. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Knowing how to start a fire by beginning with crumpled newspaper and small twigs. Knowing that the word cat appears in speech more often than feline. Question 8 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the most accurate statement about how people perceive the world around them? Answer Selected Answer: People often fill in information that they do not actually sense. Correct Answer: People often fill in information that they do not actually sense. Question 9 3.2 out of 3.2 points The four students described below are using visual imagery to try to remember information. Considering what theorists and researchers say about the strengths and weaknesses of visual imagery, only one student is likely to remember accurately. Which one? Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Cora studies 30 pictures at an art museum. The following day she is asked to identify them from among 60 pictures. Cora studies 30 pictures at an art museum. The following day she is asked to identify them from among 60 pictures. Question 10 3.2 out of 3.2 points To learn how to spell rhinoceros, Paula repeats the letters of the word over and over again without really thinking about what she is saying. Considering research findings about the effectiveness of rehearsal, we can predict that Paula's strategy will be: Answer Selected Answer: Relatively ineffective Correct Answer: Relatively ineffective Question 11 3.2 out of 3.2 points The anthropologist Colin Turnbull described an incident in which a pygmy man raised in the thick African jungle was taken to an open plain. As the two men approached a herd of buffalo by car, the pygmy became fearful of the "growing" animals. The pygmy's misperception illustrates the importance of _________ in perception and long-term memory storage. Answer Selected Answer: prior knowledge Correct Answer: prior knowledge Question 12 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best illustrates automaticity? Answer Selected Answer: Playing a musical piece on the piano easily and effortlessly Correct Answer: Playing a musical piece on the piano easily and effortlessly Question 13 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the best example of enactment as a facilitator of longterm memory storage? Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Donald traces the letters of the alphabet to help him remember what each one looks like. Donald traces the letters of the alphabet to help him remember what each one looks like. Question 14 3.2 out of 3.2 points An advantage of knowing some skills to a level of automaticity is that automaticity: Answer Selected Answer: Lessens the working memory load for a task involving those skills Correct Answer: Lessens the working memory load for a task involving those skills Question 15 3.2 out of 3.2 points A biology teacher wants students to remember the various components of a cell (nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane). Considering what research tells us about long-term memory storage, the teacher would be well advised to help students encode information about the cell: Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: In both visual and verbal forms, because multiple forms of encoding increase the likelihood of retrieval In both visual and verbal forms, because multiple forms of encoding increase the likelihood of retrieval Question 16 3.2 out of 3.2 points As Jane reads about General Custer's last stand, she pictures him as he must have looked, with long blonde hair and a full mustache, riding tall and proud on the open plain just before he was attacked. Considering research findings regarding the effectiveness of visual imagery, we can predict that Jane will: Answer Selected Answer: Remember the information better than she might otherwise Correct Answer: Remember the information better than she might otherwise Question 17 3.2 out of 3.2 points Cordell is trying to remember the various rocks he has been studying in his earth science class (granite, sandstone, limestone, obsidian, marble, etc.). He finally decides it would be easiest if he studied them as three groups: sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic. Considering research regarding this strategy, Cordell should: Answer Selected Answer: Have an easier time remembering them because he's organizing them Correct Answer: Have an easier time remembering them because he's organizing them Question 18 3.2 out of 3.2 points Many cognitive psychologists believe that learning and understanding are often constructive in nature. Three of the following scenarios illustrate such construction. Which scenario does not necessarily involve construction in learning? Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Mr. McFarland asks his third graders to practice their multiplication tables every day. After a month of such practice, Misty can retrieve all the basic multiplication facts quickly and easily. Mr. McFarland asks his third graders to practice their multiplication tables every day. After a month of such practice, Misty can retrieve all the basic multiplication facts quickly and easily. Question 19 3.2 out of 3.2 points Mr. Gaydos wants to teach a group of people how to perform the Heimlich maneuver. Three of the following strategies should help his students learn the maneuver more effectively. Given what we know about teaching procedural knowledge, which strategy is least likely to be effective in helping students learn the procedure correctly? Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Mr. Gaydos describes Dr. Heimlich's medical background and his motivation for developing the procedure. Mr. Gaydos describes Dr. Heimlich's medical background and his motivation for developing the procedure. Question 20 3.2 out of 3.2 points For the concept hexagon, "large" can best be classified as: Answer Selected Answer: an irrelevant feature Correct Answer: an irrelevant feature Question 21 3.2 out of 3.2 points From a propositional network perspective of long-term memory, meaningful learning is best described as a process of: Answer Selected Answer: Connecting one or more new propositions to the network Correct Answer: Connecting one or more new propositions to the network Question 22 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following teaching strategies should help promote conceptual change. Which one will not? Answer Selected Answer: Have students learn definitions of important concepts. Correct Answer: Have students learn definitions of important concepts. Question 23 3.2 out of 3.2 points Florida is a ________ of the concept peninsula. Answer Selected Answer: positive instance Correct Answer: positive instance Question 24 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements best describes the notion of parallel distributed processing? Answer Selected Answer: Correct Register to View Answersingle piece of information is stored in numerous locations, with processing of this information occurring at all locations simultaneously. A single piece of information is stored in numerous locations, with processing of this information occurring at all locations simultaneously. Question 25 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements best describes how information is stored in longterm memory? Answer Selected Answer: In a variety of possible forms Correct Answer: In a variety of possible forms Question 26 3.2 out of 3.2 points "A man is a teacher. He knows how to teach children to read and write. He can make children feel better when they are sad. However, he goes into debt and owes a great deal of money, so he robs a bank and is a thief. Is he still a teacher? Does he still know how to teach children to read and write?" A child who answers "no" to these questions is confusing: Answer Selected Answer: Defining and correlational features Correct Answer: Defining and correlational features Question 27 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the statements below describe advantages of concepts. The fourth is an incorrect statement about concepts. Which one is incorrect? Answer Selected Answer: Concepts invariably lead to more appropriate responses to the environment. Correct Answer: Concepts invariably lead to more appropriate responses to the environment. Question 28 0 out of 3.2 points Only one of the following is a true statement regarding the nature of knowledge in long-term memory. Which one? Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Any single piece of information is stored in only one code. Interconnected pieces of information are usually more useful than isolated pieces. Question 29 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following examples best illustrates implicit rather than explicit knowledge? Answer Selected Answer: Knowing how to keep one's balance while riding a bicycle Correct Answer: Knowing how to keep one's balance while riding a bicycle Question 30 3.2 out of 3.2 points From the textbook's perspective, what is the key advantage of developing schemas and scripts? Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: They reduce the amount of information we need to acquire in order to make sense of a situation. They reduce the amount of information we need to acquire in order to make sense of a situation. Question 31 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following illustrates an overgeneralization error? The concepts in question are italicized. Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Ben thinks that all animals have to have fur and four legs; therefore snakes, bumblebees, and people cannot possibly be animals. Donna thinks that whales and dolphins are kinds of fish, since she knows that fish live in the water. Question 32 3.2 out of 3.2 points Kevin and Ron are taking the same physics course but with different teachers. Kevin's teacher gives a short quiz over class material every Friday. Ron's teacher gives a lengthy test the first Monday of every month. Which boy is likely to learn physics more effectively, and why? Answer Selected Answer: Kevin, because he must review what he has learned more often Correct Answer: Kevin, because he must review what he has learned more often Question 33 3.2 out of 3.2 points A recent revision of Bloom's taxonomy can help teachers consider not only the various types of cognitive processes that should be encouraged but also the: Answer Selected Answer: Types of knowledge to which those processes might be applied Correct Answer: Types of knowledge to which those processes might be applied Question 34 0 out of 3.2 points Richard is studying both French and Spanish. In the same week he learns that the French word for "mother" is mre and that the Spanish word for "mother" is madre. One day his French teacher asks Richard, "Who is married to your father?" and Richard erroneously answers, "Madre." Richard's memory error can best be explained in terms of: Answer Selected Answer: source monitoring Correct Answer: Interference Question 35 3.2 out of 3.2 points Maria is listening to her teacher talk about how rainy weather develops. Maria thinks, "Rain hmm, it's supposed to rain tomorrow I wonder where I left my umbrella I think I took it to the library yesterday I'll bet that's where I left my notebook, too." Maria's thoughts illustrate: Answer Selected Answer: spreading activation Correct Answer: spreading activation Question 36 0 out of 3.2 points When teachers increase their wait time from one second to three seconds, other teacher behaviors are likely to change as well. Which one of the following is not a typical outcome of increasing wait time? Answer Selected Answer: Teachers spend less class time giving paper-pencil tests. Correct Answer: Teachers give more complex answers to their own questions. Question 37 3.2 out of 3.2 points Robert does not recognize the police officer who came to the door last month to tell him that his dog had been killed by a car. Robert's lapse of memory can probably best be explained in terms of: Answer Selected Answer: repression Correct Answer: repression Question 38 0 out of 3.2 points Successful retrieval of information from long-term memory depends on three of the following factors. On which one does retrieval not depend? Answer Selected Answer: The part of long-term memory being searched Correct Answer: The duration of working memory Question 39 0 out of 3.2 points Three of the following are examples of mnemonics. Which one is not a mnemonic? Answer Selected Answer: Correct Answer: To learn the letters identifying the spaces on the treble clef (F A C E), Annabelle simply remembers the word face. To learn how to drive a car with a standard transmission, Bart practices the various parts of the task (e.g., steering, shifting, and braking) separately. Question 40 3.2 out of 3.2 points Mnemonics probably facilitate memory in a number of ways. Which one of the following is not a potential advantage of mnemonics? Answer Selected Answer: They expand the capacity of working memory. Correct Answer: They expand the capacity of working memory. Question 1 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is an accurate statement about Atkinson's and Shiffrin's dualstore model of memory? Answer Selected Answer: All information that enters long-term memory must first pass through the sensory register and short-term memory. Correct Answer: All information that enters long-term memory must first pass through the sensory register and short-term memory. Question 2 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements best describes an activation model of memory? Answer Selected Answer: Information is more effectively encoded when it is acted out (for example, through role playing) at the time of storage. Correct Answer: What you are thinking about is activated; other things stored in your memory are in an inactive state. Question 3 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following scenarios reflects the typical duration of working (short-term) memory? Answer Selected Answer: Barney looks up the correct spelling of the word fossil and closes the dictionary. By the time he finds a piece of paper on which to write the word, he has forgotten how to spell it. Correct Answer: Barney looks up the correct spelling of the word fossil and closes the dictionary. By the time he finds a piece of paper on which to write the word, he has forgotten how to spell it. Question 4 3.2 out of 3.2 points When memory theorists talk about control processes, they are talking about: Answer Selected Answer: Cognitive processes that affect storage and retrieval of information Correct Answer: Cognitive processes that affect storage and retrieval of information Question 5 3.2 out of 3.2 points Susan is introduced to Jerry. She immediately smiles and says, "Hello, Jerry." A minute later, she wants to introduce Jerry to her friend Mary, but she cannot remember his name. Based on this information, how far in Susan's memory system did Jerry's name get? Answer Selected Answer: It reached working memory. Correct Answer: It reached working memory. Question 6 3.2 out of 3.2 points Mr. Wagner stands in front of the class explaining the process of creation. Ellen is sitting in the front row, but her mind is on the fight she had with her best friend just before class. Based on this information, how far in Ellen's memory system did Mr. Wagner's lecture get? Answer Selected Answer: It reached the sensory register. Correct Answer: It reached the sensory register. Question 7 3.2 out of 3.2 points When a stray dog wanders into a classroom, all of the students stop their seatwork and watch the teacher try to coax the dog from the room. The students' attentiveness demonstrates the effect of _______ on attention. Answer Selected Answer: novelty Correct Answer: novelty Question 8 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best illustrates automaticity? Answer Selected Answer: Playing a musical piece on the piano easily and effortlessly Correct Answer: Playing a musical piece on the piano easily and effortlessly Question 9 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following most accurately describes the difference between skilled readers and beginning readers in terms of their attention to what they read? Answer Selected Answer: Skilled readers probably attend to fewer letters and words than beginning readers. Correct Answer: Skilled readers probably attend to fewer letters and words than beginning readers. Question 10 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following illustrates a signal in teacher-directed instruction? Answer Selected Answer: Ms. Driver looks sternly at two whispering students who are obviously not paying attention to the video she is showing. Correct Answer: Mr. Christiansen gives students a list of the important concepts he will describe in class that day. Question 11 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following are accurate statements about elaboration. Which one is false? Answer Selected Answer: It invariably increases the accuracy of what is remembered. Correct Answer: It invariably increases the accuracy of what is remembered. Question 12 3.2 out of 3.2 points In an early investigation of memory, Frederic Bartlett asked students to read a story called The War of the Ghosts and then on later occasions asked them to recall the story. Bartlett made a number of observations about how students' recollections of the story were different from the story itself. Which of the following was not one of his observations? Answer Selected Answer: Students retold the story in a way that made little sense. Correct Answer: Students retold the story in a way that made little sense. Question 13 3.2 out of 3.2 points Michael is in a serious motorcycle accident and loses consciousness for several hours. When he wakes up in the hospital emergency room, he doesn't remember being in the accident. In fact, he doesn't even remember the events that led up to the accident. Which one of the following alternatives is the most likely explanation for Michael's memory loss? Answer Selected Answer: New information needs to be processed to consolidate in memory. Correct Answer: New information needs to be processed to consolidate in memory. Question 14 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the most accurate statement about how people perceive the world around them? Answer Selected Answer: People often fill in information that they do not actually sense. Correct Answer: People often fill in information that they do not actually sense. Question 15 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the best example of controlled processing? Answer Selected Register to View Answertoddler learning how to walk Correct Register to View Answertoddler learning how to walk Question 16 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following math teachers are using techniques that should help their students remember information. Which one is using a relatively ineffective technique? Answer Selected Answer: Ms. Davenport asks her students to memorize definitions of eight geometric figures. Correct Answer: Ms. Davenport asks her students to memorize definitions of eight geometric figures. Question 17 3.2 out of 3.2 points Generally speaking, adults learn and remember more easily than children do. The reverse is true, however, when the children: Answer Selected Answer: Initially know more about the topic being studied than the adults do Correct Answer: Initially know more about the topic being studied than the adults do Question 18 3.2 out of 3.2 points In which of these situations is information most likely to be stored effectively in longterm memory? Answer Selected Answer: Corinne realizes that receive follows the "I before E except after C" rule. Correct Answer: Corinne realizes that receive follows the "I before E except after C" rule. Question 19 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following alternatives best characterizes the process of elaborating new information? Answer Selected Answer: Embellishing on new information by using something already known. Correct Answer: Embellishing on new information by using something already known. Question 20 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is a defining feature of the concept island? Answer Selected Answer: Completely surrounded by water Correct Answer: Completely surrounded by water Question 21 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best illustrates a worldview at work? Answer Selected Answer: When Mick falls down and sprains his ankle, Rachel says, "That must be God punishing you for calling me nasty names yesterday." Correct Answer: When Mick falls down and sprains his ankle, Rachel says, "That must be God punishing you for calling me nasty names yesterday." Question 22 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following illustrates an overgeneralization error? The concepts in question are italicized. Answer Selected Answer: Donna thinks that whales and dolphins are kinds of fish, since she knows that fish live in the water. Correct Answer: Donna thinks that whales and dolphins are kinds of fish, since she knows that fish live in the water. Question 23 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the best example of a symbol as psychologists define the term? Answer Selected Answer: The word carpet Correct Answer: The word carpet Question 24 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following strategies should promote the acquisition of useful personal theories about the physical world. Which one is least likely to do so? Answer Selected Answer: Encourage learners to form a strong emotional attachment to their beliefs. Correct Answer: Encourage learners to form a strong emotional attachment to their beliefs. Question 25 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following teaching strategies may foster students' acquisition of a theory about phenomena in the natural world. Which strategy is least likely to be effective in fostering students' theory development? Answer Selected Answer: Ask students to memorize a one-paragraph summary of how mitosis occurs. Correct Answer: Ask students to memorize a one-paragraph summary of how mitosis occurs. Question 26 3.2 out of 3.2 points Maureen vehemently denies that trees are plants. Her understanding of what a plant is reflects which of the following errors? Answer Selected Answer: undergeneralization Correct Answer: undergeneralization Question 27 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following illustrates conceptual change? Answer Selected Answer: Charlotte used to think that fire was an actual substance, but now she knows that it's a chemical change. Correct Answer: Charlotte used to think that fire was an actual substance, but now she knows that it's a chemical change. Question 28 3.2 out of 3.2 points In which of the following situations is a child most likely to be learning a concept through a buildup of associations? Answer Selected Answer: Because all of his teddy bears are brown, 2-year-old Harry thinks that all bears are brown. Correct Answer: Because all of his teddy bears are brown, 2-year-old Harry thinks that all bears are brown. Question 29 3.2 out of 3.2 points From the textbook's perspective, what is the key advantage of developing schemas and scripts? Answer Selected Answer: They reduce the amount of information we need to acquire in order to make sense of a situation. Correct Answer: They reduce the amount of information we need to acquire in order to make sense of a situation. Question 30 3.2 out of 3.2 points Lenesa sees a picture of a beach and then later tries to draw the picture from memory. She draws shells on the beach even though the beach in the picture had no shells. Using cognitive psychologists' concept of schema, how could we explain Lenesa's error? Answer Selected Answer: Lenesa's schema for a typical beach includes shells. Correct Answer: Lenesa's schema for a typical beach includes shells. Question 31 3.2 out of 3.2 points Ramon forms his concept of house after seeing numerous houses in his small, middleclass town in Illinois. He is then shown pictures of an igloo in northern Canada, a mansion in Illinois, a single-story house in Mississippi, and a high-rise apartment building in New York City. Based on a prototype theory of concepts, which one is he most likely to identify as being a house? Answer Selected Answer: The single-story house Correct Answer: The single-story house Question 32 3.2 out of 3.2 points Nora was thinking about something else the day her teacher explained the difference between the words between and among, so she has trouble using these two prepositions correctly. Nora's problem "remembering" the difference between the words can probably best be explained as: Answer Selected Answer: failure to store Correct Answer: failure to store Question 33 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is a higher-level question? Answer Selected Answer: "Can you use what we learned about snakes and what we know about climate in North America to guess where this snake might live?" Correct Answer: "Can you use what we learned about snakes and what we know about climate in North America to guess where this snake might live?" Question 34 0 out of 3.2 points Four students are storing this fact: St. Augustine, Florida was settled in 1565. Based on the following information, which student is probably going to have the greatest difficulty retrieving the information from long-term memory a few days later? Answer Selected Answer: Last year Blondie visited St. Augustine with her grandparents and toured the old fortress there. Correct Answer: Alexander repeats the fact to himself five times. Question 35 3.2 out of 3.2 points Lucy sees a boy who looks very familiar to her, but she can't remember who he is. Then the boy says something with a thick French accent, and Lucy suddenly realizes that he is the foreign exchange student from France. In this situation, the boy's French accent helps Lucy remember by: Answer Selected Answer: Providing a retrieval cue Correct Answer: Providing a retrieval cue Question 36 3.2 out of 3.2 points To remind her six-year-old son Steven to bring home his umbrella from school, a mother pins a piece of paper with a picture of an umbrella to Steven's jacket collar. Steven's mother is helping him remember the umbrella through the use of: Answer Selected Answer: an external retrieval cue Correct Answer: an external retrieval cue Question 37 3.2 out of 3.2 points Kevin and Ron are taking the same physics course but with different teachers. Kevin's teacher gives a short quiz over class material every Friday. Ron's teacher gives a lengthy test the first Monday of every month. Which boy is likely to learn physics more effectively, and why? Answer Selected Answer: Kevin, because he must review what he has learned more often Correct Answer: Kevin, because he must review what he has learned more often Question 38 3.2 out of 3.2 points Successful retrieval of information from long-term memory depends on three of the following factors. On which one does retrieval not depend? Answer Selected Answer: The duration of working memory Correct Answer: The duration of working memory Question 39 3.2 out of 3.2 points To remember the four states that come together at a single point (Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah), Marcia remembers "CANU" (pronounced like "canoe"). Marcia's technique illustrates the use of: Answer Selected Register to View Answersuperimposed meaningful structure Correct Register to View Answersuperimposed meaningful structure Question 40 3.2 out of 3.2 points Melissa has an ingenious method for remembering the member countries of the NATO alliance. Using words that rhyme with the numbers 1, 2, 3, and so on, she forms a visual image of each country interacting with a word that rhymes with a number. For example, she pictures a huge bun (which rhymes with "1") sitting on top of Big Ben (Great Britain), a shoe (a rhyme for "2") with a tiny Canadian Mountie (Canada) perched on its toe, a tree (a rhyme for "3") with numerous Statues of Liberty (United States) growing from its branches, and so on. Melissa's technique illustrates the use of: Answer Selected Answer: the pegword method Correct Answer: the pegword method Question 1 3.2 out of 3.2 points The best perspective regarding various theories of learning is that: Answer Selected Answer: Different theories may be applicable in different situations. Correct Answer: Different theories may be applicable in different situations. Question 2 3.2 out of 3.2 points A principle of learning can best be characterized as: Answer Selected Register to View Answerstatement that describes how a particular factor affects learning Correct Register to View Answerstatement that describes how a particular factor affects learning Question 3 3.2 out of 3.2 points Reynelda has trouble tracing a complex shape with a pencil when she is in kindergarten, but she can do it quite well by the time she is in second grade. Is this an instance oflearning? Answer Selected Answer: Maybe, although the change may simply be due to physiological maturation. Correct Answer: Maybe, although the change may simply be due to physiological maturation. Question 4 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following characterize virtually all instances of human learning. Which one is not necessarily an aspect of human learning? Answer Selected Answer: Conscious thought is involved. Correct Answer: Conscious thought is involved. Question 5 0 out of 3.2 points Human beings undoubtedly learn more during the course of a lifetime than any other species on earth. The major result of this capacity to learn is that: Answer Selected Answer: Humans are the only species whose behavior cannot be analyzed completely in terms of stimuli and responses. Correct Answer: Humans can benefit from their experiences. Question 6 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best exemplifies experience-expectant plasticity? Answer Selected Answer: Mastering one's native language Correct Answer: Mastering one's native language Question 7 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following research findings is most consistent with the concept of core knowledge as described in the textbook? Answer Selected Answer: Very young infants appear to have more knowledge of the physical world than they could have gotten from their own, limited experiences with objects. Correct Answer: Very young infants appear to have more knowledge of the physical world than they could have gotten from their own, limited experiences with objects. Question 8 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the best example of the central nervous system (rather than peripheral nervous system) at work? Answer Selected Answer: Some cells in the nose respond to certain kinds of chemicals. Correct Answer: Parts of the hindbrain are involved in regulating heart rate. Question 9 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements most accurately describes a neuron's threshold of excitation? Answer Selected Register to View Answerneuron fires only when its electrical charge reaches a particular level. Correct Register to View Answerneuron fires only when its electrical charge reaches a particular level. Question 10 3.2 out of 3.2 points After a serious motorcycle accident, Tom has trouble making sense of what other people say to him. Without knowing anything else about Tom's injury, you might reasonably conclude that the accident affected his: Answer Selected Answer: frontal lobes Correct Answer: frontal lobes Question 11 3.2 out of 3.2 points During the elementary and secondary school years, much of the brain's development occurs in the region of the brain that is largely responsible for Answer Selected Answer: thinking and reasoning Correct Answer: thinking and reasoning Question 12 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best describes how neurons transmit messages to one another? Answer Selected Answer: By fusing the axon of one with a dendrite of the other Correct Answer: By sending chemical substances across a tiny gap between them Question 13 3.2 out of 3.2 points A student who is afraid of mathematics is first given some problems that bear little resemblance to mathematics, then is given a sequence of problems that become increasingly more mathematical in content. The progression of problems is gradual enough that the fear response does not occur, and eventually the student loses his fear of mathematics. Which method for breaking bad habits is best illustrated in this situation? Answer Selected Answer: Threshold method Correct Answer: Threshold method Question 14 3.2 out of 3.2 points At the dentist's office, Teresa has a painful experience that leaves her tense and fearful. The next time her mother brings her to the dentist's office, Teresa begins to get tense and anxious. In this situation, the dentist and dentist's office are _____; Teresa's fear of pain is a(n) _____. Answer Selected Answer: conditioned stimuli; unconditioned response Correct Answer: conditioned stimuli; unconditioned response Question 15 3.2 out of 3.2 points Classical conditioning typically occurs when: Answer Selected Answer: Two stimuli are presented at about the same time. Correct Answer: Two stimuli are presented at about the same time. Question 16 3.2 out of 3.2 points A mother in Montana wants to teach her four-year-old son to stay away from the bears that occasionally wander into the backyard; in other words, she wants him to be afraid of bears. On the other hand, she does not want her son to fear such other large animals as cows and horses. Below are four possible approaches she might take. Which one is based on Pavlov's view of how stimulus discrimination develops? Answer Selected Answer: She turns on a loud, startling siren every time a bear approaches; she also makes sure the child has numerous contacts with other animals in quieter contexts. Correct Answer: She turns on a loud, startling siren every time a bear approaches; she also makes sure the child has numerous contacts with other animals in quieter contexts. Question 17 3.2 out of 3.2 points A smoker is asked to smoke one cigarette after another until she is unable to continue any longer. Which method for breaking bad habits is best illustrated in this situation? Answer Selected Answer: Exhaustion method Correct Answer: Exhaustion method Question 18 3.2 out of 3.2 points On several occasions Edward is severely beaten by his alcoholic father. Before long, Edward begins to shake whenever his father approaches. In this situation, Edward's shaking at the sight of his father is a(n) _____; the severe beating he has received is a(n) _____. Answer Selected Answer: conditioned response; unconditional stimulus Correct Answer: conditioned response; unconditional stimulus Question 19 0 out of 3.2 points If students associate failure with punishment, and then associate mathematics with failure, they may begin to fear mathematics through a process of: Answer Selected Answer: generalization Correct Answer: higher-order conditioning Question 20 3.2 out of 3.2 points Peter does his homework immediately after he gets home from school so he won't have to worry about it anymore. The consequence of Peter's doing his homework can best be categorized as: Answer Selected Answer: Negative reinforcement Correct Answer: Negative reinforcement Question 21 3.2 out of 3.2 points At the beginning of the school year, Mr. Webber is concerned that Frances rarely does her independent seatwork. He begins praising Frances for each seatwork assignment she completes, and by January she is completing her assignments regularly. To shape the behavior to continue in the years to come, what would behaviorists tell Mr. Webber to do now? Answer Selected Answer: Praise her for only some of her completed assignments. Correct Answer: Praise her for only some of her completed assignments. Question 22 3.2 out of 3.2 points George has learned that if he pesters his father about using the family Cadillac enough times, his father will eventually break down and give George the keys to the Cadillac. George's "pestering" behavior is apparently being reinforced on a ___________ schedule. Answer Selected Answer: variable ratio Correct Answer: variable ratio Question 23 3.2 out of 3.2 points Mark's previous girlfriend always told him how handsome he looked whenever he wore his green sweater. Tonight Mark is going out with a new girlfriend and puts on the same green sweater. In behaviorist terminology, Mark is: Answer Selected Answer: showing generalization Correct Answer: showing generalization Question 24 3.2 out of 3.2 points Bill's behaviors in Ms. Kennedy's class are really distracting to other students. For example, he whispers to the boy beside him when Ms. Kennedy is giving directions on how to do any assignment. He flings paper clips at a girl across the room. He makes strange grunting noises that a few classmates find amusing. Ms. Kennedy glares at him or admonishes him whenever he behaves in a distracting way, yet his inappropriate behaviors are increasing rather than decreasing. Which one of the following interpretations of this situation best explains why Bill's behaviors are increasing? Answer Selected Register to View Answerfew classmates are positively reinforcing him for the distracting behaviors. Correct Register to View Answerfew classmates are positively reinforcing him for the distracting behaviors. Question 25 3.2 out of 3.2 points Warren has earned himself a reputation for being the class clown. His teacher, Ms. Washington, used to laugh at Warren's funny remarks, but is now trying to discourage Warren's disruptive behavior by ignoring his jokes. In behaviorist terminology, Ms. Washington is now trying to modify Warren's joke-telling behavior through: Answer Selected Answer: extinction Correct Answer: extinction Question 26 3.2 out of 3.2 points In Mr. Marshall's classroom, students who acquire 20 points in one day can have a half hour of free time at the end of the day. Mr. Marshall awards points to his students for good behavior and deducts points if they misbehave. The deduction of points for misbehavior is known as: Answer Selected Answer: response cost Correct Answer: response cost Question 27 3.2 out of 3.2 points Ms. Longman is using programmed instruction in teaching her geography class. Which one of the following are students least likely to encounter in their instruction? Answer Selected Answer: One-on-one interactions with their teacher Correct Answer: One-on-one interactions with their teacher Question 28 0 out of 3.2 points A mastery learning approach would probably be most suitable for teaching: Answer Selected Answer: advanced techniques of photography Correct Answer: introductory Russian Question 29 3.2 out of 3.2 points Research indicates that applied behavior analysis: Answer Selected Answer: Is effective in improving both social and academic skills Correct Answer: Is effective in improving both social and academic skills Question 30 3.2 out of 3.2 points For which of the following students would behaviorist approaches to instruction be least helpful? Answer Selected Answer: Dana has always been an excellent student. Correct Answer: Dana has always been an excellent student. Question 31 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following are almost always found in applied behavior analysis (ABA). Which one is not necessarily characteristic of ABA? Answer Selected Answer: Exploring underlying causes of behavior Correct Answer: Exploring underlying causes of behavior Question 32 3.2 out of 3.2 points If you were to apply the concept of terminal behavior in teaching a lesson, which one of these things would you do? Answer Selected Answer: Identify the things students should be able to do at the end of the lesson. Correct Answer: Identify the things students should be able to do at the end of the lesson. Question 33 3.2 out of 3.2 points In Marcia's first tennis lesson, her instructor Keith is trying to teach her the correct way to swing a tennis racket. Keith praises Marcia every time she hits the tennis ball over the net and onto the opponent's side of the court using the correct body position. Marcia shows little improvement during the one-hour lesson. From a behaviorist perspective, what mistake is Keith probably making in teaching Marcia to play tennis? Answer Selected Answer: He should shape the behavior rather than expect immediate mastery. Correct Answer: He should shape the behavior rather than expect immediate mastery. Question 34 3.2 out of 3.2 points Mr. Limpitlaw wants to increase his female students' self-efficacy for mastering simple car maintenance procedures. He can best do this by: Answer Selected Answer: Having the students watch other girls successfully change the oil and the air filter Correct Answer: Having the students watch other girls successfully change the oil and the air filter Question 35 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements best illustrates the concept of reciprocal causation? Answer Selected Answer: The environment alters behavior, but behavior alters the environment as well. Correct Answer: The environment alters behavior, but behavior alters the environment as well. Question 36 3.2 out of 3.2 points Several students in Mr. Samber's class have trouble keeping themselves on task during independent seatwork assignments. Mr. Samber gives each of these students a piece of paper on which they are to make a check mark every time they find themselves doing something other than their assignment during seatwork time. Mr. Samber is using which one of the following techniques for changing behavior? Answer Selected Answer: Self-monitoring Correct Answer: Self-monitoring Question 37 3.2 out of 3.2 points Jim has a high sense of self-efficacy regarding his ability to work with his hands. Based on this information, we would predict three of the following from social cognitive theory. Which one would we not necessarily predict? Answer Selected Answer: Jim will be a bit careless when he works with his hands, so he will frequently make silly little mistakes. Correct Answer: Jim will be a bit careless when he works with his hands, so he will frequently make silly little mistakes. Question 38 3.2 out of 3.2 points Pamela is an average-ability high school student who is having difficulty in her chemistry class. She is beginning to think she should cheat on the next chemistry exam. Four of Pamela's classmates give her advice. Judging from Bandura's findings on how people adopt standards for their own behavior, to which classmate is Pamela most likely to listen? Answer Selected Answer: Amy, a girl of similar ability, tells her that a little cheating now and then is perfectly acceptable. Correct Answer: Amy, a girl of similar ability, tells her that a little cheating now and then is perfectly acceptable. Question 39 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the best example of a symbolic model? Answer Selected Register to View Answerdetective on a television show Correct Register to View Answerdetective on a television show Question 40 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the clearest example of a child working for an incentive? Answer Selected Answer: Doris is studying for a history test with the hope that she'll get an A on it. Correct Answer: Doris is studying for a history test with the hope that she'll get an A on it. Question 1 3.2 out of 3.2 points Sarah needs to learn how to spell 40 words for a spelling test tomorrow. Sarah wants to perform as well as she possibly can on the test. Based on findings from verbal learning research, which one of the following would be the best advice to give Sarah? Answer Selected Answer: "Spell the words until you know them all perfectly, and then continue to practice spelling them several more times." Correct Answer: "Spell the words until you know them all perfectly, and then continue to practice spelling them several more times." Question 2 3.2 out of 3.2 points Frank sees an egg-shaped ball that he later "remembers" as being perfectly round. Frank's mistaken recollection is an example of the Gestalt principle of: Answer Selected Answer: Prgnanz Correct Answer: Prgnanz Question 3 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following are assumptions that underlie contemporary cognitive theories of learning. Which one is not such an assumption? Answer Selected Answer: Researchers can study mental events only by abandoning objectivity. Correct Answer: Researchers can study mental events only by abandoning objectivity. Question 4 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following teaching strategies best reflects the perspective of cognitive psychology? Answer Selected Answer: Mr. Darwin has students recall personal experiences related to the concepts they are studying. Correct Answer: Mr. Darwin has students recall personal experiences related to the concepts they are studying. Question 5 3.2 out of 3.2 points Over the course of history, science has continued to evolve as new data emerge and scientists offer new ideas to explain those data. This continuing process of change in scientific thinking over the years best reflects the idea of: Answer Selected Answer: social constructivism Correct Answer: social constructivism Question 6 3.2 out of 3.2 points Based on findings from verbal learning research, which list of 3-letter syllables should be easiest to learn? Answer Selected Answer: CAR, DOG, BUN Correct Answer: CAR, DOG, BUN Question 7 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following scenarios best reflects the basic idea of individual constructivism? Answer Selected Register to View Answerstudent tries to make sense of a poorly written and confusing magazine article. Correct Register to View Answerstudent tries to make sense of a poorly written and confusing magazine article. Question 8 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best illustrates Tolman's notion of a cognitive map? Answer Selected Answer: After walking around campus for a few days, you learn where buildings are in relation to one another. Correct Answer: After walking around campus for a few days, you learn where buildings are in relation to one another. Question 9 3.2 out of 3.2 points Piaget has described four stages of cognitive development. Which one of the following is an accurate statement about Piaget's view of these stages? Answer Selected Answer: Each stage involves forms of thought qualitatively different from those of other stages. Correct Answer: Each stage involves forms of thought qualitatively different from those of other stages. Question 10 3.2 out of 3.2 points Piaget's sensorimotor stage is characterized by: Answer Selected Answer: Schemes based primarily on perceptions and behaviors Correct Answer: Schemes based primarily on perceptions and behaviors Question 11 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following teachers is definitely keeping in mind Piaget's idea that assimilation and accommodation are both necessary for learning and cognitive development to occur? Answer Selected Answer: Mr. Baretta shows students how a new topic is similar to the things they already know, but also different in certain ways. Correct Answer: Mr. Baretta shows students how a new topic is similar to the things they already know, but also different in certain ways. Question 12 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best illustrates Piaget's concept of accommodation? Answer Selected Answer: Donna revises her understanding of what clouds are like when she studies them in science. Correct Answer: Donna revises her understanding of what clouds are like when she studies them in science. Question 13 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following examples best illustrates Piaget's concept of object permanence? Answer Selected Answer: Two-year-old Jasmine looks for a favorite toy her father has just hidden in a box. Correct Answer: Two-year-old Jasmine looks for a favorite toy her father has just hidden in a box. Question 14 3.2 out of 3.2 points Reasoning about hypothetical situations begins Answer Selected Answer: formal operational Correct Answer: formal operational Question 15 3.2 out of 3.2 points Choose the statement below that most accurately reflects recent research findings concerning Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Answer Selected Answer: The order in which various logical thinking capabilities emerge is consistent with the sequence that Piaget proposed. Correct Answer: The order in which various logical thinking capabilities emerge is consistent with the sequence that Piaget proposed. Question 16 3.2 out of 3.2 points In Piaget's theory, a scheme can best be described as: Answer Selected Answer: An organized group of similar thoughts or actions Correct Answer: An organized group of similar thoughts or actions Question 17 3.2 out of 3.2 points The concept of object permanence is developed Answer Selected Answer: sensorimotor Correct Answer: sensorimotor Question 18 3.2 out of 3.2 points If we look at cognitive development from Piaget's perspective, we would expect a child in the concrete operations stage to have the greatest difficulty with which one of the following questions? Answer Selected Answer: An apple pie is cut into 4 pieces. A blueberry pie of the same size is cut into 12 pieces. How many pieces of blueberry pie do you need to have the same amount as 3 pieces of the apple pie? Correct Answer: An apple pie is cut into 4 pieces. A blueberry pie of the same size is cut into 12 pieces. How many pieces of blueberry pie do you need to have the same amount as 3 pieces of the apple pie? Question 19 3.2 out of 3.2 points Piaget spoke of egocentrism as a characteristic of preoperational thought. Three of the following are examples of egocentrism as Piaget defined it. Which one is not? Answer Selected Answer: Justin is constantly grabbing objects and pulling them toward himself. Correct Answer: Justin is constantly grabbing objects and pulling them toward himself. Question 20 0 out of 3.2 points As a first-grade teacher reads a book about penguins in Antarctica, she points to Antarctica on a globe. Six-year-old John seems really puzzled. "How come they don't fall off the earth?" he asks. From Piaget's perspective, John can best be described as: Answer Selected Answer: Having difficulty with class inclusion Correct Answer: Experiencing disequilibrium Question 21 3.2 out of 3.2 points Jean Piaget's ideas were largely ignored by American psychologists until the 1960s. Three of the following are probable reasons why this was so. Which one is not a likely reason? Answer Selected Answer: Piaget's subjects were children rather than nonhuman species. Correct Answer: Piaget's subjects were children rather than nonhuman species. Question 22 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following examples best illustrates symbolic thought as Piaget described it? Answer Selected Answer: Laura asks herself, "Hmm, could I use my straw for a drum stick?" Correct Answer: Laura asks herself, "Hmm, could I use my straw for a drum stick?" Question 23 3.2 out of 3.2 points According to Piaget, contact with the environment during which information is drawn from objects is Answer Selected Answer: physical abstraction Correct Answer: physical abstraction Question 24 3.2 out of 3.2 points From Piaget's perspective, why might it be wise to postpone the teaching of complex fractions until middle school or high school? Answer Selected Answer: Younger students haven't attained the proportional reasoning of formal operations. Correct Answer: Younger students haven't attained the proportional reasoning of formal operations. Question 25 3.2 out of 3.2 points Ms. Villanueva has her students engage in a variety of activities in her middle school geography class. Three of the activities described below are authentic activities. Which one is not an authentic activity? Answer Selected Answer: Describing the difference between latitude and longitude Correct Answer: Describing the difference between latitude and longitude Question 26 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following strategies is most likely to help students learn from a Vygotsky discovery learning activity? Answer Selected Answer: Providing some structure to guide students' explorations Correct Answer: Providing some structure to guide students' explorations Question 27 3.2 out of 3.2 points Students in a fourth-grade reading group are reading a passage about snakes. Their teacher asks, "Who can think of a good title that summarizes what this passage is about?" After hearing several good suggestions, the teacher says, "The author says that snakes are helpful to farmers. What evidence does she give to support her statement?" If we consider Vygotsky's concept of internalization, we might predict that such a discussion will: Answer Selected Answer: Help students develop their own effective reading comprehension strategies (e.g., summarizing, looking for supporting statements) by working together. Correct Answer: Help students develop their own effective reading comprehension strategies (e.g., summarizing, looking for supporting statements) by working together. Question 28 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the best example of a mediated learning experience? Answer Selected Answer: As Ms. Robinson takes a group of children hiking, she gathers leaves from maple, oak, and elm trees and points out the ways in which the leaves from the trees are distinctly different. Correct Answer: As Ms. Robinson takes a group of children hiking, she gathers leaves from maple, oak, and elm trees and points out the ways in which the leaves from the trees are distinctly different. Question 29 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which of the following pairs of concepts reflects the general idea that challenge is important for cognitive development? Answer Selected Answer: disequilibrium and ZPD Correct Answer: disequilibrium and ZPD Question 30 0 out of 3.2 points Ms. Killian and her fourth graders have been growing sunflowers under various conditions-they have grown sunflowers in different kinds of soil, with different amounts of water, and in varying degrees of sunlight. Below are four statements that Ms. Killian makes related to the sunflowers. Which one is most consistent with the idea of a cognitive apprenticeship? Answer Selected Answer: "Elaine, please give each plant the same amount of water today that you gave it yesterday. Also, be sure that you keep each plant in the same location, so that the amount of sunlight it gets stays the same." Correct Answer: "This sunflower is taller than that sunflower over there. Let's consider what the growing conditions for the two flowers have been and try to figure out what might have led to the difference we see." Question 31 3.2 out of 3.2 points In Vygotsky's theory, three of the following would be considered lower mental functions. Which one would be considered a higher mental function? Answer Selected Answer: Adding 3 and 3 to get 6 Correct Answer: Adding 3 and 3 to get 6 Question 32 0 out of 3.2 points Several parents who are making costumes for an elementary school play ask the young cast members to assist them with such tasks as cutting fabric, pinning pieces together, and sewing simple hems. Using the language of Vygotskian theorists, we can say that the parents are: Answer Selected Answer: Presenting tasks that exceed the students' zone of proximal development Correct Answer: Engaging the students in guided participation Question 33 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following are examples of authentic activities. Which one is least authentic? Answer Selected Answer: Taking an essay test in a history class Correct Answer: Taking an essay test in a history class Question 34 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements best describes Vygotsky's concept of internalization? Answer Selected Answer: Through their social interactions with other people, children develop ways of mentally approaching and thinking about a task. Correct Answer: Through their social interactions with other people, children develop ways of mentally approaching and thinking about a task. Question 35 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the best example of an authentic activity? Answer Selected Answer: Discussing reasons why World War II occurred Correct Answer: Designing a bridge using principles of physics Question 36 3.2 out of 3.2 points Mary Adams takes care of several toddlers and preschoolers while their parents work during the day. One warm spring day, she has the children in a fenced-in area behind her home. A large dog comes running up to the fence. As the dog approaches, 2-year-old Todd looks at Mary. When he sees that she appears frightened, he immediately starts to cry. What phenomenon is Todd displaying in this situation? Answer Selected Answer: social referencing Correct Answer: social referencing Question 37 3.2 out of 3.2 points Nine-year-old Ricky has recently learned how to solve long division problems, and he still struggles with especially difficult problems. At his mother's request, he helps his eight-yearold sister Lucy with the simple long division problems she must do for her math homework. From the perspective of Vygotsky's theory, which one of the following is most likely to result? Answer Selected Answer: Ricky's own long division skills will improve because he will internalize the instructions he received from his teacher and now gives to Lucy. Correct Answer: Ricky's own long division skills will improve because he will internalize the instructions he received from his teacher and now gives to Lucy. Question 38 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following teachers are using scaffolding to help their students learn. Which one is not necessarily providing scaffolding? Answer Selected Answer: Mr. Donaldson takes his students on a field trip to the art museum. Correct Answer: Mr. Donaldson takes his students on a field trip to the art museum. Question 39 0 out of 3.2 points From Vygotsky's perspective, what important role does inner speech play? Answer Selected Answer: By using words mentally as well as orally, children develop more abstract representations of the world. Correct Answer: By giving themselves directions that have been given to them by others about what to do next, children guide themselves through complex tasks. Question 40 3.2 out of 3.2 points From a Vygotskian perspective, scaffolding serves what purpose in instruction? Answer Selected Answer: It supports children as they perform intermediate steps of difficult tasks. Correct Answer: It supports children as they perform intermediate steps of difficult tasks. Question 1 3.2 out of 3.2 points When psychologists refer to a dual-store model of memory, they are referring to a model in which: Answer Correct Register to View Answerdistinction is made between working and long-term memory Question 2 3.2 out of 3.2 points When a stray dog wanders into a classroom, all of the students stop their seatwork and watch the teacher try to coax the dog from the room. The students' attentiveness demonstrates the effect of _______ on attention. Answer Correct Answer: novelty Question 3 3.2 out of 3.2 points Mr. Wagner stands in front of the class explaining the process of creation. Ellen is sitting in the front row, but her mind is on the fight she had with her best friend just before class. Based on this information, how far in Ellen's memory system did Mr. Wagner's lecture get? Answer Correct Answer: It reached the sensory register. Question 4 0 out of 3.2 points To prepare for his test on Tuesday morning, Harvey studied on Monday night. He remembered the information long enough to do well on the test on Tuesday but could not remember it for a surprise quiz a week later. Based on this information, how far in Harvey's memory system did the information get? Answer Correct Answer: It reached long-term memory. Question 5 3.2 out of 3.2 points Susan is introduced to Jerry. She immediately smiles and says, "Hello, Jerry." A minute later, she wants to introduce Jerry to her friend Mary, but she cannot remember his name. Based on this information, how far in Susan's memory system did Jerry's name get? Answer Correct Answer: It reached working memory. Question 6 0 out of 3.2 points Considering current views regarding the capacity of working memory, which one of the following sets of information could be held entirely in working memory? Answer Correct Register to View Answerlist of 6 miscellaneous household objects Question 7 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements best characterizes the duration of the sensory register? Answer Correct Answer: Visual information lasts less than a second, with auditory information lasting slightly longer. Question 8 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the most accurate statement about how people perceive the world around them? Answer Correct Answer: People often fill in information that they do not actually sense. Question 9 3.2 out of 3.2 points Tyler learns that Christopher Columbus's first voyage across the Atlantic was financed by Queen Isabella of Spain. He thinks to himself, "She probably thought she would make a profit on her investment." When he stops to consider the queen's motives, Tyler is demonstrating which one of the following processes? Answer Correct Answer: elaboration Question 10 3.2 out of 3.2 points Morris is taking an introductory Russian course. In the early weeks of the course, he studies new Russian vocabulary words 10 times each, all in the same evening. Later on, he discovers that he can remember Russian words better over the long run if he studies them twice in an evening for five evenings in a row. Morris has discovered: Answer Correct Answer: the spacing effect Question 11 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following most accurately describes the difference between skilled readers and beginning readers in terms of their attention to what they read? Answer Correct Answer: Skilled readers probably attend to fewer letters and words than beginning readers. Question 12 0 out of 3.2 points Of the following four teachers, which one is probably presenting an ambiguous stimulus to students? Answer Correct Answer: Mr. Benedict stares at a student without smiling. Question 13 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following alternatives best characterizes the process of elaborating new information? Answer Correct Answer: Embellishing on new information by using something already known. Question 14 3.2 out of 3.2 points Only one of the following is a true statement about long-term memory storage. Which one? Answer Correct Answer: How effectively information is stored influences how easily it can be retrieved later on. Question 15 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best illustrates automaticity? Answer Correct Answer: Playing a musical piece on the piano easily and effortlessly Question 16 3.2 out of 3.2 points A physics teacher asks her students to draw a picture to illustrate the forces at work when someone throws a ball into the air. This strategy should do two things to help students remember the forces involved. In particular, it should encourage students to engage in both: Answer Correct Answer: enactment and visual imagery Question 17 3.2 out of 3.2 points A student reads the statement, "To be or not to be, that is the quastion," and fails to notice the typographical error in the word question. This proofreading error can best be explained by considering the role of _________ in long-term memory storage. Answer Correct Answer: expectations Question 18 3.2 out of 3.2 points Mr. Gaydos wants to teach a group of people how to perform the Heimlich maneuver. Three of the following strategies should help his students learn the maneuver more effectively. Given what we know about teaching procedural knowledge, which strategy is least likely to be effective in helping students learn the procedure correctly? Answer Correct Answer: Mr. Gaydos describes Dr. Heimlich's medical background and his motivation for developing the procedure. Question 19 0 out of 3.2 points Many cognitive psychologists believe that learning and understanding are often constructive in nature. Three of the following scenarios illustrate such construction. Which scenario does not necessarily involve construction in learning? Answer Correct Answer: Mr. McFarland asks his third graders to practice their multiplication tables every day. After a month of such practice, Misty can retrieve all the basic multiplication facts quickly and easily. Question 20 3.2 out of 3.2 points Sonya is trying to define the concept of illness. She says, "Illness means that something is wrong with your body. Usually you don't feel well. Sometimes you have a fever." Because she is thinking about the various probabilities of different symptoms and examples of illness, her reasoning best illustrates which one of the following views of concept learning? Answer Correct Answer: Feature lists Question 21 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following most accurately describes a production? Answer Correct Answer: Knowing how to respond to a set of directions Question 22 3.2 out of 3.2 points From a propositional network perspective of long-term memory, meaningful learning is best described as a process of: Answer Correct Answer: Connecting one or more new propositions to the network Question 23 3.2 out of 3.2 points Gretchen thinks about Christopher Columbus, which reminds her of Spain, which in turn reminds her that she needs to do her homework for her Spanish class. Which one of the following statements best explains Gretchen's train of thought? Answer Correct Answer: Long-term memory is organized as a network. Question 24 3.2 out of 3.2 points Theorists conceptualize propositions as abstract entities but usually describe them in terms of words. This sentence: Susan gives her brother a big kiss. Reflects several propositions that are likely to be stored in long-term memory. Three of the statements below reflect propositions contained within the sentence. Which statement does not reflect a proposition contained within the sentence? Answer Correct Answer: Susan likes the brother. Question 25 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following illustrates an overgeneralization error? The concepts in question are italicized. Answer Correct Answer: Donna thinks that whales and dolphins are kinds of fish, since she knows that fish live in the water. Question 26 3.2 out of 3.2 points Lenesa sees a picture of a beach and then later tries to draw the picture from memory. She draws shells on the beach even though the beach in the picture had no shells. Using cognitive psychologists' concept of schema, how could we explain Lenesa's error? Answer Correct Answer: Lenesa's schema for a typical beach includes shells. Question 27 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements best characterizes the development of expertise? Answer Correct Answer: The development of expertise is characterized by the acquisition and practice of more and better integrated skills and knowledge about a topic. Question 28 3.2 out of 3.2 points Four boys read this line from a story: "The two men entered the restaurant and ordered hamburgers." Which one of the boys is clearly using a script while reading the story? Answer Correct Answer: Alex assumes that the men probably looked at a menu before ordering. Question 29 3.2 out of 3.2 points Luana is taking her first course in psychology. With regard to her knowledge of psychology, Luana is probably in Alexander's ______ stage in the development of expertise. Answer Correct Answer: acclimation Question 30 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following behaviors is most consistent with the idea that long-term memory is organized as a hierarchy, with contiguous steps of the hierarchy more closely associated? Answer Correct Answer: Aaron answers the question, "Is a robin a bird?" faster than he answers the question, "Is a robin an animal?" Question 31 0 out of 3.2 points Ms. Lounge is teaching her son Joe the concept of cow by showing him pictures of both cows and bears. Joe thinks to himself, "Maybe all cows have horns; let me look at a few more pictures and check." Joe's reasoning best illustrates which one of the following views of concept learning? Answer Correct Answer: Hypothesis testing Question 32 3.2 out of 3.2 points Peter is quite proud of the poem he's just written. "Usually I spend a lot of time writing a poem," he says, "but this one just popped into my head from out of the blue." What Peter doesn't realize is that the poem is very similar to one he read in a collection of poems by Carl Sandberg a year or so ago-so similar, in fact, that Peter might be accused of plagiarizing Sandberg's work. Peter's error can best be explained as a problem of Answer Correct Answer: source monitoring Question 33 3.2 out of 3.2 points Trisha can remember the five Great Lakes (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior) by remembering "HOMES," because one of the Great Lakes begins with each of the five letters. What kind of retrieval cue is HOMES providing for Trisha? Answer Correct Answer: frame Question 34 3.2 out of 3.2 points If we consider research on flashbulb memories, then we realize that: Answer Correct Answer: Even especially vivid memories are not always accurate. Question 35 3.2 out of 3.2 points When Gianna returns to college after a summer touring France, she tells her roommate about her many experiences. She does not always remember them accurately, however, so she fills in the gaps in her memory with logical details about how things "must" have happened. Several weeks later, she is telling another friend about her trip. Gianna will probably: Answer Correct Answer: Remember her experiences in France as occurring in essentially the way that she previously described them to her roommate Question 36 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements is consistent with recommendations for promoting retrieval? Answer Correct Answer: Teach students how to create and use their own retrieval cues. Question 37 3.2 out of 3.2 points Robert does not recognize the police officer who came to the door last month to tell him that his dog had been killed by a car. Robert's lapse of memory can probably best be explained in terms of: Answer Correct Answer: repression Question 38 3.2 out of 3.2 points Jenny is taking a quiz which asks for the chemical symbols of 20 elements. She remembers 19 of them, but cannot remember the symbol for mercury. As she walks home from school, she suddenly remembers that the symbol for mercury is Hg. Jenny's memory problem during the quiz can best be explained in terms of: Answer Correct Answer: failure to retrieve Question 39 3.2 out of 3.2 points To remember the four states that come together at a single point (Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah), Marcia remembers "CANU" (pronounced like "canoe"). Marcia's technique illustrates the use of: Answer Correct Register to View Answersuperimposed meaningful structure Question 40 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following are examples of mnemonics. Which one is not a mnemonic? Answer Correct Answer: To learn how to drive a car with a standard transmission, Bart practices the various parts of the task (e.g., steering, shifting, and braking) separately. Theories are advantageous in several ways. Three of the following describe advantages of learning theories. Which one does not? Answer Selected Answer: Theories promote objective, unbiased reporting of research findings. Correct Answer: Theories promote objective, unbiased reporting of research findings. Question 2 0 out of 3.2 points Reynelda has trouble tracing a complex shape with a pencil when she is in kindergarten, but she can do it quite well by the time she is in second grade. Is this an instance of learning? Answer Selected Answer: Yes, because her behavior has changed. Correct Answer: Maybe, although the change may simply be due to physiological maturation. Question 3 3.2 out of 3.2 points A theory of learning can best be characterized as: Answer Selected Answer: An explanation of the underlying processes through which learning occurs Correct Answer: An explanation of the underlying processes through which learning occurs Question 4 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements is the most accurate statement regarding theories of learning? Answer Selected Answer: They are often modified as new data emerge. Correct Answer: They are often modified as new data emerge. Question 5 3.2 out of 3.2 points Behaviorists and cognitivists tend to focus on different aspects of learning. Which one of the following statements best describes this difference? Answer Selected Answer: Behaviorism focuses on external behavioral changes; cognitivism focuses on internal mental changes. Correct Answer: Behaviorism focuses on external behavioral changes; cognitivism focuses on internal mental changes. Question 6 3.2 out of 3.2 points Three of the following describe methods that researchers commonly use to determine how the human brain probably functions. hich one is not a commonly used method to study the brain? Answer Selected Answer: Measuring the levels of various hormones and other substances in the blood Correct Answer: Measuring the levels of various hormones and other substances in the blood Question 7 0 out of 3.2 points Given what psychologists believe to be true about how information is typically stored in the brain, how is the concept dog probably represented in your brain? Answer Selected Answer: As a single neuron located in the frontal cortex Correct Answer: As a network of neurons spread across multiple brain regions Question 8 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best describes psychologists' current beliefs about the brain and learning? Answer Selected Answer: Learning experiences lead to changes in synapses and possibly also nurture newly formed neurons. Correct Answer: Learning experiences lead to changes in synapses and possibly also nurture newly formed neurons. Question 9 3.2 out of 3.2 points During the elementary and secondary school years, much of the brain's development occurs in the region of the brain that is largely responsible for Answer Selected Answer: thinking and reasoning Correct Answer: thinking and reasoning Question 10 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the best example of a reflex as psychologists define the term? Answer Selected Answer: Pulling your foot away from a painful object Correct Answer: Pulling your foot away from a painful object Question 11 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following best describes mirror neurons? Answer Selected Answer: They are the primary reason why infants can recognize their own reflections as early as 3 months of age. Correct Answer: They fire when a person either makes a particular response or observes someone else make that response. Question 12 3.2 out of 3.2 points After a severe head injury, Mary has exceptional difficulty setting goals and in other ways planning her actions. Without knowing anything else about Mary's injury, you might reasonably conclude that it affected her: Answer Selected Answer: forebrain Correct Answer: forebrain Question 13 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements best reflects behaviorists' notion of tabula rasa? Answer Selected Answer: Organisms inherit few predispositions to behave in particular ways; instead, the behaviors they exhibit are largely the result of environmental experiences. Correct Answer: Organisms inherit few predispositions to behave in particular ways; instead, the behaviors they exhibit are largely the result of environmental experiences. Question 14 0 out of 3.2 points Matthew once had a teacher who punished him severely whenever he did poorly on a mathematics test. Now he refuses to open a math book, saying he is "too scared" to do so. He has learned to associate mathematics with the pain of punishment. Here, the painful punishment is: Answer Selected Register to View Answerconditioned response Correct Answer: An unconditioned stimulus Question 15 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following characteristics of behaviorist learning theories is a direct outgrowth of the equipotentiality assumption? Answer Selected Answer: Conclusions derived from research with rats are applicable to human learning. Correct Answer: Conclusions derived from research with rats are applicable to human learning. Question 16 0 out of 3.2 points On several occasions Edward is severely beaten by his alcoholic father. Before long, Edward begins to shake whenever his father approaches. In this situation, Edward's shaking at the sight of his father is a(n) _____; the severe beating he has received is a(n) _____. Answer Selected Answer: unconditioned response; conditioned stimulus Correct Answer: conditioned response; unconditional stimulus Question 17 0 out of 3.2 points Nick is extremely anxious whenever he takes a test. From a classical conditioning perspective, a teacher can best reduce his anxiety by: Answer Selected Answer: Reinforcing him for each test question he answers correctly. Correct Answer: Giving him a few easy tests while he is feeling relaxed. Question 18 3.2 out of 3.2 points After repeatedly being beaten by his father, Edward begins to show signs of fearing other men as well as his father. Edward's fear of other men can be explained by: Answer Selected Answer: generalization Correct Answer: generalization Question 19 3.2 out of 3.2 points After a painful experience at one dentist's office, Teresa's mother takes Teresa to a different dentist, who takes great care to make her visits painless. Teresa is anxious at first, but after a few visits, Teresa gradually becomes less resistant about going to the new dentist. Teresa's change in behavior can probably best be explained in terms of _____. But then Teresa does not go to see the dentist for three years. On her first visit to the painless dentist after that time interval, she is anxious once again, even though she had not been anxious in her previous visits. The return of this response after it had previously disappeared is known as _____. Answer Selected Answer: extinction; spontaneous recovery Correct Answer: extinction; spontaneous recovery Question 20 0 out of 3.2 points DeeDee is upset that she has been taken off the basketball team because of a failing grade in her history class. The consequence of DeeDee's failure in history is an example of: Answer Selected Answer: Punishment I Correct Answer: Punishment II Question 21 0 out of 3.2 points Linda wears bell-bottom pants to school, and her classmates tease her about them. As soon as she gets home, Linda throws the pants in the trash. Linda's being teased is an example of: Answer Selected Answer: Avoidance learning Correct Answer: Punishment I Question 22 3.2 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the best example of the Premack principle in action? Answer Selected Answer: Being allowed to play basketball at a friend's house after you finish your homework. Correct Answer: Being allowed to play basketball at a friend's house after you finish your homework. Question 23 0 out of 3.2 points Martin went to two or three school dances but always felt uncomfortable and self-conscious. Martin no longer goes to school dances. His lack of attendance is an example of: Answer Selected Answer: Active avoidance learning Correct Answer: Passive avoidance learning Question 24 0 out of 3.2 points In the middle of a difficult exam, Robert tells his teacher that his stomach hurts, and the teacher immediately sends him to the school nurse. On several later occasions when he has a difficult test or assignment, Robert again tells his teacher that he doesn't feel well. Robert's frequent trips to the nurse have: Answer Selected Answer: Been reinforced on an intermittent schedule Correct Answer: Been negatively reinforced Question 25 3.2 out of 3.2 points Thorndike's observations of a cat trying to escape from a puzzle box led him to conclude that learning is: Answer Selected Register to View Answergradual process that occurs through trial and error Correct Register to View Answergradual process that occurs through trial and error Question 26 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following statements best describes behaviorists' two-factor theory of avoidance learning? Answer Selected Answer: Avoidance of the aversive stimulus is negatively reinforced by the presence of the pre-aversive stimulus. Correct Answer: Fear of the pre-aversive stimulus is classically conditioned, and escape from that stimulus is negatively reinforced. Question 27 0 out of 3.2 points Applied behavior analysis can best be described as a group of techniques that can change people's behavior by changing their: Answer Selected Answer: Attitudes Correct Answer: Environment Question 28 3.2 out of 3.2 points In Mr. Medeiros's classroom, students are given play money each time they turn in an assignment; they receive additional amounts of money if the assignment is turned in on time and if it is done correctly. At the end of each week, students can use their "money" to purchase special privileges (free time, field trips, etc.). Mr. Medeiros' approach to teaching can best be characterized as: Answer Selected Register to View Answertoken economy Correct Register to View Answertoken economy Question 29 0 out of 3.2 points In applied behavior analysis, it is often important to promote, quite explicitly, the generalization of newly acquired behavior to a variety of contexts. Three of the following are recommended strategies for promoting such generalization. Which one of the following, although possibly beneficial for other reasons, will not necessarily promote generalization? Answer Selected Answer: Reinforce generalization when it occurs spontaneously. Correct Answer: Reinforce desired responses on a variable interval schedule. Question 30 0 out of 3.2 points Three of the following are almost always found in applied behavior analysis (ABA). Which one is not necessarily characteristic of ABA? Answer Selected Answer: Altering the consequences of behavior Correct Answer: Exploring underlying causes of behavior Question 31 3.2 out of 3.2 points Healthier eating habits make people feel better and give them more energy over the long run. Yet many people do not improve their eating habits, especially if healthful foods are difficult and time-consuming to prepare. Three of the following are possible explanations for the lack of improvement (i.e., behavior change) in people's eating habits. Judging from what you have learned about instrumental conditioning, choose the alternative that is not a likely explanation. Answer Selected Answer: Extrinsic reinforcers are usually more effective than intrinsic reinforcers. Correct Answer: Extrinsic reinforcers are usually more effective than intrinsic reinforcers. Question 32 3.2 out of 3.2 points Ms. Smythe keeps Eric after school whenever he swears in class. Even though Eric has been kept after school each day for the past three weeks, his swearing has increased rather than decreased. Given what we know about the effects of punishment on behavior, Ms. Smythe should probably conclude that: Answer Selected Answer: Staying after school is not a punishment for Eric. Correct Answer: Staying after school is not a punishment for Eric. Question 33 3.2 out of 3.2 points If you wanted to encourage kindergartners to delay gratification, Operant Conditioning indicates that an effective strategy would be to: Answer Selected Answer: Occasionally remind them that they will get a bigger reward by waiting a couple of hours Correct Answer: Occasionally remind them that they will get a bigger reward by waiting a couple of hours Question 34 0 out of 3.2 points Trudy makes an obscene gesture in class, and the teacher punishes her severely. Other students in class observe both the gesture and the punishment. Based on social cognitive theory, what can we guess about what those students have learned and how they are likely to behave in the future? Answer Selected Answer: They don't know how to make the gesture, but they know that the teacher will punish them severely for inappropriate behavior. Correct Answer: They know how to make the gesture, but they are unlikely to make it in class. Question 35 0 out of 3.2 points According to social cognitive theorists, reinforcement affects learning because it: Answer Selected Answer: Increases habit strength Correct Answer: Encourages the learner to pay attention Question 36 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following is the clearest example of a child working for an incentive? Answer Selected Answer: Arnold's mother gives him a dollar after he surprises her by mowing the lawn. Correct Answer: Doris is studying for a history test with the hope that she'll get an A on it. Question 37 3.2 out of 3.2 points Some researchers have studied the effects of modeling on moral reasoning and behavior. Which one of the following conclusions cannot be drawn from their research? Answer Selected Answer: People's beliefs about "right" and "wrong" are primarily a function of the behaviors their parents have reinforced. Correct Answer: People's beliefs about "right" and "wrong" are primarily a function of the behaviors their parents have reinforced. Question 38 0 out of 3.2 points Which one of the following strategies is most likely to promote self-regulation in students? Answer Selected Answer: Mr. D'Amato asks his students to look in a mirror and write a poem about what they see. Correct Answer: When assigning a lengthy research project, Mr. Barnett advises his students to break the project down into a number of smaller tasks and then to reinforce themselves after they complete each one. Question 39 0 out of 3.2 points John's teacher gives him constructive criticism about how to improve the poem he has just written. According to social cognitive theory, what effect is such criticism likely to have on John's self-efficacy for writing poetry, and why? Answer Selected Answer: It will probably decrease his self-efficacy, because it suggests to him that the teacher's standards are substantially higher than his own. Correct Answer: It will probably enhance his self-efficacy, because it communicates the message that he has the ability to write a good poem. Question 40 3.2 out of 3.2 points Social cognitive theory can best be characterized as being concerned with learning Answer Selected Answer: through observations of others Correct Answer: through observations of others Thursday, May 3, 2012 10:34:32 PM EDT ... View Full Document

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