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Epidemiology in Health & Disease (HMB342S) Tuesday, January 8, 2013 Introduction, and Abnormality (Chapters 1 & 2) Outline Introduction to Epidemiology (Chapter 1) questions addressed fundamentals of epidemiologic methods bias, confounding, and chance validity and reliability Abnormality (Chapter 2) types of data data variability and distributions criteria for abnormality regression to the mean S u m m a r y Introduction (Chapter 1) Focus on clinically-applied epidemiology A basic science to better inform students, consumers, practitioners, and researchers of clinical care The study of the benefits of healthcare interventions in relation to their hazards and costs Capable of addressing a wide range of clinically-relevant questions Clinical Questions (Table 1.2) Is the person sick or well? (Chapter 2) How well do diagnostic tests perform (Ch. 3) How common is the disease? (Ch. 4) What affects the risk of disease? (Ch. 5 & 6) What are the consequences of disease? (Ch. 7) Does treatment change the course of disease? (Ch. 8) Can we prevent the disease or its consequences? (Ch. 9) What factors cause the disease to occur? (Ch. 11) Variables The building blocks of epidemiology Measured or counted attributes that vary 3 kinds: Independent: exposure, cause, predictor, indicator Dependent: outcome, effect Co-variables: not directly under study, but may affect the relationship between the two above Cause Effect Co-variable Health Outcomes The 6 Ds: Death (especially if untimely) Disease (or illness) Discomfort (unwanted symptoms) Disability (negative quality of life) Dissatisfaction (emotional consequences) Destitution (financial consequences) Epidemiologic Foundations A result of various study phases... View Full Document

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