Chapters 1 & 2 - Introduction and Abnormality Lecture - 1 per page - Jan 8 2013
26 Pages

Chapters 1 & 2 - Introduction and Abnormality Lecture - 1 per page - Jan 8 2013

Course Number: HMBY 342, Spring 2013

College/University: University of Toronto

Word Count: 1005

Rating:

Document Preview

Epidemiology in Health & Disease (HMB342S) Tuesday, January 8, 2013 Introduction, and Abnormality (Chapters 1 & 2) Outline Introduction to Epidemiology (Chapter 1) questions addressed fundamentals of epidemiologic methods bias, confounding, and chance validity and reliability Abnormality (Chapter 2) types of data data variability and distributions criteria for abnormality regression to the...

Unformatted Document Excerpt
Coursehero >> Canada >> University of Toronto >> HMBY 342

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one
below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

in Epidemiology Health & Disease (HMB342S) Tuesday, January 8, 2013 Introduction, and Abnormality (Chapters 1 & 2) Outline Introduction to Epidemiology (Chapter 1) questions addressed fundamentals of epidemiologic methods bias, confounding, and chance validity and reliability Abnormality (Chapter 2) types of data data variability and distributions criteria for abnormality regression to the mean Summary Introduction (Chapter 1) Focus on clinically-applied epidemiology A basic science to better inform students, consumers, practitioners, and researchers of clinical care The study of the benefits of healthcare interventions in relation to their hazards and costs Capable of addressing a wide range of clinically-relevant questions Clinical Questions (Table 1.2) Is the person sick or well? (Chapter 2) How well do diagnostic tests perform (Ch. 3) How common is the disease? (Ch. 4) What affects the risk of disease? (Ch. 5 & 6) What are the consequences of disease? (Ch. 7) Does treatment change the course of disease? (Ch. 8) Can we prevent the disease or its consequences? (Ch. 9) What factors cause the disease to occur? (Ch. 11) Variables The building blocks of epidemiology Measured or counted attributes that vary 3 kinds: Independent: exposure, cause, predictor, indicator Dependent: outcome, effect Co-variables: not directly under study, but may affect the relationship between the two above Cause Effect Co-variable Health Outcomes The 6 Ds: Death (especially if untimely) Disease (or illness) Discomfort (unwanted symptoms) Disability (negative quality of life) Dissatisfaction (emotional consequences) Destitution (financial consequences) Epidemiologic Foundations A result of various study phases design participants identified and recruited data collected data analyzed results interpreted findings reported Results are never certainthey are estimates Provides evidence Provide averages that apply to no individual Studies of samples to infer back to populations Influences on Observed Results A real effect Flawed research bias (systematic error) at any step of study (e.g., design, participants, data collection) Selection bias: systematic differences in the selection of the group(s) being studied Measurement bias: systematic differences in the measurement of the group(s) being studied Confounding bias: due to another factor Chance (random error) Not a focus of this course (see HMB325, STA220, etc) Example Study Researchers studied coffee consumption and its effect on the risk of heart disease Coffee Heart disease Could other factors account for the observed relationship? Example Study Researchers studied coffee consumption and its effect on risk of heart disease Coffee Heart disease Could other factors account for the observed relationship? Coffee Heart disease Cigarette Smoking A Confounder Is related to the exposure Is related to the outcome But does not have to be a cause itself Is not directly on the path from the cause to the effect (i.e., is not intermediate) Need to carry out a data analysis stratified by the potential confounding covariable to determine if it is truly a confounder Study Validity Internal validity degree to which the observed results are correct for the sample of subjects being studied degree to which the study is free of both systematic (bias) and random (chance) error degree to which the observed results reflect the truth External validity degree to which the observed results hold true in other settings called also generalizability (of the results) Back to the Example Study Coffee Heart disease? In this study, what type of variable is coffee? A: Independent variable B: Dependent variable C: Co-variable D: None of the above And what type of variable is heart disease? And cigarette smoking? Chapter 1 Questions? Abnormality (Chapter 2) Is the person sick or well? How is this determined? How is normal distinguished from abnormal? without allowing the meaning of normal to be lost in the shuffle of statistics Levels of Measurement Nominal data: unordered categories (e.g., home language, blood type) Dichotomous data: only 2 categories (e.g., male/female, ill/well, alive/dead) Ordinal data: ordered categories (e.g., 5: excellent,1: poor) Discrete data: numeric integer counts (e.g., # of children, stairs climbed/min) Continuous data: any fractional value (e.g., blood pressure in mmHg) Performance of Measures Validity: do they accurately measure what they were intended to measure? Content validity: includes all of the dimensions of the construct one intends to measure and nothing more (e.g., the characteristics of pain) Construct validity: related in a coherent way to other measures that are believed to be part of the same phenomena (e.g., constructs of depression) Criterion validity: measures predict a directlyobservable phenomena (pain associated with different injuries) Performance of Measures Reliability: the extent to which repeated measures of a stable phenomena by different people and instruments at different times and places return similar results (also known as reproducibility, repeatability, and precision) Performance of measures also considers their range, responsiveness, and interpretability Validity & Reliability Repeated measures that cluster together are considered reliable/precise Measures that accurately estimate the true value are considered valid By study, any given measures level of reliability & validity can be found to be: reliable & valid: clustered & accurate reliable, but not valid: clustered & inaccurate not reliable, but valid: scattered, but accurate not reliable & not valid: scattered & inaccurate Validity & Reliability Targets Sources of Variation Measurement variation Instrument: the means of making the measurement Observer: the person making the measurement Biologic variation Within individuals: changes with time and situation Between individuals: differences from person to person Criteria for Abnormality Unusual Associated with disease Treatable Not statistically determined Regression to the Mean Those who have an initial extreme measure will sometimes have a less extreme value when re-tested Initial value was not reflective of the truth Extreme value by chance or measurement error which is not repeated at re-testing As a result, abnormal results should be assessed by re-testing before concluding an abnormality is present Chapter 2 Questions? Summary Epidemiology provides the tools and approaches to answer clinically-relevant questions The results of epidemiologic studies can be affected by biases, confounding and chance Determining if a person is well or ill requires clinical measures for which normal and abnormal values have been distinguished Reminders First tutorial this Thursday from 10:10 to noon; room assignments to be e-mailed Individual and group quizzes at the beginning of the tutorials No aids (e.g., calculator, aid sheet) required for tutorial quizzes No office hour this week

Find millions of documents on Course Hero - Study Guides, Lecture Notes, Reference Materials, Practice Exams and more. Course Hero has millions of course specific materials providing students with the best way to expand their education.

Below is a small sample set of documents:

Art Inst. Boston - ME - 312
*W. F. Smith, Principles of Materials Science and Engineering, McGraw-Hill, 1986.*Metals Handbook, Vol 13, Corrosion, American Society for Metals International, 1987.GRADING:Two exams (23% each)=HomeworkReport/Presentation=Final exam=Yo
Alabama - MATH - 470
e g = s1 · · · sn as a product of two cycles, and let g ∈ K .Then g −1 kg = (s1 · · · sn )−1 k (s1 · · · sn ) = s−1 · · · s−1 ks1 · · · sn , so it suffices to show that K is closedn1under conjugation by a two cycle, of wh
University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign - ACCY - 200
ss. Even if I may not be creating and analyzing budgets quite like an accountingthe future, I will likely still have to create some sort of financial forecast or at the very least beable to read one.I am much more likely now than before to attend
Grantham - MECHANICAL - 1
Report of: Civilengineer ingBy: Ibrahim Gamal ElsadatSec :1: Under the supervision ofDr.Abobakr.m.h.omr1Civil engineeringCivil engineering is a professional engineering discipline thatdeals with the design, construction, and maintenance of thep
University of Toronto - HMBY - 342
Epidemiology in Health and Disease (HMB 342)Exercises Diagnosis (Chapter 3) January 15, 20131.A study was made of a dipstick tests ability to diagnose urinary tract infections (UTI) in 200 symptomaticpatients coming to an outpatient clinic. The dipsti
University of Toronto - HMBY - 342
Epidemiology of Health and Disease (HMB 342)Exercises Frequency (Chapter 4) January 22, 20131.Screening for many diseases (e.g., PKU, HIV) involves at least two stages of testing: an initial one thattries to identify all persons who could potentially
University of Toronto - HMBY - 342
Epidemiology of Health and Disease (HMB 342)Exercises Risk: Looking Forward (Chapter 5) January 29, 20131.A study was conducted to assess whether vigorous physical activity affected the risk of premature death.15,000 were enrolled with 2,970 of these
University of Toronto - HMBY - 342
Epidemiology of Health and Disease (HMB 342)Exercises Risk: Looking Backward (Chapter 6) February 5, 20131.A study was conducted to assess if previous pneumococcal immunization provides protection against myocardialinfarction (MI). Using a hospital da
University of Toronto - HMBY - 342
Epidemiology of Health and Disease (HMB 342)Exercises Prognosis (Chapter 7) February 26, 20131.A review of hospital surgical records provided the following data concerning the post-operative complication ratesof two surgeons:SurgeriesPerformedSurge
University of Toronto - HMBY - 342
Epidemiology of Health and Disease (HMB 342)Exercises Treatment (Chapter 8) March 5, 20131. For each of the treatment study components listed below (1a to 1e), CIRCLE the BEST term from thefollowing list for the issue it is intended to address.A.B.C
University of Toronto - HMBY - 342
Epidemiology of Health and Disease (HMB 342)Exercises Prevention (Chapter 9) March 12, 2013Researchers wished to assess the effectiveness of periodic mammograms to screen for breast cancer. To do this theycompared the survival times of a group of women
University of Toronto - HMBY - 342
Epidemiology of Health and Disease (HMB 342)Exercises Chance (Chapter 10) March 19, 2013For each of the following examples (1a to 1d), what would you conclude from these results AND why?For each example, was the sample size was (a) too small, (b) too l
University of Toronto - HMBY - 342
Epidemiology of Health and Disease (HMB 342)Exercises Cause (Chapter 11) March 26, 20131. A community health survey was conducted and found a significant association (a risk ratio of 3.4)between those reporting low levels of physical activity and heart
University of Toronto - HMBY - 342
Epidemiology in Health and Disease (HMB 342)Exercises Introduction (Chapter 1) and Abnormality (Chapter 2) January 8, 20131. Using data from a large cohort study, researchers examined the relationship between the death rate due toheart disease (number
UGA - MGMT - 3000
Submit your one-page paper (approximately 250 words if it were doublespaced with 12 point font and 1" margins) to the etext Assignment Box. See the schedule for the submission deadline. No late submissions will be accepted. The title of your file should l
UGA - MGMT - 3000
Submit your one-page paper (approximately 250 words if it were doublespaced with 12 point font and 1" margins) to the etext Assignment Box. See the schedule for the submission deadline. No late submissions will be accepted. The title of your file should l
UGA - MGMT - 3000
Alyssa Webb UGA MyID: ajwebb 8102968430 Assignment #1Use the discussion and issues posed in the reading as a springboard for your response. I am looking for a balanced response, based on your objective research of the questions/issues posed. You must ref
UGA - MGMT - 3000
Read the article below on medical technology. What are the business opportunities and issues that are relevant? Do you think this particular application of technology is just a great idea, or a real business opportunity? Why? Be sure to research and quote
UGA - MGMT - 3000
UGA - MGMT - 3000
MGMT 3000 Spring 2013 Exam 3 Review NotesThe exam will be a combination of multiple choice and true/false questions. Exam 3 will cover the following material: All current event articles covered in class including o http:/online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424
LSU - ISDS - 2001
ISDS Final Exam Study Guide BPM encompasses a core set of processes, including financial and operationalplanning, consolidation and reporting, modeling, analysis, and monitoring of KPIs, linkedto organizational strategy BPM helps organizations transla
LSU - ISDS - 2001
ISDS 2001 STUDY GUIDE for Final ExamObjectives: After completing Chapter 3, you should know:1.BPM (Business Performance Management) encompasses a core set of processes, including: financial and operational planning consolidation and reporting modeli
LSU - ISDS - 2001
ISDS 2001 STUDY GUIDE for TEST 4 (Chapters 4 and 5)* - Indicates questions on sample test Bring your calculator to Test 4Objectives: After completing Chapter 4, you should know:1.factors behind the sudden popularity in data mininga.reduction in cost
LSU - FINANCE - 3716
FIN 3716 Quiz ISpring 2012February 6, 2012Name_This quiz is composed of 5 questions. Show your work to receive full credit Formulas are providedbelow:Current ratio = Current assets/Current liabilitiesQuick ratio = (Current assets Inventory)/Current
LSU - FINANCE - 3716
FINC 3716 Quiz #2 (10/12/2011)m APR EAR 1 1mName:APR m (1 EAR)1m- 1EAR = eAPR 1 (continuous compounding)11 (1 i )tPV(Annuity) = CF1 i1. You are trying to decide amongst three different car loans, each with an APR of 8.00%. Loan A iscompou
LSU - MGMT - 3200
1MANAGEMENT 3200 FINAL EXAM REVIEW QUESTIONSMOTIVATION1. What are the five needs in Maslows hierarchy of needs? (Know what each need is andbe able to recognize what need is being satisfied in a given situation)1) PHYSIOLOGICAL2) SAFETY3) SOCIAL4)
LSU - MGMT - 3200
1MANAGEMENT 3200 FINAL EXAM REVIEW QUESTIONSMOTIVATION1.What are the five needs in Maslows hierarchy of needs? (Know what each need is and be able to recognize what need is being satisfied in agiven situation)1) PHYSIOLOGICAL2) SAFETY3) SOCIAL4)
UABC MX - ELECTRIC - EC101
Power System Simulation for Engineers (PSS/E version 30)Here are instructions for accessing and using the PSS/E-30 software. On-campus students should access this software at any of the computers in the lab of Coover rooms 1125 or 1212. You should coordi
IoBM - FRM - 401
9/1/2008BA 5139: Financial Risk AnalysisLecture4FixedIncomeSecurities1Valuation&ArbitrageBA 5139: Financial Risk AnalysisFixedIncomeTerminologies We frequently refer to fixedincome securities as bonds. A zerocoupon bond (or zero) promises a single
Alaska Anch - IB - 101
CONTENIDOSDEAULAVIRTUALTtulodelaunidadAplicacionesdediseoProfesor(es)LuisaFernandaAucarAsignaturaycursooao1EC(4to.Curso)Marcotemporalyduracin7semanasPrimeraetapa:integracindelosconceptosimportantes,elreadeinteraccinylapreguntadelaunidadConcepto
Academy At The Lakes - IB - 101
UGA - MGMT - 4010
Agenda, February 15, 2013 Dr. Mitchell-extra credit Exam: DRC option; Make-up = 3/1 @ 9:30 Exam date conflicts-send email with subject; sign-up sheet TopHat Questions: can use any device Excused absences Next (2/22): Exam Review + WSJ weekly articlesLin
UGA - MGMT - 4010
Agenda, February 22, 2013 Dr. Mitchell-extra credit TopHat Questions: can use any device Exam: DRC; Make-up = 3/1 @ 11:00 in 213 Sanford Exam (2/26): 6:15-7:45pm 09:30am section: MLC 0171 11:15am section: MLC 0102 12:45pm section: MLC 0101 Grades will no
University of Nevada, Reno - SPAN - 111
Shilla Marie HernandezSpan 111Muchos estudiantes prefieren la ropa informal. En general, los estudiantes no necesitanuna gran cantidad de ropa, el tipo comn de ropa jeans, zapatos tenis o sandalias y una camiseta.No hay estilos mucho. Los estudiantes
Brown - POLS - 1010
1 April 2013 Establishment, Public Funding, and Prayer Establishment Clause: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion o The narrowest way to interpret the clause is to say you cannot have an official church of the nation o The b
Brown - POLS - 1010
3 April 2013 Establishment Clause Lee v. Weisman Facts: o Robert Lee, the principal of a public middle school in RI, invited a rabbi to speak at the school's graduation ceremony This practice was normal for RI schoolso One of the student's fathers (Weism
Brown - POLS - 1010
3 April 2013Substantive Due ProcessLochner v. New YorkFacts:o NY state labor law called the Bakeshop Act which prohibited bakery employeesfrom working for more than sixty hours/week or 10 hours/dayCame about because the Progressive Party is trying t
Brown - POLS - 1010
5 April 2013The Right to Privacy: Sexual Relations, Reproductive Freedom, Abortion, and AssistedSuicideGriswold v. ConnecticutFacts:o Griswold was an executive director at a branch of Planned Parenthood inConnecticut.o She gave information and advi
Brown - POLS - 1010
2 April 2013Section 4- Establishment Clause and Free Exercise ClauseIn the "Idea of Public Reason Revisited," Rawls argues that only justifications that can betranslated into free-standing public reasons should be accepted as justifications for law and
Brown - JUDS - 0050
2 April 2013 The War of 1973/The October WarWhat led to the War of 1973? o Israel was unwilling to return any territory; Israel's hubris and arrogance (worked not in their favor, they were complacent and got comfortable with their supposed strength, did
Brown - JUDS - 0050
4 April 2013 The October War The war of 1973 is the result of the war of 1967 First stage of war, Oct. 6th- Oct, 10th o Israelis conducted defensive battles This is a blow to morale- Israel had a macho hubris- being on the defense made society freak outo
Brown - PHP - 0350
1 April 2013 Introduction to Regulation and Policy Formation Regulation- controlling human or societal behavior by rules or restrictions o Ex: government imposed legal restrictions, self-regulation by a trade organization, social regulation, market regula
Brown - PHP - 0350
3 April 2013 The Federal Executive and Bureaucratic Agencies in Health Care Regulations Legal Basis of Regulatory Power Agencies are authorized to take executive, legislative and judicial types of actions Process of regulation: o Rules issued by agencies
Brown - PHP - 0350
5 April 2013 Quality Measurement What is healthcare quality? How do we measure it? How are we doing on quality and what are we doing to improve it?What is quality?Value in Healthcare o Value has to do with paying a fair or reasonable amount for somethin
Brown - PHP - 0350
19 March 2013 Midterm #2 ReviewIntroduction to the Delivery System Hospitals: o There are more urban hospitals than rural o Hospitals are increasingly consolidating The number of beds per 1000 people is steadily droppingo Government- public, funded by t
Brown - PHP - 0350
3 April 2013 Regulation Things to know: o Agencies: JACHO SAMSA HRSAo State, federal, and private regulation o Slide 41 in the PowerPoint- web map of how regulation works o ACA is expanding the role of federal regulation o The role of regulation as a glo
Brown - POLS - 0010
1 March 2013 Midterm #2 Review Bureaucracy Bureaucracy- a large organization structured hierarchically to carry out specific functions o Mission o Hierarchical Decision Making Process o Expertise o Bureaucratic Culture Two types of employees: o Political
Brown - POLS - 0010
5 April 2013 News Media and the Internet Is banning coverage of returning casualties, censorship or protection of privacy? Think about it normatively in terms of democratic practices as well as the relationship between the government and the media. o The
Brown - POLS - 0010
1 April 2013 Public Opinion When does public opinion shape public policy (Congressional policy, Judicial decision making, regulatory action)? When should public opinion influence public outcomes and when should it not? o Should government officials always
UNI - TESOL - 4720
Dustin MillerBilingual Education in Public SchoolsPanel G ReflectionPanel G was on the topic of identity and minority language speakers. This group didinteresting things with the topic to invoke participation. The panel was a good one, I felt like it
Penn State - HD FS - 216
Relationship between parenting style and identity status: Authoritative/democratic parenting correlated with identity achievement Authoritarian parenting correlated with identity foreclosure "my (parents') way or the highway" Permissive parenting correlat
Penn State - HD FS - 216
60% of mothers with children under the age of 2 are employed fulltime (US Census 2009) full time placement in poor quality daycare is associated with lower cognitive and social skills in children (NICHD, 2006) High quality daycare can reduce the negative
Penn State - HD FS - 216
Exam 2 Trust vs. Mistrust For infants trust is a state of feeling confident that they are valued and their needs will be met Trust is fostered in infancy and established by 18 months of age through motherinfant interaction Biologically we are programmed t
Penn State - HD FS - 216
Friendship By age 8 0r 9, children begin to become selective in their friendships During middle and late childhood (811 yrs) children spend an increasing amount of time with peers (40%) Friendships are lasting as well Childhood friendships are a continuat
Penn State - HD FS - 216
Identity A persistent sameness within one's self and a sharing of one's essential character with others Three most important characteristics in adolescent friendships: Intimacy Mutual understanding Loyalty Identity issues Vocational issues Political ideol
Penn State - HD FS - 216
Jeffrey Arnett Emerging adulthood: a distinct period of development that differs from adolescence and young adulthood Takes place between 1825 years of age and is characterized by independent role exploration and frequent change 1970: typical 21 year old
Penn State - HD FS - 216
Jerome Kagan, Ph.D. Ongoing longitudinal study launched in 1989 Does early behavior predict later behavior? Is personality stable over time? Are the traits of introversion and extroversion stable? Sample: 400 four month old infants (measured approximately
Penn State - HD FS - 216
Why are siblings important? Majority of children in US grow up with at least one sibling Sibling relationships are unique More likely to have sibling in home than father Siblings are usually the most frequent out of school relationship Longerity Sibling r
Penn State - HD FS - 216
Robert Sternberg and Peter Salovey Two yale psychologists Suggest we take a wider view of intelligence and what it is Emotional intelligence is a better predictor of life satisfaction than what your IQ is as we measure it today Emotional intelligence: kno
Penn State - HD FS - 216
temperament: an innate style of responding to the environment some variables used in measuring temperament: (don't memorize) activity level how active a baby is regularity in eating, sleeping, and elimination (going to BR) are they scheduled or not? Respo
Wisc Eau Claire - RELS - 100
UNIT II REVIEW SHEETChapter 3: HinduismAccording to Huston Smith, which of Bertrand Russells three problemschallenging religion, is addressed by the religions of South Asia?NatureOthersSelfIneffable cant describe wordsNoetic gives knowledge/certai