Exam 2 Study Guide-2
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Exam 2 Study Guide-2

Course Number: ANTHRO 150, Spring 2012

College/University: UMass (Amherst)

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Term Nile Cataracts Definition Shallow lengths or white water rapids between Aswan and Khartoum where the surface of the water is broken by many rocks and boulders Was the frontier town of ancient Egypt, far to the south. Believed Egypt began there as it was on the border of Egypt and Nubia, at the first cataract. The Dam was built in the 1800's to stop the flooding that made the ancient civilization possible....

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Nile Term Cataracts Definition Shallow lengths or white water rapids between Aswan and Khartoum where the surface of the water is broken by many rocks and boulders Was the frontier town of ancient Egypt, far to the south. Believed Egypt began there as it was on the border of Egypt and Nubia, at the first cataract. The Dam was built in the 1800's to stop the flooding that made the ancient civilization possible. Region of land upstream of the first cataract. Upstream, farther South. Geographically defined by the region between the Nile delta and the first cataract. Narrow valley with desert on either side. Downstream, in the north. Geographically defined by the Nile Delta-wide fertile area of land. Red land was the barren desert on both sides of the Nile. Black land was the fertile land around the Nile. Found in 1799. Had three different scripts on it that enabled hieroglyphics to be deciphered. They were ancient Greek, Egyptian hieroglyphics and Demotic Script, a relatively younger ancient Egyptian script. It is now in the British Museum. Aswan (Dam) Nubia Upper Egypt Lower Egypt Red Land/Black Land Rosetta Stone Sarcophagus Canopic jars Mastaba Nomes Narmer's Palette Jars used in the process of mummification to contain the organs (excepting the heart) of an embalmed body. Structure that is thought to be the predecessor of the pyramids. Subdivisions and chiefdoms that Upper and Lower Egypt were divided into before unification. Conveys the idea that the king controls all of Egypt and of someone who dominates his enemies. 3 Crowns of Egypt Before ancient Egypt was unified, the ruler of Upper Egypt wore a white headdress and the ruler of Lower Egypt wore a red one. Around 2900 BC the ruler started wearing a double crown of red and white, combining the two headdresses. c. 2680-2134 BC. PYRAMIDS. Characterized by territorial and divine kingship. Old Kingdom pharaohs used dramatic settings for their public appearances. Created the first "pyramid" in this time-Djoser's step pyramid at Saqqara designed by the vizier Imhotep. Djoser ruled on earth as the son of Re, the sun god and changed the burial structure to represent his new ideology. He ascended the pyramid to join Re after his death. Imhotep used small armies of workers from every village to create the pyramid. Pyramid rose in six steps to over 60 meters with the faces oriented to the cardinal points. It was surrounded by a wall with a palace life facade over a mile in perimeter. There was a court in front of the pyramid which was the setting for royal appearances complete with ceremonial territorial markers, a throne platform and a token palace. After Djoser's death, a new image of kingship emerged. The ruler became absorbed into the mystic symbol of the sun and the pharaoh became the sun god's representative on earth. Snofru, the first Fourth Dynasty pharaoh, built three pyramids and bridged the transition from stepped to true pyramid design. His son Khufu built the Great Pyramid of Giza in 2528. Khafre built the second pyramid of Giza in 2494 BC and his successor Menkaure built a third smaller pyramid in 2472 BC. Small armies of priests and workers labored. Villages and estates were founded near Giza to service the royal cults and feed the servants. One large settlement had a bakery and a fish processing facility for rations. After the completion of the pyramids, the villages became cemeteries for people who supported the pyramid cults. During the Old Kingdom, the state became the great provider due to the labor intensive public works. The capital of Old Kingdom Egypt was at Memphis where the royal court resided. The pharaoh and chief vizier lived there. The pharaoh ruled by his own word following the precedents set by kings before him. There was no written law. Old Kingdom Middle Kingdom EXPANSION INTO NUBIA. The Middle Kingdom rose in 2040 BC when a Theban prince named Mentuhotep II defeated his rivals and reunited Egypt. He made his capital at Thebes and bequeathed a peaceful and prosperous kingdom to his son. However, the unity was superficial for ambitious officials vied for supreme power. In 1991 BC Amenemhet I seized the throne and moved the capital to the border between Upper and Lower Egypt reinstating political stability. During the Middle Kingdom, pharaohs became interested in internal security and with expanding and consolidating their borders. Under Sesostris III, they subjugated Nubia and established fortified towns. They consolidated the northeastern boundary of the kingdom with the "Walls of the Prince" which were fortified strongholds set up at strategic points to guard the main routes from the Sinai Desert into Egypt. Trade relations with the Levant expanded dramatically and the government tried to increase agricultural production. Senusret II began the development of the Fayyum oasis and turned it into a network of fields and irrigation canals protected by large dikes which provided high crop yields even in droughts. The Middle Kingdom is described as the classic period of Egyptian civilization. The pharaohs became more human and approachable than their predecessors and strove to create a kingdom in the image of a bureaucratic Utopia. The last great Middle Kingdom pharaoh was Amenemhet III who used the wealth of the kingdom to build colossal temples and commission magnificent statuary. He died right at the time of a cycle of irregular floods. A succession of weak pharaohs followed as political power passed back to provincial governors with the food supplies to tide the country over. Egypt once again split into local kingdoms competing with one another and moved into the Second Intermediate Period. New Kingdom VALLEY OF THE KINGS-FAMOUS PHARAOHS. During the New Kingdom, the relationship between the Theban state and the Hyksos was rocky and there was sometimes fighting. In 1550 BC a Theban prince named Kamose sailed downstream and attacked the Hyksos strongholds. His son continued the offensive after his death and eventually took back Avaris and chased the Hyksos into Palestine and Syria. Egypt became an imperial power and major political force under Ahmose. He turned it into an efficiently run military state, tolerating no rivals and rewarding soldiers and mercenaries with grants of land. He managed to retain economic power and wealth in his own hands which set the tone for an entire era. The pharaoh became a national hero, military leader and imperial ruler. During this time, Egypt competed with two great states: Mitanni, East of the Euphrates and the Hatti Kingdom of the Hittites in Anatolia. All three of the states wanted to control the trade in the eastern Mediterranean for themselves. Pharaohs financed the state and empire with Nubian gold and turned the lands upstream into a lucrative colony. They also expanded trade routes down the Red Sea to the "Land of Punt", somewhere near modern day Sudan. These expeditions were a major undertaking. Queen Hatshepsut sent a royal trading party to Punt in 1472 BC and it appears they were successful from reliefs on a mortuary temple. Also during the time of the New Kingdom, there was a major shift in public architecture. Before, imposing monuments were located on the edges of the desert with modest local temples in the heart of the community. Religion became a public spectacle, a psychological way of influencing public opinion. The new temples within the cities were settings for important public ceremonies and processions. They were a statement of raw imperial power but also where the gods found food and shelter. The wealth of the large temples and the authority of the gods made them a major element in the New Kingdom economy and an important factor in the affairs of the state. It was also during the New Kingdom that the pharaohs began to choose to be buried in secret tombs in the Valley of the Kings on the opposite side of the river. When Pharaoh Akhenaten came to the throne in 1353 he changed the religious ideology and placed all emphasis on Aten, His Great Disk who illuminated the world of the living and the dead. Akhenaten viewed himself as an intermediary between the people and Aten and expected to be adored and revered like a god. He founded a new capital downstream of Thebes at Amarna which was occupied for about 30 years before it was abandoned. When Akhenaten died he left behind a corrupt and chaotic kingdom. He was succeeded by Smenkhkare, son of Amenhotep III who was succeeded by King Tutankhamun. He presided over a troubled country. He and his advisers restored the old spiritual order, rebuilt temples and reverted to the dynastic traditions of early pharaohs. The old ways were fully restored when Horemhab took the throne in 1319 BC. Rameside pharaohs of the Nineteenth Dynasty followed and labored hard to elevate the kingdom back to its former glory. Their wealth came from trade and Nubian gold for Nubia was now an Egyptian dependency. Ramesses II campaigned far into Syria but was stopped by the Hittites. Not long after that, Egypt began to steadily lose political influence in the Near East. Intermediate Periods The first Intermediate period was between 2134 and 2040 BC. After Pepi II, the last great Old Kingdom pharaoh, his successors could not match his authority and the central power of the state decline. Local leaders called nomarchs became independent rulers within their own provinces. The decline in monarchy also coincided with a prolonged drought cycle. The pharaohs expanded irrigation works and agricultural development which caused their population to skyrocket. However, there were too many mouths to feed and repeated famines occurred for 300 years. Local nomarchs profited from the disaster because they were able to maintain their works and food supplies. Egypt was thrust into turmoil due to the many competing kingdoms and cease of trade. In the second Intermediate period, large numbers of Asiatics lived in Egypt. They were called Hyksos. By the seventeenth century BC, the Nile Delta had fallen under the political control of a line of Hyksos kings who ruled from Avaris. They assumed the titles, traditions and religious beliefs of the pharaohs and acquired much prestige. The Second Intermediate period was a turning point in Egyptian history. The Hyksos brought new ideas to a conservative, stagnating civilization such as the introduction of more sophisticated technology and the trading of silver. They also brought new weaponry to the Nile and engaged with Crete. All of these kept Egypt current and ensured later pharaohs played a leading role in the eastern Mediterranean world. King/ruler of ancient Egypt Pharaoh Hieroglyphic writing Cartouche Oval shaped piece of stone that had person's name in hieroglyphics. Initially only royalty used them for their tombs but became more prominent Cursive script related to hieroglyphics used by Egyptian scribes for everyday writing such as accounting, taxing and management. Hieratic writing Shaduf Ushtabi(s) Baron Dominique Vivant Denon Jean-Francois Champollion Giovanni Battista Belzoni Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie Tool used to bring water up to higher levels (see picture) Small funerary figurine placed in tombs of deceased Excavated Egypt in 19th century after Napoleon invaded Egypt. Grand illustrator of France. Translated the Rosetta Stone in 1822. Italian excavator of Egypt who stole things from the tombs for his country He was called the "father of Egyptology." He was obsessed with keeping good records at excavations and built archaeological chronology by looking at the gradual change in pottery and ceramics. Discovered the tomb of King Tutankhamun in 1922. Pharaoh of Egypt during the 18th dynasty aka the New Kingdom. When the tomb was uncovered, it was untouched and full of artifacts showing it was not robbed Third pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty. Regarded as the most powerful pharaoh in all of Egypt. Built the Abu Simbel temple. Pharaoh of the early dynastic period. Considered the unifier of Egypt in 3100 BC and the considered founder of the first dynasty. Palette represents unification. Pharaoh of the twelfth dynasty or middle kingdom. Led expansion down into Nubia. Lord of the dead, often depicted as a green skinned man holding a crook and a flail which are both symbols of authority. He also is wrapped in white linen like a mummy. Legend: Set, the god of chaos is the brother of Osiris and Isis. He killed Osiris and cut him up into pieces, scattering him all over. Isis gathered all the pieces and put him back together with the help of Anubis and Thoth. She mummifies him and he is revived after mummification making him the God of the Dead. Isis then conceives Horus. Horus and Set fight to control Egypt. Horus wins and all of Egypt falls under his rule. Howard Carter King Tutankhamun Ramses II Narmer Sesostris III Osiris Isis Horus Sister and wife of Osiris. Goddess of motherhood, magic and nature. Often depicted with a sun disk on her head Son of Osiris and Isis. God of the sky with the head of a falcon and a double crown showing the unification of Egypt and supreme rule as the pharaoh was considered the living incarnation of Horus. Jackal-headed god of afterlife/mummification Pharaoh of the third dynasty aka the Old Kingdom. Built the first pyramid: the step pyramid. Djoser's vizier, high priest of the sun god who devised the architecture of the Step Pyramid. He used small armies of workers from every village in the realm to erect the step pyramid. This allowed the state to break down the isolation of the separate nomes and mingle people from different villages in a common act of piety-gesture toward a sacred cosmos. First architect, engineer, artist and physician. Anubis Djoser Imhotep Snoferu Khufu Sir Arthur Evans Spyridon Marinatos Ruled after Snoferu. Built the Great Pyramid at Giza. Found the palace of Knossos Greek archaeologist who first excavated Crete. He found Akrotiri, the city covered in ash from the volcanic explosion. Came up with the theory that the eruption was the cause of the decline of the Minoans. Site Temple of Abu Simbel Location/Significance/Description Two temples carved out of the cliff by King Ramses in 1257 BC as a symbol to any would-be invaders from Nubia. Relocated after the construction of the Aswan Dam because it was going to be underwater otherwise. Buto Nekhen Dominant economic and spiritual power in upper Egypt. Much power came from close associations between the city's rulers and the local falcon god which was an early form of Horus. Nekhen housed Egypt's earliest known temple. An image of the god stood atop a pole in the center of an oval court in front of the shrine with makeshift platforms at its foot where sacrificial offerings of cattle, crocodiles, goats and river fish were made. The temple towered over the rest of the town as a symbol of its patron god. Nekhen also had impressive burial places for the time. The cemetery was a symbolic map of Upper and Lower Egypt and had the earliest known sepulcher in Egypt. It was mud brick with painted walls and gave a message of an elemental struggle between forces of order and chaos. There were also the graves of over 150 working class people, some of whom were wrapped and padded in an early form of mummification. Nekhen was the site of the beginning of Egyptian kingship but the names were lost and evidence is only seen in decorated artifacts. Pottery and beer were two important industries in Nekhen. Memphis Royal capital of early ancient Egypt during the Old Kingdom times. Royal court resided there. Located opposite from Saqqara. Area located on the west bank of the Nile River opposite Thebes. During the New Kingdom around 1505 BC Amenhotep and his successors elected to be buried in secret tombs there. The underground tombs evolved to become models of the caverns of the underworld. Royal mortuary temples lay on the plain nearby surrounded by tombs of queens, princes and high court officials. Generations of necropolis workers lived in a laborers' community nearby. Some aped the burial customs of their masters and constructed elaborate tombs but most lived and died under harsh conditions. Located opposite the royal capital of Memphis, Djoser created the Step Pyramid here. Location of the first pyramid as the burial places of pharaohs previously had been primordial mounds called mastaba. One of the first pyramids. Outer layer of pyramid collapsed due to foundation of sand. Bent pyramid-change in angle. Site of three great pyramids built by Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure. Ancient city in Crete with palaces and villas City found buried in ash Question Answer It is called that because the area there is so barren that were it not for the annual flooding of the Nile bringing fertile soil for crops to be grown with the civilization could not have come to exist the way it did. Valley of the Kings Saqqara Meidum Dahshur Giza Knossos Akrotiri Why is Egypt famously called "the gift of the Nile?" How has the geography of Egypt protected it from conquest (often but not all the time)? How are/were Upper and Lower Egypt different geographically and culturally? How is the annual Egyptian agricultural cycle of planting and harvesting tied to the conditions of the Nile River? What made Egyptian agriculture remarkably sustainable? The predictable seasonal cycle of flooding in the Nile Valley made their agriculture remarkably sustainable along with the many irrigation measures they implemented to help. What kinds of mineral resources were readily available to the Egyptians and what kinds were not? What were the positive and negative consequences of the French studies of Egyptian antiquities in the early 1800s? There were both positive and negative consequences to Napoleon's research. The team found many artifacts and unearthed many special locations such as the Temple of Luxor, the Temple of Horus and the Rosetta Stone. Champollion also managed to translate the stone which led to the understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphics. They mapped out a lot of the antiquities and brought the civilization of ancient Egypt to the attention of the rest of the modern war. However, in the negative it was originally done as an art conquest so Napoleon took several artifacts with him effectively robbing the Egyptians of a portion of their heritage. It also started the "Antiquities War" in Europe which led to many different nations going to Egypt in an attempt to take their artifacts and buildings for their own museums and governments. King Tut's tomb was different because it was found completely intact and was the only one that hadn't been ravaged by grave robbers. The antechamber held more than 700 items and took more than 2 months to be cleared out. What was different about the tomb of Tutankhamun? What are some important characteristics of Egyptian civilization that developed during the Predynastic period? Simple farming based on cattle herding and cereal agriculture had replaced a combination of foraging and cultivation. Dozens of small communities with small farming lands competed and traded. They were basically equal at first but then some gained more wealth and more power establishing a monopoly by absorbing others. The chiefdoms grew increasingly larger but continued to compete. Large settlements were established. Ideologies imbuing leadership and authority with elaborate rituals and symbols became a powerful factor in promoting unification. Towns flourished along the Nile, each with their own gods and local rulers. Upper Egypt: Strong centralizing political organization, wealth invested in status symbols, rich tombs and large buildings, emphasis on mortuary ritual and the afterlife and clustered villages. Lower Egypt: Long distance trade, metallurgy, wealth invested in commerce, emphasis on present life and dispersed villages. Already had: nomes, social hierarchy, estate system, elaborate tombs-mastaba, material culture-pottery, metal work, long distance trade, differences between upper and lower egypt The discovery of Sumerian seals and vertical fluting in the temples and a pictographic origin of writing gives evidence of trade or some sort of interaction between the Sumerian and Egyptian civilizations. The Narmer Palette conveys the idea that the king controls all of Egypt and that he is someone who dominates his enemies. This was important because it made the people believe in their ruler and bow down to him. What is the evidence for contact between Egypt and Sumer at the end of the Predynastic period? What messages were encoded in the palette of Narmer and why were they important? What were the estates of Egypt? Who owned them and how did they operate economically, socially and ideologically? What roles did scribes play in controlling the Egyptian state? What different purposes did hieroglyphics and hieratic writing serve? What were the two staple items in the daily diet of the Egyptian commoners? From what fabric was almost all ancient Egyptian clothing made? In what ways did Egyptian religious beliefs and practices, especially those surrounding death and the afterlife, legitimize and support the social hierarchy? What two purposes did mummification serve? Beer and bread Linen, usually white. They believed that the pharaoh was divine. Only the highest classes of people were mummified to show the social order in the afterlife. Mummification allowed the soul to recognize the body in the afterlife. It served two specific purposes. One was to preserve the body for eternity. They believed the body should be preserved to allow the dead person's spiritual essence to visit it after it leaves to ride among the stars with the goddess Nut. The other purpose of mummification was to help them along on their journey to the afterlife and make for an easier transition for their soul. There was a difference in labor. Djoser had much more workers. His pyramid is also a step pyramid with the four faces aligned to the cardinal directions so that the sun strikes the top. What is significant about Djoser's pyramid at Saqqara? What lessons in engineering did the Egyptian pyramid designers learn along the way from Djoser's pyramid to the Giza pyramids? How might pyramid construction have been related to the Egyptian agricultural cycles? Why can it be argued that between 2630 and 2480 BC it was the pyramid rather than the pharaoh that ruled Egypt? What changes in Egyptian society can be attributed to the pyramid projects? What are three important functions of monumental architecture? How did the economy of Minoan civilization operate? What were/was the centers of redistribution; the most important products; the importance of long-distance trade? What is the archaeological evidence that the palaces of Minoan Crete were centers of trade and redistribution? Many people worked on the pyramids for countless hours and that ruled over the lives. The increased centralization of the state can be attributed to it. Keep the people busy, keep them under control and impress people with the power of the state. The palace collected and redistributed back to the public. The most important products were olives and grapes. They also traded metals. Long distance trade was important so they could get all the things they didn't have from living on an island. What evidence of religious practices and daily life of the elite class has been found at Knossos and Akrotiri? There were shrines in a lot of the buildings with places to leave offerings. There were depictions of religious rites in the frescoes and other artwork. The bull leaping was one example of a religious fresco. What natural disaster is thought to have begun the decline of Minoan civilization? What evidence casts doubt on this scenario? Who took over Minoan civilization after 1450 BC? 31 multiple choice questions Several short answer 1 15 point essay question-5 options Important dates-Unification of Egypt (3100 BC), Fall of the Minoans (1450 BC) know what period the pyramids are associated with (Old Kingdom)

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Ch 5 Industrial Control SystemsSections:1. Process Industries vs. Discrete ManufacturingIndustries2. Continuous vs. Discrete Control3. Computer Process Control2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material i
Colorado - ME - 1000
Ch 16 Automated Production LinesSections:1. Fundamentals of Automated Production Lines2. Applications of Automated Production Lines3. Analysis of Transfer Lines2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material i
Colorado - ME - 1000
Ch 18 Cellular ManufacturingSections:1. Part Families2. Parts Classification and Coding3. Production Flow Analysis4. Cellular Manufacturing5. Applications in Group Technology6. Quantitative Analysis in Cellular Manufacturing2008 Pearson Education,
Colorado - ME - 1000
Ch 7 Numerical ControlSections:1. Fundamentals of NC Technology2. Computer Numerical Control3. DNC4. Applications of NC5. Engineering Analysis of NC Positioning Systems6. NC Part Programming2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All
Colorado - ME - 1000
Tutorial of CNCLearning Objectives Be able to read and understand simple NC codes Be able to write simple NC programs and test the programs by computer simulationOutline CNC introduction CNC programming Examples & Practices1. CNC introductionNume
Colorado - ME - 1000
Ch 17 Automated Assembly SystemsSections:1. Fundamentals of Automated Assembly Systems2. Quantitative Analysis of Assembly Systems2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright
Colorado - HEBR - 1003
Solutions ManualforAutomation,Production Systems, andComputer Integrated ManufacturingISBN:- 981-75-210-9958-1Third EditionInternational EditionMikell P. GrooverProfessor of Industrial and Systems EngineeringLehigh University200 West Packer Ave
Mississippi State - ACC - 4013
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UCL - ECON - 2007
ECON 2007: Quant Econ and EconometricsInstrumental VariablesDr. ureo de PaulaDepartment of EconomicsUniversity College Londonde PaulaECON 2007: Quantitative Economics and EconometricsOutline: Instrumental Variables (IV)Part I: The basics of IVMot
Clemson - BIOSC - 222
Endocrine SystemActivity Controlling MechanismsNervous systemEndocrine systemGlandsExocrineGlands Exocrine EndocrineNeuroendocrine LinkChemical Messengers Hormones Autocrines Paracrines PheromonesHormone ClassificationsAmino acid basedHormo
U. Memphis - SOCI - 4460
Women in History (Part 5)Skyrocketing infant and maternal mortality rates prompted activists such asMargaret Sanger to argue for reproductive freedom for all women. Sanger had animmediate effect on the American population that began to debate whether w
U. Memphis - SOCI - 4851
Research (Part 1) Why must we study medical sociology?: Why must we study medical sociology? Some social conditions and situations promote or cause illness and disability. Individuals and society respond to health problems in a manner consistent with thei
U. Memphis - SOCI - 4842
Division of Labor (Part 1) Division of Labor Physical work and symbolic meanings attached to work done in the household In U.S., defined as the "private" sphere-traditionally associated with women and unpaid labor Split from the "public" sphere-traditiona
U. Memphis - SOCI - 4842
Division of Labor (Part 2) Gender differences in tasks Household labor highly gendered with stereotypes matching research-women do inside labor, men do outside labor Tasks are sex-segregated Women do more housework than men-in 1995 women spent 17.5 hours
U. Memphis - SOCI - 4842
Division of Labor (Part 3) Women's Second Shift Arlie Hochschild's ethnographic study of household labor she called The Second Shift because women work two jobs-employed and at home. She estimated women spent 15 hours a week more than men on housework, me
U. Memphis - SOCI - 4842
Division of Labor (Part 4) Time studies Amount of time spent on tasks determined by time availability affected by children and employment demands Children increase the hours women spend performing housework more than men's housework hours. Men's participa
U. Memphis - SOCI - 4842
Division of Labor (Part 5) Household roles Household roles and ideologies about them develop in relation to economic changes. Differ by society, history, culture In Europe and U.S., with Industrial Revolution men went into industrialized workforce and bec
U. Memphis - SOCI - 4842
Division of Labor (Part 6) Motherhood wage penalty Role conflicts between paid work and unpaid family labor for women. Assumption that mothers not good employees, not "ideal workers" Employed mothers earn less than non-mothers. Estimate wage penalty of ab
U. Memphis - SOCI - 4842
Division of Labor (Part 7) Mens' marriage benefit 1992 study 4000 male college profs: never-married men had lowest salaries, followed by men with employed wives, highest salaries and achievement levels were men with nonemployed wives. With employed wives
U. Memphis - SOCI - 4842
Division of Labor (Part 8) Raising Gender-Aschematic Children Psychologist Sandra Bem says we should seek to raise gender-aschematic kids to undermine the dominant gender ideologies and stereotypes Thinks kids should be taught biology of sex in terms of a
U. Memphis - SOCI - 4842
Division of Labor (Part 9) Regional and international division of labour Different countries specialize in certain types of products.Disadvantages Work becomes dull & monotonousGreater degree of interdependence Greater risk of unemployment Decline in th
U. Memphis - SOCI - 4842
Division of Labor (Part 10) Decline in the quality of craftsmanship Mass production method used in modern factories results in highly standardized products Fewer people will specialize in the hand-made products Overall quality of craftsmanship will drop T