20-21 Conditioning and Learning
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20-21 Conditioning and Learning

Course Number: PSYC 101, Fall 2012

College/University: UBC

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10/25/2012 Psychology 101 Learning objectives Intro Bio Cog Psych University of British Columbia Dr. Michael Souza To understand the process of classical conditioning and to link that to various forms of real-world learning To appreciate how and why operant conditioning is a powerful way to shape the behavior of others Lectures 20-21 (26 & 29 Oct 2012) Classical and operant conditioning Observational...

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101 Learning 10/25/2012 Psychology objectives Intro Bio Cog Psych University of British Columbia Dr. Michael Souza To understand the process of classical conditioning and to link that to various forms of real-world learning To appreciate how and why operant conditioning is a powerful way to shape the behavior of others Lectures 20-21 (26 & 29 Oct 2012) Classical and operant conditioning Observational learning To explore the role of observational learning and to uncover a potential biological basis for this ability 2 Picture: From Schacters Psychology (2nd ed) The basics of learning Overview of some major forms of learning Associative learning Stimuli and valences Classical conditioning Evolutionary significance of learning? Operant conditioning Neutral stimulus gains significance Shaping an individuals behavior Observational learning Monkey see, monkey do 3 Picture: From Schacters Psychology (2nd ed) 4 Picture: From Schacters Psychology (2nd ed) Classical conditioning Steps for classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Digestion and salivation Nobel Prize in Medicine (1904) 5 Picture: From Schacters Psychology (2nd ed) 6 Picture: From Schacters Psychology (2nd ed) 1 10/25/2012 Classical conditioning process Responsiveness to similar stimuli Generalization and discrimination 7 Picture: From Schacters Psychology (2nd ed) 8 Picture: From Schacters Psychology (1st ed) Classical conditioning and phobias Little Albert (1920) Phobias John Watson (1878-1958) Types and basis A given persons potential Complex behaviors (emotions) Fear conditioning and the amygdala Eliminating a phobia? Behavioral approach Exposure therapy 9 10 Picture: From Schacters Psychology (2nd ed) Picture: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spider Operant conditioning Real-life of examples operant conditioning Positive reinforcement Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) Law of effect Negative reinforcement B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) Positive punishment Operant behavior Negative punishment Reinforcement vs. punishment Positive vs. negative 11 Picture: From Schacters Psychology (1st ed) 12 Picture: http://mynameislaurie.com/2011/12/christmas-bonus/ 2 10/25/2012 Using the Skinner Box Schedules of reinforcement Two factors to consider: Interval and ratio Fixed and variable 13 Picture: From Schacters Psychology (2nd ed) 14 Picture: From Schacters Psychology (2nd ed) Response patterns for reinforcement schedules Features of reinforcers Primary reinforcers Secondary reinforcers Overjustification effect 15 16 Picture: From Schacters Psychology (2nd ed) Reinforcement and the nucleus accumbens (NA) Observational learning Olds & Milner (1954) Albert Bandura (1925-present) Electrode in the NA Social learning theory Ubiquitous type of learning Appropriate models? Cognitive aspects 17 Picture: From Schacters Psychology (2nd ed) and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_brain_stimulation 18 Picture: From Schacters Psychology (2nd ed) 3 10/25/2012 Lecture summary Neural basis for observational learning? Giacomo Rizzolatti (1937-) Classical conditioning allows a neutral stimulus to gain significance and meaning through learning Mirror neuron theory Monkey see, monkey do Neural response properties Operant conditioning allows us to shape an individuals behavior. Different schedules may be used to this end Humans are visual creatures and we learn much by observation. The mirror neuron system appears to support this ability 19 Picture: From Schacters Psychology (2nd ed) 20 Next class: Memory I (on Wednesday, 31-Oct) 4

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