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. 1 Biology Study Guide Introduction This study guide was devised to enable students to review the basic biological concepts that they may need in preparing for the Biology Exit Assessment. It is not intended to be a comprehensive course in biology. The study of biology as in all sciences contains investigations and activities that are integral parts of the courses. As students and teacher use this guide they should be ever mindful of basic scientific principals that require investigation and discovery. Basic Scientific Principles Scientific Method Observe Define Problem Formulate Hypotheses (Always a statement. Never a question) Test Hypothesis (possible explanation based on research and prior (knowledge) Collect, Organize, and Analyze Data (facts collected during an Investigation. Could be measurements or other observations) Draw Conclusions Report Findings There are variations on this method that all scientists use. Observations lead to questions. These questions are often how a problem is defined. Example Problem: Is growth of spinach plants influenced by light wavelength? Hypothesis: Spinach growth will be influenced by different wavelengths of light. Test: Spinach plants will be grown in the following way: Experimental Group 100 plants grown in red light 100 plants grown in orange light 100 plants grown in yellow light 100 plants grown in green light 100 plants grown in blue 100 plants grown in indigo light 100 plants grown in violet light Control Group . 3 4. In your experiment identify the following: Independent variable Dependent Variable Controlled variables Experimental Group or Groups Control Group What type of data might you collect as the dependent variable? Vocabulary List for Introduction 1. Data 2. Hypothesis 3. Variables 4. Controlled Variables 5. Dependent Variables 6. Independent Variables 7. Scientific Methods 1. The Nature of Matter Matter All matter in the universe is made up of tiny particles called atoms . Atoms themselves are made up of three basic types of subatomic particles. The three subatomic particles are the protons, neutrons, and electrons. The protons have a positive charge and are located in central part of the atom which is called the nucleus. The neutrons have no charge and are located in the nucleus along with the protons. The electrons have a negative charge and are located in a region surrounding the nucleus known as the electron cloud . The number and arrangement of the electrons are what gives an atom its chemical properties which are the ability to react with other atoms. An example of a chemical property is ability of iron to react with the oxygen in air to form rust. . 4 Try These: 1. Identify the two main parts on this diagram of an atom and identify the three subatomic particles: 2. If an example of a chemical property of iron is its ability to react with oxygen, what is an example of a chemical property of oxygen? ... View Full Document

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