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Copyright 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Nomenclature & Conformations of Alkanes & Cycloalkanes Table of Contents 1. Introduction to Alkanes and Cycloalkanes 2. Shapes of Alkanes 3. How to Name Alkanes, Alkyl Halides, and Alcohols: the IUPAC System 4. How to Name Cycloalkanes 5. How to Name Alkenes and Cycloalkenes 6. How to Name Alkynes 7. Physical Properties of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. In this chapter we will consider: How to name many simple organic molecules The flexible, three-dimensional nature of organic molecules An organic reaction that can convert alkenes and alkynes to alkanes 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction to Alkanes & Cycloalkanes Alkanes and cycloalkanes are hydrocarbons in which all the carbon- carbon ( C C ) bonds are single bonds Hydrocarbons that contain C C : Alk enes Hydrocarbons that contain C C : Alk ynes 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. carbon to carbon single bonds carbon to carbon double bonds carbon to carbon triple bonds Alkanes: C n H 2n+2 e.g. hexane (C 6 H 14 ) 1 2 3 6 4 5 e.g. cyclohexane (C 6 H 12 ) Cycloalkanes: C n H 2n 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 1A. Sources of Alkanes: Petroleum Petroleum is the primary source of alkanes. It is a complex mixture of mostly alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons with small amounts of oxygen- , nitrogen- , and sulfur- containing compounds 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Distillation is the first step in refining petroleum. Its components are separated based on different volatility More than 500 different compounds are contained in petroleum distillates boiling below 200 o C Petroleum refining 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. The fractions taken contain a mixture of alkanes of similar boiling points Mixture of alkanes can be used as fuels , solvents , and lubricants Petroleum refining (Contd) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. The demand of gasoline is much greater than that supplied by the gasoline fraction of petroleum Converting hydrocarbons from other fractions of petroleum into gasoline by catalytic cracking catalysts ~ 500 o C mixture of alkanes (C 12 and higher) highly branched hydrocarbons (C 5- C 10 ) Gasoline 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Gasoline (Contd) Isooctane burns very smoothly (without knocking) in internal combustion engines and is used as one of the standards by which the octane rating of gasoline is established 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane (isooctane) (C 12 H 18 ) CH 3 C CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 C CH 3 CH 3 H 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Gasoline (Contd) e.g. a gasoline of a mixture: 87% isooctane and 13% heptane Rated as 87-octane gasoline isooctane heptane "octane rating" 100 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Typical Fractions Obtained by ... View Full Document

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