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1. Briefly explain the major reasons for the disintegration of the Roman Empire. The Christianizing of the Roman Empire did not prevent it from its imminent decline and began to fall apart. Constantine founded Constantinople as a second capital for the Roman Empire in his efforts to strengthen the Empire but it had the opposite effect. With two capitals, Rome and Constantinople, the Roman Empire was divided and administered in two halves. The center of gravity moved eastward and the western part of the Empire was somewhat neglected. For a long time the Roman Empire isolated themselves for other groups that were called barbarians by the people of the Empire because these people were not able to speak neither Greek nor Latin. Some of these barbarians groups consisted of Celts, Germans, Persians, and Arabs, and even though the Romans did not allow them to get into the Empire some of these outsiders managed to filter into it. These groups eventually settled down, and were recruited by the Roman army and even held high positions of state. During the same time, the commercial activities started to decay, local governments became paralyzed and high taxes began to hurt peoples economy. Also, there were conflicts between rival generals. Eventually the lines between the Roman Empire and the barbarians cities began to taper and both worlds made less and less difference. Many more invasions from Huns around 450 and Arabs a few centuries later debilitated the already weak Roman Empire. The old unity of the Greco-Roman or Mediterranean world collapsed and divided into three different segments thus creating three different civilizations that now confronted each other. 3. By the year 1000, or soon thereafter, the entity that we call Europe had come into existence. Explain this statement summarizing what was unique about Western European civilization by this time compared to Eastern Europe and the world of antiquity. In this period of time, the turbulence that followed the collapsed of the Greco-Roman Empire had settled and a modern Europe evolved. Kingdoms began to emerge in France, northern Spain and city-states in the Italian peninsula. In the north, the kingdoms of England, Scotland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden were formed and in the East, the three great kingdoms of Poland, Bohemia, and Hungary rose. The east Slavs, or Russians, and other people of the Balkan Peninsula also established kingdoms that were different from the ones of the west in terms of language and religion. The habitants were different from the ones of the west in terms of language and religion.... View Full Document

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