Test 2 Study Guide
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Test 2 Study Guide

Course: CMPS 300, Spring 2011

School: Lafayette

Word Count: 1332

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1. The control unit is the component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer. 2. The ALU is the component of the processor that performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations. 3. In the machine cycle steps illustrated in the accompanying figure, fetching is the process of obtaining a program instruction or data item from memory. 4. In the machine cycle steps...

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The 1. control unit is the component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer. 2. The ALU is the component of the processor that performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations. 3. In the machine cycle steps illustrated in the accompanying figure, fetching is the process of obtaining a program instruction or data item from memory. 4. In the machine cycle steps illustrated in the accompanying figure, the term decoding refers to the process of translating instructions into signals the computer can execute. 5. In the machine cycle steps illustrated in the accompanying figure, executing is the process of carrying out commands. 6. Together, the four basic operations or a processor (fetching, decoding, executing, and storing) comprise a(n) baseline cycle. 7. With multi-core, the processor begins fetching a second instruction before it completes the machine cycle for the first instruction. 8. The pace of the system clock, called the clock speed, is measured by the number of ticks per second. 9. A processor contains small high-speed storage locations, called registers, that temporarily hold data and instructions. 10. The faster the clock speed, the more instructions the processor can execute per second. 11. Liquid cooling technology uses a continuous flow of fluid(s), such as water and glycol, in a process that transfers the heated fluid away from the processor. 12. Memory consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processed data (information). 13. Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) chips are synchronized to the system clock. 14. Double Data Rate SDRAM (DDR SDRAM) chips are even faster than SDRAM chips because they transfer data twice for each clock cycle. 15. Rambus DRAM (RDRAM) chips are another type of DRAM chips that are much faster than SDRAM chips because they use pipelining techniques. 16. L1 cache is built directly into a processor chip and usually has a very small capacity. 17. Current processors include advanced transfer cache, a type of L2 cache built directly on a processor chip. 18. L3 cache is a cache separate from the processor chip on the motherboard. 19. ROM chips called firmware contain permanently written data, instructions, or information that is recorded when the chip is manufactured. 20. Flash memory is a type of nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically and reprogrammed, similar to EEPROM. 21. Todays computers support Plug and Play, which means the computer automatically can configure adapter cards and other peripherals as users install them. 22. A USB hub is a device that plugs in a USB port on the system unit like the one in the accompanying figure and contains multiple USB ports in which users plug cables from USB devices. 23. A special type of serial port that connects the system unit to a musical instrument, such as an electronic keyboard, is called a(n) MIDI port. 24. For a wireless device to transmit signals to a computer via infrared light waves, both the computer and the device must have a(n) IrDa port. 25. Within the circuitry of a computer, each channel along which bits transfer, called a(n) bus, allows the various devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other. 26. The size of a bus, called the bus width, determines the number of bits that the computer can transmit at one time. 27. Word size is the number of bits the processor can interpret and execute at a given time. 28. The wider the bus, the fewer the number of transfer steps required and the faster the transfer of data. 29. A program is a series of instructions that tells a computer what to do and how to do it. 30. Input is any data and instructions entered into the memory of a computer. 31. A(n) input device is any hardware component that allows users to enter data or instructions (programs, commands, and user responses) into a computer. 32. A(n) keyboard is an input device contains that keys users press to enter data into a computer. 33. A(n) ergonomic keyboard has a design that reduces the chance of wrist and hand injuries. 34. A(n) optical mouse, like the one shown in the accompanying figure, uses devices that emit and sense light to detect movement. 35. A(n) wireless mouse is a battery-powered mouse that transmits data using wireless technology, such as radio waves or infrared light waves. 36. Similar to a mechanical mouse that has a ball on the bottom, a(n) trackball is a stationary pointing device with a ball on its top or side. 37. The most expensive and highest quality version of digital camera is a studio camera, which is a stationary camera used for professional studio work. 38. Manufacturers often use pixels per inch (ppi) to represent the resolution of a digital camera. 39. A(n) digital camera allows users to take pictures and store the photographed images digitally, instead of on traditional film. 40. Resolution is the number of horizontal and vertical pixels in a display device. 41. A(n) pixel is a single point in an electronic image. 42. An important measure of LCD monitors is the response time, which is the time in milliseconds (ms) that it takes to turn a pixel on or off. 43. Pixel pitch, sometimes called dot pitch, is the distance in millimeters between pixels on a display device. 44. Contrast ratio describes the difference in light intensity between the brightest white and the darkest black that can be displayed on an LCD monitor. 45. A(n) plasma monitor is a display that uses gas plasma technology, which sandwiches a layer of gas between two glass plates. 46. A(n) CRT monitor is a desktop monitor that contains a cathode-ray tube. 47. Tiny dots of phosphor material coat the screen on a display device like the one in the accompanying figure. 48. A(n) nonimpact printer forms characters and graphics on a piece of paper without actually striking the paper. 49. A printer, such as that shown in the accompanying figure, creates images using a laser beam and powdered ink, called toner. 50. Two commonly used types of impact printers are dot-matrix printers and line printers. System unit case that contains the electronic components of a computer that are used to process data System board name sometimes used for the motherboard Chip small piece of semiconducting material, usually silicon, on which integrated circuits are etched Integrated circuit electronic component that contains many microscopic pathways capable of carrying electrical current Transistor element of an integrated circuit that can act as an electronic switch that opens or closes the circuit for electrical charges Video conference meeting between two or more geographically separated people who use a network or the internet to transmit audio and video data OCR software software that enables scanners to read and convert text documents in electronic files RFID short for radio frequency identification; standard, specifically a protocol, that defines how a network uses radio signals to communicate with a tag placed in or attached to an object, animal, or person Barcode identification code consisting of either vertical lines and spaces of different widths or a twodimensional Pattern of dots, squares, and other images that represent a manufacturer and an item RFID > Barcode because RFID does not require a line of sight Biometrics technology of authenticating a persons identity by verifying a personal characteristic Nonimpact printer laser, inkjet, thermal Data projectors output device that takes the text and images displaying on a computer screen and projects them on a larger screen so that an audience can see the image clearly LCD low cost; DLP expensive Interactive white board touch-sensitive device, resembling a dry-erase board, that displays the image on a connected computer screen Tactile output devices feature included with some input devices that provides the user with a physical response from the device Machine cycle - store

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