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Networking IP NT2460 Instructor: Joseph Baker Student: Scott Cumston 09/21/2013 IP Addresses Classes and Special-Use IP Address Space An IP address is a unique address that different computers on a computer network use to identify and communicate with one another. An IP address is used as an identifier to find electronic devices connected to one another on a network. Therefore, each device in the network must have its own unique address. An IP address is like a mailing address that is used to deliver data to a computer. Some IP addresses are meant to be unique within the scope of the Internet, whereas others are meant to be unique within the scope of a specific network. When IP was first standardized in September 1981, the specification required that each system attached to an IP-based Internet be assigned a unique, 32-bit Internet address value. Systems that have interfaces to more than one network require a unique IP address for each network interface. To provide the flexibility required to support networks of varying sizes, the Internet designers decided that the IP address space should be divided into three address classes-Class A, Class B, and Class C. This is often referred to as classful addressing. Each class fixes the boundary between the network prefix and the host number at a different point within the 32-bit address. Class Size of network number bit field Size of rest bit field Number of networks Hosts per network Start address End address A 8 24 16,777,214 0.0.0.0 126.255.255.255 B C D 16 24 Not are defined 16 8 Not defined 127 (2 reserved) 16,384 (214) 2,097,152 (221) Not defined 65,534 254 Not defined 128.0.0.0 192.0.0.0 224.0.0.0 191.255.255.255 223.255.255.255 239.255.255.255 RFC 1918 specifies ranges of IP addresses that will never be routable on the global Internet. These addresses can therefore be used on "private" networks without concern for potential addressing conflicts with other networks. The ability for "private hosts" (i.e. hosts using RFC 1918 addresses) to communicate with all other hosts in the enterprise dictates that RFC 1918 addresses may be routed inside the enterprise. The RFC1918 ranges are: 10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255 (10/8 prefix) IP Networking NT2460 Instructor: Joseph Baker Student: Scott Cumston 09/21/2013 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255 (172.16/12 prefix) 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255 (192.168/16 prefix) Sampling of Martian / Bogon address ranges The following are samples of Martian / Bogon addresses: 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/8 0.0.0.0/32 10.0.0.0/8 127.0.0.0/8 "Bogon" is an informal name for an IP packet on the public Internet that claims to be from an area of the IP address space reserved, but not yet allocated or delegated by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) or a delegated Regional Internet Registry (RIR). Martian are networks that should never be routed on any network with very few exceptions. These addresses can be used on private networks such as Intranets not Internet accesses. ... View Full Document

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