pKa_compilation
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pKa_compilation

Course Number: CHEM 210, Summer 2013

College/University: Northwestern

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pKa Data Compiled by R. Williams page-1 pKa Values INDEX Inorganic 2 Phenazine 24 Phosphates 3 Pyridine 25 Carboxylic acids 4, 8 Pyrazine 26 Aliphatic 4, 8 Aromatic 7, 8 Quinoline 27 Phenols 9 Quinazoline 27 Alcohols and oxygen acids 10, 11 Quinoxaline 27 Amino Acids 12 Special Nitrogen Compounds 28 Peptides 13 Hydroxylamines 28 Nitrogen Compounds 14 Hydrazines 28 Aliphatic...

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Data pKa Compiled by R. Williams page-1 pKa Values INDEX Inorganic 2 Phenazine 24 Phosphates 3 Pyridine 25 Carboxylic acids 4, 8 Pyrazine 26 Aliphatic 4, 8 Aromatic 7, 8 Quinoline 27 Phenols 9 Quinazoline 27 Alcohols and oxygen acids 10, 11 Quinoxaline 27 Amino Acids 12 Special Nitrogen Compounds 28 Peptides 13 Hydroxylamines 28 Nitrogen Compounds 14 Hydrazines 28 Aliphatic amines 15, 17, 19 Semicarbazones 28 Cyanoamines 16 Amidoximes 28 Anilines 17, 18, 20 Thiols 29 Nucleosides 21 Carbon Acids 30,31 Special Table Heterocycles 22 Indicators 31 Acridine 23 References 32-34 Benzoquinoline 24 Cinnoline 23 Hydantoin 24 Imidazole 24 For complex chelating agents, see also reference 77. Note. This document was compiled by W.P. Jencks and has been added to by F.H. Westheimer pKa Data Compiled by R. Williams ACIDS Compound pK Ref. AgOH Al(OH)3 As(OH)3 H3 AsO 4 H2 AsO 4 HAsO 4 * As 2 O 3 H3 AsO 3 H3 BO 3 H2 B4 O 7 HB4 O 7 Be(OH) 2 HBr HOBr HOCl HClO2 HClO3 HClO4 (70%) CH3 SO 3 H HCN H2 CO 3 HCO 3 H2 CrO4 HCrO4 HOCN HZ H2 GeO3 Ge(OH)4 HI HOI HIO3 H4 IO6 H5 IO6 HMnO4 NH3 OH* NH4 * HN3 HNO2 HNO3 N2 H5 + H2 N2 O 2 H2 N2 O 2 H2 OsO 5 H2 O H3 O + Pb(OH)2 3.96 11.2 9.22 2.22, 7.0, 13.0 6.98* 11.53* 0 9.22* 9.23* 4.00 9.00 3.7 -9.00 8.7 7.53, 7.46 2.0 -1.00 -10.00 -0.6 9.40 6.37, 6.35*, 3.58 10.33* -0.98 6.50* 3.92 3.17*, 0.59* 8.59, 12.72 8.68, 12.7 -10.0 11.0 0.8 6.00 1.64, 1.55, 8.27 -2.25 5.98* 9.24* 4.72* 3.29 -1.3 7.99* 7.05 11.0 12.1 15.7 -1.7 6.48 (10.92) 4 28 28 28 77 77 4 28 34 34 4 31 28 28, 33 28 28 31 31 34 34, 32 30 2, 30 34 77 34, 78 28 31 28 28 34 34, 28 30 77 77 28 28 77 34 34 34 none none 4 (78) page-2 H3 PO 2 H2 PO 4 HPO 4 _ H3 PO 3 H2 PO 3 H4 P 2 O 7 H3 P 2 O 7 H2 P 2 O 7 = HP2 O 7 = HReO4 HSCN H2 SeO3 HSeO3 H2 SeO4 HSeO4 H3 SiO 3 H2 SO 3 H2 SO 4 HSO 3 HSO 4 H2 S2 O 4 H2 Se HSe H2 S HS HSbO 2 HTe H2 Te H2 TeO 3 Te(OH) 6 H2 VO 4 HVO4 = H2 CrO4 HOCN HSCN H3 PO 2 H3 PO 4 H2 S2 O 3 H3 AuO3 H3 GaO 3 H5 IO6 H4 V6 O 17 H2 NSO 3 H 2.0, 2.23* 7.21* 12.32* 2.0 6.58* 1.52* 2.36* 6.60* 9.25* -1.25 4.00 2.6, 8.3, 2.62* 8.32 Strong, 2.0 2.00 10.0 1.9, 7.0, 1.76* -3.0, 1.9 7.21* 1.99* 1.9 3.89* 11.00* 7.00* 12.92* 11.0 5.00 2.64, 11.0 2.7, 8.0 6.2, 8.8 8.95 14.4 0.74 3.73 0.85 1.07 2.12* 0.60*, 1.72* 13.3, 16.0 10.32, 11.7 3.29, 6.70, 15.0 (see above!) 1.96 1.0 * Indicates a thermodynamic value. 28 77 77 28 77 77 77 77 77 30 34 28 77 28 34 34 28, 77 28 77 77 29 77 77 77 77 34 34 34, 78 28 28 30 30 77 77 77 77 77 77 78 78 78 78 80 PHOSPHATES AND PHOSPHONATES Phosphates Compound pK Phosphate 1.97, 6.82, 12.5 Glyceric acid 2-phosphate 3.6, 7.1 Enolpyruvic acid 3.5, 6.4 Methyl1.54, 6.31 Ethyl1.60, 6.62 n-Propyl1.88,6.67 n-Butyl1.80, 6.84 Dimethyl1.29 Di-n-propyl 1.59 Di-n-butyl1.72 Glucose-30.84, 5.67 Glucose-40.84, 5.67 -glycero1.40, 6.44 -glycero1.37, 6.34 3-phosphoglyceric acid 1.42, 3.42 2-phosphoglyceric acid 1.42, 3.55, 7.1 peroxymonophosphoric acid 4.05 diphosphoglyceric acid 7.40, 7.99 glyceraldehyde2.10, 6.75 dioxyacetone1.77,6.45 hexose di1.52, 6.31 fructose-60.97, 6.11 glucose-60.94, 6.11 glucose-11.10, 6.13 adenylic acid 3.8?, 6.2? inosinic acid 2.4?, 6.4? ADP 2 strong, 6.6 ATP 3 strong, 6.6 pyrophosphoric acid 0.9, 2.0, 6.6, 9.4 phosphopyruvic acid 3.5, 6.38 creatine phosphate 2.7, 4.5 arginine phosphate 2.8, 4.5, 9.6, 11.2 arginine 2.02, 9.0, 12.5 amino phosphate (-0.9), 2.8, 8.2 trimetaphosphate 2.05 Ref. 55 53 53 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 56 56 54 54 54 69 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 77 Phosphonates H 2O3P(CH 2) 4PO3H 2 <2, 2.75, 7.54, 8.38 57 H 2O3P(CH 2) 3PO3H 2 <2, 2.65, 7.34, 8.35 57 H 2O3PCH 2CH(CH 3)PO 3H 2 <2, 2.6, 7.00, 9.27 57 H 2O3PCH 2PO3H 2 <2, 2.57, 6.87, 10.33 57 Methyl2.35 57 Ethyl2.43 57 n-propyl2.45 57 isopropyl2.55, 7.75 57 n-butyl2.59, 8.19 57 isobutyl2.70, 8.43 57 s-butyl2.74, 8.48 57 t-butyl2.79, 8.88 57 neopentyl2.84, 8.65 57 1,1 Dimethylpropyl2.88, 8.96 57 n -hexyl2.6, 7.9 57 n-dodecyl--, 8.25 57 CH 3(CH 2) 5CH(COOH)- 1, -57 CF 3CCl 3NH 3+CH 2( OOCCH 2) 2NH +CH 2 CHCl 2CH 2CICH 2Br( OOCCH 22NH +(CH 2) 2CH 2INH 3+CH 2CH 2C6H 5CH=CHHOCH 2C6H 5NH 2+(CH 2) 3C6H 5NH(CH 2) 3Br(CH 2) 2CH 3(CH 2) 5CH(COO)C6H 5CH 2NH 3+(CH 2) 4)NH 3+(CH 2) 5NH 3+(CH 2) 10OOC(CH2) 10(CH 3) 3SiCH 2C6H 5CH 2(C 6H 5)SC- 1.16, 3.93 1.63, 4.81 2.35, 5.9 --, 5.57 1.14, 5.61 1.40, 6.30 1.14, 6.52 --, 6.54 1.30, 6.72 2.45, 7.00 2.00, 7.1 1.91, 7.15 2.1, ---, 7.17 2.25, 7.3 --, 7.5 2.3, 7.55 2.55, 7.55 2.6, 7.6 --, 8.00 --, 8.25 3.22, 8.70 3.3, 8.4 3.85, 9.00 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 Arylphosphonic acids 2X-RC6H 3PO3H 2 X R Cl 4-O 2N Br 5-O 2N Cl 5-Cl Cl H Br H Br 5-CH 3 Cl 4-NH 2 CH 3O 4-O 2N CH 3O H CH 3O 4-O 2N HO 4-O 2N O2N H F H I H NH 2H --, 7.29 CH 3H 2.10, 7.68 C6H 5 H HOOC H 1.12, 6.14 (a), 6.14 (a), 6.63 1.63, 6.98 1.64, 7.00 1.81, 7.15 --, 7.33 1.53, 6.96 2.16, 7.77 --, 8.22 1.22, 5.39 1.45, 6.74 1.64, 6.80 1.74, 7.06 57 57 (a), 8.13 1.71, 9.17 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 **These values were obtained in 50% ethanol. (a) The compounds were not sufficiently soluble. For graphical plots of a large number of substituted phosphorus compounds see 83. triphosphate tetrametaphosphate 8.90, 6.26, 2.30 2.74 77 77 fluorophosphate 0.55, 4.8 56 Phosphonates (Ref. 2) X -H -H -NH 3+ -NH 3+ X(CH 2)PO 3H 2 2.35 7.1 1.85 5.35 X(CH 2) 2PO3H 2 2.45 7.85 2.45 7.00 X(CH 2) 4PO3H 2 2.55 7.55 X(CH 2) 5PO3 H2 2.6 7.65 X(CH 2) 6PO2H 2 2.6 7.9 X(CH 2) 10PO2H 2 8.00 Phosphines in acetonitrile, see ref. 89. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS Aliphatic Compound pK Acetoacetic 3.58 Acetopyruvic 2.61, 7.85 (enol) Aconitic, trans2.80, 4.46 Betaine 1.84 Citric 3.09, 4.75, 5.41 Crotonic 4.69 Dihydroxyfumaric 1.14 Dethylenediamine- 2.00, 2.67 tetraacetic 6.16, 10.26 Formic 3.77* Fumaric 3.03, 4.54 Glyceric 3.55 Glycollic 3.82 Glyoxylic 3.32 Homogentistic 4.40 -keto- -methyl valeric 2.3 Lactic 3.86 Maleic 1.93, 6.58 Malic 3.40, 5.2 Oxaloacetic (trans-enol) 2.56 +(cis-enol) 2.15, 4.06 Protocatechuic 4.48 Pyruvic 2.50 Tartaric + 2.99, 4.40 + or 2.89, 4.40 meso 3.22, 4.85 Vinylacetic 4.42 Ref. 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Acetic acids, substituted H4.76* O2N1.68* +(CH 3)3N 1.83* +(CH 3)2NH 1.95* +CH 3NH2 2.16* NH3+2.31* CH 3SO22.36* NC2.43* C 6H5SO22.44 HO2C 2.83* C 6H5SO2.66 F2.66 Cl2.86* Br2.86 Cl21.29 F21.24 Br30.66 Cl30.65 F30.23 (-0.26) (2) HONC4 3.01 F3C3.07* N33.03 I3.12 C 6H5O3.12 C 2H5O2C3.35 C 6H5S3.52* CH 3O3.53 NCS3.58 CH 3CO3.58* C 2H5O3.60 n-C 3H7O 3.65 n-C 4H9O 3.66 sec.-C4H9O3.67 HS3.67* i-C3H7O3.69* CH 3S3.72* i-C3H7S3.72* C 6H5CH 2S3.73* C 2H5S3.74* n-C 3H7S3.77* n-C 4H9S3.81* HO3.83* O3S4.05 (C 6H5)3CS4.30* C 6H54.31* CH 2-CH4.35* * Indicates thermodynamic values. 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 Unsaturated acids (25) Compound trans-CH 3-CH=CHCO 2H cis-CH3-CH=CHCO 2H C 6H5-CH 2CH 2CO2H trans-C 6H5-CH=CHCO 2H m-CH 3OC6H4CH 2CH 2CO2H pK 4.69* 4.44* 4.66* 4.44* ref. 20 2 2 2 4.65* 2 m-CH 3OC6H4CH=CHCO 2H 4.38* m-ClC 6H4CH 2CH 2CO2H 4.58* Compound H-CH 2CH 2CO2H H-CH=CHCO 2H C 6H5CH 2CH 2CO2H C 6H5CH=CHCO 2H** C 6H5CH 2CH 2CO2H C 6H5CH=CHCO 2H** m-ClC 6H4CH=CHCO 2H** 2 2 pK 4.88* 4.25* 4.66* 4.44* 4.66* 4.44 4.29* ref. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Unsaturated acids, Cis- and TransCis-Acid H R2 Trans-Acid R1 CC R1 R1 R2 R2 CC CO 2H cis-acid HH4.25* CH 3H4.44* ClH3.32 C 6H5H3.88* ClC 6H4 H3.91 6-BrC 6H4 H4.02 CH 3CH 34.30 C 6H5H5.26*** 2,4,6-(CH 3)3C 6H2- H6.12*** C 6H5CH 34.98*** Dicarboxylic acids, unsaturated* Maleic 1.92, 6.23 2 Citraconic (Dimethylmaleic acid) 2.29, 6.15 2 Acetylenedicarboxylic 1.73, 4.40 2 1-tetrahydrophthalic 3.01, 5.34 2 Bromomaleic 1.45, 4.62 2 Bromofumaric 1.46, 3.57 2 Chlorofumaric 1.78, 3.81 2 Fumaric 3.02, 4.38 2 Mesaconic (Dimethylfumaric acid) 3.09, 4.75 2 Phthalic 2.95, 5.41 2 Itaconic (1-Propene-2-3-dicarboxylic acid) 3.85, 5.45 2 Chloromaleic 1.72, 3.86 2 H CO 2H trans-acid Ref. 4.25* 4.69* 3.65 4.44* 4.41 4.41 5.02 5.58*** 5.70*** 5.98*** 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Alicyclic Dicarboxylic acids cis-Caronic(1,1-dimethylcyclopropane-23dicarboxylic acid 2.34*, 8.31* 2 1,2-trans-cyclopropanedicarboxylic 3.65*, 5.13* 2 trans-caronic 3.82*, 5.32* 2 1,2-cis-cyclopropane-dicarboxylic 3.33*, 6.47* 2 **trans ***in 40% acetone *thermodynamic Aliphatic Alicyclic Dicarboxylic acids Compound 1,2-trans-Cyclopropanedicarboxylic trans-Ethyleneoxidedicarboxylic 1,3-trans -Cyclobutanedicarboxylic 1,2-trans-Cyyclopentanedicarboxylic 1,3-trans-Cyclopentanedicarboxylic 1,2-trans-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic 1,3-trans-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic 1,4-trans-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic pK Ref 4.31, 5.73 Compound cis-Ethyleneoxide2 dicarboxylic 1,3-cis-Cyclobutane2 dicarboxylic 1,2-cis-Cyclopentane2 dicarboxylic 1,3-cis-Cyclopentane 2 dicarboxylic 1,2-cisCyclohexane2 dicarboxylic 1,3 -cis-Cyclohexane2 dicarboxylic 1,4-cis-Cyclohexane 2 di-carboxylic 4.18, 5.42 2 1.93, 3.25 3.81, 5.28 3.89, 5.91 4.40, 5.45 4.18, 5.93 Dicarboxylic acids* oxalic 1.23, Malonic 2.83, Methyl3.05, Ethyl2.99, n-propyl 3.00, i-propyl2.94, Dimethyl3.17, Methylethyl2.86, 6.41 Diethyl2.21, Ethyl-n-propyl2.15, Di-n-propyl2.07, Glutaric 4.34, B-Methyl 4.25, B-Ethyl 4.29, B-n-Propyl 4.31, B,B-Dimethyl3.70, B,B-Methylethyl3.62, B,B-Diethyl3.62, B,B-Di-n-propyl 3.69, D-Tartaric 3.03, DL-Tartaric 3.03, meso-Tartaric 3.29, 4.19 5.69 5.76 5.83 5.84 5.88 6.06 2 7.29 7.43 7.51 5.42 6.22 6.33 6.39 6.29 6.70 7.12 7.31 4.45 ---4.92 Ref 1.94, 3.92 2 4.03, 5.31 2 4.37, 6.51 2 4.23, 5.53 2 4.34, 6.76 2 4.10, 5.46 2 4.44, 5.79 2 2 Succinic 4.19, 5.48 2 O-O-Dimethyl3.77, 5.94 2 (high melting) 2 O-O-Dimethyl3.94, 6.20 2 (low melting) 2 O,O-Diethyl3.63, 6.46 2 (high melting) O,O-Diethyl3.51, 6.60 2 2 (low melting) 2 Tetramethyl3.50, 7.28 2 2 2 Adipic 4.42, 5.41 2 Pimelic 4.48, 5.42 2 Suberic 4.52, 5.40 2 Azelaic 4.55, 5.41 2 DL-1:2-Dichlorosuccinic 1.68, 3.18 2 meso-1:2-Dichlorosuccinic 1.74, 3.24 2 DL-1:2-Dibromosuccinic 1.48, ---2 meso-1:2-Dibromosuccinic 1.42, 2.97 20 DL-1:2-Dimethylsuccinic 3.93, 6.00 20 meso-1:2-Dimethylsuccinic 3.77, 5.36 20 3.65, 5.13 pK 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 20 20 20 20 20 20 *All are thermodynamic values Aliphatic Bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1-carboxylic acids, 4substituted HC 2H5O2CNC- 6.75 6.31 5.90 2 2 2 HOBrLysergic acid, etc. ergometrine Dihydroergometrine -dihydrolysergol 6.33 6.08 6.8, -7.4, -8.2, -- 2 2 2 2 2 Lysergic acid -dihydrolysergic ergometrinine -dihydrolysergol 6-methylergoline isolysergic acid -dihydrolysergic 7.8, 3.3 8.3, 3.6 7.3, -8.3, -8.85, -8.4, 3.4 8.6, 3.6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Hydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acids Cyclohexanecarboxylic 4.90 cis-1,2 4.80 cis-1,3 4.60 cis-1,4 4.84 trans-1,2 4.68 trans-1,3 4.82 trans-1,4 4.68 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Aromatic benzene-CO3H Anthracene-1-COOH Anthracene-9-COOH naphthalene-2-COOH Naphthalene-1-COOH C 6H5OCH 3(CH 3)2CH(CH 3)3N+NCHO2C* F3CHOICl(CH 3)3SiC 2H5Oi-C3H7On-C 5H11OC 6H5CH 3CH 2(CH 3)3CHO3PO3SH2N(CH 3)2NHO3AsO2CCH 3NH- 2 2 2 2 2 4.20* 3.69 3.65 4.17 3.69 Substituted benzoic acids (ref. 2) o m H4.20* 4.21* O2N2.17* 3.45* CH 3COCH 3SO23.64* CH 3SHSBr2.85* 3.81* F3.27* 3.87* CH 3O4.09* 4.09* n-C 3H7O4.24* 4.20* n-C 4H9O4.25* Benzene Polycarboxylic acids 3.95* 4.24* 1.37 3.45 3.60* 3.54 3.79 4.08* 3.86* 3.83* 4.24* 4.17* 4.15* 2.95* 2.98* 2.85* 2.94* 4.21* 4.24* 3.46* 3.77 3.46 3.78 4.98 8.42 4.28 4.03 4.15 4.79 5.10 5.41** 5.3 4.60 5.10 4.52* 4.34* 4.35* 3.43 3.55* 3.51 4.58* 3.99* 4.27* 4.45* 4.68* 4.55* 4.35* 4.40* 3.95 4.11 4.92 5.03 4.22 4.82 5.04 *thermodynamic for complex chelating agents, see also ref. 84. see also page 9a for more carboxylic acids. COOH Benzoic acid 3.53* 3.91* p Ortho-substituted benzoic acids Benzoic acid pK Ref. 2-CH 33.91** 2 2-t-C 4H93.46 2 2,6-(CH 3)23.21 2 2,3,4,6-(CH 3)44.00 2 2,3,5,6-(CH 3)43.52 2 2-C 2H53.77 2 2-C 6H53.46** 2 2,4,6-(CH 3)33.43 2 2,3,4,5-(CH 3)44.22 2 3.44 3.52* 4.00* 4.14* 4.47* 4.46* 4.53* Ref. 2 Acid Position of carboxyl pKI pKII pKIII Benzoic Phthalic Isophthalic Terephthalic Hemimellitic Trimellitic 1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,2,3 1,2,4 5.28* 4.46* 4.82* 4.20* 3.84* 5.87* 5.20* 4.17* 2.98* 3.46* 3.51* 2.80* 2.52* pKIV pKV pKVI 8 Trimesic Mellophanic Prehnitic Pyromellitic Benzenepentacarboxylic Mellitic *ionic strength 0.03 **thermodynamic 1,3,5 1,2,3,4 1,2,3,5 1,2,4,5 1,2,3,4,5 1.2,3,4,5,6 Carboxylic Acids Ref. 77 Aminomalonic acid* 3.32, 9.83 N-Butylaminoacetic acid 2.29, 10.07 2-carboxyethyliminodiacetic acid 2.06, 3.69, 9.66 -carboxymethylaminopropionic 3.61, 9.46 , -diaminobutyric 1.85, 8.24, 10.44 Di-(carboxymethyl)-aminomethyl phosphonic acid 2.00, 2.25, 5.57, 10.76 , -dimercaptosuccinic 2.40, 3.46, 9.44, 11.82 Ethylenediamine-N,N-diacetic 5.58, 11.05 -hydroxybutyric 3.65 N-2-hydroxyethyliminodiacetic 2.2, 8.73 3-hydroxypropyliminodiacetic 2.06, 9.24 Iminodipropionic 4.11, 9.61 Isobutyric* 4.86 Mandelic acid 3.41 2-Mercaptoethyliminodiacetic -2.14, 8.17, 10.79 Methyliminodiacetic 2.81, 10.18 3.12* 2.06* 2.38* 1.92* 1.80* 1.40* 3.89* 4.70* 3.25* 4.73* 6.21* 3.51* 4.44* 5.81* 2.87* 4.49* 5.63* 2.73* 3.97* 5.25* 6.46* 2.19* 3.31* 4.78* 5.89* 6.96* 2-Methoxyethyliminodiacetic 2.2, 8.96 2-Methylthioethyliminodiacetic 2.1, 8.91 oxalic acid* 1.25, 4.14 N-n-propylaminoacetic 2.25, 10.03 N-2-sulfoethyliminodiacetic 1.92, 2.28, 8.16 -Bromobutyric acid 2.97 N-(carbamoylmethyl)-imino-diacetic acid 2.30, 6.60 Cyanomethyliminodiacetic 3.06, 4.34 , -diaminopropionic acid 1.23, 6.69 Diethylaminoacetic 2.04, 10.47 Dimethylaminoacetic 2.08, 9.80 N-ethylaminoacetic 2.30, 10.10 Gluconic* 3.86 -hydroxybutyric 4.39 -hydroxypropionic 3.73 Iminodiacetic* 2.98, 9.89 -iodopropionic* 4.04 N-isopropylaminoacetic 2.36, 10.06 -mercaptobutyric 3.53 N-methylaminoacetic 2.24, 10.01 Nitrilotriacetic 3.03, 3.07, 10. 2-Phosphonoethyliminodiacetic 1.95, 2.45, 6.54, 10.46 *Thermodynamic PHENOLS Compound Chromotropic acid o-Methoxyphenol o-Hydroxybenzaldehyde 2-Amino-4,5 dimethylphenol hydrochloride 4,5-dihydroxybenzene1,3 disulphonic acid 7.66 pK 5.36, 15.6 --, 9.93 Ref. 6 50 7.95 50 Kojic acid 9.40 Phenol H(CH 3 ) 3 N+ CH3 SO 2 CH3 COC2 H5 O 2 CC3 H5 CH2 O 2 CBrFHOCH3 CH3 O- O 2 C-- O 3 PC6 H5 2-Chloro-4-Nitro2-Nitro-4-Chloro- o 9.95* 7.42 * Thermodynamic **Reference 52 10.4 5.28 51 Compound pK Ref. Resorcinol --, 9.15 (30 o) 50 p-Methoxyphenol --, 10.16 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid 10.09, 5.20 51 2-Aminophenol hydrochloride 9.99, 4.86 51 50 12.6e 77 m 9.94* 8 9.33 9.19 p Phenol O 2 N8 OCH7.83 NC8.05 CH3 O 2 C8.50* n-C4 H9 O 2 C8.41* I8.42* 9.11* 9.34* Cl8.81* 9.28* 9.95* CH3 S9.48 9.44 9.96 HOCH2 10.28*10.08 10.19* C2 H5 9.93 9.65 10.20 H2 N9.94* 9.39* - O 3 S-- O 3 As 10.2 9.9 9.93 9.59 9.51 NO5.42 79 6.46 79 o 7.23* 6.79 8.48* 9.92* 10.2 9.71 m p 8.35* 7.14* 8.00 7.66 8.61**7.95 8.47* 8.47* 9.17* 9.02* 9.38* 9.53 9.53 9.83* 9.82* 9.9 10.0 9.87 10.30 9.29 9.03 8.37 6.35** ALCOHOLS and other OXYGEN ACIDS Alcohols Compound pK Ref. Choline 13.9 6 Chloral hydrate 9.66, 11.0 61 Trifluoroethanol 12.5 CF3 CH2 OH 11.4, 12.43 63 CF3 CH(OH)CH3 11.8 63 CF3 CH2 (CH3 )3OH 12.43 10 C3 F7 CH2 OH 11.4** 63 (C3 F7 )2 CHOH 10.6** 63 HCCCH2 OH 13.55 64 C(CH2 OH))4 14.1 64 HOCH2 CHOHCH2 OH 4.4 64 HOCH2 CH2 OH 14.77 64 CH3 CCH2 OH 14.82 64 CH3 OH 15.54 CH2 =CHCH2 OH 15.52 H2 O 15.74 64 CH3 CH2 OH 16 64 Substituent effects for ionization of RCH2OH R CCl-3 12.24,11.80 64,65 CF312.37 64 CHF2 CH2 12.74 64 CHCl2 12.89 64 CHEC13.55 64 H2 Cl14.31 64 CH3 CCH2 14.8 64 HOCH2 15.1 H15.5 64 CH2 =CH15.5 64 CH3 -(extrap) (15.9) 64 CF3 C(CH3 )2 OH 11.6 64 HOCH2 CF2 CH2 OH 11 64 Primary alcohols=RCH2 OH and Secondary alcohols in 50% alcohol C2 F5 11.35 65 C4 F9 11.35 65 C5 F11 11.37 65 C7 F15 11.35 65 CHF2 12.00 65 CF2 Cl 11.63 65 CHF2 CF2 11.34 65 CHF2 (CF2 )2 11.35 65 CF3 CH2 12.7 65 CF3 (CH2 )2 12.9 65 CF3 CHMe OH 11.28 65 C3 F7 CHMe OH 11.38 65 C3 F7 CHEt OH 11.37 65 C3 F7 CHPr OH 11.37 65 C3 F7 CH(CF3 ) OH 10.46 65 Compound pK C3 F7 CH(C2 F5) OH 10.48 (C3 F7 )2 CHOH 10.52 62 Carbonium ions Triphenylmethanols in H 2SO 4 4,4,4-Trimethoxy 4,4-Dimethoxy -1.24 4-Methoxy -3.40 4-Methyl -5.41 4 -Trideuteriomethyl5.43 3,3,3-Trimethyl6.35 Unsubstituted triphenylmethanol6.63 64 4,4;,4;-Trichloro64 4 -NitroCCl3 CH2 OH 11.8*** CF3 CH2 OH 11.3*** Hydroxamic acids FuroGlycine Hippuroiso Nicotin 64 p-MethylbenzNicotinNicotin-methiodide m-NitrobenzPicolin Pyrimidine-2-carboxSalicylTropo- Other oxygen acids Trimethylamine-n-oxide Dimethylglyoxime (50% dioxane) O-methyl ether Tropolone -Bromotropolone Acetald hydrate Formald hydrate a 50% dioxane ***50 aquaeous ethanol Ref. 65 65 H C1O 4 HNO3 .82. .82 -1.14 -1.11 -3.59 -3.41 -5.67 5.67 -5.95 ref .80 66 66 66 66 66 -6.89 66 8.01 9.76 8.45 7.40 8.80 7.85 6.46 8.07 8.50 7.88 7.43 6.60 7.749.15- 66 66 72 72 72 72 8.90 8.30 72 72 72 72 72 9.09 4.6 72 72 72 18 12.84 12.92 12a 6.95 a 13.48 13.29 66 77 77 77 77 91 91 OTHER OXYGEN ACIDS Compound pK Ref. Pyridine oxides 4-Aminopyridine 1-oxide 3.69 67 4-Dimethylaminopyridine 1-oxide 3.88 67 4-Dimethylaminopyridine 1-oxide 3.88 67 4-Dimethylamino-1-methoxypyridinium perchlorate >11 67 2-Methylaminopyridine 1-oxide 2.61 67 2-Amino-1-methoxypyridinium perchlorate 12.4 67 4-Hydroxypyridine 1-oxide 2.45 67 4-Methoxypyridine 1-oxide 2.05 67 1-Methoxypyridi-4-one 2.57 67 2-Hydroxypyridine 1-oxide -0.8 67 2-Ethoxypyridine 1-oxide 1.18 67 1-Methoxypyrid-2-one -1.3 4-Methylaminopyridine 1-oxide 3.85 67 4-Amino-1-methoxypyridinium perchlorate >11 67 2-Aminopyridine 1-oxide 2.67 67 2-Dimethylaminopyridine 1-oxide 2.27 67 2-Methylamino-1-methoxypyridinium toluenep-sulphonate >11 67 4-Benzyloxypyridine 1-oxide 1.99 67 1-Benzyloxypyrid-4-one 2.58 67 2-Methoxypyridine 1-oxide 1.23 67 1-Benzyloxypyrid-2-one -1.7 67 Pyridine 1-oxides R 4-CH 3 3-CH 3 3,4-(CH) 4 3-COOC4H9 4-NO2 3-NH2 H 3-COOH 4-COOH pK 1.29 1.08 1.01 0.03 -1.7 1.47 0.79 0.09 -0.48 Peroxides ROOH (Ref. 70) H CH 3 11.6 11.5 Ref. 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 C 2H5 11.8 Oximes benzoquinoline mon3-pyridine-1,2-ethanedione-2-oxime methiodide Hydroxamic acids Aceto9.40 n-Butyro9.48 n-Butyro9.00 p-Methoxybenzo9.19 N-Hydroxyphthalimide 7.00, 6.10 Salicylo 7.32 Benzo8.88 p-Chlorobenzo9.59 -Naphtho~7.7 Propiono9.46 Oximes Benzophenone oxime 11.3 18 Diethyl ketoxime 12.6 18 Isonitrosoacetylacetone (INAA) 7.4 76 5-Methyl-1,2,3-cyclohexanetrione-1,3-dioxime 8.3 76 Acetophenone oxime 11.48 18 Acetoxime 11.42 18 Isonitrosoacetone (INA) 8.3 76 Salicyclaldoxime (SA) 9.2 76 1,2,3-Cyclohexanetrionetrioxime 8.0 76 5-Methyl-1,2,3-cyclohexane-trionetrioxime 8.0 76 Oxygen acids sulfinic acids p-Toluenep-Chlorobenzenep-Nitrobenzenep-Bromobenzenem-NitrobenzeneBenzene- 7.20 1.99 73 73 1.89 1.88 1.84, 2.16 Peroxyacids Peroxymonosulfuric 9.4 Acetic 8.2 n-Butyric 8.2 Formic 7.1 Propionic 8.1 peroxydiphosphoric 5.18, 7.8 peroxymonophosphoric 4.85 iso-C 3H7 12.1 ref. 93 6.25 68 68 68 68 71, 72 68 68 68 68 68 tert-C4H9 12.8 73 73 73 73 69 70 70 70 70 85 90 iso-C 4H9 12.8 Pyridine-2-aldoxime heptiodide Pyridine-4-aldoxime methiodide Pyridine-4-aldoxime pentiodide 8.00 8.50 8.50 4-Pyridine-1,2-ethanedione-2-oxime methiodide Pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide PhenylglyoxaldPyridine-4-aldoxime dodeciodide Pyridine-3-alkoxime methiodide Hydroxamic acids D-LysineN-phenylnicotinoChloroacetoFormop-Chlorophenoxyacetop-Hydroxybenzop-MethoxybenzoN-Phenylbenzoo-AminobenzoL-Tyrosine L-Lysine p-Nitrobenzop-AminobenzoL-LactiPropionoPhthaloIndole-3-acetoCyclohexanoHexanoAmino Acids Compound 7.1 8.0 8.3 8.5 9.2 ref. 93 7.93 8.00 8.40 8.65 8.75 8.93 9.00 9.15 9.17 9.20 7.9 8.0 9.3 9.3 9.4 9.4 9.5 9.7 9.7 pK -COOH Alanine 2.35 9.69 -Aminobutyric acid 2.55 9.60 -Aminoisobutyric 2.36 10.21 Argininosuccinic >12, 1.62 9.58 2.70, 4.26 Aspartic acid 2.09, 3.86 9.82 Canaline 10.3, 9.20 11.6 (?) Creatinine 4.84 9.2 Cystine 1.65 7.85 2.26 9.85 Diidotyrosine 6.48, 2.12 7.82 Glutamic acid 2.19, 4.25 9.67 Glycine 2.34 9.6 Histidine 6.0, 1.82 6 Hydroxylsine 2.13 8.62 9.67 Isoleucine 2.36 9.68 Lysine 2.18 8.95 10.53 O-Methyl tyrosine 9.27 Ref. -NH3 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 9.17 6 6 6 21 O-Methyltyrosine ethyl ester 7.31 22 octopine 13, 1.36 8.77 6 2.40 Phenylalanine 1.83 9.13 6 2-Pyrrolidoone-5-carboxylic acid (glucamic acid) 3.32 Serine 2.21 9.15 6 Threonine 2.63 10.43 6 N-Trimethyl tyrosine 9.75 21 Tyrosine 10.07, 2.20 9.11 Urocanic acid 5.8 3.5 Valine 2.32 9.62 6 -Alanine 3.60 10.19 6 -Aminobutyric acid 4.23 10.43 6 Arginine 12.48 2.17 9.04 6 Asparagine 2.02 8.8 6 Azaserine 8.55 6 Canavanine 7.40, 9.25 11.50 (?) 6 Creatine 2.67 11.02 6 Cysteine 10.78 1.71 8.33 6 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine 9.88, 2.36 8.68 6 11.68 Glutamine 2.17 9.13 6 Histamine 5.0 9.7 6 -Hydroxyglutamic 2.09 9.20 6 acid 4.18 Hydroxyproline 1.92 9.73 6 Leucine 2.36 9.60 6 Methionine 2.28 9.21 1-Methylhistidine 6.48, 1.69 8.85 6 Norleucine 2.39 9.76 6 Norvaline 2.36 9.76 6 Ornithine 1.71 8.69 6 10.76 Proline 1.99 10.60 6 Sarcosine 2.23 10.01 6 Taurine 1.5 8.74 6 Thiolhistidine <1.5, 11.4 1.84 8.47 6 Tryptophan 2.38 9.39 6 Tyrosine ethyl ester 7.33 9.80 22 Peptides Anserine 7.0 2.65 9.5 6 Carnosine 6.83 -9.51 6 Cystinyldiglycine 3.12 6.36 6 3.12 6.95 Glycylglycine 3.06 8.13 Gly-gly-gly 3.26 7.91 23 Glycylproline 2.84 8.55 6 Aspartyl histi2.45 7.98 dine Diglycylcystine Glutathione 9.12 6.82 2.71 2.12 3.53 3.02 7.94 8.66 6 6 Gly-gly-gly-gly Lysyl-lysine (L,L) Compound -COOH -NH2 -NH2 GlyAla (L) or (D) 3.17 8.23 AlaGly (L) or (D) 3.16 8.24 GlyAlaAla (LL) 3.38 8.10 GlyAlaAla (LD) 3.30 8.17 AlaAlaOH (DD) 3.30 8.14 AlaAlaOH (LD) 3.12 8.30 HAlaAlaAlaOH (3L) 3.39 8.03 HAlaAlaAlaOH (LLD) 3.37 8.05 HAla-Ala-AlaOH (LDL) 3.31 8.13 HAla-Ala-AlaOH (DLL) 3.37 8.06 H-Ala-Ala-AlaOH (3D) 3.39 8.06 HAla-Ala-Ala-AlaOH (4L) 3.42 7.94 HAla-Ala-Ala-AlaOH (LLDL) 3.24 7.93 HAla-Ala-Ala-AlaOH (LDLL) 3.22 7.99 HAla-Ala-Ala-AlaOH (DLLL) 3.42 7.99 HLys-AlaOH (LL) 3.22 7.62 10.70 HLys-AlaOH (LD) 3.00 7.74 10.63 HAla-Lys-AlaOH (3L) 3.15 7.65 10.30 HAla-Lys-AlaOH (LDL) 3.33 7.97 10.36 HAla-Lys-AlaOH (LLD) 3.29 7.84 10.49 HAla-Lys-Ala-AlaOH (4L) 3.58 8.01 10.58 HAla-Lys-AlaOH (LDLL) 3.32 8.01 10.37 HAla-Lys-Ala-Ala-AlaOH (5L) 3.53 7.75 10.35 HAla-Lys-Ala-Ala-AlaOH (LDLLL) 3.30 7.85 10.29 HLys-LysOH (LL) 3.01 7.53 10.05 HLys-LysOH (LD) 2.85 7.53 9.92 HLys-LysOH (3L) 3.08 7.34 9.80 HLys-Lys-LysOH (LDL) 2.91 7.29 9.79 HLys-Lys-LysOH (LDD) 2.94 7.14 9.60 Compound pK ref. Glutathione 3.59, 8.75, 9.65 77 Glycylserine 8.23 77 Glycylleucine 8.13 77 Leucylglycine 7.96 77 Glycylisoleucine 7.96 77 Leucylglycylglycine 7.66 77 Glycylphenylalanine 8.28 77 Glycyltyrosine 8.22 77 Benzylglutamic acid 3.49, 4.99 77 Glycyltryptophane 8.04 77 Glutathione, oxidized 3.15, 4.03, 8.57, 9.54 77 Alanylalanine (LL) 3.30 8.14 92 Alanylalanine (LD) 3.12 8.30 92 Lysylalanine (LL) 3.22 7.62 10.70 92 Lysylalanine (LD) 3.00 7.74 10.63 92 Leucyltyrosine (LL) 3.46 7.84 10.09 92 Leucyltyrosine (DL) 3.12 8.38 10.35 92 3.05 3.01 10.05 -NH2 11.01 10.98 10.54 10.54 10.38 7.75 7.53 11.01 23 6 -NH2 Ref. 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 11.32 27 11.42 27 11.09 27 Lysyllysine (LD) 2.85 7.53 NITROGEN COMPOUNDS Aliphatic Amines pK ref. Ammonia 9.21 1 Primary Amines -Alanine ester 9.13 1 Allylamine9.69 2 Benzyl 9.34 1 n-Butyl10.59 1 t-Butyl10.55 1 Cyclohexylmethyl10.49 1 Ethanol9.50 1 Ethylenedi9.98, 7.52 1, 77 Hydrazine 8.10 1 Isopropyl10.63 1 Methyl10.62 1 Phenylamyl10.49 2 -Phenylethyl9.83 1 X XNH 3 + H9.25* HF2CRO2CHO5.96* C 6H54.58* H2N8.12* H2C=CHCH 310.64* X X-NH3+ X(CH 2)2NH3+ X(CH 2)2NH3+ X(CH 2)4NH3+ X(CH 2)5NH3+ X(CH 2)8NH3+ X(CH 2)10NH3+ X(CH 2)3NH3+ XCH 2 NH 3 + 10.64* 7.52 7.75 9.37* 9.69 10.67* -H 9.25* 10.64 10.67 10.61 10.63 10.65 10.64 10.58 Secondary amines DimethylDi-n-propylDiisopropylt-Butylcyclohexyl -Cyclohexylpyrroline -(p-Tolyl)pyrroline -Ethylpyrrolidine -Benzylpyrrolidine N-methylhydroxylamine Diethyl- 92 n-Propyl10.53 Trimethylsilymethyl10.96 CH 3ONH2 4.60 Allyl9.49 -Amino-n-butyric acid ester 9.71 sec-Butyl10.56 Cyclohexyl10.64 -difluoroethyl7.52 Ethyl 10.63 Glycine ester 7.75 Hydroxyl5.97 Methoxy4.60 neo-Pentyl10.21 -Phenylbutyl 10.40 -Phenylpropyl10.20 Triethylenedi8.8* 1 1 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 ? X(CH2 )2 NH 3 + X(CH2 )3 NH 3 + X(CH2 )4 NH 3 + ref. 10.67* 10.58* 10.61* X(CH2 )5 NH 3 + 10.63* 2 9.13 9.50* 9.83* 9.98* 9.71 10.15* 10.37 2 10.20* 10.65* 10.39* 10.84* 10.49* 11.05* 2 2 10.61* -CO2 10.64* -PO3 10.25 10.8 10.8 10.9 11.0 2 9.77 10.19 10.77 10.75 10.63* -SO3 1 5.75 9.20 10.65 10.95 11.25 10.43 11.35 10.05 10.58* -NH3+ -.88 9.31 9.74 10.10 8.59 10.64 11.00 11.05 11.23 7.95 7.59 10.43 10.36 5.96 10.98 9.92 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 12 1 Di-n-butyl11.25 Diisobutyl10.50 -Ethylpyrroline 7.43 -Benzylpyrroline7.08 2-Methylpiperidine 10.99 -Cyclohexylpyrrolidine 10.80 -(p-Tolyl)pyrrolidine 10.01 N,O-dimethylhydroxylamine 4.75 Acetanilide +0.61 *thermodynamic value 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 12 4 Aliphatic Amines 1,2-Iminoethane 7.98 cis-2,3-Iminobutane 8.72 1,2-Imino-2-methylpropane 8.61 1,2-Iminobutane 8.29 trans-2,3-Iminobutane 8.69 Secondary Amines Allylmethyl10.11 Benzylethyl9.68 Morpholine 8.36 N-Benzoylpiperazine 7.78 Di-sec-butyl11.01 N-Methylmethoxyamine 4.75 Pyrolidine 11.27 1-Tosylpiperazine 7.39 Benzylmethyl9.58 Piperidine 11.22 N-Carbethoxypiperazin 8.28 Dietrimethylsilylmethyl11.40 Diallyl9.29 N-Methylhydroxyl5.96 Trimethyleneimine 11.29 Cis-2,6-dimethyl-piperidine 10.92 Tertiary amines Trimethyl9.76 Dimethyldiethyl10.29 Dimethyl-n-propyl9.99 Dimethyl-isobutyl9.91 Dimethyl-sec-butyl10.40 Tri-n-propyl10.65 Triallyl8.31 N-Allylpiperidine 9.69 1-Diethylamino-hexane-thiol-(6) Cyanoamines N-piperidine-CH2CN 4.55 Et2NCN -2.0 Et2N(CH 2)2CN 7.65 Et2N(CH 2)4CN 10.08 Et2NC(CH3)2CN 9.13 EtN(CH2CN) 2 -0.6 EtN(CH2CH 2CN) 2 4.55 H2NCH 2CN 5.34 N-Amphetamine-(CH 2)2-CN 7.23 N-Norcodeine-(CH2)2CN 5.68 Dimethylcyanimide 1.2 Diethylcyanimide 1.2 Aminoacetonitrile 5.3 Diethylaminoacetonitrile 4.5 Methyl- -diethylamino-ethyl-sulfide 1,2-Dimethyl-2-pyrroline 11.94 2 1-methyl-2-n-butyl- 2-pyrroline 11.90 1-Ethyl-2-methyl-2-pyrroline 11.92 2 2-pyrroline 11.90 1-n-Butyl-2-methyl- 2 2-tetrahydropyridine 1,2-Dimethyl- 11.57 2 N-Ethyl derivative of: 1,2-Imino-ethane 7.93 7 Trans-2,3-Iminobutane 9.47 7 Trimethylhydroxylamine 3.65 12 Dimethylethyl9.99 1 Triethyl10.65 1 Dimethyl-n-butyl10.02 1 Dimethyl-isopropyl10.30 1 Dimethyl-t-butyl10.52 1 Tri-n-butyl10.89 1 Diallylmethyl8.79 1 1-n-Propylpiperidine 10.48 2 10.1 10.1 5 9.8 -5 1,2-Dimethylpyrrolidine 10.26 2 1-Methyl-2-n-butylpyrrolidin 10.24 2 1-Ethyl-2-methylpyrrolidine 10.64 2 1-n-Butyl-2-methylpyrrolidine 10.43 2 1-Ethyl-2-methylpyrrolidine 10.70 2 1,2-Iminobutane 8.18 7 cis-2,3-Iminobutane 8.56 7 N-dimethylhydroxylamine 5.20 12 Allyldimethyl 8.78 1 1,2-Dimethylpiperidine 10.26 2 2-tetrahydropyridine 1-Ethyl-2-methyl- 11.57 2 7 7 7 7 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 2-Amino-2-cyanopropane 5.3 -Isopropylaminopropionitrile 8.0 -Diethylaminopropionitrile 7.6 Et2NCH 2CN 4.55 Et2N(CH 2)3CN 9.29 Et2N(CH 2)5CN 10.46 HN(CH 2CN) 2 0.2 HN(CH 2CH 2CN) 2 5.26 N(CH 2CH 2CN) 3 1.1 N-piperidine-C(CH3)2CN 9.22 N-Methamphetamine-(CH2)2CN 6.95 Methyl cyanamide 1.2 Ethyl cyanamide 1.2 Cyanamide 1.1 Dimethylaminoacetonitrile 4.2 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 -Aminopropionitrile 7.7 9 -Dimethylaminopropionitrile 7.0 9 , "-Dicyanodiethylamine 5.2 9 For complex chelating agents of aliphatic amines, see also ref. 77. Fluoro-substituted amines CF 3CH 2NH2 5.7 CF 3CH 2N(CH 3)2 4.75 10 10 CF 3CH 2NHCH 3 6.05 Phenylethylamines 2-phenylethylamine 9.78 N-methyl-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine 8.78 N-methyl-2-phenyl 10.31 Epinephrine 8.55 Arterenol 8.55 10 11 11 11 11 11 R1 R2 CHCH 2NHR4 R3 ref. 11 R1 R2 R3 R4 pK H H H OH H OH OH H H H OH H OH OH H H OH H OH OH OH H H OH H OH OH OH H OH OH OH H H OH H OH OH OH H H OH H H H H H H H CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 9.78 8.90 8.81 8.67 9.22 8.93 8.58 10.31 9.31 8.62 8.89 9.36 8.78 8.55 Ring amines and imines (in 80% methyl cellosolve) (ref. 2) Pentamethylene 9.99 Cyclotridecyl 9.63 Hexamethylene 10.00 Cyclotetradecyl 9.54 Heptamethylene 9.77 Cyclopentadecyl 9.54 Octamethylene 9.39 Cycloheptadecyl 9.57 Nonamethylene 9.14 Cyclooctadecyl 9.54 Decamethylene 9.04 Undecamethylene 9.14 Amines other Dodecamethylene 9.31 Dimeoone 5.23 18 Tridecamethylene 9.35 Phthalimide 8.30 18 Tetradecamethylene 9.35 Nitrourea 4.57 18 Hexadecamethylene 9.29 Nitrourethane 3.28 18 Heptadecamethylene 9.27 Diphenylthiocarbazone 4.5 6 Cyclohexyl 9.82 , , "-Triaminotriethylamine Cycloheptyl 9.99 8.42, 9.44, 10.13 87 Cyclooctyl Cyclononyl 9.95 Anilines Ref. 2 Cyclodecyl 9.85 Monosubstituted Cycloundecyl 9.71 Substituent o m p Cyclododecyl 9.62 H4.62* 4.64* 4.58* (CH 3)3N+CH 3O2CCH 3SO2CH 3SBrFCH 3OC 6H5(CH 3)3CO3SH3N+ O2NHO2CC 2H5O2CF3CHOCl(CH 3)3SiC 2H5OCH 3HO3As H2N*Thermodynamic Dimethyl H m-NO2 m-CN p-NO2 p-CN p-NO 2.16 2.60* 2.96* 4.49* 3.78* 3.78 1.3 -0.28* 2.04 2.10 4.72 2.62* 4.47* 4.38* 3.77 4.47 2.26 3.56 2.68* 4.05 3.51* 3.38* 4.20* 4.18 2.51 2.30 1.48 4.40 3.91* 4.52* 5.29* 4.27* 3.80 2.65 2.45* 3.05 3.32 3.29 0.98*, 1.11* 2.32 2.38 2.57* 5.50 3.81* 4.36* 5.25* 5.07* 4.05 6.08 3.49* 4.17 3.32* 4.64* 4.17* 4.67* 4.05 4.88 5.07 2.63 2.97 0.61 1.78 4.54 Dimethyl (in 50% ethanol) Substituent XC6H4N(CH3)2 ref. 2 H4.21, 4.09 m-CH 3 4.66 p-C2H54.69 o-(CH 3)2CH5.05 p-CH3CH 2CH 2CH 24.62 o-(CH 3)3C4.26 p-I3.43, 2.73 p-Br3.52, 2.82 p-Cl3.33 m-(CH 3)3Si4.41 o-CH 3O5.49 o-CH 3 5.15, 5.07 p-CH3 4.94 p-CH3CH 2CH 24.43 p-(CH3)2CH4.77 p-(CH3)2CHCH24.19 52 52 52 52 52 52 p-(CH3)3Cm-Brm-Clp-Fp-(CH3)3Sip-CH3O- 4.65 3.08 3.09 4.01 3.99 5.14, 5.16 Ortho-substituted anilines (in 50% ethanol) H4.25 2-CH 33.98, 4.09 2,3-(CH 3)24.42 2,4-(CH 3)24.61 2,5-(CH 3)24.17, 4.23 2,6-(CH 3)23.42, 3.49 3,5-(CH 3)24.48 2-CH 34.09 2-(CH 3)2CH4.06 2-(CH 3)2C3.38 2,6-(CH 3)2-4-(CH 3)3C- 3.88 2,4-(CH 3)2-6-(CH 3)33.43 2-CH 3-4,6-(CH 3)3C3.31 2,4,6-[(CH 3)3C 3]<2 1-NH2-8-NO21-NH2-8-SO31-NH2-3-SO31-NH2-4-SO31-NH2-5-SO31-NH2-6-SO31-NH2-7-SO31-NH2-8-SO32-NH22-NH2-1-NO22-NH2-3-NO22-NH2-4-NO22-NH2-5-NO22-NH2-6-NO22-NH2-7-NO22-NH2-8-NO22-NH2-1-SO32-NH2-3-SO32-NH2-4-SO32-NH2-5-SO32-NH2-6-SO32-NH2-7-SO32-NH2-8-SO3- Substituted Naphthylamines 1-NH23.92* 1-NH2-2-NO2-1.6 1-NH2-3-NO22.22 1-NH2-4-NO20.54 1-NH2-5-NO22.80 1-NH2-6-NO23.15 1-NH2-7-NO22.83 N-substituted anilines* R HCH 3C 2H5n-C 3H7n-C 4H9i-C4H9sec-C4H9t-C 6H12CyclopentylCyclohexylt-C 4H9*Thermodynamic C 6 H 5 NHR 4.58 4.85 5.11 5.02 4.95 --6.30 5.30 5.60 6.95 C 6 H 5 N(CH 3 )R C 6 H 5 NR 2 4.85 5.06 5.98 --5.20 6.04 -6.71 6.35 7.52 4.58 5.06 6.56 5.59 ~5.7 ------- 2-CH 3 C 6 H 4 NHR 4.39 4.59 4.92 -----5.07 5.34 6.49 2.79 1.71 3.20* 2.81* 3.69* 3.80* 3.66 5.03* 4.11* -1.0 2.93 2.63 3.16 2.75 3.13 2.86 2.35 -3.70 3.96* 3.74* 3.95* 3.89* 2-CH 3 C 6 H 4 NR 2 4.39 5.86 7.18 AMINES ref. 77 Primary amines 2-aminoethylsulphonic acid 9.08 Aminomalonic acid 3.32, 9.83 N-n-butylethylenediamine 7.53, 10.30 2,3-diaminobutane, meso 6.92, 9.97 2,3-diaminobutane, racemic 6.91, 10.00 2,2'-diaminodiethyl sulfide 8.84, 9.64 1,3-diamino-2,2-dimethylpropane 8.18, 10.22 N,N'-Di-(2-aminoethyl)-ethylenediamine 3.32, 6.67, 9.20, 9.92 1,2-diamino-2-methylpropane 6.79, 10.00 1,3-Diaminopropan-2-ol 8.23, 9.68 N,N'-Diglycyethylenediamine 7.63, 8.35 Ethylenediamine-N,N-diacetic acid 5.58, 11.05 Furfurylamine 8.89 2-(2-hydroxypropylamino)-ethylamine 6.94, 9.86 2-(3-hydroxypropylamino)ethylamine 6.78, 9.76 N-Methylaminoacetic acid 2.24, 10.01 Methyl- -amino- -mercaptoproionate 6.56, 8.99 N-n-propylethylenediamine 7.54, 10.34 1,2,3-triaminopropane 3.72, 7.95, 9.59 Tris-(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane 8.10 2-amino-2'-hydroxydiethyl sulfide 9.04 N-(carbamoylmethyl)-iminodiacetic acid 2.30, 6.60 2,2'-diaminodiethylamine 3.58, 8.86, 9.65 2,3-diamino-2,3-dimethylbutane 6.56, 10.13 3,3'-diaminodi-n-propylamine 8.02,9.70, 10.7 1,2-Di-(2-aminoethylthio)ethane 8.43, 9.32 1,2-diaminopropane 7.13, 10.00 N,N-diethylethylenediamine 7.07, 10.02 N,N-dimethylethylenediamine 6.63, 9.53 N-Ethylethylenediamine 7.63, 10.56 N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-ethylenediamine 6.83, 9.82 N-isopropylethylenediamine 7.70, 10.62 2-Methoxyethylamine 9.20 Mercaptoethylamine 8.27, 10.53 N-Methylethylenediamine 7.56, 10.40 2-Methylthioethylamine 9.18 2-thienylmethylamine 8.92 Triaminotriethylamine 8.56, 9.59, 10.29 Secondary amines N-Butylaminoacetic acid 2.29, 10.07 N,N'-Diethylethylenediamine 7.70, 10.46 2,2'-dihydroxydiethylamine 9.00 N,N'-di-n-propylethylenediamine 8.14, 10.97 Ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid 6.42, 9.46 Iminodipropionic acid 4.11, 9.61 Piperazine 5.68, 9.82 -carboxymethylaminopropionic acid 3.61, 9.46 N,N'-Dimethylethylenediamine 7.40, 10.16 N-ethylaminoacetic acid 2.30, 10.10 Iminodiacetic acid 2.98, 9.89 N-isopropylaminoacetic acid 2.36, 10.06 N-n-propylaminoacetic acid 2.28, 10.03 Tertiary amines 4-(2-aminoethyl)morpholine 4.84, 9.45 Di-(2-hydroxyethyl)aminoacetic acid 8.08 Hexamethylenetetramine 5.13 Methyliminodiacetic acid 2.81, 10.18 Diethylaminoacetic acid 2.04, 10.47 Dimethylaminoacetic acid 2.08, 9.80 N-2-hydroxyethyliminodiacetic acid 2.2, 8.73 Triethylenediamine 4.18, 8.19 Ref. 1 Diallylmethyl Benzyldimethyl N-Allylpiperidine N-Allylmorpholine Propargyldimethyl Propargylethyldimethyl N-Methylmorpholine N-Methylpyrrolidine N,N-Dimethylhydroxylamine Allyldimethyl Benzyldiethyl N-Ethylpiperidine N-Ethylmorpholine Propargymethyldimethyl N-Methylpiperidine N-Methyltrimethyleneimine Triethanolamine N,N-Dimethylmethoxyamine 8.79 8.93 9.68 7.05 7.05 8.88 7.41 10.46 5.20 8.73 9.48 10.40 7.70 8.33 10.08 10.40 7.77 3.65 Ref. 5 N-Dimethyl-cysteamine N-Dipropyl-cysteamine N- -Mercaptoethyl-morpholine 1-Diethylamino-butan- (4) 7.95, 10.7 8.00, 10.8 6.65, 9.8 10.1 Methyl-[ -diethylamino-ethyl]sulfide 9.8 N-Diethyl-cysteamine 7.8, 10.75 N- -Mercaptoethyl-piperidine 7.95, 11.05 1-Diethylamino-propan- (3) 8.0, 10.5 1-Diethylamino-hexan- (6) 10.1 ANILINES (Ref. 88) m-Substituted anilines m-C2 H5 -C(CH3 ) 3 3,5-[C(CH3 ) 3 ] 2 m-CN 3-OCH3 .5-NO2 3,5-Br2 NAPHTHALAMINES 4.70 4.66 4.97 2.76 2.11 2.34 m-CH(CH3 ) 2 3,5-(CH3 ) 2 m-COCH3 3-Cl,5-OCH3 3,5-(OCH3 ) 2 4.67 4.74 3.56 3.10 3.82 (reference 88) substituted naphthalamines 2-naphthalamine X 1-NH 2 ,3-X NO2 CN Cl Br I COOCH 3 OCH 3 OH CH3 Cl 2-NH 2 ,5-X NO2 OH 1-NH 2 ,5-X NO2 OH Cl NH2 1-NH 2 ,7-X NO2 Cl OCH 3 OH 1-NH 2 ,2-X NO2 1-X,2-NH2 NO2 1-NH 2 ,8-X NO2 4.16 2.07 2.26 2.66 2.67 2-naphthalamine 2-NH 2 ,4-X 2.82 3.12 3.26 3.30 3.96 2.71 3.01 4.07 2.73 3.96 3.34 4.21 2.55 3.48 1-NH 2 ,6-X 2-NH 2 ,7-X 2-NH 2 ,6-X 4.07 4.20 -1.74 -0.85 2.79 , 2-NH 2 ,8-X 1-NH 2 ,4-X 2-NH 2 ,3-X X NO2 CN Cl Br I COOCH 3 OCH 3 NO2 Cl OCH 3 OH NO2 Cl OCH 3 OH NH2 NO2 OCH 3 NO2 NO2 Br NO2 2.43 2.66 3.38 3.40 3.41 3.38 4.05 2.89 3.48 3.90 3.97 3.10 3.71 4.19 4.25 4.66 2.62 4.64 2.73 0.54 3.21 1.48 Anilines (in 50% ethanol) Unhindered Aniline p-Aminodiphenyl 2-Naphthylamine 3-Phenanthrylamine m-Aminodiphenyl 2-Aminofluorene 2-Phenanthrylamine 2-Anthrylamine Hindered o-Aminodiphenyl peri 1-Naphthylamine 9-Phenanthrylamine 3-Aminopyrene 1-Phenanthrylamine 1-Anthrylamine pK 4.19 3.81 3.77 3.59 3.82 4.21 3.60 3.40 ref. 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 3.03 40 3.40 3.19 2.91 3.23 3.22 40 40 40 40 40 meso 9-Anthrylamine 2.7 o-Aminophenols 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid 10.09, 5.20 2-Aminophenol hydrochloride 9.99, 4.86 Indicators p-Aminoazobenzene 2.82, 2.76 4-Chloro-2-nitroaniline -1.02, -1.03 4,6-Dichloro-2-nitroaniline -3.61, -3.32 6-Bromo-2,4-dinitroaniline -6.64, -6.71 2-Amino-4,5-dimethylphenol hydrochloride 5.28 N,N-Dimethyl-2,4-dinitroaniline -1.00, -p-Nitrodiphenylamine -2.4 to -2.9, -2.50 4-Methyl-2, dinitroaniline -3.96, -4.44 Heterocyclics Nucleosides, etc. Adenine 2'-AMP 3'-AMP ADP ATP Barbital Cytosine Cytosine (deoxy) 3' CMP CDP CDP, (deoxy) Guanine Guanosine " 5'-GMP GDP Hypoxanthine 4.15, 9.80 3.81, 6.17 3.74, 5.92 3.95, 6.3 4.00 (4.1), 6.5 7.85, 12.7 4.45, 12.2 4.25 4.16-4.31, 6.04 4.44 4.8, 6.6 3.3, 9.2, 12.3 2.2, 9.5 1.6, 9.16, 12.5 2.4, 9.4, 6.1 2.9, 9.6, 6.3 1.98, 8.94, 12.10 40 51 51 60 60 60 10.40, 51 60 60 60 6 6 6 36 36 37 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 35 6 6 6 5'-IMP 8.9, 1.54, 6.04 6 5-Methylcytosine 4.6, 12.4 6 5-Methylcytosine deoxyriboside 5'-phosphate 4.4 6 3-Methyluracil 9.75 37 3-Methylxanthine 8.5 (8.1), 11.3 38 Adenosine 3.63 6 " 3.3, 12.5 35 5'-AMP 3.3, 6.1 36 3.74, 6.2-6.4 6 Barbituric acid 3.9, 12.5 37 Cytidine 4.11 6 " 4.22, 12.5 35 2'-CMP 4.3-4.4, 6.19* 6 5'-CMP 4.5, 6.3 6 CTP 4.6, 6.4 6 2,6-Diaminopurine 5.09, 10.77 6 Isoguanine 4.51, 8.99 6 Guanosine (deoxy) 1.6-2.2, 9.16-9.5 6 GMP (2' + 3') 2.3, 9.36, 0.7, 5.9 6 5'-GMP (deoxy) 2.9, 9.7, 6.4 6 GTP 3.3, 9.3, 6.5 6 Inosine 1.2, 8.9 6 " 8.75, 12.5 6 5-Methylcytosine deoxyriboside 4.5, 13.0 6 1-Methyluracil 9.95 37 1-Methylxanthine 7.7, 12.05 38 7-Methylxanthine 8.5 (8.3) 38 9-Methylxanthine 6.3 38 Purine 2.52, 8.90 37 Thymidine 9.8 6 5'-TMP 10.0, 1.6, 6.5 6 Uracil deoxyriboside 9.3 6 5'-UMP 9.5, 6.4 6 UTP 9.5, 6.6 6 Uridine 9.25 6 " 9.17, 12.5 35 Xanthosine 0, 5.5, 13.0 6 Orotic acid 2.8, 9.45, 13 6 Pyrimidine 1.30 37 Thymine 0, 9.9, 713.0 6 Uracil .5, 9.5, 13.0 6 UMP (2' + 3') 9.43, 1.02, 5.88 6 UDP 9.4, 6.5 6 Uric acid 5.4, 10.3 6 Xanthine 0.8, 7.44, 11.12 6 " 7.2 38 Heterocyclic Bases (Ref. 2) 5 4 6 7 N 8 5 N 2 N N Isoquinoline 5.14* Pyridine 5.14* pK (20) 6 3 Benzoquinoline 5.05* Quinoline 4.85* 4 7 3 8 2 N 9 N N N 1 10 N Phenanthridine 3.30a 7,8-Benzoquinoline 4.25* 5,6-Benzoquinoline 5.15* Acridine 5.60 N N 2,3-Benzacridine 4.52a 3,4-Benzacridine 4.70* 1,2-Benzacridine 3.45a N N N N N N Pyrazine 0.37* Pyrimidine 1.10* Pyridazine 2.10* N N N N N Quinazoline 3.31* Phthalazine 3.39* Cinnoline 2.64* a N N N Quinoxaline 0.6* 50% EtOH Heterocyclics Aureomycin Iridine Acridine 3.30, 7.44, 9.27 --, 5.62 1-- 77 39 3-Hydroxy 5-Hydroxy (acridone) 5-Methoxy 2-- 3-- 4-- 5-- 8.81, 5.52 --f, -0.32 --, 7 9-- Ref. 2 39 39 39 H-H2N-HO-CH 3-H2K-(1-CH 3--)-1,9-(CH 3)2-- 5.60* 4.40* 3.59a 4.18a 10.7a 3.95a 4.11a 8.04* 7.61a 4.86a 9.9a 5.88* 5.03a 5.5239 8.8139 4.60a 6.04* 5.50a 4.45a 9.4* 4.79a 9.99* 9.45a -.3239 >12 4.70a 9.73s 3.22a 2.88a a 50% ethanol; ref. 39 8-amino-1,2-benzacridine 6.72 2-amino-4-methyl-5,6-benzoquinoline 40 3-amino-6,7-benzoquinoline 4.78 8-amino-3,4-benzacridine 7.42 1'-amino-5,6-benzoquinoline 5.03 4'-amino-5,6-benzoquinoline 5.20 2-amino-4-methyl-7,8,benzoquinoline 6.74 6,7-benzoquinoline 5.05, 3.84a 5,6-benzoquinoline 5.15, 3.90a 4-amino7.99a 2-methyl4.44a 4-amino-2-methyl8.45a 2-amino-4-methyl7.14, 6.51a 4'-amino5.20, 4.10a 3'-amino4.02a 1'-amino5.03 2',4'-diamino4.91a Benziminazole 5.53 2-amino7.54 Benztriazole 1.6 Benzthiazole 1.2, 0.1a 2-amino4.51 benzoxazole (decomp.) 2-amino3.73 2,3-benzacridine 4.52a 5-amino9.72a 5-acetamido4.56a 7-amino5.38a 5-amino-6:7:8:9-tetrahydro- 9.66a Caffeine 0.61 cinchonine 7.2 Cinnoline 2.70 4-amino6.84 Cocaine 7.6 Cinnoline 4-hydroxy 9.27, 0.35 6-hydroxy 7.52, 3.65 -hydroxy 8.20, 2.74 40 7.14 40 40 40 40 40 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 4 4 19 19 4 39 39 39 , '-dipyridyl 4.43 4-amino8.75a 4-amino-2-methyl9.45a 4-amino-2-methyl-8-chloro- 5.95a 8-chloro2.5a 3,4-diamino8.15a 3-amino4.78, 3.73a 7,8-benzquinoline 4.25, 3.15a 4-amino7.68a 4-amino-2-methyl7.96a 2-amino-4-methyl6.74, 6.02a 6-amino-2-methyl5.23a 1'-amino-2-methyl4.75a 3,4-benzacridine 4.70, 4.16a 5-amino 8.41a 7-amino5.03a 8-amino7.42 (6.51)a 8-acetamido4.48a 8-dimethylamino7.31, 6.99 1,2-benzacridine 3.45a 5-amino8.13a 7-amino 4.05a 8-amino6.72, 5.97a 4',5-diamino8.44a Cinnoline --, 0.21 3-hydroxy 8.64, 0.21 5-hydroxy 7.40, 1.92 7-hydroxy 7.56, 3.31 4-methoxy --, 3.21 Heterocyclics o,o'-dipyridyl 4.43 hydantoin 9.16 5-isopropyl-2-thio8.70 5,5-pentamethylene2-thio 8.79 3,5,5-trimethyl-2-thio 10.80 3-methyl-5,5-pentamethylene-2-thio11.23 Imidazoles 6 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 39 39 39 39 39 6 42 42 42 42 42 2-Methylimidazole 7.75 43 N-Acetylhistidine 7.05 43 2-Methyl-4-hydroxy-aminobenz- 6.65 43 4-Hydroxymethyl6.45 43 2-Methylbenz6.1 43 Histamine 6.0 43 4-Hydroxy-6-aminobenz- 5.9 43 4-Hydroxybenz5.3 (OH 9.5)43 4-Methoxybenz5.1 43 4-Bromo3.7 43 6-Nitrobenz3.05, 10.6 43 4-Nitro1.5, 9.1 43 isoQuinolines 1-Hydroxy-1.2 44 5-Hydroxy 5.40, 8.45 44 3-Amino5.05 40 5-Amino5.59 40 Amino6.20 40 6-Hydroxy5.85, 9.15 44 8-Hydroxy5.66, 8.40 44 2-Methylisoquinolone -1.8 44 Isoquinoline 5.46, 5.14 44, 19 Phenazine --, 1.23 39 2-Hydroxy7.5, 2.6 39 10-Methyl-2-phenazone --, 3.0 6-Aminophenanthridine 6.88 40 9-Aminophenanthridine 7.31 40 a , 5.2 o-Phenanthroline 4.27 19 p-Phenanthroline 3.12a 19 a , 6.31a 1,10-Diamino-3,8-Dimethyl- 8.78 Phenanthridine --, 4.65 44 6-Hydroxy8.43, 5.35 44 9-Hydroxy (phenanthridone) <-1.5 44 9-Amino7.31, 6.75a 19 2,7,9-Triamino8.06a 19 Phthalazine 3.47 19 1-Amino6.60 19 1-Hydroxy11.00, -2 39 Picolimic acid 5.52 4 5,5-dimethyl-2-thio8.71 42 5,5-Diphenyl-2-thio7.69 42 1-Methyl-5,5-pentamethyl-ene-2-thio9.25 42 4-Methyl7.45 43 Imidazole 6.95 43 4-(2',4'-Dihydroxyphenyl)- 6.45 43 Carbobenzoxy-L-histidyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester 6.25 43 6-Aminobenz6.0 (NH2 3.0) Benzimidazole 5.4 43 Histidine methylester 5.2 (NH2 7.1) 43 2-Methyl-4-hydroxy-6-nitro-benzimidazole 3.9 43 4-Hydroxy-6-Nitrobenz3.05 43 b2-Hydroxymethylnaphth(1,2)4.44, 12.23 86 b2-Hydroxymethylnaphth(2,3)4.50, 12.23 86 4-Hydroxy4.80, 8.68 44 1-Amino7.62 40 4-Amino6.28 40 6-Amino7.17 40 8-Amino6.06 40 7-Hydroxy5.70 40 1-Methoxy3.05 44 4-NO2 1.35 88 4-Br 3.31 88 1-Hydroxy--, 1.44 39 5-Methyl-1-phenazone --, 4.9 39 m-Phenanthroline 3.11a 19 a 19 1-Aminoca. 7.3, 7.29 2,2'-Dipyridyl 4.23 19 2-Hydroxy8.79, 4.82 44 7-Hydroxy4.38, 8.68 44 9-Methoxy--, 2.38 44 2-Amino-9-methyl5.66a 19 a 2,7-Diamino-9-methyl6.26 19 6-Amino6.88 40 Phenazine 1.23 19 a 1-Amino2.6 19 2-Amino4.75, 3.46a 19 1,3-Diamino5.64a 19 2,3-Diamino4.74 19 a 2,7-Diamino4.63, 3.9 19 Pteroylglutamic acid 8.26 77 Pyridines 2-Amino4-Amino2-Methyl2-Vinyl2-Chloro2,4,6-Trihydroxy1-Methyl-4-pyridone 2-(N-Methylacetamido)2-Benzamido2-(N-Methylbenzamido)3-(N-Methylacetamod)3-(N-Methylbenzamido)4-(N-Methylacetamido)- 6.86 9.17 5.94b 4.98 0.49 4,6, 9.0, 13 3.33 2.01 3.33 1.44 3.52 3.66 4.62 41 41 45 45 45 39 46 46 46 46 4-(N-Methylbenzamido)4.68 4-Benzamido5.32 3-NO2 0.81 3-COO 4.77 2,3-Me2 6.60 2,5-Me2 6.47 3,4-Me2 6.52 2,4,6-Me3 7.48 4-OEt 6.67 3-Cl 2.84 3-CO2Et 3.35 3-COOH 3.13 2-Amyl6.00b 2-Hexyl5.95b 2-Benzyl5.13 2-Bromo0.71 2,4-Dihydroxy 6.50, 13, 1.37 1-Methyl-2-pyridone 0.32 2-Acetamido4.09 1-Methylpyrid-2-one acetylimine 7.12 3-Acetamido4.46 3-Benzamido3.80 1-Methylpyrid-4-one acetylimine 11.03 1-Methylpyrid-4-one benzylimine 9.89 4-COO 4.90 2,4-Me2 6.72 2,6-Me2 6.77 3,5-Me2 6.14 2-Me,5-Et 6.51 3-F 3.10 3-Br 2.84 4-CO2Et 3.45 Pyridine N-oxides (see oxygen acids) Substituted Pyridines Pyridine 2H5.17b Cl0.72b I1.82b CH 3CH 25.97b (CH 3)3C5.76b HO0.75 11.62 -47 SO3 CH 3O3.28 F-0.44b Br0.90b CH 35.97b 32.84b 3.25b 5.70b 5.82b 4.86 8.72 2.9 4.88 2.97b 2.84b 5.68b 46 46 88 47 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 88 45 45 45 45 39 39 46 46 46 46 46 46 47 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 4- 6.02b 5.99b 3.27 11.09 6.62 6.02b (CH 3)2CHCH 3CO H2NCONH247 NC- 47 5.83b 6.68b 5.72b 3.18b 5.80b 3.40 1.45 6.02b 8.96b 3.61 Ortho-Substituted Pyridines (in 50% ethanol) Substituent pK ref. H4.38 2 2-C 2H54.93 2 2-(CH 3) 4.68 2 2,6-[(CH 3)2CH] 2 3.58 2 2-(CH 3)3C4.68 2 2-C 2H5-6-(CH 3)3C4.36 2 2,6-[(CH 3)3C] 2 3.58 2 2-CH 35.05 2 2-(CH 3)2CH4.82 2 2,6-(CH 3)2 5.77 2 2,6-[(CH 3)3C] 2 3.58 2 2-CH 3-6-(CH 3)3C 5.52 2 2-(CH 3)2CH-6-(CH3)3C5.13 2 Benzimidazole 2-Methyl 2-Ethyl 2-Hydroxymethyl 1-Methyl-2-hydroxymethyl 6.31 4.00 1.51, 6.21 (ref. 96) 2-Methyl-2-oxazoline 4-Carbamoyl-2-phenyl-2-oxazoline 2-Phenyl-2-oxazoline Heterocyclics Pyrazines Pyrazine 2,5-Dimethyl2,3,5,6-Tetramethyl2-Methoxy2-Methyl2,6-Dimethyl2-Hydroxy1-Methyl-2-pyrazine 2-AminoPyrimidine 2-Amino5-Amino2-Amino-4,6-dimethyl2,4,6-Triamino2-Hydroxy- pK 1.1, 0.6 2.1 2.8 --, 0.75 1.5 2.5 8.23, 0.1 -0.04 3.14 1.30 3.54 2.83 4.85 6.84 9.17, 2.24 5.5 2.9 4.4 ref . 49, 39 49 49 39 49 49 39 39 19 19 19 19 19 19 39 2.33 10.46, -1.8 5,67, -2.2, 13 3.70 5.19 8.68, 1.07 2.52 1.61 19 39 39 39 19 39 39 39 For complex chelating agents, see also ref. 77 b thermodynamic at 25. pKNH 5.58 6.29 6.27 5.40 5.55 6.00 6.96 6.90 ----- Other (ref. 95) Thiazolidine Methyl thiazolidine-4-carboxylate Thiazolidine-4-COOH Pyridazine 3-Hydroxy3,6-Dihydroxy4-Methoxy3-Amino4-Hydroxy3-Methoxy3,6-Dimethoxy- 35 pKOH 5.36 6.18 --6.14 ---11.55 ref. 86 --11.45 2,4-Dihydroxy-(Uracil) 9.38, 12 39 4,6-Dihydroxy5.4 39 2,4,6-Trihydroxy-(Barbituric acid) 3.9, 12.5 39 2-Methoxy<1 39 4-Methoxy2.5 39 1-Methyl-2-pyrimidone 2.50 39 3-Methyl-4-pyrimidone 1.84 39 4-Amino5.71 19 2-Amino-4-methyl4.15 19 2,4-Diamino7.26 19 4-Methyl1.98 19 4-Hydroxy8.59, 1.85 39 4,5-Dihydroxy7.48, 1.99, 11.61 39 2,4,5-Trihydroxy-(isoBarbituric acid) 8.11, 11.48 39 4-Hydroxy-5-methoxy8.60 1.75 39 1-Methyl-4-pyrimidone 1.8 39 Miscellaneous 4-Hydroxy-2-methylpyridazinium chloride 1.74 44 8-Hydroxy-6-methyl-1,6-naphthyridinium chloride 4.34 44 2-Hydroxyphenazine 2.6 44 4-Hydroxypteridine -0.17 44 3-Methyl-4-pteridone -0.47 44 5-Hydroxypyrimidine 1.87, 6.78 44 8-Hydroxy-1,6-Naphthyridine 4.08 44 1-Hydroxyphenazine 1.44 44 5-Methyl-1-phenazone 10-Methyl-2-phenazone 1-Methyl-4-pteridone 4.9 3.0 1.25 Quinoline HH2NHO- 3 4.80 4.86* 4.30 8.06 5.14 CH 3 FClHO2C NO2 2-4.85* 7.25* -.36 11.74 5.42 5.8 4 4.69* 9.08* 2.27 11.25 5.20 5.6 2.36* 4.96* Quinoline 2,4-Dihydroxy4-Methoxy1-Methyl-4-quinolone 2,4-DiaminoQuinazoline 2-Amino6-Amino2-Hydroxy6-Hydroxy3-Methiodide 2-Methoxy2-Methoxy1-Methyl-2-quinolone 4-Amino8-Quinolinol 3-Cl 3-Br 4-Amino8-Amono4-Hydroxy8-Hydroxy2,4-Dihydroxy4-Methoxy*Thermodynamic Heterocyclics Quinoxaline 2-Amino6-Amino2-Hydroxy1-Methiodide 2,3-Dihydroxy- 44 44 44 4.62* 1.0388 5 6 7 8 5.37* 5.20 8.54 4.62 5.54* 5.17 8.88 4.92 5.2 4.00* 3.73* 4.98* 6.56* 5.48 8.85 5.08 4.04* 3.90* 5.13 9.89 4.60 5.0 3.08* 4.97* 7.20* 3.68* 4.53* 5.86, 0.76 6.65 2.46 9.45 3.51, 3.2a 4.43 3.2a 10.69, 1.30 8.19, 3.12 7.26 1.31 3.17 -0.71 9.44, 9.17 5.13, 9.89 --, 2.46 2.61 5.73 2.4a 9.81, 2.12 8.65, 3.41 9.78, 2.5 3.13 0.8, 0.56 3.96 2.95 9.08, -1.37 5.74 9.52 39 59 39 19 19 19 19 39 39 39 39 39 39 19, 41 6 88, 44 88 19 19 39 39 39 39 19, 39 19 19 39 39 39 4.81* Ref. 2 2 44 44 2 2 2 2 2 5-Hydroxy-1-methylquioxalinium chloride 5.74 44 Riboflavin 9.93 77 Sulphadiazine 6.48 6 Sulphapyridine 8.43 6 2-Aminothiazole 5.39 41 1,3,5-Triazine -39 2,4-Dihydroxy6.5 39 1,4,6-Triazanaphthalene 2.5 39 4-Hydroxy11.05, 0.78 39 5-Amino2.62 19 2,3-Diamino4.70 19 5-Hydroxy8.65, 0.9 39 6-Hydroxy7.92, 1.40 39 1,5-Naphthyridine 2.91 39 4-Hydroxy 10.01, 2.85 39 Sulphaquanidine 11.25 6 Sulphathiazole 7.12 6 Terramycin 3.10, 7.26, 9.11 77 Tetramethylenediamine 10.7 4 1,4,5-Triazanaphthalene 1.20 39 8-Hydroxy8.76, 0.60 39 SPECIAL NITROGEN COMPOUNDS Hydroxylamines Hydroxylamine N-MethylO-MethylTrimethylN-DimethylN,O-Dimethyl- 5.97* 5.96* 4.60* 3.65* 5.20* 4.75* 12 12 12 12 12 12 Hydrazines (30) Hydrazine MethylN,N'-DimethylTetramethylN,N-DiethylPhenylGlycylhydrazide N,N-DimethylTrimethylEthylN,N'-DiethylAcetIsonicotinhydrazide 8.07 7.87 7.52 6.30 7.71 5.21 (15) 2.38, 7.69 7.21 6.56 7.99 7.78 3.24 1.85, 3.54, 10.77 77 13 13 13 13 13 14 15 13 13 13 13 15 Hydrazones Hydrazone of: Benzophenone p,p'-Dimethoxyp-Chlorop-Methoxyacetophenone p,p'-DichloroPhenyl-2-thienyl ketone 3.85 4.38 4.38 4.94 3.13 3.80 16 16 16 16 16 16 Semicarbazones of: Semicarbazide Furfural Benzaldehyde Acetone Acetaldehyde Pyruvic acid 3.66 1.44 0.96 1.33 1.10 0.59 14 14 14 14 14 Phenylguanidine 10.88 Benzamidine 11.6 N-Phenyl-O-methylisourea 7.3 Nitrogen compounds, miscellaneous Diguanide-3.07, 13.25 Dithiooxamide (rubeanic acid, H2NCSCSNH 2) 10.62 Ethylenediguanide 1.74, 2.88, 11.34, 11.76 Phenyldiguanide 2.16, 10.71 Other S-Methylisothiourea 9.83 N-Phenyl-S-methylisothiourea 7.14 19 19 20 77 77 77 77 20 20 3.02 4.99 5.24 3.11, 5.97 4.03 5.14 ~4.77 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 Other Diphenylthiocarbazone Phthalimide Nitrourethane Acetylguanidine Acetamidine O-Methylisourea Dimedone Nitrourea Guanidine 4.5 8.30 3.28 8.33 12.52 9.80 5.23 4.57 13.71 6 18 18 19 19 20 18 18 19 methyl Acetamide Urea Thiourea Amidoximes OxBenz -PhenylacetSuccino-Tolup-ToluMalon- Cinchona Alkaloids (in 80% aqueous cellosolve) Quinine 7.73 Quinidine 7.95 Ephedrine 9.14 N-Methylephedrine 8.50 Epiquinine 8.44 Epiquinidine 8.32 -Ephedrine 9.22 N-Methyl--ephedrine 8.81 4 4 4 -0.51 0.18 -0.96 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Thiols N-Dimethyl-cysteamine 7.95, 10.7 7 N-Dipropyl-cysteamine 8.00 10.8 5 N- -Mercaptoethyl-morpholine 6.65, 9.8 1-Diethylamino-butan- (4) 10.1 5 Methyl-[ -diethylamino-ethyl]-sulfide 9.8 5 Methyl thioglycolate 7.8 23 Mercaptoethylamine 8.6, 10.75 23 N-trimethyl cysteine 8.6 23 Glutathione 2.12, 3.59, 8.75, 9.65 23 N-Diethyl-cysteamine 7.8, 10.75 5 N--Mercaptoethyl-piperidine 7.95, 11.05 5 1-Diethylamino-propan- (3) 8.0, 10.5 5 1-Diethylamino-hexan- (6) 10.1 5 p-Nitrobenzenethiol 5.1 Thioglycolic acid 3.67, 10.31 Mercaptoethanol 9.5 Cysteine 1.8, 8.3, 10.8 Cysteinylcysteine 2.65, 7.27, 9.35, 10.85 X= X(CH 2)2SH X(CH 2)4SH X(CH 2)3SH X(CH 2)5SH -H 12.0 12.4 13.24 -S 13.96 13.25 11.14 13.27 58 23 23 23 23 -SH 10.75 11.50 11.82 o-Mercapto-phenylacetic acid 4.28, 7.67 59 Ethyl mercaptan 10.50 81 I-Thio-D-sorbitol 9.35 91 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate 7.53 (9.1) 81 o-aminothiophenol 6.59 81 a , 7.8, 6.52 Thiophenol 8.20 59, 81, 82 -Mercaptopropionic acid 10.27 81 Methyl cysteine 6.5 (7.5) 81 p-Cl-thiophenol 7.50 81 Mercaptans, RSH R CH 3CCH 2C 6H5CH 2HOCH2CH(OH)CH 2CH 2=CHCH 2n-C 4H9t-C 5H11C 2H5OCOCH2C 2H5OCH2CH 2HOCH2CH(OH)CH 2n-C 3H7t-C 4H9- 7.86 9.43 9.51 9.96 10.66 11.21 7.95 9.38 9.66 a10.65 11.05 32 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 CARBON ACIDS Acetone ~20 Acetylacetone 8.95 Diacetylacetone 6 Hydrocyanic acid 9.21 1-nitropropane 9 Saccharin 1.6 Tri-methylsulfonyl-methane strong Dicyanomethane Acetonitrile Benzoylacetone (anol) Dimethylsulfone Nitroethane 2-nitropropane Tricyanomethane Trinitromethane Nitromethane 24 24 24 25 18 18 24 Bis-( -Diketones):[(RCO)(R'CO)CH]2CHR ( in 50% dioxane) R R' R" CH 3 CH 3 (CH 2)5CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 C 6H5 CH 3 CH 3 2-ClC 6H4 CH 3 CH 3 2-C 5H4N CH 3 CH 3 2-CH 3OC6H4 CH 3 CH 3 3,4-CH 2O2C 6H3 CH 3 CH 3 3-C 5H4N CH 3 CH 3 4-CH 3OC6H4 CH 3 CH 3 4-(CH 3)2NC 6H4 CH 3 CH 3OCH2 C 6H5 CH 3 CH 3OCH2 2-C 5H4N CH 3 CH 3OCH2 4-(CH 3)2NC 6H4 CH 3 CH 3OCH2 4-CH 3OC6H4 CH 3OCH2COCH 2COCH 3 (CH 3CO)2CH(CH2)3CH 3 pK 11.33 11.10 11.04 9.80 11.47 11.39 10.29 11.62 11.50 11.54 10.95 12.13 11.74 9.66 12.07 12 c. 25 8.23 14 8.6 7.74 strong strong strong 2 24 24 24 18 18 24 24 25 (ref. 28) pK 12.52 12.49 12.73 12.46 12.44 12.60 12.63 12.61 12.45 12.27 12.49 12.31 12.49 Bis-( -Diketones) (RCO)-(R'CO)CH-Y-CH(COR)(COR') (in 50% dioxane) (ref. 26) R CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 pK 13.54 12.48 12.07 12.15 R' CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 Y (CH 2)4 (CH 2)10 1,4-(CH 3)2C 6H4 Bis-( -Diketones) RCOCH 2CO-Y-COCH2COR (in 75% dioxane) R Y pK C 6H5 (CH 2)4 12.47 C 6H5 (CH 2)5 12.72 C 6H5 (CH 2)6 12.60 C 6H5 (CH 2)7 13.1 (est.) C 6H5 (CH 2)3 12.58 CH 3 (CH 2)5 12.29 CH 3=CH(CH 3)2 (CH 2)5 12.95 pK 9.43 11.99 12.01 11.27 (ref. 26) pK 13.09 13.46 13.46 13.69 13.00 13.60 CH 3NO2 CH 3CHClNO2 CH 3COCH 2 NO2 CH(NO2)3 CH 3COCHCl 2 CH 3COCHC2H5CO2C 2H5 CH 3COCHCH3COCH 3 CH 3COCH 2COC 6H5 C 6H5COCH 2COCF 3 CH 3COCH 2CHO CH 3 COCH2 CO2CH 3 CH 3SO2CH 2SO2CH 3 CH 3SO2CH(COCH3)2 C 2H5NO2 C 2H5O2CCH 2 NO2 CH 2(NO2)2 CH 3COCH 2Cl CH 3COCH 2CO2C 2H5 CH 3COCH 2COCH 3 CH 3COCHBrCOCH3 CH 3COCH 2COCF 3 C 6H5COCH 2NC 5H5 CH(COCH3)3 CH 3SO2CH 3 CH(SO2CH 3)3 CH 2(CN) 2 C 2H5O2CCH 2CN CH 3CO2C 2H5 CHC 2H5(CO2C 2H5)2 CH 3CONH2 O S 10.29 7 5.1 strong 15 12.7 11 9.4 6.82 5.92 10 14 4.3 8.6 5.82 3.57 c. 16.5 10.68 9 7 4.7 10.51 5.85 c. 23 strong 11.81 9 ~ 24.5 15 ~ 25 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 6.10 74 O CF3 CO2Et 10.96 74 7.82 4 9.21 strong 13.3 ~ 24 74 2 2 74 74 74 10.5 74 CH 2(CHO)2 10.1 5 74 74 Indicators Tropeoline OO Bromocresol green Thymol blue (1) Methyl orange Methyl yellow Neutral red 7.4 Bromophenol blue Bromothymol blue Thymol blue (2) Methyl red (1) Methyl red (2) 2.0 4.9 1.65 3.45 3.25 28 4.1 7.3 9.2 2.3 5.0 28 28 28 28 28 O CH3 O O Dinitromethane Potassium cyanide CH(CN)3 CH 2(CO2C 2H5)2 CH 3CO2H OEt O O CH3 O O 28 28 28 28 28 References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 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Northwestern - CHEM - 210
1pKa Chartconjugate baseHSO42conjugate acidstrongest acidsconjugate acid -10weakest basesconjugate baseNO3sulfuric acidH2SO4nitric acidHNO3-1.3hydroiodic acidHII-9tosic acidTsOHTsO--0.6hydrobromic acidHHBrBr-8hydrofluoric acid
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Some Common pKa Values
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Combustion Analysis of Organic CompoundsAn old but still useful method of analyzing organic compounds iscombustion analysis. In this method, an unknown compound is burned in aclosed system in an oxygen atmosphere. The combustion products areCO2, H2O,
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Proton NMR Spectroscopy: Split the signals, not your brain!Before we can understand signal splitting, we have to understand what NMR is. Thistutorial will first discuss a few concepts about NMR and then signal splitting.BACKGROUND ON NMR:So what exact
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Chapter 11. Free Radical ReactionsA free radical is a species containing one or more unpaired electrons. Free radicals are electron-deficient species, but they are usually uncharged, so their chemistry is very different from the chemistry of even-electro
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Wade: OrganicChemistryStudyGuidefor:Chapter2Fall 2005StructureandPropertiesofOrganicMoleculesThischapterwillbegintointroduceyoutothelanguageoforganicchemistryspecificallyhowonechemistcan communicatetoanotherexactlywhatoneofthemillionsoforganiccomp
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Wade: OrganicChemistryStudyGuideforChapter1Fall 2005IntroductionandReviewThischapterconstitutesareviewofthematerialcoveredinGeneralChemistry.Ifyouhaveanydifficultyunderstanding theconceptsorideascontainedinthischapteryoushouldmakeeveryattempttoreview
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Conformers of Cyclopropane and CyclobutaneCyclopropane (C3H6) is planar (three points define a plane) angle strain (CCC = 60) torsional strain (all CH bonds eclipsed)Cyclobutane is puckered planar cyclobutane has all CH bonds eclipsed (not a minimum)
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Now to find the ratios of moles of elements: first find the element withthe smallest number of moles. In our example, thats oxygen with 1.02moles. Now divide the moles of carbon by the moles of oxygen:Ratio of carbon to oxygen = 6.11 moles of C / 1.02
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
How Do We Establish A Mechanism?1.We must know what the reactants and the products are.2.We must isolate intermediates, if possible, and check to see if theytransform to products under the reaction conditions.3.We may be able to detect transient in
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Chemistry 124 First ExaminationSeptember 26, 2008Name _The exam budgets 50 minutes, but you may have 60 minutes to finish it. Good answers can fit in the space provided. Question values correspond to alloted time. Don't was te too much time on cheap qu
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Relationship Between IsomersThis flow-chart will help you in determining what the relationship isbetween two compounds you believe are isomers of one another. Justanswer the questions about the structures you are comparing and you willclearly define t
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Wade: OrganicChemistryStudyGuidefor:Chapter3Fall 2005StructureandStereochemistryof AlkanesInthischapterwecontinuetoaddresstheissueofstructureinalkanes.Wewillgothroughaformalmechanismby whichwecannamesimpleorganicmoleculeswhichwillserveinallsubseque
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
CourseSyllabusChemistry210- Fall 2012ADr. BarryA. CoddensOffice:TechB186Phone:4674016EMail:bac248@northwestern.eduText:OrganicChemistrybyL.G.Wade,8thEdition,PrenticeHall(required)SolutionsManualandStudyGuideforOrganicChemistry,PrenticeHall(optio
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Infrared SpectroscopyStructural Determination of OrganicMoleculesIR SpectroscopyNature of Light - The Electromagnetic SpectrumMolecular VibrationsLight and Molecular VibrationsThe IR SpectrumExamples: Functional Groups and FrequenciesTheThe Elec
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Chemistry B10-1pKa ValuesHere is a more extensive listing of pKa values for some typical molecules. Youcan use these for approximate values for the different classes of molecules. Ihave also listed the approximate values for several acids we will enco
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
pK aCommentSO 3 / FSO 3H/SbF 5HF / SbF5F 3CSO3HSbF6 SbF6 F 3CSO3?All too strong to measureHClO 4ClO410Increasing AcidStrengthHIRIHCHCHO+R7Cl 7OHHCCRO+HO+O7Protonated carboxylic acids7 to 6Protonated ketonesOOH 3C
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Reactions ListChemistry 210-1These are some of the more important reactions from the first term oforganic. It is not intended to be a complete list by any measure. I reservethe right to amend this list at any time.I.ReactionsofAlkanesUse Word 6.0c o
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
EverythingYouEverWantedtoKnowaboutResonanceStructuresButWereAfraidtoAskOneoftheideasthatisencounteredearlyinorganicchemistryistheconceptofresonanceanddrawingresonancestructures.ResonanceisusuallyanfollowuptopictothediscussionofLewisstructures.Mosttext
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Hour Examination #1, Chemistry 301-301A, October 13, 2003&quot;A red dragonfly hovers above a backwater of the stream, its wings moving sofast that the eye sees not wings in movement but a probability distributionof where the wings might be, like electron o
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Reactive IntermediatesWe are going to encounter several types of reactive intermediates whenwe begin to look at mechanisms of organic reactions. The first of thesewas the radical, we will see three more types of reactive intermediateswhich are the car
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
DefinitionofTermsUsedtoDiscussStereoisomersandTheirPropertiesAbsoluteConfiguration Theactual,specifiedthreedimensionalarrangementofachiralcenteranditsattachedgroups,normallyindicatedbyitsR,Sdesignation.AchiralAtermusedtodescribeasubstancethatissuperim
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Which mechanism is Operating? [S n1, Sn2, E1, E2]I. First, inventory the reaction and see what possibilities are present:1. Does the substrate have a good leaving group attached to it? (A good leavinggroup is the conjugate base of an acid with pKa&lt;0)2
Northwestern - CHEM - 210
Ch 331Test 29-10:05 am, Friday Nov. 9, 2007(100 pts)Name _(print)1. (27 pts) Answer the following questions.1) Salinosporamide A is a potent proteasome inhibitor used as an anticancer agent that recently enteredphase I human clinical trials for th
Northwestern - BIOL-SCI - 210-b
Northwestern - BIOL-SCI - 210-b
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Northwestern - BIOL-SCI - 210-b
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Northwestern - BIOL-SCI - 210-b
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Northwestern - BIOL-SCI - 210-b
Northwestern - BIOL-SCI - 210-b
Northwestern - BIOL-SCI - 210-b
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Northwestern - BIOL-SCI - 210-b
Extra reading response:1. Phosphocreatine is a backup source of energy in skeletal muscle cells.True/False2. Opening of If channels during pacemaker potential, leads to the following changes:a. Na+ ions enter, K+ ions exit the cell3. Hyperventilation
Northwestern - BIOL-SCI - 210-b
Northwestern - BIOL-SCI - 210-b
Northwestern - BIOL-SCI - 210-b
Northwestern - BIOL-SCI - 210-b
Northwestern - BIOL-SCI - 210-b
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Northwestern - BIOL-SCI - 210-b
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Northwestern - BIOL-SCI - 210-b
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Northwestern - BIOL-SCI - 210-b
WINTER 2013 BIO 210BMichele McDonoughMarch 11, 20131Gene Regulation/Expression(Using Genes Selectively) The actions and propertiesof each cell type aredetermined by its proteins Different cell types in amulticellular organismdiffer dramatically
Northwestern - BIOL-SCI - 210-b
Northwestern - BIOL-SCI - 210-b
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Northwestern - BIOL-SCI - 210-b
WINTER 2011 BIO 210BMichele McDonoughFebruary 25, 20131Base covalently attached to C1 of sugar backbone2A single nucleic acid strand is a polymer of nucleotideslinked by phosphodiester bonds5 carbon of one sugarto the 3 carbon of t