Nature vs Nurture(better)
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Nature vs Nurture(better)

Course Number: HDFS 229, Fall 2013

College/University: Penn State

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Nature vs. Nurture Behavioral Genetics o Nature: Genetics/Biology o Nurture: Environment (communities, neighborhood, etc) Heritability o Definition: Individual differences in observed behavior that are due to our genes o Genotype: Our genetic code for a trait o Phenotype: The way our DNA is actually expressed in our lives Depending on our trait, some phenotypes are very, very narrow Example: Our eye...

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vs. Nature Nurture Behavioral Genetics o Nature: Genetics/Biology o Nurture: Environment (communities, neighborhood, etc) Heritability o Definition: Individual differences in observed behavior that are due to our genes o Genotype: Our genetic code for a trait o Phenotype: The way our DNA is actually expressed in our lives Depending on our trait, some phenotypes are very, very narrow Example: Our eye color Example: A persons height o Trait = Heritability (genes) + Environment Estimates range from 0.0 1.0 This scale is for heritability 0.0 means that 0% of the trait is only based on environment 1.0 means that 100% of our trait is due to our genetics and nothing is based on the Theres environment no known trait at 0.0 and 1.0 o Depression: 30% due to genes o Schizophrenia: 80-86% o IQ: 50% o Temperament: 40-50% How do you test for heritability? o Twin Studies: Type 1 o MZ twins raised apart (monozygotic) o Share 100% of their DNA o Identical twins o Different Environments: Similarity due to genes o Limitations: Adoption environments similar; hard to find these twins o Twin Studies: Type 2 o MZ raised together and DZ (dizygotic) raised together o DZ: Two zygotes share the same womb, also known as Fraternal twins and share 50% of their DNA o Controls for shared environment effects o Heritability = (MZ same DZ same) x 2 How Nature and Nurture Work Together?

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Penn State - HDFS - 229
Physical Development and Infant SkillsBrain DevelopmentNeurons:o Nerve cells that make up our nervous system.o They are the major building blocks of our brain.o Make up the gray matter in the brainWe have more than we need:o Even in the womb, the b
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Piagets Cognitive-DevelopmentalConstructivist Approacho Child are active participants in their learningo Referred to kids as young scientistso Construct their Piagets Theoretical Basicso All aspects of cognition (thoughts/problem solving)o Stages a
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Research MethodsObservationoooooooooooooooNaturalistic ObservationDescription: Observation of behavior in natural contextsStrengths: Reflects participants everyday behaviorsLimitations: Cannot control conditions under which participant
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Motor Development and Perceptual DevelopmentImpacts other domains of developmento Social: Once your child begins walking, you go from a nuturer to adisciplinariano Cognitive: When you can begin to reach, you explore new things (think,problem solve)
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Language DevelopmentLanguage makes us humanWHY?We are the ONLY ones on eartho Other animals communicate with each other but their communicationsystems are simple (very few sounds)o Scientists have tried to teach gorillas and chimps our languageInfi
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AutismPrevalenceo More in boys3 to 1 OR 4 to 1 We cant explain why this iso Increasing number of diagnosis Why? 1 in 88 children has a diagnosis on the Autism spectrum (data from2008) Heavy metals Pollutions More awareness Becoming more accurat
Penn State - HDFS - 229
Penn State - HDFS - 229
Infant SkillsReflexeso Innate, automatic responses to particular forms of stimulationo Examples: Palmar Grasp: Occurs when an infant feels somethingplaced in the palm of their hand and they wrap theirfingers around it Rooting Reflex: Vital for feed
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Child Life DepartmentChild Lifeo Child Life is a field that aims towards providing children and theirfamilies therapeutic support during hospitalization or a medical experienceDid you know?o US News and World Report named Child Life Specialist as one
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AttachmentHarry Harlow: Primate Experimento Experimental Question: Trying to disprove the current belief of what attachment was Freud-ians believe that the bond between mother and child wasbased on the biological urge for food Harlow said, this is w
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PSYCH 100: CrosbyChapter 13: Theories of PersonalityPersonality: the unique and relatively stable ways people think, feel, and behave.Major perspectives in personality theory:1. The psychodynamic perspective- focuses on the role of the unconscious min
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PSYCH 100: CrosbyChapter 8: Development Across the Lifespan(Including Chapter 7: Intelligence)HOW IS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT DEFINED?RESEARCH DESIGNSLONGITUDINAL DESIGN:CROSS-SECTIONAL DESIGN:CROSS-SEQUENTIAL DESIGN:BE ABLE TO SUMMARIZE THE NATURE VS. N
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PSYCH 100: CrosbyChapter 5: LearningLearningLearning: a relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience orpractice.Pavlovs Classical ConditioningClassical conditioning: learning to make an involuntary (reflex) response to astimu
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Name: Maggie HarkinsDAP Part #3: Fats in Your DietBecome aware of fats in your diet and how you measure up to the guidelines and recommendations. ReadChapter 5 including the Highlights section to help in completing this assignment.Guidelines and Recom
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PSYCH 100: CrosbyChapter 8: Development Across the Lifespan(Including Chapter 7: Intelligence)How is human development defined?The scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conceptionuntil deathResearch DesignsLongitudin
Penn State - PSYCH - 100
PSYCH 100: CrosbyChapter 12: Social PsychologySocial PsychologySocial Psychology: the scientific study of how a persons thoughts, feelings, and behavior areinfluenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others.Social Influence: The process
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Section 3: AnkleBoneso Complex, much like the hand 26 bones that form the arch 5 other: rear and midfoot tarsal bones Navicular: Between talus and 3 cuneiform bones Cuboid: Between calcaneus and 4th and 5th metatarsals 5 Metatarsals: anterior to ta
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MANNERISM: Florence, Itlay 1520-1600-Breaks from High Renaissance classical Ideas; no more emphasis on order, clarity-artificiality, grace elegance-distortion, elongation, exaggerated poses-complex, asymmetrical compositions-clashing colors-unsettli
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Section 4: GaitNormal Gaito Stride length (average) Men: 1.46 m Women: 1.28 mo Step Width 7 to 9 cmo Foot angle 7 degreesGait characteristicso Gait cycle is composed of: 2 steps 2 steps=1 strideo One Stride All activities that occur from the
Penn State - KINES - 202
Section 2: Pelvic Girdle and Hip JointHip Jointo Designed for weight bearing and locomotiono Compared to the shoulder joint it is more stable, but can move throughreduced ROMWhy is it more stable?o Acetabulum is a much deeper socketo Strong ligamen
Christopher Newport University - FINEARTS - 202
PROTORENAISSANCE 1200-1400Art-more naturalistic details, tempera and gold leaf on wood, pretty flat, no emotions, little individualism,focus on center,*Giotto di Bondone*-very influential for the Renaissance-much more detail, depth, more naturalistic
Penn State - KINES - 202
Section 1: Knee JointThe Knee Jointo The largest joint in the bodyo Very complexo Primarily a hinge jointKneeo The patella adds mechanical advantage to the quadriceps muscleKnee Jointo The tibiofemoral joint is formed by the medial and later condy
Christopher Newport University - FINEARTS - 202
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Penn State - KINES - 202
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Chapter 15 Goal SettingTerminology of Goalso Outcome: Ego/performance based achievement goals; normanativelyreferenced competence.o Performance: Self-referenced competence; task/mastery-basedachievement goalso Process: Task-referenced competence; ta
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Chapter 20Part 1: Addictive and Unhealthy BehaviorsAddiction to Exerciseo Positive addiction to exercise A condition in which exercise is viewed as important in ones lifebut is successfully integrated with other aspects of life (healthyhabit)o Nega
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Born April 15th, 1452ViciFlorence was cultural and artistic center at time of Leos birthBorn to illegitimately to poor farmers daughter and a noblemanLeonardo grows up with his father, only child until 25. If he was legitimate he would have gottenthe
Christopher Newport University - FINEARTS - 202
NaturalismReaction to RococoJoseph Write of DerbyA Philosopher Giving a Lecture at the OrreyStrong spotlightWeird invention, glow coming off of itShows excitement in the children's faceGestures and light-shows impact on science on ordinary people'
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Christopher Newport University - FINEARTS - 202
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Christopher Newport University - FINEARTS - 202
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Christopher Newport University - FINEARTS - 202
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Christopher Newport University - FINEARTS - 202
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Christopher Newport University - FINEARTS - 202
BaroqueFrance-political instability in early 1600s-few bad kings; some very young kings or someone temporarily ruling for them until oldenoughLouis XIV-child when he comes to power-mother and ministers are taking care of gov't until he was old enou
Christopher Newport University - FINEARTS - 202
AMERICAS 1300-1980WHAT RENAISSANCE AND AMERICAS HAVE IN COMMON-expressions of power and status-expression of religious belief and practice-design values; order and symmetrical-divisions of genderDIFFERENCES-Renaissance was naturalistic; Americas ar
Christopher Newport University - FINEARTS - 202
Ch 37 MODERN AFRICAAfrica: interaction with the outside-Ancient interactions with the Greeks, Phoenicians, and Romans-Christianity spread and Islam spread-15th Century trading; mainly coasts-19th Century European began exploring the interior-looking
Christopher Newport University - FINEARTS - 202
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Christopher Newport University - FINEARTS - 202
Impressionism 1860-1890Challenging what came before them-works didn't look finished; not refined like paintings of the past-stand back from painting to appreciate the work-at first, not a very positive first opinionsInfluences-Constable and Turner-
Christopher Newport University - FINEARTS - 202
16th Century Renaissance Itally 1500-1600High Renaissance 1495-1520-the "peak" of the Renaissance-Disegno- drawing or design; involves the skill to create it and being able to come up with agood oneReasons High Renaissance Ended-Reformation ( began
Christopher Newport University - FINEARTS - 202
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Christopher Newport University - FINEARTS - 202
JAPONISME-French term, fascination for Japan in Europe and US 19th Century-1953-1954 Japan opened to the West by Commodore Matthew C. Perry-Ukiyo-e - "pictures of the floating world"; images of courtesans and popular entertainment inJapan 17th-19th ce
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PSYCH 100: CrosbyChapter 11: Stress and HealthStress and Stressors:Stress: the physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses tothreatening or challenging events.What are some of the ways that stress can manifest (show) itself?-Fatigue-We
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Penn State - KINES - 360
April 9thSlide 1o Blank: Behavioral (if you dont get that experience in that specific timeyou wont develop that circuit)o Blank: Sensorimotoro Blank: Complex (combination of both behavioral and sensorimotor)o This is saying that experience is requir
Penn State - KINES - 360
March 19Slide 9o Reticular formationo Coordination of trunk movementso Coordination of limb movementso Note: specific terms of areas Midbrain: mesencephalic Lower: pontineSlide 10o Gastrocnemius turns on before activation of the biceps because it
Penn State - KINES - 360
Lecture 6: The Somatic Sensory System Basic Senseso Somatico Visualo Auditoryo Vestibularo Chemical Afferent Fibers Convey Somatic Sensory Information (Figure 1&2)o Pseudounipolaro If voluntary movement, it will always stop at the dorsal root gan
Penn State - KINES - 360
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April 11thSlide 1o Examples that CAN be repaired: lungs, intestine, liver, epithelium, boneso Only two where stem cells are located that DO have the potential toproduce new neurons: olfactory pathway, hippocampusSlide 2o A. Regrowth-Example: cutting
Penn State - KINES - 360
April 16thSlide 1o Blank: Cognitionattending to complex stimuliSlide 2o Association: 4/5 of cerebreal cortexo Primary sensory: 1/5 of cerebral cortexSlide 3o Blank 1: Input Hippo/Amyglada: memoryo Blank 2: Output Unique output: Spinal cordSlide
Penn State - KINES - 360
April 18, 2013Slide 1o Qualitative (2 types)o 1. Declarative: more factual based; daily episodes (what did you dotoday?) words and their meanings (factual info; definitions) history (inyour own life or past experiences of others)o 2. Nondeclarative
Penn State - KINES - 360
Slide oneo Basal ganglia: a group of nucleio 5 components: caudate putamen globus pallidusSlide twoo Caudate and putamen are input zoneso Globus pallidus (output zone) has two sections External and internalo Pars reitculata is an output zoneo
Azusa Pacific - ECON - 250
Azusa Pacific - ECON - 250
Azusa Pacific - ECON - 250