ch16tif
33 Pages

ch16tif

Course Number: ACG 3341, Spring 2009

College/University: FAU

Word Count: 7575

Rating:

Document Preview

CHAPTER 16: COST ALLOCATION: JOINT PRODUCTS AND BYPRODUCTS TRUE/FALSE 1. Joint costs are incurred beyond the splitoff point and are assignable to individual products. Answer: False Difficulty: 2 Joint costs are incurred prior to the splitoff. 2. Separable costs are assignable after the splitoff point. Answer: 3. True Difficulty: 2 Objective: 1 Objective: 1 The focus of joint costing is assigning costs to...

Unformatted Document Excerpt
Coursehero >> Florida >> FAU >> ACG 3341

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one
below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

16: CHAPTER COST ALLOCATION: JOINT PRODUCTS AND BYPRODUCTS TRUE/FALSE 1. Joint costs are incurred beyond the splitoff point and are assignable to individual products. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Joint costs are incurred prior to the splitoff. 2. Separable costs are assignable after the splitoff point. Answer: 3. True Difficulty: 2 Objective: 1 Objective: 1 The focus of joint costing is assigning costs to individual products as assembly occurs. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: The focus is accumulating costs incurred on the joint products. 1 4. A byproduct has a minimal sales value. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 2 5 The sales value at splitoff method is an example of allocating costs based upon the benefits-received criterion. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 4 6. A major deficiency of the sales value at splitoff method is that this method does not allow management to obtain individual product costs and gross-margin information. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 4 The sales value at splitoff method enables the accountant to obtain individual product costs and gross margins. 7. An advantage of the physical-measure method is that obtaining physical measures for all products is an easy task. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: For some products such as gas, obtaining physical measures is difficult. 4 8. The general guideline for using the physical-measure method is to include only joint products or main products in the physical-measure weighting computations. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 4 Chapter 16 Page 1 9. The estimated net realizable value method is used when the market selling prices at the splitoff point are not available. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 4 10. Net realizable value generally means expected sales value plus expected separable costs. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 4 Net realizable value is expected sales value minus expected separable costs. 11. The net realizable value method is generally used for products or services that are processed and after splitoff additional value is added to the product and a selling price can be determined. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 4 12. The estimated net realizable value method allocates joint costs on the basis of the expected final sales value in the ordinary course of business less the expected separable costs of production and marketing. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 4 13. The constant gross-margin percentage method differs from market-based joint-cost allocation method (sales value at splitoff and estimated net realizable value) since no account is taken of profits earned before or after the splitoff point when allocating joint costs. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 4 The constant gross-margin percentage method takes account of the profits earned before or after the splitoff when allocating joint costs. 14. The sales value at splitoff method presupposes the exact number of subsequent steps undertaken for further processing. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 4 The sales value at splitoff method does not presuppose the exact number of subsequent steps. 15. A criticism of the practice of carrying inventories at estimated net realizable values is that this practice recognizes income before sales are made. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 4 Chapter 16 Page 2 16. Physical measures such as weight or volume are the best indicator of the benefits received for allocating joint costs. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 5 Revenues are a better indicator of the benefits received than are physical measures. 17. Joint costs that do not differ between alternatives are particularly relevant for decision making. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Only costs that differ are relevant to a manager's decision. Objective: 6 18. Byproducts are recognized in the general ledger either at the time of production or at the time of sale. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 7 19. Recognition of byproducts in the financial statements at the time of sale usually occurs when the dollar amounts of the byproducts are immaterial. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 7 20. A sound reason for reporting revenue from byproducts as an income statement item at the time of sale is to lessen the chance of managers managing reported earnings. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 7 This method makes it easier for managers to time earnings since they can time the sale of products and give earnings a boost. Chapter 16 Page 3 MULTIPLE CHOICE 21. What type of cost is the result of an event that results in more than one product or service simultaneously? a. Byproduct cost b. Joint cost c. Main cost d. Separable cost Answer: 22. b Difficulty: 2 Objective: 1 All costs incurred beyond the splitoff point that are assignable to one or more individual products are called a. byproduct costs. b. joint costs. c. main costs. d. separable costs. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 1 23. In joint costing a. costs are assigned to individual products as assembly of the product occurs. b. costs are assigned to individual products as disassembly of the product occurs. c. a single production process yields two or more products. d. both (b) and (c). Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 3 Objective: 1 24. When a single manufacturing process yields two products, one of which has a relatively high sales value compared to the other, the two products are respectively known as a. joint products and byproducts. b. joint products and scrap. c. main products and byproducts. d. main products and joint products. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 2 25. Byproducts and main products are differentiated by a. number of units per processing period. b. weight or volume of outputs per period. c. the amount of sales value per unit. d. none of the above. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 2 Chapter 16 Page 4 26. All of the following changes may indicate a change in product classification of a manufacturing process which has a splitoff point EXCEPT a. a byproduct increases in sales value due to a new application. b. a main product becomes a joint product. c. a main product becomes technologically obsolete. d. a byproduct loses its market due to a new invention. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 2 27. Which of the following methods of allocating costs use market-based data? a. Sales value at splitoff method b. Estimated net realizable value method c. The constant gross-margin percentage method d. All of the above use market-based methods Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 1 Objective: 2 28. Products with a relatively low sales value are known as a. scrap. b. main products. c. joint products. d. byproducts. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 1 Objective: 2 29. Which of the following statements is true regarding main products and byproducts? a. Product classifications do not change over the short run. b. Product classifications do not change over the long run. c. Product classifications may change over time. d. The cause-and-effect criterion determines the classification. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 3 Objective: 2 30. Outputs with zero sales value are accounted for by a. listing these various outputs in a footnote to the financial statements. b. including the items as a relatively small portion of the value assigned to the products produced during the accounting period. c. making journal entries to reflect an estimate of possible values. d. none of the above. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 3 Objective: 2 31. Which of the following is a reason to allocate joint costs? a. Rate regulation requirements, if applicable b. Cost of goods sold computations c. Insurance settlement cost information requirements d. All of the above are reasons to allocate joint costs. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 1 Objective: 3 Chapter 16 Page 5 32. A business which enters into a contract to purchase a product (or products), and will compensate the manufacturer under a cost reimbursement formula, should take an active part in the determination of how joint costs are allocated because a. the manufacturer will attempt to allocate as large a portion of its costs to these products. b. if the manufacturer successfully allocates a large portion of its costs to these products then it will be able to sell its other nonreimbursed products at lower prices. c. the FASB requires the business to participate in the cost allocation process. d. of both (a) and (b). Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 3 Objective: 3 33. Proper costs allocation for inventory costing and cost-of-goods-sold computations are important because a. inventory costing is essential for proper balance sheet presentation. b. most states have laws requiring proper balance sheet presentation, and recommended allocation methods. c. cost of goods sold is an important component in the determination of net income. d. of both (a) and (c). Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 3 Objective: 3 34. Which of the following is NOT a primary reason for allocating joint costs? a. Cost justification and insurance settlement cost information requirements b. Cost justification and asset measurement c. Income measurement and rate regulation requirements d. To calculate the bonus of the chief executive officer Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 1 Objective: 3 35. All of the following methods may be used to allocate joint costs EXCEPT a. the constant gross-margin percentage method. b. the estimated net realizable value method. c. the present value allocation method. d. the sales value at splitoff method. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 4 36. An example of a market-based approach to allocating joint costs is (are) allocating joint costs based on a. sales value at splitoff method. b. physical volume. c. constant gross-margin percentage method. d. both (a) and (c). Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 3 Objective: 4 Chapter 16 Page 6 37. Which of the following statements is true in regard to the cause-and-effect relationship between allocated joint costs and individual products? a. A high individual product value results in a high level of joint costs. b. A low individual product value results in a low level of joint costs. c. A high individual product value results in a low level of joint costs. d. There is no cause-and-effect relationship. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 3 Objective: 4 38. The benefits-received criteria for allocating joint costs indicates market-based measures are preferred because a. physical measures such as volume are a clearer basis for allocating cost than other measures. b. other measures are more difficult to calculate. c. revenues are usually the best indicator of the benefits received. d. of none of the above. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 1 Objective: 4 THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION APPLIES TO QUESTIONS 39 THROUGH 42. Yakima Manufacturing purchases trees from Cascade Lumber and processes them up to the splitoff point where two products (paper and pencil casings) are obtained. The products are then sold to an independent company that markets and distributes them to retail outlets. The following information was collected for the month of November: Trees processed: Production: Sales: 50 trees (yield is 30,000 sheets of paper and 30,000 pencil casings and no scrap) paper pencil casings paper pencil casings 30,000 sheets 30,000 29,000 at $0.04 per page 30,000 at $0.10 per casing Cost of purchasing 50 trees and processing them up to the splitoff point to yield 30,000 sheets of paper and 30,000 pencil casings is $1,500. Yakimas accounting department reported no beginning inventories and ending inventory of 1,000 sheets of paper. 39. What is the sales value at the splitoff point for paper? a. $120 b. $1,160 c. $1,200 d. $1,950 Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Paper: 30,000 sheets x $0.04 = $1,200.00 2 Objective: 4 Chapter 16 Page 7 40. What is the sales value at the splitoff point of the pencil casings? a. $300 b. $1,480 c. $3,000 d. $3,750 Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 1 Pencils: 30,000 casings x $0.10 = $3,000.00 Objective: 4 41. If the sales value at splitoff method is used, what are the approximate joint costs assigned to ending inventory for paper? a. $14.29 b. $50.00 c. $435.00 d. $750.00 Register to View AnswerDifficulty: $1,200/($1,200 + $3,000) = 28.57% 28.57% x $1,500 x 1,000/30,000 = $14.29 3 Objective: 4 42. If the sales value at splitoff method is used, what is the approximate production cost for each pencil casing? a. $0.0250 b. $0.0255 c. $0.0335 d. $0.0357 Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 3 $3,000/($1,200 + $3,000) x $1,500 = $1,071 $1,071/30,000 casings = $0.0357 Objective: 4 Chapter 16 Page 8 43. Yakima Manufacturing purchases trees from Cascade Lumber and processes them up to the splitoff point where two products (paper and pencil casings) are obtained. The products are then sold to an independent company that markets and distributes them to retail outlets. The following information was collected for the month of May: Trees processed: Production: Sales: 50 trees (yield is 35,000 sheets of paper and 30,000 pencil casings and no scrap) paper pencil casings paper pencil casings 35,000 sheets 30,000 34,000 at $0.04 per page 30,000 at $0.10 per casing Cost of purchasing 50 trees and processing them up to the splitoff point to yield 35,000 sheets of paper and 30,000 pencil casings is $1,500. Yakima's Manufacturing's accounting department reported no beginning inventories and ending inventory of 1,000 sheets of paper. What are the paper's and the pencils' approximate weighted cost proportions using the sales value at splitoff method, respectively? a. 50.00% and 50.00% b. 33.33% and 66.67% c. 31.82% and 68.18% d. none of the above Register to View Answer$1,400 + 3,000 = $4,400 $1,400/$4,400 = 31.82% $3,000/$4,400 = 68.18% 44. Difficulty: 2 Objective: 4 The Arvid Corporation manufactures widgets, gizmos, and turnbols from a joint process. May production is 4,000 widgets; 7,000 gizmos; and 8,000 turnbols. Respective per unit selling prices at splitoff are $15, $10, and $5. Joint costs up to the splitoff point are $75,000. If joint costs are allocated based upon the sales value at splitoff, what amount of joint costs will be allocated to the widgets? a. $30,882 b. $26,471 c. $17,647 d. $28,125 Register to View AnswerDifficulty: $15 x 4,000 = $60,000 $10 x 7,000 = $70,000 $ 5 x 8,000 = $40,000 Total = $170,000 $60,000/$170,000 x $75,000 = $26,471 2 Objective: 4 Chapter 16 Page 9 45. Product X is sold for $8 a unit and Product Y is sold for $12 a unit. Each product can also be sold at the splitoff point. Product X can be sold for $5 and Product Y for $4. Joint costs for the two products totaled $4,000 for January for 600 units of X and 500 units of Y. What are the respective joint costs assigned each unit of products X and Y if the sales value at splitoff method is used? a. $2.96 and $4.44 b. $4.00 and $4.55 c. $4.00 and $3.20 d. $4.55 and $4.55 Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: Total splitoff market value = (600 x $5) + (500 x $4) = $5,000 Product X = $3,000/$5,000 x $4,000 = $2,400/600 = $4.00 Product Y = $2,000/$5,000 x $4,000 = $1,600/500 = $3.20 4 46. A reason why a physical-measure to allocate joint costs is less preferred than the sales value at splitoff is a. a physical measure such as volume is difficult to estimate because of shrinkage. b. physical volume usually has little relationship to the revenue producing power of products. c. a physical measure usually results in the costs being allocated to the product that weighs the most. d. all of the above are reasons why the sales value at splitoff method is preferred to a physical volume measure. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 4 Chapter 16 Page 10 THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION APPLIES TO QUESTIONS 47 THROUGH 49. The Oxnard Corporation processes a liquid component up to the splitoff point where two products, Mr. DirtOut and Mr. SinkClean, are produced and sold. The following material was collected for the month of January. There was no beginning inventory. Direct materials processed: Production: Sales: Mr. DirtOut Mr. SinkClean Mr. DirtOut Mr. SinkClean 250,000 gallons (242,500 gallons of good product) 147,500 gallons 95,000 gallons 140,500 at $110 per gallon 91,000 at $ 100 per gallon The cost of purchasing 250,000 gallons of direct materials and processing it up to the splitoff point to yield a total of 242,500 gallons of good product was $380,000. 47. What are the physical-volume proportions to allocate joint costs for Mr. DirtOut and Mr. SinkClean, respectively? a. 59.00% and 41.00% b. 60.82% and 39.18% c. 39.18% and 60.82% d. 59.79% and 40.21% Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Mr. DirtOut: 147,500/242,500 = 60.82% Mr. SinkClean: 95,000/242,500 = 39.18% 48. 2 Objective: 4 When using a physical-volume measure, what is the approximate amount of joint costs that will be allocated to Mr. DirtOut and Mr. SinkClean? a. $231,116 and $148,884 b. $224,200 and $155,800 c. $227,202 and $152,798 d. $230,626 and $149,374 Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: $380,000 x 0.6082 = $231,116; $380,000 x 0.3918 = $148,884 4 49. When using the physical-volume method, what is Mr. DirtOut's approximate production cost per unit? a. $1.52 b. $1.54 c. $1.57 d. $1.61 Register to View Answer$231,116/147,500 = $1.57 Difficulty: 3 Objective: 4 Chapter 16 Page 11 50. Argon Manufacturing Company processes direct materials up to the splitoff point where two products (U and V) are obtained and sold. The following information was collected for last quarter of the calendar year. Direct materials processed: Production: Sales: U V U V 10,000 gallons (10,000 gallons yield 9,500 gallons of good product and 500 gallons of shrinkage) 5,000 gallons 4,500 gallons 4,750 at $150 per gallon 4,000 at $100 per gallon The cost of purchasing 10,000 gallons of direct materials and processing it up to the splitoff point to yield a total of 9,500 gallons of good products was $975,000. Beginning inventories totaled 50 gallons for U and 25 gallons for V. Ending inventory amounts reflected 300 gallons of Product U and 525 gallons of Product V. October costs per unit were the same as November. What are the physical-volume proportions for products U and V, respectively? a. 47.37% and 53.63% b. 55.00% and 45.00% c. 52.63% and 47.37% d. 54.00% and 46.00% Register to View AnswerX: 5,000 / 9,500 = 52.63% Y: 4,500 / 9,500 = 47.37% Difficulty: 3 Objective: 4 Chapter 16 Page 12 THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION APPLIES TO QUESTIONS 51 THROUGH 57. The Morton Company processes unprocessed goat milk up to the splitoff point where two products, condensed goat milk and skim goat milk result. The following information was collected for the month of October: Direct Materials processed: Production: Sales: 65,000 gallons (shrinkage was 10%) condensed goat milk skim goat milk condensed goat milk skim goat milk 26,100 gallons 32,400 gallons $3.50 per gallon $2.50 per gallon The costs of purchasing the 65,000 gallons of unprocessed goat milk and processing it up to the splitoff point to yield a total of 58,500 gallons of salable product was $72,240. There were no inventory balances of either product. Condensed goat milk may be processed further to yield 19,500 gallons (the remainder is shrinkage) of a medicinal milk product, Xyla, for an additional processing cost of $3 per usable gallon. Xyla can be sold for $18 per gallon. Skim goat milk can be processed further to yield 28,100 gallons of skim goat ice cream, for an additional processing cost per usable gallon of $2.50. The product can be sold for $9 per gallon. There are no beginning and ending inventory balances. 51. What is the estimated net realizable value of Xyla at the splitoff point? a. $182,650 b. $252,900 c. $292,500 d. $351,000 Register to View AnswerSee computations at #53. 52. Difficulty: 3 Objective: 4 What is the estimated net realizable value of the skim goat ice cream at the splitoff point. a. $182,650 b. $252,900 c. $110,200 d. $85,450 Register to View AnswerSee computations at #53. Difficulty: 3 Objective: 4 Chapter 16 Page 13 53. Using estimated net realizable value, what amount of the $72,240 of joint costs would be allocated Xyla and the skim goat ice cream? a. $41,971 and $30,269 b. $44,471 and $27,769 c. $32,796 and $39,444 d. $36,120 and $36,120 Register to View AnswerDifficulty: XYLA 19,500 x $18 = $351,000 19,500 x $3 = $ 58,500 $292,500 .6156 $72,240 x .6156 = $44,471 3 Objective: Skim Goat 28,100 x $9 = $252,900 28,100 x $2.50 = $ 70,250 $182,650 .3844 $72,240 x .3844 = $27,769 4 Total $603,900 $475,150 Sales Less: Sep cost Est. NRValue Weighting Jt costs allocated 54. Using the sales value at splitoff method, what is the gross-margin percentage for condensed goat milk at the splitoff point? a. 21.1% b. 55.1% c. 58.1% d. 38.2% Register to View AnswerSee computations at #55. Difficulty: 3 Objective: 4 55. Using the sales value at splitoff method, what is the gross-margin percentage for skim goat milk at the splitoff point? a. 21.1% b. 55.1% c. 58.1% d. 38.2% Register to View AnswerDifficulty: Condensed Goat Milk 26,100 x $3.50 = $91,350 $91,350/$172,350 = 0.53 $72,240 x .53 = $38,287 $53,063 $53,063/$91,350 = 0.581 3 Objective: 4 Total $172,350 Revenues Percentage Separable costs Gross margin GM percentage Skim Goat Milk 32,400 x $2.50 = $81,000 $81,000/$172,350 = 0.47 $72,240 x .47 = $33,953 $47,047 $47,047/$81,000 = 0.581 Chapter 16 Page 14 56. How much (if any) extra income would Morton earn if it produced and sold all of the Xyla from the condensed goat milk? Allocate joint processing costs based upon relative sales value on the splitoff. (Extra income means income in excess of what Morton would have earned from selling condensed goat milk.) a. $53,063 b. $254,213 c. $201,150 d. $96,787 Register to View AnswerSee computations at #57. Difficulty: 3 Objective: 4 57. How much (if any) extra income would Morton earn if it produced and sold skim milk ice cream from goats rather than goat skim milk? Allocate joint processing costs based upon the relative sales value at the splitoff point. a. $47,047 b. $117,297 c. $101,650 d. $70,250 Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 3 Objective: 4 Revenue Joint costs (see #55) Process costs Revenue (net) Gross margin (see #55) Difference Condensed Goat Milk Skim Goat Milk $351,000 $252,900 (38,287) (33,953) ($3 x 19,500) = (58,500) ($2.50 x 28,100) = (70,250) 254,213 148,697 (53,063) (47,047) $201,150 $101,650 Chapter 16 Page 15 58. Chem Manufacturing Company processes direct materials up to the splitoff point where two products (X and Y) are obtained and sold. The following information was collected for the month of November. Direct materials processed: Production: Sales: X Y X Y 10,000 gallons (10,000 gallons yield 9,500 gallons of good product and 500 gallons of shrinkage) 5,000 gallons 4,500 gallons 4,750 at $150 per gallon 4,000 at $100 per gallon The cost of purchasing 10,000 gallons of direct materials and processing it up to the splitoff point to yield a total of 9,500 gallons of good products was $975,000. The beginning inventories totaled 50 gallons for X and 25 gallons for Y. Ending inventory amounts reflected 300 gallons of Product X and 525 gallons of Product Y. October costs per unit were the same as November. Using the physical-volume method, what is Product X's approximate gross-margin percentage? a. 32% b. 33% c. 35% d. 38% Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 4 Sales (4,750 x $150) Cost of Goods Sold 4,750 x $*513,142/5,000 Gross Margin * 5,000/(5,000 + 4,500) = 0.5263 x $975,000 $513,142 = Gross-margin percentage $225,015/$712,500 = 0.32 rounded $712,500 487,485 $225,015 Chapter 16 Page 16 59. Beverage Drink Company processes direct materials up to the splitoff point where two products, A and B, are obtained. The following information was collected for the month of July: Direct materials processed: Production: Sales: 2,500 liters (with 20% shrinkage) A B A B 1,500 liters 500 liters $15.00 per liter $10.00 per liter Cost of purchasing 2,500 liters of direct materials and processing it up to the splitoff point to yield a total of 2,000 liters of good products was $4,500. There were no inventory balances of A and B. Product A may be processed further to yield 1,375 liters of Product Z5 for an additional processing cost of $150. Product Z5 is sold for $25.00 per liter. There was no beginning inventory and ending inventory was 125 liters. Product B may be processed further to yield 375 liters of Product W3 for an additional processing cost of $275. Product W3 is sold for $30.00 per liter. There was no beginning inventory and ending inventory was 25 liters. If Product Z5 and Product W3 are produced, what are the expected sales values of production, respectively? a. $11,250 and $34,375 b. $22,500 and $ 5,000 c. $31,250 and $10,500 d. $34,375 and $11,250 Register to View AnswerZ5 = 1,375 liters x $25 W3 = 375 liters x $30 Difficulty: = $34,375 = $11,250 2 Objective: 4 Chapter 16 Page 17 60. Cola Drink Company processes direct materials up to the splitoff point where two products, A and B, are obtained. The following information was collected for the month of July: Direct materials processed: Production: Sales: 2,500 liters (with 20% shrinkage) A B A B 1,500 liters 500 liters $15.00 per liter $10.00 per liter Cost of purchasing 2,500 liters of direct materials and processing it up to the splitoff point to yield a total of 2,000 liters of good products was $4,500. There were no inventory balances of A and B. Product A may be processed further to yield 1,375 liters of Product Z5 for an additional processing cost of $150. Product Z5 is sold for $25.00 per liter. There was no beginning inventory and ending inventory was 125 liters. Product B may be processed further to yield 375 liters of Product W3 for an additional processing cost of $275. Product W3 is sold for $30.00 per liter. There was no beginning inventory and ending inventory was 25 liters. What is Product Z5's estimated net realizable value at the splitoff point? a. $11,100 b. $22,350 c. $34,225 d. $34,375 Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 3 1,375 x $25 = $34,375; $34,375 - $150 = $34,225 61. Objective: 4 Which of the following is a disadvantage of the physical-measure method of allocating joint costs? a. The measurement basis for each product may be different. b. The need for a common denominator. c. The physical measure may not reflect the product's ability to generate revenues. d. All of the above are disadvantages. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 4 62. Which of the methods of allocating joint costs usually is considered the simplest to implement? a. Estimated net realizable value b. Constant gross-margin percentage NRV c. Sales value at splitoff d. All of the above can be the easiest to implement given the proper circumstances. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 4 Chapter 16 Page 18 63. Industries that recognize income on each product when production is completed include a. mining. b. toy manufacturers. c. canning. d. both (a) and (c). Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 4 64 Why do accountants criticize the practice of carrying inventories at estimated net realizable values? a. The costs of producing the products are usually estimates. b. There is usually no clearly defined realizable value for these inventories. c. The effect of this practice is to recognize income before sales are made. d. All of the above are well-recognized criticisms of this practice. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 4 65. When a product is the result of a joint process, the decision to process the product past the splitoff point further should be influenced by a. the total amount of the joint costs. b. the portion of the joint costs allocated to the individual products. c. the extra revenue earned past the splitoff point. d. the extra operating income earned past the splitoff point. Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 1 Objective: 6 66. If managers make sell or process further decisions using an incremental revenue/incremental cost approach, which method will show each product budgeted to have a positive (or zero) operating income on the resulting budgeted product-line income statement? a. Sales value at splitoff b. Estimated NRV c. Constant gross-margin percentage NRV d. All of the above methods Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 6 67. Which method of accounting recognizes byproducts in the financial statements at the time their production is completed? a. Production allocation method b. Sale method c. Production method d. None of the above Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 7 Chapter 16 Page 19 THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION APPLIES TO QUESTIONS 68 AND 69. Sparta Company processes 15,000 gallons of direct materials to produce two products, Product X and Product Y. Product X sells for $4 per gallon and Product Y, the main product, sells for $50 per gallon. The following information is for August: Production 4,375 10,000 Sales 4,000 9,625 Beginning Inventory 0 125 Ending Inventory 375 500 Product X: Product Y: The manufacturing costs totaled $15,000. 68. What is the byproduct's net revenue reduction if byproducts are recognized in the general ledger during production and their revenues are a reduction of cost? a. $0 b. $1,500 c. $16,000 d. $17,500 Register to View Answer4,000 gallons x $4 = $16,000 69. Difficulty: 3 Objective: 7 How much is the ending inventory reduction for the byproduct if byproducts are recognized in the general ledger at the point of sale? a. $0 b. $563 c. $1,500 d. $17,500 Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 2 Objective: 7 70. A negative consequence of recording byproducts in the accounting records when the sale occurs is a. the revenue from the byproducts is usually fairly large, and the accounting records will be distorted. b. managers can time earnings by their decision when to sell byproducts. c. managers have an incentive to stockpile byproducts. d. both (b) and (c). Register to View AnswerDifficulty: 1 Objective: 7 Chapter 16 Page 20 EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 71. In each of the following industries, identify possible joint (or severable) products at the splitoff point. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Coal Petroleum Dairy Lamb Lumber Cocoa Beans Christmas Trees Salt Cowhide Register to View Answerb. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Coke, Gas, Benzole, Tar, Ammonia Crude Oil, Gas, Raw LPG Milk, Butter, Cheese, Ice Cream, Skim Milk Lamb Cuts, Tripe, Hides, Bones, Fat Board, Newsprint, Shavings, Chips, etc. Cocoa Butter, Cocoa Powder, Cocoa Shells Christmas Trees, Wreaths, Decorations Hydrogen, Chlorine, Caustic Soda Leather, Suede, Chew Toys 1 Objective: 1 Difficulty: Chapter 16 Page 21 72. List three reasons why we allocate joint costs to individual products or services. Give an example of when the particular cost allocation reason would come into use. Register to View AnswerFor inventory costing, and cost of goods sold computations for financial accounting purposes. Example: Cost of goods sold and ending inventory valuation is necessary for reports to shareholders and for the inland revenue service. For internal costing and cost of goods sold computations for internal reporting purposes. Example: These computations are necessary for division profitability analysis. Reimbursement under contracts. Example: A firm produces multiple products or servicesand uses the same resources and facilities to produce the products or services. But not all the firms products are under the contract. The firm must allocate the cost of these shared facilities or resources to reflect the portion used by the product under the contract. Insurance settlement computations. Example: Where a business with multiple products or services claim losses under an insurance policy and wants to calculate the loss. The insurance company and the insured must agree on the value of the loss. Rate regulation. When companies are subject to rate regulation, the allocation of joint costs can be a significant factor in determining the regulated rates. Example: Crude oil and natural gas are produced out of a common well. 1 Objective: 3 b. c. d. e. Difficulty: Chapter 16 Page 22 73. For each of the following methods of allocating joint costs, give a positive or a negative aspect of selecting each one to allocate joint costs. a. Sales value at splitoff b. Estimated net realizable value method c. The constant gross margin method d. A physical measure such as volume Register to View AnswerPositive: Costs are allocated to products in proportion to their potential revenues. This is a fairly simple method to implement. Negative: We use the sales value of the entire production of the accounting period. Positive: Can be used when the market prices of the products are not known or available. Negative: Can be very complex in operations with multiple products and multiple splitoff points. Positive: Account is taken of the profits earned either before or after the splitoff point when allocating the joint costs. Negative: The assumption that all have the same ratio of cost to sales value. This is likely not true. Positive: Fairly simple Negative: Has no relationship to the revenue-producing power of individual products. 2 Objective: 4 b. c. d. Difficulty: Chapter 16 Page 23 74. Sugar Cane Company processes sugar beets into three products. During April, the joint costs of processing were $120,000. Production and sales value information for the month were as follows: Product Sugar Sugar Syrup Fructose Syrup Required: Determine the amount of joint cost allocated to each product if the sales value at splitoff method is used. Answer: Product Sugar Sugar Syrup Fructose Syrup Total Difficulty: 2 Units 6,000 4,000 2,000 Sales Value $40,000 35,000 25,000 $100,000 Objective: 4 Percent 40% x 35% x 25% x 100% Joint Cost $120,000 120,000 120,000 Allocated $48,000 42,000 30,000 $120,000 Units Produced 6,000 4,000 2,000 Sales Value at Splitoff Point 40,000 35,000 25,000 Separable costs 12,000 32,000 16,000 Chapter 16 Page 24 75. Oregon Lumber processes timber into four products. During January, the joint costs of processing were $280,000. There was no inventory at the beginning of the month. Production and sales value information for the month were as follows: Product 2 x 4's 2 x 6's 4 x 4's Slabs Required: Determine the value of ending inventory if the sales value at splitoff method is used for product costing. Round to 3 decimal places when necessary. Answer: Product 2 x 4's 2 x 6's 4 x 4's Slabs Totals Board feet 6,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 Sales Value $1,800,000 1,200,000 900,000 100,000 $4,000,000 Fraction of Prod. in Inventory 500,000/6,000,000 x 250,000/3,000,000 x 100,000/2,000,000 x 50,000/1,000,000 x Percent 45.0% x 30.0 x 22.5 x 2.5 x 100.0% Joint Cost $280,000 280,000 280,000 280,000 Allocated $126,000 84,000 63,000 7,000 $280,000 Board feet 6,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 Sales Value at Splitoff Point Ending Inventory $0.30 per board foot 500,000 bdft. 0.40 per board foot 250,000 bdft. 0.45 per board foot 100,000 bdft. 0.10 per board foot 50,000 bdft. Product 2 x 4's 2 x 6's 4 x 4's Slabs Total Difficulty: 3 Allocated $126,000 = 84,000 = 63,000 = 7,000 = Inventory value $10,500 7,000 3,150 350 $21,000 Objective: 4 Chapter 16 Page 25 76. Zenon Chemical, Inc., processes pine rosin into three products: turpentine, paint thinner, and spot remover. During May, the joint costs of processing were $240,000. Production and sales value information for the month were as follows: Product Turpentine Paint thinner Spot remover Required: Determine the amount of joint cost allocated to each product if the physical-measure method is used. Answer: Product Turpentine Paint thinner Spot remover Totals Difficulty: 2 Units Produced 6,000 liters 6,000 liters 3,000 liters 15,000 Objective: 4 Percentage 40% x 40% x 20% x 100% Joint Costs 240,000 = 240,000 = 240,000 = Allocated $96,000 96,000 48,000 240,000 Units Produced 6,000 liters 6,000 liters 3,000 liters Sales Value at Splitoff Point $60,000 50,000 25,000 Chapter 16 Page 26 77. Red Sauce Canning Company processes tomatoes into catsup, tomato juice, and canned tomatoes. During the summer of 20x3, the joint costs of processing the tomatoes were $420,000. There was no beginning or ending inventories for the summer. Production and sales value information for the summer were as follows: Product Catsup Juice Canned Required: Determine the amount allocated to each product if the estimated net realizable value method is used, and compute the cost per case for each product. Answer: Product Catsup Juice Canned Totals Expected Sales Value $2,800,000 3,750,000 2,000,000 Separable Net Realizable Costs Value Percentage $300,000 $2,500,000 35.71% 750,000 3,000,000 42.86% 500,000 1,500,000 21.43% $7,000,000 Separable Costs $300,000 = 750,000 = 500,000 = 100.00% Product Costs $449,982 930,012 590,006 Cases 100,000 150,000 200,000 Sales Value at Splitoff Point $6 per case 8 per case 5 per case Separable Costs $3.00 per case 5.00 per case 2.50 per case Selling Price $28 per case 25 per case 10 per case Product Catsup Juice Canned Percentage 35.71% x 42.86% x 21.43% x Joint Costs $420,000 = 420,000 = 420,000 = Allocated $149,982 + 180,012 + 90,006 + Catsup cost per case Juice cost per case Canned cost per case Difficulty: 3 = $449,982/100,000 = $4.50 = $930,012/150,000 = $6.20 = $590,006/200,000 = $2.95 Objective: 4 Chapter 16 Page 27 78. New York Liberty Corporation makes miniature Statutes of Liberty from cast iron. Sales total 40,000 units a year. The statutes are finished either rough or polished, with an average demand of 60% rough and 40% polished. Iron ingots, the direct material, costs $6 per pound. Processing costs are $200 to convert 20 pounds into 40 statutes. Rough statutes are sold for $15 each, and polished statutes can be sold for $18 or engraved for an additional cost of $5. Polished statues can then be sold for $30. Required: Determine whether New York Liberty Company should sell the engraved statutes. Why? Answer: New York Liberty should engrave the statutes because they increase profits by $7 per statute. Sales Cost of Sales: Materials ($6 x 20)/40 Conversion $200/40 Operating Income (loss) Sales, polished and engraved Costs: Materials Conversion Additional Processing Advantage of processing further Difficulty: 1 Objective: 6 Rough $15.00 $3.00 5.00 8.00 $7.00 $3.00 5.00 Polished $18.00 8.00 $10.00 $30.00 $3.00 5.00 5.00 13.00 $17.00 Chapter 16 Page 28 79. The Carolina Company prepares lumber for companies who manufacture furniture. The main product is finished lumber with a byproduct of wood shavings. The byproduct is sold to plywood manufacturers. For July, the manufacturing process incurred $332,000 in total costs. Eighty thousand board feet of lumber were produced and sold along with 6,800 pounds of shavings. The finished lumber sold for $6.00 per board foot and the shavings sold for $0.60 a pound. There were no beginning or ending inventories. Required: Prepare an income statement showing the byproduct (1) as a cost reduction during production, and (2) as a revenue item when sold. Answer: Sales: Lumber Shavings Total Sales: Cost of Good Sold: Total manufacturing costs Byproduct Total COGS Gross Margin Difficulty: 2 Cost reduction when produced $480,000 $480,000 $332,000 4,080 327,920 $152,080 Objective: 7 Revenue when sold $480,000 4,080 484,080 $332,000 0 332,000 $152,080 80. Distinguish between the two principal methods of accounting for byproducts, the production byproduct method and the sale byproduct method. Briefly discuss the relative merits (or lack thereof) of each. Register to View AnswerProduction byproduct method. This method recognizes byproducts in the financial statements at the time their production is completed. The estimated net realizable value from the byproduct produced is offset against the costs of the main (or joint) products, and reported in the balance sheet as inventory. Accounting entries are made and the byproducts are reported in the balance sheet at their selling price. b. Sale byproduct method. This method delays recognition of the byproducts until the time of their sale. Revenues could be recorded in one accounting period, while the expense in an earlier period. Companies may find it necessary to keep an inventory of the byproduct processing costs in a separate account until the byproducts are sold. This practice can be rationalized on the grounds that the dollar amounts of byproducts are immaterial. But managers can use this method to manage reported earnings by timing when they sell byproducts. 2 Objective: 7 Difficulty: Chapter 16 Page 29 CRITICAL THINKING 81. Silver Company uses one raw material, silver ore, for all its products. It spends considerable time getting the silver from the ore before it starts the actual processing of the finished products, rings, lockets, etc. Traditionally, the company made one product at a time and charged the product with all costs of production, from ore to final inspection. However, in recent months, the cost accounting reports have been somewhat disturbing to management. It seems that some of the finished products are costing more than they should, even to the point of approaching their retail value. It has been noted by the accounting manager that this problem began when the company started buying ore from different parts of the world, some of which require difficult extraction methods. Required: Can you explain how the company might change its accounting system to better reflect the reporting problems? Are there other problems with the purchasing area? Answer: It appears that the company needs to start assigning all extraction costs to a joint-cost category. It is unfair that the finished products receive a high cost simply because a certain batch of ore was very expensive to run through the extraction process when the next finished products were produced from silver that was easy to extract. If all extraction costs are considered joint, then each finished product would share in the average cost of extraction, rather than being charged with the cost of a specific batch. This should result in costs that are more reflective of the product's actual cost. Additional problems may be with the purchasing department. The accounting department may help highlight the problem but does not pinpoint the actual problem. Maybe they should buy refined silver or else hire experts in the minerals area as part of the purchasing team. Difficulty: 2 Objective: 1 Chapter 16 Page 30 82. Pilgrim Corporation processes frozen turkeys. The company has not been pleased with its profit margin per product because it appears that the high value items have too few costs assigned to them, while the low value items have too many costs assigned to them. The processing results in several products, the primary one of which is frozen small turkeys. Other products include frozen parts such as wings and legs, byproducts such as skin and bones, and unused scrap items. Required: What may be the cost assignment problem if a key consideration is the value of the products being sold? Answer: First, the company needs to consider whether the byproducts are being treated as products, rather than byproducts. For the most part, byproducts should not be assigned costs. The revenue from the byproducts should be used as either minor sale categories or else as offsets to processing costs. A second consideration is the method used to assign the costs. It is possible that some physical measure (weight) is being used, in which case the parts items and the byproducts may weigh as much as the primary product. It may be necessary to evaluate the various methods of allocation and select the one which management feels is best for decision making. Difficulty: 2 Objective: 4 Chapter 16 Page 31 83. Wharf Fisheries processes many of its seafood items to the demands of its largest customers, most of which are large retail distributors. To keep the accounting system simple, it has always assigned cost by the weight of the finished product. However, with increased competition, it has had to watch its prices closely and, in recent years, several items have incurred zero profit margins. After several weeks of investigation, your consulting firm has found that, while weight is important in processing of seafood, numerous items have very distinct processing steps and some items are processed through more steps than others. Required: Based on the findings of your consulting firm, what changes might you recommend to the company in the way of cost allocation among its products? Answer: Recommendations might include, among others, some of the following: a. b. c. d. e. f. Categorize the fishing expeditions as joint costs, especially if multiple items are caught. Categorize all processing activities where multiple items are processed as joint costs. For those processes that are unique to only one product or a set of products, use separable cost categories. Choose something other than weight for allocating joint costs. Select one of the value methods of assigning the costs. Carefully separate main products from byproducts in the costing system. Do not allocate the joint costs for internal decisions. 2 Objective: 4 Difficulty: Chapter 16 Page 32 84. Paragon University operates an extensive and an expensive registration, testing, and counseling center, through which all students are required to pass through when they enter the University. The registration effort's costs (for the most part) are almost impossible to allocate based upon which students require time, effort, etc. The cost of this center is approximately 15% of the total costs of Paragon. This department engages in no other activities than the registration of students. Paragon is interested in determining the profitability of the three technical departments it operates. Paragon has the perception that some departments are more profitable than others, and it would like to determine an appropriate method of allocating the costs of this registration center. Required: Recommend to Paragon University a method (or methods) of allocating the costs of registration to the three departments. Answer: The joint costs of the registration effort could be allocated based on physical volume or the sales (tuition) dollars of each department. Volume Allocating on volume would be based not upon physical measures, but upon the number of credit hours each of the three departments offer each semester. If the ratio of credit hours for the three departments were 25%, 45%, and 30% then the costs would be allocated based upon these ratios. Sales Dollars It is possible that some departments charge more per credit hour than others. In this case it might be appropriate to allocate the costs based upon the total tuition revenues of each department. Difficulty: 3 Objective: 4 Chapter 16 Page 33

Find millions of documents on Course Hero - Study Guides, Lecture Notes, Reference Materials, Practice Exams and more. Course Hero has millions of course specific materials providing students with the best way to expand their education.

Below is a small sample set of documents:

FAU - ACG - 3341
CHAPTER 14: COST ALLOCATION, CUSTOMER-PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS, AND SALES-VARIANCE ANALYSIS TRUE/FALSE 1. Indirect costs are costs that cannot be traced to cost objects in an economically feasible way. Answer: 2. True Difficulty: 1 Objective: 1To mot
FAU - ACG - 3341
CHAPTER 13: STRATEGY, BALANCED SCORECARD, AND STRATEGY PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS TRUE/FALSE 1. Strategy describes how an organization matches its own capabilities with the opportunities in the marketplace to accomplish its overall objectives. Answer: 2.
FAU - ACG - 3341
CHAPTER 12: PRICING DECISIONS AND COST MANAGEMENT TRUE/FALSE 1. Companies must always examine pricing decisions through the eyes of their customers. Answer: 2. True Difficulty: 2 Objective: 1Relevant costs for pricing decisions include manufacturin
FAU - ACG - 3341
CHAPTER 11: DECISION MAKING AND RELEVANT INFORMATION TRUE/FALSE 1. A decision model is a formal method for making a choice, frequently involving both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Answer: 2. True Difficulty: 1 Objective: 1Feedback from pre
FAU - ACG - 3341
CHAPTER 10: DETERMINING HOW COSTS BEHAVE TRUE/FALSE 1. One assumption frequently made in cost behavior estimation is that changes in total costs can be explained by changes in the level of a single activity. Answer: 2. True Difficulty: 1 Objective: 1
FAU - ACG - 3341
CHAPTER 9: INVENTORY COSTING AND CAPACITY ANALYSIS TRUE/FALSE 1. Absorption costing absorbs only variable manufacturing costs. Answer: False Difficulty: 1 Objective: 1 Absorption costing absorbs all manufacturing costs, both fixed and variable. 2. Va
FAU - ACG - 3341
CHAPTER 8: FLEXIBLE BUDGETS, VARIANCES, AND MANAGEMENT CONTROL: II TRUE/FALSE 1. Overhead costs are a major part of costs for most companies more than 50% of all costs for some companies. Answer: 2. True Difficulty: 1 Objective: 1At the start of t
FAU - ACG - 3341
CHAPTER 7: FLEXIBLE BUDGETS, VARIANCES, AND MANAGEMENT CONTROL: I TRUE/FALSE 1. The master budget is one type of flexible budget. Answer: 2. False Difficulty: 1 Objective: 1The master budget is a static budget.A flexible budget is calculated at th
FAU - ACG - 3341
CHAPTER 6: MASTER BUDGET AND RESPONSIBILITY ACCOUNTING TRUE/FALSE 1. Few businesses plan to fail, but many of those that flop have failed to plan. Answer: 2. True Difficulty: 1 Objective: 1The master budget reflects the impact of operating decision
FAU - ACG - 3341
CHAPTER 2: AN INTRODUCTION TO COST TERMS AND PURPOSES TRUE/FALSE 1. Products, services, departments, and customers may be cost objects. Answer: 2. True Difficulty: 1 Objective: 1Costs are accounted for in two basic stages: assignment followed by ac
FAU - ACG - 3341
CHAPTER 1: THE ACCOUNTANTS ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION TRUE/FALSE 1. Management accounting information focuses on external reporting. Answer: False Difficulty: 1 Objective: Management accounting information focuses on internal reporting. 2. 1A good co
Cornell - PSYCH - 101
Psych 101 12-3 Anxiety Disorders OCD Causes: Environmental Genetic predisposition Biochemical Treatment: Anti-anxiety agents (benzodiazepines) - Ativan, valium Behavior Therapy Cognitive Therapy What is effective depends on the cause Dissociative Dis
Cornell - PSYCH - 101
Psych 101 11-21 The Maze 1. Developmental and Familial Issue a. Critical episodes reflected in art b. Relationships i. Parents, siblings, family, staff 2. Psychological issues a. Feelings and perceptions 3. Treatment issues a. Onset and hospitalizat
Cornell - PSYCH - 101
Pysch 101 10/27/08 A good teacher is gently insistent Auditory Threshold Normal Hearing auditory detail is impaired Stretch out and enunciate consonants Hearing may be like a bad mobile phone connection Echolalia increases as receptive language becom
Cornell - PSYCH - 101
Failure to use control group Improvement could be due to 1) 2) 3) 4) Spontaneous remission Suggestion of pills effect Getting attention A change in weather, lighting, etc Basic Experimental Design 1) Define the population of subjects 2) Draw a rand
Cornell - PSYCH - 101
Psych 101 10-22 The interview- a method for gathering information or assessing traits Loaded questions? The myth of repressed memory, false memories and allegations of sexual abuse Dr Elizabeth Unreliability of interviews 1) Untrained interviewers,
Cornell - PSYCH - 101
Psych 101 10-17-08 Problem: Trumpeter swans and whooping cranes becoming extinct in Canada Solution: Transplant birds from USA Teach them to migrate how? Imprint Micro-light aircraft (Pilot tested on geese) Naturalistic Observations Disadvantages: 1.
Cornell - PSYCH - 101
Psych 101 11-3-08 The Ames Window Illusion Past experience and assumptions about the built environment can lead our perception astray The Future building, New York We assume balconies are rectangular so they look slanted Actually leveled Outline can
Cornell - PSYCH - 101
Psych 101 10/31/08 Hypnotic Susceptibility Tests 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Handshake Did you have imaginary playmates? Do you get totally engrossed in novels? Visual Scanning test eyeball movement The Harvard scale The Creative Imagination Scale Think, fee
Cornell - PSYCH - 101
Psych 101 10/28/08 The History of Hypnosis Anton Mesmer (1776)- mesmerist James Braid (1840) Sleep-like trance: hypnosis Heightened suggestibility; Power is in the hypnotized S Watch technique James Esdaile (1885) 300 operations using hypnosis Sigmun
Cornell - PSYCH - 101
Psych 101 10-15-08 Mind reading Guess the card generated by computer How was the subject selected? Catherines ESP skill? Stage Magic How was the information gathered? ESP? Stage Magic (Research) Information gathering by Cold Reading John Edward cros
Rutgers - CIVIL ENGI - 180:411
NOTICE This material may be protected by Copyright Law (Title 17 U.S. Code)
University of Dundee - BISC - 300
What is microbiology? Chapter 1The History and Scope of Microbiology study of organisms too small to be clearly seen by the unaided eye (i.e., microorganisms) microorganisms include viruses, bacteria, protozoa, algae, and fungi12Discovery of
University of Dundee - BISC - 300
Lenses and the Bending of Light Chapter 2The Study of Microbial Structure: Microscopy and Specimen Preparation1 light is refracted (bent) when passing from one medium to another refractive index a measure of how greatly a substance slows the ve
University of Dundee - BICS - 300
Chapter 12 Genes: Expression and Regulation1Constitutive Enzymes2Regulation of mRNA Synthesis regulation of gene expression conserves energy and raw materials maintains balance between the amounts of various cell proteins allows organism t
University of Dundee - BISC - 300
An Overview of Procaryotic Cell Structure Chapter 3 Procaryotic Cell Structure and Function1 a wide variety of sizes, shapes, and cellular aggregation patterns simpler than eucaryotic cell structure unique structures not observed in eucaryotes2
University of Dundee - BICS - 300
Horizontal gene transfer Chapter 13 Microbial Recombination and Plasmids1 2 transfer of genes from one mature, independent organism (donor) to another (recipient) exogenote DNA that is transferred to recipient endogenote genome of recipient
University of Dundee - BISC - 300
The Common Nutrient Requirements Chapter 5Microbial Nutrition macroelements (macronutrients) C, O, H, N, S, P, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe required in relatively large amounts micronutrients (trace elements) Mn, Zn, Co, Mo, Ni, and Cu required in trace
University of Dundee - BICS - 300
Some terminology genetic engineeringChapter 14 Recombinant DNA Technology1 deliberate modification of organisms genetic information by directly changing its genome recombinant DNA technology procedures used to carry out genetic engineering
University of Dundee - BISC - 300
Growth increase in cellular constituents that may result in:Chapter 6 Microbial Growth increase in cell number e.g., when microorganisms reproduce by budding or binary fission increase in cell size e.g., coenocytic microorganisms have nuclea
University of Dundee - BISC - 300
Definition of Frequently Used Terms Chapter 7Control of Microorganisms by Physical and Chemical Agents sterilization destruction or removal of all viable organisms disinfection killing, inhibition, or removal of pathogenic organisms disinfecta
University of Dundee - BISC - 300
Energy and Work energyChapter 8 Metabolism: Energy, Enzymes, and Regulation1 2 capacity to do work or to cause particular changesTypes of work carried out by organisms chemical work synthesis of complex molecules transport work take up o
University of Dundee - BISC - 300
An Overview of Metabolism metabolismChapter 9 Metabolism: Energy Release and Conservation1 total of all chemical reactions occurring in cell catabolism breakdown of larger, more complex molecules into smaller, simpler ones energy is release
University of Dundee - BISC - 300
Anabolism Chapter 10 Metabolism: The Use of Energy in Biosynthesis1 synthesis of complex molecules and cellular structures turnover continual degradation and resynthesis of cellular constituents rate of biosynthesis approximately balanced by r
University of Dundee - BISC - 300
The Central Dogma Chapter 11 Genes: Structure, Replication, and MutationFigure 11.41 2Procaryotic DNA usually exists as closed circular, supercoiled molecule associated with basic proteinssupercoiled DNADNA Replication complex process involv
University of Dundee - BICS - 300
1 gram-negative; no endospores aerobic23Genus Thiobacillus(Name changed to Acidithiobacillus) found in soil and aquatic habitats production of sulfuric acid can cause corrosion of concrete and metal structures may increase soil fe
University of Dundee - BICS - 300
Chapter 22 Bacteria: The Proteobacteria1 2The Purple Nonsulfur Bacteria with one exception (genus Rhodocyclus) all are proteobacteria morphologically diverse most motile by polar flagella341Purple nonsulfur bacteria metabolically flexi
University of Dundee - BICS - 300
have very small genomes most are facultative anaerobes in animals, colonize mucous membranes and joints1Class Clostridia contains three orders and 11 families2some new genera have been created from this genus; more will probably be created
University of Dundee - BICS - 300
Foundations of Microbial Ecology symbiosesChapter 28 Microorganism Interactions and Microbial Ecology relationships among organisms in an ecosystem populations assemblages of similar organisms communities mixtures of different populations
University of Dundee - BICS - 300
Aquatic Environments and Microorganisms aquatic environments vary dramaticallyChapter 29 Microorganisms in Aquatic Environments1 surface areas and volumes locations rivers, streams, lakes and oceans human body water-saturated soil pH, tem
University of Dundee - BICS - 300
Soil as an Environment for Microorganisms Chapter 30 Microorganisms in Terrestrial Environments1 dominated by inorganic geological material modified by organisms to form soils in ideal soils, microorganisms in close contact with oxygen rainfal
University of Dundee - BICS - 300
Pathogenicity Chapter 31 Normal Microbiota and Nonspecific Host Resistance1 2 ability to produce pathological change or disease pathogen any disease-producing microorganismNormal Microbiota of the Human Body normal microbiota microbes regula
BYU - C S - 678
International Journal of Neural Systems, Vol. 11, No. 2 (2001) 145165 c World Scientic Publishing CompanyDMP3: A DYNAMIC MULTILAYER PERCEPTRON CONSTRUCTION ALGORITHMTIMOTHY L. ANDERSEN and TONY R. MARTINEZ Computer Science Department, Brigham Youn
BYU - C S - 678
Classification-based Objective FunctionsMICHAEL RIMER mrimer@axon.cs.byu.edu TONY MARTINEZ martinez@cs.byu.edu Computer Science Department, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA Phone: (801) 422-6464 Fax: (801) 422-0169 Abstract. Backpropag
BYU - C S - 678
BYU - C S - 678
COGNITIVE SCIENCE, 14, 179-211 (1990).Finding Structure in TimeJEFFREY L. ELMANUniversity of California, San DiegoTime underlies many interesting human behaviors. Thus, the question of how to represent time in connectionist models is very impor