Intermediate Accounting ch11
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Intermediate Accounting ch11

Course Number: TACCT 302, Fall 2007

College/University: Washington

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CHAPTER 11 Depreciation, Impairments, and Depletion ASSIGNMENT CLASSIFICATION TABLE (BY TOPIC) Topics 1. Depreciation methods; meaning of depreciation; choice of depreciation methods. Computation of depreciation. Depreciation base. Errors; changes in estimate. Depreciation of partial periods. Composite method. Impairment of value. Depletion. Ratio analysis. Questions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 14, 20, 21, 22, 23 7, 8, 9,...

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11 Depreciation, CHAPTER Impairments, and Depletion ASSIGNMENT CLASSIFICATION TABLE (BY TOPIC) Topics 1. Depreciation methods; meaning of depreciation; choice of depreciation methods. Computation of depreciation. Depreciation base. Errors; changes in estimate. Depreciation of partial periods. Composite method. Impairment of value. Depletion. Ratio analysis. Questions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 14, 20, 21, 22, 23 7, 8, 9, 10, 14 6 13 15 11, 12 16, 17, 18, 19 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 28 29 1, 2, 3, 4 Brief Exercises Exercises 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 14, 15 Problems 1, 2, 3 Concepts for Analysis 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 2. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 14, 15 8, 17 11, 12, 13, 14 3, 4, 5, 7, 15 9 16, 17, 18 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 24 25, 26 1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 12 1, 2, 3 3, 4 1, 2, 3, 8, 10, 11 1, 2, 3 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 5 7 3, 4 6 8 9 10 11 3 3 2 9 5, 6, 7 *10. Tax depreciation (MACRS). 12 *This material is covered in an Appendix to the chapter. 11-1 ASSIGNMENT CLASSIFICATION TABLE (BY LEARNING OBJECTIVE) Learning Objectives 1. 2. Explain the concept of depreciation. Identify the factors involved in the depreciation process. Compare activity, straight-line and decreasingcharge methods of depreciation. Explain special depreciation methods. Explain the accounting issues related to asset impairment. Explain the accounting procedures for depletion of natural resources. Explain how to report and analyze property, plant, equipment, and natural resources. Describe income tax methods of depreciation. 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 10, 11, 12 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 11, 12 Brief Exercises Exercises Problems 3. 2, 3, 4, 5 4. 5. 6. 7. *8. 1, 6 8 9 10 11 16, 17, 18 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 24 25, 26 12 9 5, 6, 7 11-2 ASSIGNMENT CHARACTERISTICS TABLE Item E11-1 E11-2 E11-3 E11-4 E11-5 E11-6 E11-7 E11-8 E11-9 E11-10 E11-11 E11-12 E11-13 E11-14 E11-15 E11-16 E11-17 E11-18 E11-19 E11-20 E11-21 E11-22 E11-23 E11-24 *E11-25 *E11-26 P11-1 P11-2 P11-3 P11-4 P11-5 P11-6 P11-7 P11-8 P11-9 P11-10 Description Depreciation computations--SL, SYD, DDB. Depreciation--conceptual understanding. Depreciation computations--SYD, DDB--partial periods. Depreciation computations--five methods. Depreciation computations--four methods. Depreciation computations--five methods, partial periods. Different methods of depreciation. Depreciation computation--replacement, nonmonetary exchange. Composite depreciation. Depreciation computations, SYD. Depreciation--change in estimate. Depreciation computation--addition, change in estimate. Depreciation--replacement, change in estimate. Error analysis and depreciation, SL and SYD. Depreciation for fractional periods. Impairment. Impairment. Impairment. Depletion computations--timber. Depletion computations--oil. Depletion computations--timber. Depletion computations--mining. Depletion computations--minerals. Ratio analysis. Book versus tax (MACRS) depreciation. Book versus tax (MACRS) depreciation. Depreciation for partial period--SL, SYD, and DDB. Depreciation for partial periods--SL, Act., SYD, and DDB. Depreciation--SYD, Act., SL, and DDB. Depreciation and error analysis. Depletion and depreciation--mining. Depletion, timber, and extraordinary loss. Natural resources--timber. Comprehensive fixed asset problem. Impairment. Comprehensive depreciation computations. Level of Difficulty Simple Moderate Simple Simple Simple Moderate Simple Moderate Simple Simple Simple Simple Simple Moderate Moderate Simple Simple Simple Simple Simple Simple Simple Simple Moderate Moderate Moderate Simple Simple Moderate Complex Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Complex Time (minutes) 1520 2025 1520 1525 2025 2535 2030 2025 1520 1015 1015 2025 1520 2025 2535 1015 1520 1520 1520 1015 1520 1520 1520 1520 2025 1520 2530 2535 4050 4560 2530 2530 2535 2535 1525 4560 11-3 ASSIGNMENT CHARACTERISTICS TABLE (Continued) Item P11-11 *P11-12 CA11-1 CA11-2 CA11-3 CA11-4 CA11-5 Description Depreciation for partial periods--SL, Act., SYD, and DDB. Depreciation--SL, DDB, SYD, Act., and MACRS. Depreciation basic concepts. Unit, group, and composite depreciation. Depreciation--strike, units-of-production, obsolescence. Depreciation concepts. Depreciation choice--ethics Level of Difficulty Moderate Moderate Moderate Simple Moderate Moderate Moderate Time (minutes) 3035 2535 2535 2025 2535 2535 2025 11-4 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. The differences among the terms depreciation, depletion, and amortization are that they imply a cost allocation of different types of assets. Depreciation is employed to indicate that tangible plant assets have decreased in carrying value. Where natural resources (wasting assets) such as timber, oil, coal, and lead are involved, the term depletion is used. The expiration of intangible assets such as patents or copyrights is referred to as amortization. The factors relevant in determining the annual depreciation for a depreciable asset are the initial recorded amount (cost), estimated salvage value, estimated useful life, and depreciation method. Assets are typically recorded at their acquisition cost, which is in most cases objectively determinable. But cost assignments in other cases--"basket purchases" and the selection of an implicit interest rate in asset acquisition under deferred-payment plans--may be quite subjective, involving considerable judgment. The salvage value is an estimate of an amount potentially realizable when the asset is retired from service. The estimate is based on judgment and is affected by the length of the useful life of the asset. The useful life is also based on judgment. It involves selecting the "unit" of measure of service life and estimating the number of such units embodied in the asset. Such units may be measured in terms of time periods or in terms of activity (for example, years or machine hours). When selecting the life, one should select the lower (shorter) of the physical life or the economic life. Physical life involves wear and tear and casualties; economic life involves such things as technological obsolescence and inadequacy. Selecting the depreciation method is generally a judgment decision, but a method may be inherent in the definition adopted for the units of service life, as discussed earlier. For example, if such units are machine hours, the method is a function of the number of machine hours used during each period. A method should be selected that will best measure the portion of services expiring each period. Once a method is selected, it may be objectively applied by using a predetermined, objectively derived formula. 3. Accounting depreciation is defined as an accounting process of allocating the costs of tangible assets to expense in a systematic and rational manner to the periods expected to benefit from the use of the asset. Thus, depreciation is not a matter of valuation but a means of cost allocation. The carrying value of a fixed asset is its cost less accumulated depreciation. If the company estimates that the asset will have an unrealistically long life, periodic depreciation charges, and hence accumulated depreciation, will be lower. As a result the carrying value of the asset will be higher. A change in the amount of annual depreciation recorded does not change the facts about the decline in economic usefulness. It merely changes reported figures. Depreciation in accounting consists of allocating the cost of an asset over its useful life in a systematic and rational manner. Abnormal obsolescence, as suggested by the plant manager, would justify more rapid depreciation, but increasing the depreciation charge would not necessarily result in funds for replacement. It would not increase revenue but simply make reported income lower than it would have been, thus preventing overstatement of net income. Recording depreciation on the books does not set aside any assets for eventual replacement of the depreciated assets. Fund segregation can be accomplished but it requires additional managerial action. Unless an increase in depreciation is accompanied by an increase in sales price of the product, or unless it affects management's decision on dividend policy, it does not 11-5 2. 4. 5. Questions Chapter 11 (Continued) affect funds. Ordinarily higher depreciation will not lead to higher sales prices and thus to more rapid "recovery" of the cost of the asset, and the economic factors present would have permitted this higher price regardless of the excuse given or the particular rationalization used. The price could have been increased without a higher depreciation charge. The funds of a firm operating profitably do increase, but these may be used as working capital policy may dictate. The measure of the increase in these funds from operations is not merely net income, but that figure plus charges to operations which did not require working capital, less credits to operations which did not create working capital. The fact that net income alone does not measure the increase in funds from profitable operations leads some non-accountants to the erroneous conclusion that a fund is being created and that the amount of depreciation recorded affects the fund accumulation. Acceleration of depreciation for purposes of income tax calculation stands in a slightly different category, since this is not merely a matter of recordkeeping. Increased depreciation will tend to postpone tax payments, and thus temporarily increase funds (although the liability for taxes may be the same or even greater in the long run than it would have been) and generate gain to the firm to the extent of the value of use of the extra funds. 6. Assets are retired for one of two reasons: physical factors or economic factors--or a combination of both. Physical factors are the wear and tear, decay, and casualty factors which hinder the asset from performing indefinitely. Economic factors can be interpreted to mean any other constraint that develops to hinder the service life of an asset. Some accountants attempt to classify the economic factors into three groups: inadequacy, supersession, and obsolescence. Inadequacy is defined as a situation where an asset is no longer useful to a given enterprise because the demands of the firm have increased. Supersession is defined as a situation where the replacement of an asset occurs because another asset is more efficient and economical. Obsolescence is the catchall term that encompasses all other situations and is sometimes referred to as the major concept when economic factors are considered. Before the amount of the depreciation charge can be computed, three basic questions must be answered: 1. What is the depreciation base to be used for the asset? 2. What is the asset's useful life? 3. What method of cost apportionment is best for this asset? Cost Depreciation rate Depreciation for 2006 2006 Depreciation 2007 Depreciation Accumulated depreciation at December 31, 2007 *(1 5) X 150% $600,000 30%* $180,000 $180,000 126,000 $306,000 Cost Depreciation for 2006 Undepreciated cost in 2007 Depreciation rate Depreciation for 2007 $600,000 (180,000) 420,000 30% $126,000 7. 8. 11-6 Questions Chapter 11 (Continued) 9. Depreciation base: Cost Salvage $120,000 (15,000) $105,000 Straight-line, $105,000 20 = Units-of-output, Working hours, $105,000 84,000 $105,000 $5,250 X 20,000 = $25,000 $35,750 $10,000 $12,000 X 14,300 = 42,000 Sum-of-the-years'-digits, $105,000 X 20/210* = Declining-balance, $120,000 X 10% = * 20(20 + 1) 2 = 210 10. From a conceptual point of view, the method which best matches revenue and expenses should be used; in other words, the answer depends on the decline in the service potential of the asset. If the service potential decline is faster in the earlier years, an accelerated method would seem to be more desirable. On the other hand, if the decline is more uniform, perhaps a straight-line approach should be used. Many firms adopt depreciation methods for more pragmatic reasons. Some companies use accelerated methods for tax purposes but straight-line for book purposes because a higher net income figure is shown on the books in the earlier years, but a lower tax is paid to the government. Others attempt to use the same method for tax and accounting purposes because it eliminates some recordkeeping costs. Tax policy sometimes also plays a role. 11. The composite method is appropriate for a company which owns a large number of heterogeneous plant assets and which would find it impractical to keep detailed records for them. The principal advantage is that it is not necessary to keep detailed records for each plant asset in the group. The principle disadvantage is that after a period of time the book value of the plant assets may not reflect the proper carrying value of the assets. Inasmuch as the accumulated depreciation account is debited or credited for the difference between the cost of the asset and the cash received from the retirement of the asset (i.e., no gain or loss on disposal is recognized), the accumulated depreciation account is self-correcting over time. 12. Cash ..................................................................................................................... Accumulated Depreciation--Plant Assets .................................................... Plant Assets .................................................................................... No gain or loss is recognized under the composite method. 13. Original estimate: $2,400,000 50 = $48,000 per year Depreciation to January 1, 2007: $48,000 X 24 = $1,152,000 Depreciation in 2007 ($2,400,000 $1,152,000) 15 years = $83,200 14. No, depreciation does not provide cash; revenues do. The funds for the replacement of the assets come from the revenues; without the revenues no income materializes and no cash inflow results. A separate decision must be made by management to set aside cash to accumulate asset replacement funds. Depreciation is added to net income on the statement of cash flows (indirect method) because it is a noncash expense, not because it is a cash inflow. 16,000 34,000 50,000 11-7 Questions Chapter 11 (Continued) 15. 25% straight-line rate X 2 = 50% double-declining rate $6,000 X 50% = $3,000 Depreciation for first full year. $3,000 X 6/12 = $1,500 Depreciation for half a year (first year), 2007 $4,500 X 50% = $2,250 Depreciation for 2008. 16. The accounting standards require that if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable, then the carrying amount of the asset should be assessed. The assessment or review takes the form of a recoverability test that compares the sum of the expected future cash flows from the asset (undiscounted) to the carrying amount. If the cash flows are less than the carrying amount, the asset has been impaired. The impairment loss is measured as the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair value of the asset. The fair value of assets is measured by their market value if an active market for them exists. If no market price is available, the present value of the expected future net cash flows from the asset may be used. 17. Under U.S. GAAP, impairment losses on assets held for use may not be restored. 18. An impairment is deemed to have occurred if, in applying the recoverability test, the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the expected future net cash flows from the asset. In this case, the expected future net cash flows of $705,000 exceed the carrying amount of the equipment of $700,000 so that no impairment is assumed to have occurred; thus no measurement of the loss is made or recognized even though the fair value is $590,000. 19. Impairment losses are reported as part of income from continuing operations, generally in the "Other expenses and losses" section. Impairment losses (and recovery of losses for assets to be disposed of) are similar to other costs that would flow through operations. Thus, gains (recoveries of losses) on assets to be disposed of should be reported as part of income from continuing operations. 20. In a decision to replace or not to replace an asset, the undepreciated cost of the old asset is not a factor to be considered. Therefore, the decision to replace plant assets should not be affected by the amount of depreciation that has been recorded. The relative efficiency of new equipment as compared with that presently in use, the cost of the new facilities, the availability of capital for the new asset, etc., are the factors entering into the decision. Normally, the fact that the asset had been fully depreciated through the use of some accelerated depreciation method, although the asset was still in use, should not cause management to decide to replace the asset. If the new asset under consideration for replacement was not any more efficient than the old, or if it cost a good deal more in relationship to its efficiency, it is illogical for management to replace it merely because all or the major portion of the cost had been charged off for tax and accounting purposes. If depreciation rates were higher it might be true that a business would be financially more able to replace assets, since during the earlier years of the asset's use a larger portion of its cost would have been charged to expense, and hence during this period a smaller amount of income tax paid. By a sale of the old asset, which might result in a capital gain, and purchase of a new asset, the higher depreciation charge might be continued for tax purposes. However, if the asset were traded in, having taken higher depreciation would result in a lower basis for the new asset. It should be noted that expansion (not merely replacement) might be encouraged by increased depreciation rates. Management might be encouraged to expand, believing that in the first few years when they are reasonably sure that the expanded facilities will be profitable, they can charge off a substantial portion of the cost as depreciation for tax purposes. Similarly, since a replacement involves additional capital outlays, the tax treatment may have some influence. Also, because of the inducement to expand or to start new businesses, there may be a tendency in the economy as a whole for the accounting and tax treatment of the cost of plant assets to influence the retirement of old plant assets. 11-8 Questions Chapter 11 (Continued) It should be noted that to the extent that increased depreciation causes management to alter its decision about replacement, and to the extent it results in capital gains at the time of disposition, it is not matching costs and revenues in the closest possible manner. 21. In lieu of recording depreciation on replacement costs, management might elect to make annual appropriations of retained earnings in contemplation of replacing certain facilities at higher price levels. Such appropriations might help to eliminate misunderstandings as to amounts available for distribution as dividends, higher wages, bonuses, or lower sales prices. The need for these appropriations can be explained by supplementary financial schedules, explanations, and footnotes accompanying the financial statements. (However, neither depreciation charges nor appropriations of retained earnings result in the accumulation of funds for asset replacement. Fund accumulation is a result of profitable operations and appropriate funds management.) 22. (a) Depreciation and cost depletion are similar in the accounting sense in that: 1. The cost of the asset is the starting point from which computation of the amount of the periodic charge to operations is made. 2. The estimated life is based on economic or productive life. 3. The accumulated total of past charges to operations is deducted from the original cost of the asset on the balance sheet. 4 . When output methods of computing depreciation charges are used, the formulas are essentially the same as those used in computing depletion charges. 5. Both represent an apportionment of cost under the process of matching costs with revenue. 6. Assets subject to either are reported in the same classification on the balance sheet. 7. Appraisal values are sometimes used for depreciation while discovery values are sometimes used for depletion. 8. Residual value is properly recognized in computing the charge to operations. 9. They may be included in inventory if the related asset contributed to the production of the inventory. 10. The rates may be changed upon revision of the estimated productive life used in the original rate computations. (b) Depreciation and cost depletion are dissimilar in the accounting sense in that: 1. Depletion is almost always based on output whereas depreciation is usually based on time. 2. Many formulas are used in computing depreciation but only one is used to any extent in computing depletion. 3. Depletion applies to natural resources while depreciation applies to plant and equipment. 4. Depletion refers to the physical exhaustion or consumption of the asset while depreciation refers to the wear, tear, and obsolescence of the asset. 5. Under statutes which base the legality of dividends on accumulated earnings, depreciation is usually a required deduction but depletion is usually not a required deduction. 6. The computation of the depletion rate is usually much less precise than the computation of depreciation rates because of the greater uncertainty in estimating the productive life. 7. A difference that is temporary in nature arises from the timing of the recognition of depreciation under conventional accounting and under the Internal Revenue Code, and it results in the recording of deferred income taxes. On the other hand, the difference between cost depletion under conventional accounting and its counterpart, percentage depletion, under the Internal Revenue Code is permanent and does not require the recording of deferred income taxes. 23. Cost depletion is the procedure by which the capitalized costs, less residual land values, of a natural resource are systematically charged to operations. The purpose of this procedure is to match the cost of the resource with the revenue it generates. The usual method is to divide the total cost less residual value by the estimated number of recoverable units to arrive at a depletion charge for each unit removed. A change in the estimate of recoverable units will necessitate a revision of the unit charge. 11-9 Questions Chapter 11 (Continued) Percentage depletion is the procedure, authorized by the Internal Revenue Code, by which a certain percentage of gross income is charged to operations in arriving at taxable income. Percentage depletion is not considered to be a generally accepted accounting principle because it is not related to the cost of the asset and is allowed even though the property is fully depleted under cost depletion accounting. Applicable rates, ranging from 5% to 22% of gross income, are specified for nearly all natural resources. The total amount deductible in a given year may not be less than the amount computed under cost depletion procedures, and it may not exceed 50% of taxable income from the property before the depletion deduction. Cost depletion differs from percentage depletion in that cost depletion is a function of production whereas percentage depletion is a function of income. Percentage depletion has arisen, in part, from the difficulty of valuing the natural resource or determining the discovery value of the asset and of determining the recoverable units. Although other arguments have been advanced for maintaining percentage depletion, a primary argument is its value in encouraging the search for additional resources. It is deemed to be in the national interest to provide an incentive to the continuing search for natural resources. As noted in the textbook, percentage depletion is no longer permitted for many enterprises. 24. This method does not necessarily measure the proper share of the cost of land to be charged to expense for depletion and, in fact, may ultimately exceed the actual cost of the property. 25. The maximum permissible is the amount of accumulated net income (after depletion) plus the amount of depletion charged. This practice can be justified for companies that expect to extract natural resources and not purchase additional properties. In effect, such companies are distributing gradually to stockholders their original investments. 26. Reserve recognition accounting (RRA) is the method that was proposed by the SEC to account for oil and gas resources. Proponents of this approach argue that oil and gas should be valued at the date of discovery. The value of the reserve still in the ground is estimated and this amount, appropriately discounted, is reported on the balance sheet as "oil deposits." The costs of exploration incurred each year are deducted from the estimated reserves discovered during the same period with the difference probably being reported as income. The oil companies are concerned because the valuation issue is extremely tenuous. For example, to properly value the reserves, the following must be estimated: (1) amount of the reserves, (2) future production costs, (3) periods of expected disposal, (4) discount rate, and (5) the selling price. 27. Using full-cost accounting, the cost of unsuccessful ventures as well as those that are successful are capitalized, because a cost of drilling a dry hole is a cost that is needed to find the commercially profitable wells. Successful efforts accounting capitalizes only those costs related to successful projects. They contend that to measure cost and effort accurately for a single property unit, the only measure is in terms of the cost directly related to that unit. In addition, it is argued that full-cost is misleading because capitalizing all costs will make an unsuccessful company over a short period of time show no less income than does one that is successful. 28. Asset turnover ratio: $45.7 $29.8 = 1.5 times Rate of return on assets: $3.2 $29.8 = 10.7% 11-10 Questions Chapter 11 (Continued) *29. The modified accelerated cost recovery system (MACRS) has been adopted by the Internal Revenue Service. It applies to depreciable assets acquired in 1987 and later. MACRS eliminates the need to determine each asset's useful life. The selection of a depreciation method and a salvage value is also unnecessary under MACRS. The taxpayer determines the recovery deduction for an asset by applying a statutory percentage to the historical cost of the property. MACRS was adopted to permit a faster write-off of tangible assets so as to provide additional tax incentives and to simplify the depreciation process. The simplification should end disputes related to estimated useful life, salvage value, and so on. 11-11 SOLUTIONS TO BRIEF EXERCISES BRIEF EXERCISE 11-1 2007: ($42,000 $2,000) X 23,000 160,000 ($42,000 $2,000) X 31,000 160,000 = $5,750 2008: = $7,750 BRIEF EXERCISE 11-2 (a) $60,000 $6,000 8 $60,000 $6,000 8 = $6,750 (b) X 4/12 = $2,250 BRIEF EXERCISE 11-3 (a) (b) ($60,000 $6,000) X 8/36* = $12,000 [($60,000 $6,000) X 8/36] X 9/12 = $9,000 *[8(8 + 1)] 2 BRIEF EXERCISE 11-4 (a) (b) $60,000 X 25%* = $15,000 ($60,000 X 25%) X 3/12 = $3,750 *(1/8 X 2) 11-12 BRIEF EXERCISE 11-5 Depreciable Base = ($25,000 + $200 + $125 + $500 + $475) $3,000 = $23,300. BRIEF EXERCISE 11-6 Asset A B C Depreciation Expense ($70,000 $7,000)/10 = $6,300 ($50,000 $10,000)/5 = 8,000 ($82,000 $4,000)/12 = 6,500 $20,800 Composite rate = $20,800/$202,000 = 10.3% Composite life = $181,000*/$20,800 = 8.7 years *($63,000 + $40,000 + $78,000) BRIEF EXERCISE 11-7 Annual depreciation expense: ($7,000 $1,000)/5 = $1,200 Book value, 1/1/08: $7,000 (2 x $1,200) = $4,600 Depreciation expense, 2008: ($4,600 $500)/2 = $2,050 BRIEF EXERCISE 11-8 Recoverability test: Future net cash flows ($500,000) < Carrying amount ($540,000); therefore, the asset has been impaired. Journal entry: Loss on Impairment ............................................. Accumulated Depreciation....................... ($540,000 $400,000) 11-13 140,000 140,000 BRIEF EXERCISE 11-9 Inventory............................................................................ Accumulated Depletion...................................... 72,625 72,625 $400,000 + $100,000 + $75,000 $160,000 = $103.75 per ton 4,000 700 X $103.75 = $72,625 BRIEF EXERCISE 11-10 (a) Asset turnover ratio: $7,109 = 1.104 times $6,205 + $6,675 2 Profit margin on sales: $647 = 9.1% $7,109 Rate of return on assets: (1) (2) 1.104 X 9.1% = 10.05% $647 = 10.05% $6,205 + $6,675 2 (b) (c) 11-14 *BRIEF EXERCISE 11-11 2008: 2009: 2010: 2011: 2012: 2013: $40,000 X 20% $40,000 X 32% $40,000 X 19.2% $40,000 X 11.52% $40,000 X 11.52% $40,000 X 5.76% = = = = = = $ 8,000 12,800 7,680 4,608 4,608 2,304 $40,000 11-15 SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES EXERCISE 11-1 (1520 minutes) (a) Straight-line method depreciation for each of Years 1 through 3 = $469,000 $40,000 = $35,750 12 Sum-of-the-Years'-Digits = 12 X 13 2 = 78 depreciation Year 1 depreciation Year 2 depreciation Year 3 100% 12 (b) 12/78 X ($469,000 $40,000) = $66,000 11/78 X ($469,000 $40,000) = $60,500 10/78 X ($469,000 $40,000) = $55,000 (c) Double-Declining Balance method depreciation rate. X 2 = 16.67% $469,000 X 16.67% = ($469,000 $78,182) X 16.67% = ($469,000 $78,182 $65,149) X 16.67% = $78,182 depreciation Year 1 $65,149 depreciation Year 2 $54,289 depreciation Year 3 EXERCISE 11-2 (2025 minutes) (a) If there is any salvage value and the amount is unknown (as is the case here), the cost would have to be determined by looking at the data for the double-declining balance method. 100% 5 = 20%; 20% X 2 = 40% Cost X 40% = $20,000 $20,000 .40 = $50,000 Cost of asset 11-16 EXERCISE 11-2 (Continued) (b) $50,000 cost [from (a)] $45,000 total depreciation = $5,000 salvage value. The highest charge to income for Year 1 will be yielded by the doubledeclining balance method. The highest charge to income for Year 4 will be yielded by the straight-line method. The method that produces the highest book value at the end of Year 3 would be the method that yields the lowest accumulated depreciation at the end of Year 3, which is the straight-line method. Computations: St.-line = $50,000 ($9,000 + $9,000 + $9,000) = $23,000 book value, end of Year 3. S.Y.D. = $50,000 ($15,000 + $12,000 + $9,000) = $14,000 book value, end of Year 3. D.D.B. = $50,000 ($20,000 + $12,000 + $7,200) = $10,800 book value, end of Year 3. (f) The method that will yield the highest gain (or lowest loss) if the asset is sold at the end of Year 3 is the method which will yield the lowest book value at the end of Year 3, which is the double-declining balance method in this case. (c) (d) (e) EXERCISE 11-3 (1520 minutes) (a) 20 (20 + 1) = 210 2 3/4 X 20/210 X ($711,000 $60,000) = $46,500 for 2007 1/4 X 20/210 X ($711,000 $60,000) 3/4 X 19/210 X ($711,000 $60,000) = = $15,500 44,175 $59,675 for 2008 + 11-17 EXERCISE 11-3 (Continued) (b) 100% = 5%; 5% X 2 = 10% 20 3/4 X 10% X $711,000 = $53,325 for 2007 10% X ($711,000 $53,325) = $65,768 for 2008 EXERCISE 11-4 (1525 minutes) (a) (b) (c) (d) $315,000 $15,000 = $300,000; $300,000 10 yrs. = $30,000 $300,000 240,000 units = $1.25; 25,500 units X $1.25 = $31,875 $300,000 25,000 hours = $12.00 per hr.; 2,650 hrs. X $12.00 = $31,800 10 + 9 + 8 + 7 + 6 + 5 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 55 OR 10 X $300,000 X 1/3 = 55 9 X $300,000 X 2/3 = 55 Total for 2008 (e) $315,000 X 20% X 1/3 = [$315,000 ($315,000 X 20%)] X 20% X 2/3 = Total for 2008 n(n + 1) 10(11) = 55 = 2 2 $18,182 32,727 $50,909 $21,000 33,600 $54,600 [May also be computed as 20% of ($315,000 2/3 of 20% of $315,000)] 11-18 EXERCISE 11-5 (2025 minutes) (a) ($117,900 $12,900) = $21,000/yr. = $21,000 X 5/12 = $8,750 5 2007 Depreciation--Straight line = $8,750 (b) ($117,900 $12,900) = $5.00/hr. 21,000 2007 Depreciation--Machine Usage = 800 X $5.00 = $4,000 (c) Machine Year 1 2 Total 5/15 X $105,000 = $35,000 4/15 X $105,000 = $28,000 Allocated to 2007 $14,583* ______ $14,583 2008 $20,417** 11,667*** $32,084 * $35,000 X 5/12 = $14,583 ** $35,000 X 7/12 = $20,417 *** $28,000 X 5/12 = $11,667 2008 Depreciation--Sum-of-the-Years'-Digits = $32,084 (d) 2007 40% X ($117,900) X 5/12 = $19,650 2008 40% X ($117,900 $19,650) = $39,300 OR 1st full year (40% X $117,900) = $47,160 2nd full year [40% X ($117,900 $47,160)] = $28,296 2007 Depreciation = 5/12 X $47,160 = 2008 Depreciation = 7/12 X $47,160 = 5/12 X $28,296 = $19,650 $27,510 11,790 $39,300 11-19 EXERCISE 11-6 (2030 minutes) (a) 2006 Straight-line $212,000 $12,000 = $25,000/year 8 3 months--Depreciation $6,250 = ($25,000 X 3/12) (b) 2006 Output $212,000 $12,000 = $5.00/output unit 40,000 1,000 units X $5.00 = $5,000 (c) 2006 Working hours $212,000 $12,000 20,000 = $10.00/hour 525 hours X $10.00 = $5,250 (d) 8 + 7 + 6 + 5 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 36 OR n (n + 1) 2 = 8(9) 2 = 36 Allocated to Sum-of-the-years'-digits Year 1 8/36 X $200,000 = 2 7/36 X $200,000 = 3 6/36 X $200,000 = Total $44,444 $38,889 $33,333 2006 $11,111 _______ $11,111 2007 $33,333 9,722 _______ $43,055 2008 $29,167 8,333 $37,500 2008: $37,500 = (9/12 of 2nd year of machine's life plus 3/12 of 3rd year of machine's life) (e) Double-declining balance 2007: 1/8 X 2 = 25%. 2006: 25% X $212,000 X 3/12 = $13,250 2007: 25% X ($212,000 $13,250) = $49,688 OR 1st full year (25% X $212,000) = $53,000 11-20 EXERCISE 11-6 (Continued) 2nd full year [25% X ($212,000 $53,000)] = $39,750 2006 Depreciation 3/12 X $53,000 = $13,250 2007 Depreciation 9/12 X $53,000 = $39,750 3/12 X $39,750 = 9,938 $49,688 EXERCISE 11-7 (2535 minutes) Methods of Depreciation Date Description A B C D Purchased 2/12/06 8/15/05 7/21/04 (g) 10/12/06 Cost $142,500 (c) 79,000 75,400 219,000 Salvage $16,000 21,000 23,500 69,000 Life 10 5 8 5 Method (a) SYD SL DDB SYD Accum. Depr. to 2007 $33,350 29,000 (e) 47,567 70,000 (b) $19,550 (d) 11,600 (f) 4,333 (h) 35,000 2008 Depr. Machine A--Testing the methods Straight-Line Method for 2006 Straight-Line Method for 2007 Total Straight Line Double-Declining Balance for 2006 Double-Declining Balance for 2007 Total Double Declining Balance Sum-of-the-years-digits for 2006 Sum-of-the-years-digits for 2007 Total Sum-of-the-years-digits Method used must be Using SYD, 2008 Depreciation is $ 6,325 [($142,500 $16,000) 10] X 1/2 $12,650 $18,975 $14,250 ($142,500 X .2 X .5) $25,650 [($142,500 $14,250) X .2] $39,900 $11,500 [($142,500 $16,000) X 10/55 X .5] $21,850 ($126,500 X 10/55 X 1/2) + ($126,500 X 9/55 X .5) $33,350 SYD $19,550 ($126,500 X 9/55 X 1/2) + ($126,500 X 8/55 X .5) 11-21 EXERCISE 11-7 (Continued) Machine B--Computation of the cost Asset has been depreciated for 2 1/2 years using the straight-line method. Annual depreciation is then equal to $29,000 divided by 2.5 or $11,600. 11,600 times 5 plus the salvage value is equal to the cost. Cost is $79,000 [($11,600 X 5) + $21,000]. Using SL, 2008 Depreciation is $11,600. Machine C--Using the double-declining balance method of depreciation 2004's depreciation is $ 9,425 ($75,400 X .25 X .5) 2005's depreciation is $16,494 ($75,400 $9,425) X .25 2006's depreciation is $12,370 ($75,400 $25,919) X .25 2007's depreciation is $ 9,278 ($75,400 $38,289) X .25 $47,567 Using DDB, 2008 Depreciation is $4,333 ($75,400 $47,567 $23,500) Machine D--Computation of Year Purchased First Half Year using SYD = $25,000 [($219,000 $69,000) X Second Year using SYD = 5/15 X .5] $45,000 ($150,000 X 5/15 X .5) + ($150,000 X 4/15 X .5) $70,000 Thus the asset must have been purchased on October 12, 2006 Using SYD, 2008 Depreciation is $35,000 ($150,000 X 4/15 X .5) + ($150,000 X 3/15 X .5) 11-22 EXERCISE 11-8 (2025 minutes) Old Machine June 1, 2005 Purchase Freight Installation Total cost $31,000 200 500 $31,700 Annual depreciation charge: ($31,700 $2,500) 10 = $2,920 On June 1, 2006, debit the old machine for $1,980; the revised total cost is $33,680 ($31,700 + $1,980); thus the revised annual depreciation charge is: ($33,680 $2,500 $2,920) 9 = $3,140. Book value, old machine, June 1, 2009: [$33,680 $2,920 ($3,140 X 3)] = Fair market value Loss on exchange Cost of removal Total loss $21,340 20,000 1,340 75 $ 1,415 (Note to instructor: The above computation is done to determine whether there is a gain or loss from the exchange of the old machine with the new machine and to show how the cost of removal might be reported. Also, if a gain occurs, the gain is not deferred (1) because the exchange has commercial substance and (2) the cost paid exceeds 25% of the total value of the property received.) New Machine Basis of new machine Cash paid ($35,000 $20,000) Fair market value of old machine Installation cost Total cost of new machine $15,000 20,000 1,500 $36,500 Depreciation for the year beginning June 1, 2009 = ($36,500 $4,000) 10 = $3,250. 11-23 EXERCISE 11-9 (1520 minutes) Estimated Salvage $ 5,500 4,800 3,600 1,500 2,500 $17,900 Depreciable Cost $ 35,000 28,800 32,400 17,500 21,000 $134,700 Estimated Depreciation Life per Year 10 9 9 7 6 $ 3,500 3,200 3,600 2,500 3,500 $16,300 (a) Asset A B C D E Cost $ 40,500 33,600 36,000 19,000 23,500 $152,600 Composite life = $134,700 $16,300, or 8.26 years Composite rate = $16,300 $152,600, or approximately 10.7% (b) Depreciation Expense--Plant Assets ................... Accumulated Depreciation--Plant Assets................................................................ Cash ................................................................................. Accumulated Depreciation--Plant Assets .......... Plant Assets........................................................ 16,300 16,300 4,800 14,200 19,000 (c) EXERCISE 11-10 (1015 minutes) Sum-of-the-years'-digits = 8X9 2 = 36 Using Y to stand for the years of remaining life: Y/36 X ($430,000 $70,000) = $60,000 Multiplying both sides by 36: $360,000 X Y = $2,160,000 Y = $2,160,000 $360,000 Y=6 The year in which there are six remaining years of life at the beginning of that given year is 2006. 11-24 EXERCISE 11-11 (1015 minutes) (a) No correcting entry is necessary because changes in estimate are handled in the current and prospective periods. Revised annual charge Book value as of 1/1/2008 [$60,000 ($7,000 X 5)] = $25,000 Remaining useful life, 5 years (10 years 5 years) Revised salvage value, $4,500 ($25,000 $4,500) 5 = $4,100 Depreciation Expense--Equipment .......................... Accumulated Depreciation--Equipment....... 4,100 4,100 (b) EXERCISE 11-12 (2025 minutes) (a) (b) 19811990--($2,000,000 $60,000) 40 = $48,500/yr. 19912008--Building ($2,000,000 $60,000) 40 = Addition ($500,000 $20,000) 30 = $48,500/yr. 16,000/yr. $64,500/yr. (c) (d) No entry required. Revised annual depreciation Building Book value: ($2,000,000 $1,358,000*) Salvage value Remaining useful life Annual depreciation *$48,500 X 28 years = $1,358,000 11-25 $642,000 60,000 582,000 32 years $ 18,188 EXERCISE 11-12 (Continued) Addition Book value: ($500,000 $288,000**) Salvage value Remaining useful life Annual depreciation **$16,000 X 18 years = $288,000 Annual depreciation expense--building ($18,188 + $6,000) $24,188 $212,000 20,000 192,000 32 years $ 6,000 EXERCISE 11-13 (1520 minutes) (a) (b) $2,200,000 40 = $55,000 Loss on Disposal of Plant Assets .......................... Accumulated Depreciation--Building ($160,000 X 20/40)..................................................... Building ................................................................ Building ........................................................................... Cash....................................................................... 80,000 80,000 160,000 300,000 300,000 Note: The most appropriate entry would be to remove the old roof and record a loss on disposal, because the cost of the old roof is given. Another alternative would be to debit Accumulated Depreciation on the theory that the replacement extends the useful life of the building. The entry in this case would be as follows: Accumulated Depreciation--Building................... Cash....................................................................... 300,000 300,000 As indicated, this approach does not seem as appropriate as the first approach. 11-26 EXERCISE 11-13 (Continued) (c) (d) No entry necessary. (Assume the cost of the old roof is removed) Building ($2,200,000 $160,000 + $300,000) Accumulated Depreciation ($55,000 X 20 $80,000) Remaining useful life Depreciation--2008 ($1,320,000 25) OR (Assume the cost of the new roof is debited to accumulated depreciation) Book value of the building prior to the replacement of roof $2,200,000 ($55,000 X 20) = Cost of new roof Remaining useful life Depreciation--2008 ($1,400,000 25) $2,340,000 1,020,000 1,320,000 25 years $ 52,800 $1,100,000 300,000 $1,400,000 25 years $ 56,000 EXERCISE 11-14 (2025 minutes) (a) Repair Expense ............................................................. Equipment ............................................................ 500 500 (b) The proper ending balance in the asset account is: January 1 balance Add: New equipment: Purchases $32,000 Freight 700 Installation 2,700 Less: Cost of equipment sold December 31 balance (1) Straight-line: $147,150 10 = $14,715 11-27 $134,750 35,400 (23,000) $147,150 EXERCISE 11-14 (Continued) (2) Sum-of-the-years'-digits: 10 + 9 + 8 + 7 + 6 + 5 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 55 OR n(n + 1) 2 = 10(11) = 55 2 For equipment purchased in 2006: $111,750 ($134,750 $23,000) of the cost of equipment purchased in 2006, is still on hand. 8/55 X $111,750 = $16,255 For equipment purchased in 2008: 10/55 X $35,400 = 6,436 Total $22,691 EXERCISE 11-15 (2535 minutes) (a) 2002 (1) $192,000 $16,800 = $175,200 $175,200 12 = $14,600 per yr. ($40 per day) 133*/365 of $14,600 = $ 5,320 20032008 Include. (6 X $14,600) 68/365 of $14,600 = (2) 0 (3) 14,600 (4) 7,300 (5) 4/12 of $14,600 4,867 20032008 Inc. 3/12 of $14,600 (6) 0 *(11 + 30 + 31 + 30 + 31) 20032008 Incl. 2009 Total $87,600 87,600 87,600 87,600 87,600 87,600 3,650 0 96,117 87,600 $ 2,720 14,600 0 7,300 $ 95,640 102,200 102,200 102,200 (b) The most accurate distribution of cost is given by methods 1 and 5 if it is assumed that straight-line is satisfactory. Reasonable accuracy is normally given by 2, 3, or 4. The simplest of the applications are 6, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 1, in about that order. Methods 2, 3, and 4 combine reasonable accuracy with simplicity of application. 11-28 EXERCISE 11-16 (1015 minutes) (a) December 31, 2007 Loss on Impairment..................................................... 3,200,000 Accumulated Depreciation--Equipment.... Cost Accumulated depreciation Carrying amount Fair value Loss on impairment (b) $9,000,000 1,000,000 8,000,000 4,800,000 $3,200,000 3,200,000 December 31, 2008 Depreciation Expense................................................. 1,200,000 Accumulated Depreciation--Equipment.... New carrying amount Useful life Depreciation per year $4,800,000 4 years $1,200,000 1,200,000 (c) No entry necessary. Restoration of any impairment loss is not permitted. EXERCISE 11-17 (1520 minutes) (a) Loss on Impairment..................................................... 3,220,000 Accumulated Depreciation--Equipment.... Cost Accumulated depreciation Carrying amount Less: Fair value Plus: Cost of disposal Loss on impairment $9,000,000 1,000,000 8,000,000 4,800,000 20,000 $3,220,000 3,220,000 11-29 EXERCISE 11-17 (Continued) (b) No entry necessary. Depreciation is not taken on assets intended to be sold. Accumulated Depreciation--Equipment............. Recovery of Loss on Impairment................ Fair value Less: Cost of disposal Carrying amount Recovery of impairment loss 500,000 500,000 $5,300,000 20,000 (c) 5,280,000 4,780,000 $ 500,000 EXERCISE 11-18 (1520 minutes) (a) December 31, 2007 Loss on Impairment .................................................... Accumulated Depreciation--Equipment ... Cost Accumulated depreciation Carrying amount Fair value Loss on impairment (b) $900,000 400,000 500,000 230,000 $270,000 270,000 270,000 It may be reported in the other expenses and losses section or it may be highlighted as an unusual item in a separate section. It is not reported as an extraordinary item. No entry necessary. Restoration of any impairment loss is not permitted. Management first had to determine whether there was an impairment. To evaluate this step, management does a recoverability test. The recoverability test estimates the future cash flows expected from use of that asset and its eventual disposition. If the sum of the expected future net cash flows (undiscounted) is less than the carrying amount of the asset, an impairment results. If the recoverability test indicates that an impairment has occurred, a loss is computed. The impairment loss is the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its fair value. (c) (d) 11-30 EXERCISE 11-19 (1520 minutes) $84,000 = $2,800 per year 30 years (a) Depreciation Expense: Cost of Timber Sold: $1,400 $400 = $1,000 $1,000 X 9,000 acres = $9,000,000 of value of timber ($9,000,000 3,500,000 bd. ft.) X 700,000 bd. ft. = $1,800,000 (b) Cost of Timber Sold: $9,000,000 $1,800,000 = $7,200,000 $7,200,000 + $100,000 = $7,300,000 ($7,300,000 5,000,000 bd. ft.) X 900,000 bd. ft. = $1,314,000 Note: The spraying costs as well as the costs to maintain the fire lanes and roads are expensed each period and are not part of the depletion base. EXERCISE 11-20 (1015 minutes) Cost per barrel of oil: $500,000 250,000 Initial payment = = $2.00 Rental = $31,500 = 18,000 1.75 Premium, 5% of $55 = 2.75 Reconditioning of land = $30,000 250,000 = .12 Total cost per barrel 11-31 $6.62 EXERCISE 11-21 (1520 minutes) (a) $1,300 $300 = $1,000 per acre for timber $1,000 X 7,000 acres X 850,000 bd. ft. = 8,000 bd. ft. X 7,000 acres $7,000,000 56,000,000 bd. ft. (b) (c) X 850,000 bd. ft. = $106,250. $78,400 X 850,000 bd. ft. = $1,190. 56,000,000 bd. ft. Forda should capitalize the cost of $70,000 ($20 X 3,500 trees) and adjust the depletion the next time the timber is harvested. EXERCISE 11-22 (1520 minutes) Depletion base: $1,190,000 + $90,000 $100,000 + $200,000 = $1,380,000 Depletion rate: $1,380,000 60,000 = $23/ton (a) (b) (c) Per unit material cost: $23/ton 12/31/07 inventory: $23 X 8,000 tons = $184,000 Cost of goods sold 2007: $23 X 22,000 tons = $506,000 EXERCISE 11-23 (1520 minutes) (a) $970,000 + $170,000 + $40,000* $100,000 = .09 depletion per unit 12,000,000 *Note to instructor: The $40,000 should be depleted because it is a asset retirement obligation. 2,500,000 units extracted X $.09 = $225,000 depletion for 2007 (b) 2,100,000 units sold X $.09 = $189,000 charged to cost of goods sold for 2007 11-32 EXERCISE 11-24 (1525 minutes) (a) Asset turnover ratio: $13,516 = .914 times $14,846 + $14,737 2 (b) Rate of return on assets: $556 = 3.76% $14,846 + $14,737 2 (c) Profit margin on sales: $556 = 4.11% $13,516 The asset turnover ratio times the profit margin on sales provides the rate of return on assets computed for Eastman Kodak as follows: Profit margin on sales X Asset Turnover 4.11% X .914 = Return on Assets 3.76% (d) Note the answer 3.76% is the same as the rate of return on assets computed in (b) above. 11-33 *EXERCISE 11-25 (2025 minutes) 2007 (a) Revenues Operating expenses (excluding depreciation) Depreciation [($27,000 $6,000) 7] Income before income taxes $200,000 130,000 3,000 $ 67,000 2007 (b) Revenues Operating expenses (excluding depreciation) Depreciation* Taxable income *2007 2008 (c) $27,000 X .20 = $5,400 $27,000 X .32 = $8,640 $21,000 $27,000 $200,000 130,000 5,400 $ 64,600 2008 $200,000 130,000 3,000 $ 67,000 2008 $200,000 130,000 8,640 $ 61,360 Book purposes ($27,000 $6,000) Tax purposes (entire cost of asset) (d) Differences will occur for the following reasons: 1. different depreciation methods. 2. half-year convention used for tax purposes. 3. estimated useful life and tax life different. 4. tax system ignores salvage value. *EXERCISE 11-26 (1520 minutes) (a) (1) ($31,000 $1,000) X 1/10 X 10/12 = $2,500 depreciation expense for book purposes. $31,000 X 1/5 X 1/2 = $3,100 depreciation for tax purposes. 11-34 (2) *EXERCISE 11-26 (Continued) (b) (1) $31,000 X 20% X 10/12 = $5,167 depreciation expense for book purposes. $31,000 X 40% X 1/2 = $6,200 depreciation expense for tax purposes. (2) (c) Differences will occur for the following reasons: 1. half-year convention used for tax purposes. 2. estimated useful life and tax life different. 3. tax system ignores salvage value. 11-35 TIME AND PURPOSE OF PROBLEMS Problem 11-1 (Time 2530 minutes) Purpose--to provide the student with an opportunity to compute depreciation expense using a number of different depreciation methods. The problem is complicated because the proper cost of the machine to be depreciated must be determined. For example, purchase discounts and freight charges must be considered. In addition, the student is asked to select a depreciation method that will allocate less depreciation in the early years of the machine's life than in the later years. Problem 11-2 (Time 2535 minutes) Purpose--to provide the student with an opportunity to compute depreciation expense using the following methods: straight-line, units-of-output, working hours, sum-of-the-years'-digits, and declining balance. The problem is straightforward and provides an excellent review of the basic computational issues involving depreciation methods. Problem 11-3 (Time 4050 minutes) Purpose--to provide the student with an opportunity to compute depreciation expense using a number of different depreciation methods. Before the proper depreciation expense can be computed, the accounts must be corrected for a number of errors made by the company in its accounting for the assets. An excellent problem for reviewing the proper accounting for plant assets and related depreciation expense. Problem 11-4 (Time 4560 minutes) Purpose--to provide the student with an opportunity to correct the improper accounting for Semitrucks and determine the proper depreciation expense. The student is required to compute separately the errors arising in determining or entering depreciation or in recording transactions affecting Semitrucks. Problem 11-5 (Time 2530 minutes) Purpose--to provide the student with a problem involving the computation of estimated depletion and depreciation costs associated with a tract of mineral land. The student must compute depletion and depreciation on a units-of-production basis (tons mined). A portion of the cost of machinery associated with the product must be allocated over different periods. The student may experience some difficulty with this problem. Problem 11-6 (Time 2530 minutes) Purpose--to provide the student with a problem involving the proper accounting for depletion cost. This problem involves timberland for which a depletion charge must be computed. In addition, a computation of a loss that occurs because of volcanic activity must be determined. Problem 11-7 (Time 2535 minutes) Purpose--to provide the student with a problem involving depletion and depreciation computations. Problem 11-8 (Time 2535 minutes) Purpose--to provide the student with a comprehensive problem related to property, plant, and equipment. The student must determine depreciable bases for assets, including capitalized interest, and prepare depreciation entries using various methods of depreciation. Problem 11-9 (Time 1525 minutes) Purpose--to provide the student with an opportunity to analyze impairments for assets to be used and assets to be disposed of. Problem 11-10 (Time 4560 minutes) Purpose--to provide the student with an opportunity to solve a complex problem involving a number of plant assets. A number of depreciation computations must be made, specifically straight-line, 150% declining balance, and sum-of-the-years'-digits. In addition, the cost of assets acquired is difficult to determine. 11-36 Time and Purpose of Problems (Continued) Problem 11-11 (Time 3035 minutes) Purpose--to provide the student with the opportunity to solve a moderate problem involving a machinery purchase and the depreciation computations using straight-line, activity, sum-of-the-years'-digits, and the double-declining balance methods, first for full periods and then for partial periods. *Problem 11-12 (Time 2535 minutes) Purpose--to provide the student with an opportunity to compute depreciation expense using a number of different depreciation methods. The purpose of computing the depreciation expense is to determine which method will result in the maximization of net income and which will in result the minimization of net income over a three-year period. An excellent problem for reviewing the fundamentals of depreciation accounting. 11-37 SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS PROBLEM 11-1 (a) (1) Depreciable Base Computation: Purchase price Less: Purchase discount (2%) Freight-in Installation Less: Salvage value Depreciation base $73,500 (1,470) 970 3,800 76,800 1,200 $75,600 2007--Straight line: ($75,600 8 years) X 2/3 year = $6,300 (2) Sum-of-the-years'-digits for 2008 Total Depreciation $16,800 $14,700 1 2 Machine Year 8/36 X $75,600 = 7/36 X $75,600 = 2007 $11,200* 2008 $ 5,600** 9,800*** $15,400 * $16,800 X 2/3 = $11,200 ** $16,800 X 1/3 = $5,600 *** $14,700 X 2/3 = $9,800 (3) Double-declining balance for 2007 ($76,800 X 25% X 2/3) = $12,800 (b) An activity method. 11-38 PROBLEM 11-2 Depreciation Expense 2007 2008 (a) Straight-line: ($67,000 $4,000) 7 = $9,000/yr. 2007: $9,000 X 7/12 2008: $9,000 Units-of-output: ($67,000 $4,000) 525,000 units = $.12/unit 2007: $.12 X 55,000 2008: $.12 X 48,000 Working hours: ($67,000 $4,000) 42,000 hrs. = $1.50/hr. 2007: $1.50 X 6,000 2008: $1.50 X 5,500 Sum-of-the-years'-digits: 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 = 28 or 2007: 7/28 X $63,000 X 7/12 2008: 7/28 X $63,000 X 5/12 = 6/28 X $63,000 X 7/12 = n(n + 1) 2 = 7(8) 2 = 28 9,188 $6,563 7,875 $14,438 $5,250 $9,000 (b) 6,600 5,760 (c) 9,000 8,250 (d) 14,438 (e) Declining balance: Rate = 2/7 2007: 7/12 X 2/7 X $67,000 2008: 2/7 X ($67,000 $11,167) = $15,952 OR 2008: 5/12 X 2/7 X $67,000 = $ 7,976 2/7 X ($67,000 $19,143) X 7/12 7,976 $15,952 11-39 11,167 15,952 PROBLEM 11-3 (a) Depreciation Expense--Asset A.................................... Accumulated Depreciation--Asset A ................ (5/55 X [$35,000 $3,100]) Accumulated Depreciation--Asset A........................... Asset A ($35,000 $13,000) .................................. Gain on Disposal of Plant Assets....................... 2,900 2,900 26,100 22,000 4,100 6,720 6,720 (b) Depreciation Expense--Asset B.................................... Accumulated Depreciation--Asset B ................ ([$51,000 $3,000] 15,000 X 2,100) Depreciation Expense--Asset C.................................... Accumulated Depreciation--Asset C ................ ([$80,000 $15,000 $5,000] 10) Asset E ................................................................................... Retained Earnings ................................................... Depreciation Expense--Asset E.................................... Accumulated Depreciation--Asset E ................ *($22,000 X .20) (c) 6,000 6,000 (d) 22,000 22,000 4,400* 4,400 11-40 (a) Semitrucks dr. (cr.) $ 94,000 $(30,200) $(30,200) 15,000 9,000 (19,200) (40,400) 14,400 (16,000) (42,000) $94,000 Acc. Dep. Semitrucks dr. (cr.) Semitrucks dr. (cr.) Retained Earnings dr. (cr.) Acc. Dep., Semitrucks dr, (cr.) Retained Earnings dr, (cr.) Per Company Books As Adjusted Net Income Overstated (Understated) 1/1/05 Balance 7/1/05 Purchase Truck #5 Trade Truck #3 ________ 109,000 (20,300) (50,500) (18,000) (21,100) (71,600) 36,000 (700) (24,450) (96,050) (27,800) 27,800 24,450 (24,000) _______ 92,000 _______ 14,400 (15,000) (42,600) (14,000) 21,100 41,400 _______ 80,000 $20,300 (3,500) ________ 105,500 36,000 (2,500) ________ 139,000 ________ _______ 98,000 34,000 (30,000) $ 2,000 19,200 1 $ 2,000 2 12/31/05 12/31/05 Depreciation Balances (1,100) 1/1/06 Sale of Truck #1 100 16,000 3 100 4 12/31/06 12/31/06 Depreciation Balances (5,100) 7/1/07 Purchase of Truck #6 PROBLEM 11-4 11-41 = = = = = $ 3,600 4,400 3,000 4,800 3,400 7/1/07 Disposal of Truck #4 6,400 15,000 5 7,100 6 12/31/07 Depreciation (9,450) 12/31/07 Balances 12/31/08 Depreciation 12/31/08 Balances Income effect 14,000 7 (13,800) 1 Book value of Truck #3 [$30,000 ($30,000/5 X 1 1/ yrs.)] = $30,000 $9,000 = Loss on Trade $19,000 21,000 2 Truck #2: $22,000/5 Truck #3: $30,000/5 X 1/2 Truck #4:$24,000/5 Truck #5: $34,000/5 X 1/2 Total PROBLEM 11-4 (Continued) 3 Book value of Truck #1 [$18,000 ($18,000/5 X 4 yrs.)] = $18,000 $14,400 Cash received on sale Loss on sale 4 = $3,600 = 3,500 $ 100 Truck #2: Truck #4: Truck #5: Total $22,000/5 $24,000/5 $34,000/5 = = = $4,400 4,800 6,800 $16,000 = $9,600 = 3,200 $6,400 5 Book value of Truck #4 $24,000 [($24,000/5 X 3 yrs.)] Cash received ($700 + $2,500) Loss on disposal 6 Truck #2: Truck #4: Truck #5: Truck #6: Total Truck #2: Truck #5: Truck #6: Total $22,000/5 X 1/2 $24,000/5 X 1/2 $34,000/5 $36,000/5 X 1/2 = = = $ 2,200 2,400 6,800 3,600 $15,000 7 (fully dep.) $34,000/5 $36,000/5 = = = 0 6,800 7,200 $14,000 $ (b) Compound journal entry December 31, 2008: Accumulated Depreciation, Semitrucks...................... Semitrucks ................................................................. Retained Earnings ................................................... Depreciation Expense 2008 .................................. 67,250 47,000 6,450 13,800 11-42 PROBLEM 11-4 (Continued) Summary of Adjustments: Per Books $139,000 $123,850 $ 20,300 21,100 23,750 $ 65,150 $ 27,800 As Adjusted $92,000 $56,600 $21,200 16,100 21,400 $58,700 $14,000 Adjustment Dr. or (Cr.) $(47,000) $ 67,250 900 (5,000) (2,350) $ (6,450) $(13,800) $ Semitrucks Accumulated Depreciation Prior Years' Income Retained Earnings, 2005 Retained Earnings, 2006 Retained Earnings, 2007 Totals Depreciation Expense, 2008 11-43 PROBLEM 11-5 (a) Estimated depletion: Estimated Depletion Depletion Base $570,000* Estimated Yield 120,000 tons Per Ton $4.75 1ST & 11th Yrs. $28,500** Each of Yrs. 2-10 Incl. $57,000*** * ($600,000 $30,000) ** ($4.75 X 6,000) *** ($4.75 X 12,000) Estimated depreciation: Per ton Mined 1st Yr. $1,800 1,200 2,400 Yrs. 2-5 $3,600 2,400 4,800 6th Yr. $3,600 2,400 2,400 Yrs. 7-10 $3,600 2,400 0 11th Yr. $1,800 1,200 0 Asset Building Machinery (1/2) Machinery (1/2) Cost $36,000 $.30* 24,000 .20** 24,000 .40*** * $36,000 120,000 = $.30 ** $24,000 120,000 = $.20 *** $24,000 (120,000 X 1/2) = $.40 (b) Depletion: $4.75 X 7,000 tons = $33,250 Depreciation: Building $.30 X 7,000 = Machinery $.20 X 7,000 = Machinery $.40 X 7,000 = Total depreciation $2,100 1,400 2,800 $6,300 11-44 PROBLEM 11-6 (a) Original cost Deduct residual value of land Cost of logging road Depletion base $550 X 3,000 = $200 X 3,000 = $1,650,000 600,000 1,050,000 150,000 $1,200,000 $1,200,000 = $2.40 depletion per board foot 500,000 ft. (b) Inventory ................................................................................ 240,000 Accumulated Depreciation--Timber .................. Depletion, 1980: 20% X 500,000 bd. ft. = 100,000 bd. ft.; 100,000 bd. ft. X $2.40 = $240,000 (c) Loss of timber [$1,050,000 ($1,050,000 X 20%)] Loss of land value Loss of logging roads [($150,000 (20% X $150,000)] Logging equipment Cost of salvaging timber Less recovery ($3 X 400,000 bd. ft.) Extraordinary loss due to the eruption of Mt. St. Helens $840,000 600,000 120,000 300,000 700,000 (1,200,000) $1,360,000 240,000 11-45 PROBLEM 11-7 Instructors should note the changing depletion base in this problem. 2008 Computation of Depletion Base for 2008 Timber Cost per acre $1,700 Land Cost 800 Timber Cost $ 900 X 10,000 acres Road Cost Total Depletion Base Estimated Depletion for 2008 Depletion Expense for 2008 Depreciation of Removable Equipment Cost Salvage Value Depreciable base Annual Depreciation using SL ($180,000/15) Depreciation Expense for 2008 $9,000,000 195,000 $9,195,000 $9,195,000 X 0.07 (472,500/6,750,000) $ 643,650 $189,000 (9,000) $180,000 $ 12,000 $ 5,000 (5/12 X $12,000) 11-46 PROBLEM 11-7 (Continued) 2009 Depletion Base for 2009 Base for 2008 Less Depletion for 2008 Plus Seedling Planting Costs Depletion Base for 2009 Depletion Base for 2009 Times Depletion for 2009 Depreciation Expense for 2009 2010 Depletion Base for 2010 Base for 2009 Less: Depletion for 2009 Plus: Seedling Planting Costs Depletion Base for 2010 Depletion Base for 2010 Times Depletion for 2010 Depreciation Expense for 2010 $9,195,000 (643,650) 120,000 $8,671,350 $8,671,350 X 0.12 (774,000/6,450,000) $1,040,562 $ 12,000 $ 8,671,350 (1,040,562) 150,000 $ 7,780,788 $ 7,780,788 X .10 (650,000/6,500,000) $ 778,079 $ 12,000 11-47 PROBLEM 11-8 (a) The amounts to be recorded on the books of Selig Sporting Goods Inc. as of December 31, 2006, for each of the properties acquired from Starks Athletic Equipment Company are calculated as follows: Cost Allocations to Acquired Properties Remaining Purchase Price Allocations $ 84,000 36,0001 $120,000 1 Appraisal Value (1) Land (2) Building (3) Machinery Totals $280,000 _______ $280,000 Renovations $100,000 _______ $100,000 Capitalized Interest $21,600 ______ $21,600 2 Total $280,000 205,600 36,000 $521,600 Supporting Calculations 1 Balance of purchase price to be allocated. Total purchase price Less: Land appraisal Balance to be allocated Appraisal Values $400,000 280,000 $120,000 Allocated Values .70 .30 1.00 X $120,000 X $120,000 $ 84,000 36,000 $120,000 Ratios 105/150 = 45/150 = Building Machinery Totals $105,000 45,000 $150,000 11-48 PROBLEM 11-8 (Continued) 2 Capitalizable interest. Expenditures Date Amount 1/1 4/1 10/1 12/31 $ 50,000 130,000 130,000 190,000 $500,000 Capitalization Period 12/12 9/12 3/12 0/12 Weighted-Average Accumulated Expenditures $ 50,000 97,500 32,500 -0$180,000 Weighted-Average Accumulated Expenditures $180,000 X Interest Rate 12% = Avoidable Interest $21,600 Note to instructor: If the interest is allocated between the building and the machinery, $15,120 ($21,600 X 105/150) would be allocated to the building and $6,480 ($21,600 X 45/150) would be allocated to the machinery. (b) Selig Sporting Goods Inc.'s 2007 depreciation expense, for book purposes, for each of the properties acquired from Starks Athletic Equipment Company is as follows: 1. 2. Land: No depreciation. Building: Depreciation rate 2007 depreciation expense = 1.50 X 1/15 = .10 = Cost X Rate X 1/2 year = $205,600 X .10 X 1/2 = $10,280 = 2.00 X 1/5 = .40 = Cost X Rate X 1/2 = $36,000 X .40 X 1/2 = $7,200 3. Machinery: Depreciation rate 2007 depreciation expense 11-49 PROBLEM 11-8 (Continued) (c) Arguments for the capitalization of interest costs include the following. (1) Diversity of practices among companies and industries called for standardization in practices. Total interest costs should be allocated to enterprise assets and operations, just as material, labor, and overhead costs are allocated. That is, under the concept of historical costs, all costs incurred to bring an asset to the condition and location necessary for its intended use should be reflected as a cost of that asset. (2) Arguments against the capitalization of interest include the following: (1) Interest capitalized in a period would tend to be offset by amortization of interest capitalized in prior periods. Interest cost is a cost of financing, not of construction. (2) 11-50 PROBLEM 11-9 (a) Carrying value of asset: $8,000,000 $2,000,000* = $6,000,000. *($8,000,000 8) X 2 Future cash flows ($5,300,000) < Carrying value ($6,000,000) Impairment entry: Loss on Impairment ........................................................ 1,600,000* Accumulated Depreciation ................................ 1,600,000 *$6,000,000 $4,400,000 (b) Depreciation Expense .................................................... 1,100,000** Accumulated Depreciation ................................ 1,100,000 **($4,400,000 4) (c) No depreciation is recorded on impaired assets to be disposed of. Recovery of impairment losses are recorded. Loss on Impairment ........................................................ 1,600,000 Accumulated Depreciation ................................ 1,600,000 12/31/09 Accumulated Depreciation....................... Recovery of Impairment Loss........ 200,000 200,000 11-51 PROBLEM 11-10 (1) $82,000 Allocated in proportion to appraised values (1/10 X $820,000). Allocated in proportion to appraised values (9/10 X $820,000). Cost less salvage ($738,000 $40,000) divided by annual depreciation ($17,450). Same as prior year since it is straight-line depreciation. [Number of shares (2,500) times fair value ($30)] plus demolition cost of existing building ($16,000). No depreciation before use. Fair market value. Cost ($30,000) times percentage (1/10 X 150%). Cost ($30,000) less prior year's depreciation ($4,500) equals $25,500. Multiply $25,500 times 15%. Total cost ($164,900) less repairs and maintenance ($14,900). Cost less salvage ($150,000 $6,000) times 8/36. Cost less salvage ($150,000 $6,000) times 7/36 times one-third of a year. 11-52 (2) $738,000 (3) Forty years (4) (5) $17,450 $91,000 (6) (7) (8) (9) None $30,000 $4,500 $3,825 (10) $150,000 (11) $32,000 (12) $9,333 PROBLEM 11-10 (Continued) (13) $52,000 Annual payment ($6,000) times present value of annuity due at 8% for 11 years (7.710) plus down payment ($5,740). This can be found in an annuity due table since the payments are at the beginning of each year. Alternatively, to convert from an ordinary annuity to an annuity due factor, proceed as follows: For eleven payments use the present value of an ordinary annuity for 11 years (7.139) times 1.08. Multiply this factor (7.710) times $6,000 annual payment to obtain $46,260, and then add the $5,740 down payment. Cost ($52,000) divided by estimated life (20 years). (14) $2,600 11-53 PROBLEM 11-11 (a) (1) Straight-line Method: $77,000 $5,000 = $14,400 a year 5 years (2) Activity Method: $77,000 $5,000 100,000 hours 20,000 hrs. X $.72 = 25,000 hrs. X $.72 = 15,000 hrs. X $.72 = 30,000 hrs. X $.72 = 10,000 hrs. X $.72 = = $.72 per hour Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 $14,400 18,000 10,800 21,600 7,200 (3) Sum-of-the-Years'-Digits: 5 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 15 Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 5/15 X ($77,000 $5,000) = 4/15 X $72,000 = 3/15 X $72,000 = 2/15 X $72,000 = 1/15 X $72,000 = $24,000 19,200 14,400 9,600 4,800 (4) Double-Declining Balance Method: Each year is 20% of its total life. Double the rate to 40%. Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 40% X $77,000 = 40% X ($77,000 $30,800) = 40% X ($77,000 $49,280) = 40% X ($77,000 $60,368) = Enough to reduce to salvage = $30,800 18,480 11,088 6,653 4,979 11-54 PROBLEM 11-11 (Continued) (b) (1) Straight-line Method: Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 (2) $77,000 $5,000 X 9/12 = 5 years Full year Full year Full year Full year Full year X 3/12 year = $10,800 14,400 14,400 14,400 14,400 3,600 Sum-of-the-Years'-Digits: 2005 2006 (5/15 X $72,000) X 9/12 = (5/15 X $72,000) X 3/12 = (4/15 X $72,000) X 9/12 = (4/15 X $72,000) X 3/12 = (3/15 X $72,000) X 9/12 = (3/15 X $72,000) X 3/12 = (2/15 X $72,000) X 9/12 = (2/15 X $72,000) X 3/12 = (1/15 X $72,000) X 9/12 = (1/15 X $72,000) X 3/12 = $ 6,000 14,400 4,800 10,800 3,600 7,200 2,400 3,600 $18,000 20,400 2007 15,600 2008 10,800 2009 6,000 1,200 2010 11-55 PROBLEM 11-11 (Continued) (3) Double-Declining Balance Method: Accum. Depr. at beg. of year -- $23,100 44,660 57,596 65,358 70,015 Book Value at beg. of year $77,000 53,900 32,340 19,404 11,642 6,985 Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Cost $77,000 77,000 77,000 77,000 77,000 77,000 Depr. Expense $23,100 21,560 12,936 7,762 4,657 1,985 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) $77,000 X 40% X 9/12 ($77,000 $23,100) X 40% ($77,000 $44,660) X 40% ($77,000 $57,596) X 40% ($77,000 $63,358) X 40% to reduce to $5,000 salvage value. 11-56 *PROBLEM 11-12 (a) The straight-line method would provide the highest total net income for financial reporting over the three years, as it reports the lowest total depreciation expense. These computations are provided below. Computations of depreciation expense and accumulated depreciation under various assumptions: (1) Straight-line: $1,100,000 $50,000 = $210,000 5 years Depreciation Expense $210,000 210,000 210,000 $630,000 Accumulated Depreciation $ 210,000 $ 420,000 $ 630,000 Year 2005 2006 2007 (2) Double-declining balance: Depreciation Expense $440,000 264,000 158,400 $862,400 (40% X $1,100,000) (40% X $660,000) (40% X $396,000) Accumulated Depreciation $ 440,000 $ 704,000 $ 862,400 Year 2005 2006 2007 (3) Sum-of-the-years'-digits: Depreciation Expense $350,000 280,000 210,000 $840,000 (5/15 X $1,050,000) (4/15 X $1,050,000) (3/15 X $1,050,000 Accumulated Depreciation $ 350,000 $ 630,000 $ 840,000 Year 2005 2006 2007 11-57 *PROBLEM 11-12 (Continued) (4) Units-of-output: Depreciation Expense $252,000 231,000 210,000 $693,000 ($21* X 12,000) ($21 X 11,000) ($21 X 10,000) Accumulated Depreciation $ 252,000 $ 483,000 $ 693,000 Year 2005 2006 2007 *$1,050,000 50,000 = $21 per unit (b) General MACRS method: MACRS Rates (%)* 14.29 24.49 17.49 = = = Annual Depreciation $157,190 269,390 192,390 $618,970 Accumulated Depreciation $157,190 $426,580 $618,970 Total Cost 2005 2006 2007 $1,100,000 X 1,100,000 X 1,100,000 X *Taken from the MACRS rates schedule. Optional straight-line method: Depreciation Rate (1/7 X 1/2) 1/7 1/7 = = = Annual Depreciation $ 78,571 157,143 157,143 $392,857 Accumulated Depreciation $ 78,571 $235,714 $392,857 Total Cost 2005 2006 2007 $1,100,000 X 1,100,000 X 1,100,000 X The general MACRS method would have higher depreciation expense ($618,970) than that of the optional straight-line method ($392,857) for the three-year period ending December 31, 2007. Therefore, the general MACRS method would minimize net income for income tax purposes for this period. 11-58 TIME AND PURPOSE OF CONCEPTS FOR ANALYSIS CA 11-1 (Time 2535 minutes) Purpose--to provide the student with an understanding of the basic objective of depreciation accounting. In addition, the case involves a reverse sum-of-the-years'-digits situation and the student is to comment on the propriety of such an approach. Finally, the classic issue of whether depreciation provides funds must be considered. The tax effects of depreciation must be considered when this part of the case is examined. An excellent case for covering the traditional issues involving depreciation accounting. CA 11-2 (Time 2025 minutes) Purpose--to provide the student with a basic understanding of the difference between the unit and group or composite depreciation methods. The student is required to indicate the arguments for and against these methods and to indicate how retirements are handled. CA 11-3 (Time 2535 minutes) Purpose--to provide the student with an understanding of a number of unstructured situations involving depreciation accounting. The first situation considers whether depreciation should be recorded during a strike. The second situation involves the propriety of employing the units of production method in certain situations. The third situation involves the step-up of depreciation charges because properties are to be replaced due to obsolescence. The case is somewhat ambiguous, so cut-and-dried approaches should be discouraged. CA 11-4 (Time 3040 minutes) Purpose--to provide the student with an understanding of the objectives of depreciation and the theoretical basis for accelerated depreciation methods. CA 11-5 (Time 2025 minutes) Purpose--to provide the student with the opportunity to examine the ethical dimensions of the depreciation method choice. 11-59 SOLUTIONS TO CONCEPTS FOR ANALYSIS CA 11-1 (a) The purpose of depreciation is to distribute the cost (or other book value) of tangible capital assets, less salvage, over their useful lives in a systematic and rational manner. Under generally accepted accounting principles as presently understood, depreciation accounting is a process of allocation, not of valuation, through which the productive effort (cost) is to be matched with productive accomplishment (revenue) for the period. Depreciation accounting, therefore, is concerned with the timing of the expiration of the cost of tangible plant assets. (b) The proposed depreciation method is, of course, systematic. Whether it is rational in terms of cost allocation depends on the facts of the case. It produces an increasing depreciation charge, which is usually not justifiable in terms of the benefit from the use of the asset because manufacturers typically prefer to use their new equipment as much as possible and their old equipment only as needed to meet production quotas during periods of peak demand. As a general rule, then, the benefit declines with age. Assuming that the actual operations (including equipment usage) of each year are identical, maintenance and repair costs are likely to be higher in the later years of usage than in the earlier years. Hence the proposed method would couple light depreciation and repair charges in the early years. Reported net income in the early years would be much higher than reported net income in the later years of asset life, an unreasonable and undesirable variation during periods of identical operation. On the other hand, if the expected level of operations (including equipment usage) in the early years of asset life is expected to be low as compared to that of later years because of slack demand or production policies, the pattern of the depreciation charges of the proposed method approximately parallels expected benefits (and revenues) and hence is reasonable. Although the units-of-production depreciation method is the usual selection to fit this case, the proposed method also conforms to generally accepted accounting principles in this case provided that proper justification is given. (c) (1) Depreciation charges neither recover nor create funds. Revenue-producing activities are the sources of funds from operations: if revenues exceed out-of-pocket costs during a fiscal period, funds are available to cover other than out-of-pocket costs; if revenues do not exceed out-of-pocket costs, no funds are made available no matter how much, or little, depreciation is charged. Depreciation may affect funds in two ways. First, depreciation charges affect reported income and hence may affect managerial decisions such as those regarding pricing, product selection, and dividends. For example, the proposed method would result initially in higher reported income than would the straight-line method, consequently stockholders might demand higher dividends in the earlier years than they would otherwise expect. (2) The straight-line method, by causing a lower reported income during the early years of asset life and thereby reducing the amount of possible dividends in early years as compared with the proposed method, could encourage earlier reinvestments in other profit-earning assets in order to meet increasing demand. Second, depreciation charges affect reported taxable income and hence affect directly the amount of income taxes payable in the year of deduction. Using the proposed method for tax purposes would reduce the total tax bill over the life of the assets (1) if the tax rates were increased in future years or (2) if the business were doing poorly now but were to do significantly better in the future. The first condition is political and speculative but the second condition may be applicable to Prophet Manufacturing Company in view of its recent origin and its rapid expansion program. Consequently, more funds might be available for reinvestment in plant assets in years of large deductions if one of the above assumptions were true. 11-60 CA 11-1 (Continued) If Prophet is not profitable now, it would not benefit from higher deductions now and should consider an increasing charge method for tax purposes, such as the one proposed. If Prophet is quite profitable now, the president should reconsider his proposal because it will delay the availability of the tax shield provided by depreciation. However, this decision should not affect the decision to use a depreciation method for stockholders' reporting that is systematic and rational in terms of cost allocation under generally accepted accounting principles as presently understood. CA 11-2 (a) (1) The unit method of recording depreciation involves the treatment of plant assets or substantial additions thereto as individual items. The method entails maintaining detailed records of the costs of specific assets and related accumulated depreciation. Computation of depreciation is based on the estimated useful life of the individual asset. The method is distinguished from group and composite-life methods under which the cost and estimated life of the assets are commingled. Depreciation may be recorded by straight-line, accelerated, or other accepted computation methods. (2) Under the group or composite-life methods, assets are aggregated into accounting units. Such grouping might be horizontal, vertical, or geographical. Horizontal grouping assembles together all assets of similar physical characteristics, such as trucks, presses, returnable containers, etc. A vertical or functional grouping comprises all assets contributing to a common economic function, such as a sugar refinery, a service station, etc. The geographical grouping includes all assets in a district or region, such as telephone poles. Depreciation under these methods requires development of a weighted-average rate from the assets' depreciable costs and estimated lives. Separate accounts are established for the total cost of each asset grouping and its related accumulated depreciation. The asset grouping should be composed of a large number of units to obtain a reliable average life. (b) 1. Arguments for the use of the unit method are: i. The method is simple in that it does not require involved mathematical computations. ii. The gain or loss on the retirement of a particular asset can be computed. iii. For cost purposes, depreciation on idle equipment can be isolated. iv. The method results in a more accurately computed depreciation provision in any given year, as the total depreciation charge represents the best estimate of the depreciation of each asset and is not the result of averaging the cost over a longer period of time. Arguments against the unit method are: i. Considerable additional bookkeeping is necessary to account for each asset and its related depreciation. (The advent of computers reduces the work burden, however.) ii. There is a point of diminishing returns in the accumulation of accounting data under this method, that is, additional accuracy may not justify the additional cost of record-keeping. iii. Under a decentralized financial control system where a measure of the division's efficiency is the rate of return on the gross book value of the investment a division manager might scrap fully or nearly fully depreciated equipment to improve the division's rate of return even though the equipment is still serviceable. iv. There may be reluctance on the part of a division manager to replace equipment not fully depreciated with more efficient equipment because of the effect of the loss on the division's profits in the year of replacement. 2. Arguments for the use of the group and composite-life methods are: i. The methods require less detailed bookkeeping. ii. The application of depreciation to the whole group tends to average out or offset errors, economic or operating, caused by underdepreciation or overdepreciation. iii. Periodic income is not distorted by gains or losses on disposal of assets. 11-61 CA 11-2 (Continued) iv. A more useful charge to expense is derived from these methods because of their recognition that depreciation estimates are based on averages and that gains and losses on individual assets are of little significance. Arguments against the use of the group and composite-life methods would include: i. The methods would conceal faulty estimates for a long period of time. ii. When there is an early heavy retirement of assets a debit balance might appear in the accumulated depreciation account and present an accounting problem. iii. Information is not available regarding a particular machine for cost-calculation purposes. iv. Under a decentralized financial control system where a measure of the division's efficiency is the rate of return on the gross book value of the investment, to improve the division's financial reports a division manager might scrap idle but serviceable equipment or equipment that is not earning a satisfactory return on book value. The company would sustain an actual loss in the amount of the value of the equipment scrapped. v. Under the same situation as "iv" above, except that net book value is used, where the assets, although serviceable, are fully or almost fully depreciated, the division manager might hesitate to replace them because of the high rate of return on investment. (c) Under the unit method, retirements are recorded by removing from the accounts the cost of the asset and its related accumulated depreciation. The difference between the two accounts, adjusted for salvage and disposal costs, if any, is recognized as gain or loss. Under the group and composite-life methods the cost of the retired asset is removed from the asset account, and the accumulated depreciation account is reduced by the amount of the cost of the retired asset, adjusted for salvage, salvage costs, and removal costs. Accordingly, there is no periodic recognition of gain or loss; the accumulated depreciation account serves as a suspense account for the recognition of gain or loss until the final asset retirement. CA 11-3 Situation I. This position relates to the omission of a provision for straight-line depreciation during a strike. The same question could be raised with respect to plant shut-downs for many reasons, such as for a lack of sales or for seasonal business. The method of depreciation used should be systematic and rational. The annual provision for depreciation should represent a fair estimate of the loss in value arising from wear and usage and also from obsolescence. Each company should analyze its own facts and establish the best method under the circumstances. If the company was employing a straight-line depreciation method, for example, it is inappropriate to stop depreciating the plant asset during the strike. If the company employs a units-of-production method, however, it would be appropriate not to depreciate the asset during this period. Even in this latter case, however, if the strike were prolonged, it might be desirable to record some depreciation because of the obsolescence factors related to the passage of time. Situation II. (a) Steady demand for the new blenders suggests use of the straight-line method or the units-of-production method, either of which will allocate cost evenly over the life of the machine. Decreasing demand indicates use of an accelerated method (declining-balance or sum-of-the-years'digits) or the units-of-production method in order to allocate more of the cost to the earlier years of the machine's life. Increasing demand indicates the use of the units-of-production method to charge more of the cost to the later years of the machine's life; an increasing-charge method (annuity or sinkingfund) could be employed, though these methods are seldom used except by utilities. 11-62 CA 11-3 (Continued) (b) In determining the depreciation method to be used for the machine, the objective should be to allocate the cost of the machine over its useful life in a systematic and rational manner, so that costs will be matched with the benefits expected to be obtained. In addition to demand, consideration should be given to the items discussed below, their interrelationships, the relative importance of each, and the degree of certainty with which each can be predicted: The expected pattern of costs of repairs and maintenance should be considered. Costs which vary with use of the machine may suggest the use of the units-of-production method. Costs which are expected to be equal from period to period suggest the use of the straight-line method. If costs are expected to increase with the age of the machine, an accelerated method may be considered reasonable because it will tend to equalize total expenses from period to period. The operating efficiency of the machine may change with its age. A decrease in operating efficiency may cause increases in such costs as labor and power; if so, an accelerated method is indicated. If operating efficiency is not expected to decline, the straight-line method is indicated. Another consideration is the expiration of the physical life of the machine. If the machine wears out in relation to the passage of time, the straight-line method is indicated. Within this maximum life, if the usage per period varies, the units-of-production method may be appropriate. The machine may become obsolete because of technological innovation; it may someday be more efficient to replace the machine even though it is far from worn out. If the probability is high that such obsolescence will occur in the near future, the shortened economic life should be recognized. Within this shortened life, the depreciation method used would be determined by evaluating such consideration as the anticipated periodic usage. An example of the interrelationship of the items discussed above is the effect of the repairs and maintenance policy on operating efficiency and physical life of the machine. For instance, if only minimal repairs and maintenance are undertaken, efficiency may decrease rapidly and life may be short. It is possible that different considerations may indicate different depreciation methods for the machine. If so, a choice must be made based on the relative importance of the considerations. For instance, physical life may be less important than the strong chance of technological obsolescence which would result in a shorter economic life. Situation III. Depreciation rates should be adjusted in order that the operating sawmills which are to be replaced will be depreciated to their residual value by the time the new facility becomes available. The step-up in the depreciation rates should be considered as a change in estimate and prior years' financial statements should not be adjusted. The idle mill should be written off immediately as it appears to have no future service potential. 11-63 CA 11-4 To: From: Date: Merton Miller, Supervisor of Canning Room Your name, Accountant January 22, 2007 Subject: Annual depreciation charge to the canning department This memo addresses the questions you asked about the depreciation charge against your department. Admittedly this charge of $469,000 is very high; however, it is not intended to reflect the wear and tear which the machinery has undergone over the last year. Rather, it is a portion of the machines' cost which has been allocated to this period. Depreciation is frequently thought to reflect an asset's loss in value over time. For financial statement purposes, however, depreciation allocates part of an asset's cost in a systematic way to each period during its useful life. Although there will always be a decline in an asset's value over time, the depreciation charge is not supposed to measure that decline; instead, it is a periodic "charge" for using purchased equipment during any given period. When you consider the effect which the alternative would have on your departmental costs--expensing the total cost for all six machines this year--I'm sure you'll agree that depreciation is more equitable. You also mentioned that using straight-line depreciation would result in a smaller charge than would the current double-declining balance method. This is true during the first years of the equipment's life. Straight-line depreciation expenses even amounts of depreciation for each canning machine's twelveyear life. Thus the straight-line charge for this and all subsequent years would be $35,750 per machine for total annual depreciation of $214,500. During the earlier years of an asset's life, the double-declining balance method results in higher depreciation charges because it doubles the charge which would have been made under the straight-line method. However, the same percentage depreciation in the first year is applied annually to the asset's declining book value. Therefore, the double-declining balance charge becomes lower than the straightline charge during the last several years of the asset's life. For this year, as mentioned above, the charge is $469,000, but in subsequent years this expense will become lower. By the end of the twelfth year, the same amount of depreciation will have been taken regardless of the method used. The straight-line method would result in fewer charges against your department this year. However, consider this: when the asset is new, additional costs for service and repairs are minimal. Thus a greater part of the asset's cost should be allocated to this optimal portion of the asset's life. After a few years, your department will have to absorb the additional burden of repair and maintenance costs. During that time, wouldn't you rather have a lower depreciation charge? I hope that this explanation helps clarify any questions which you may have had about depreciation charges to your department. CA 11-5 (a) (b) The stakeholders are Waveland's employees, including Baker, current and potential investors and creditors, and upper-level management. The ethical issues are honesty and integrity in financial reporting, job security, and the external users' right to know the financial picture. 11-64 CA 11-5 (Continued) (c) Baker should review the estimated useful lives and salvage values of the depreciable assets. Since they are estimates, it is possible that some should be changed. Any changes should be based on sound, objective information without concern for the effect on the financial statements (or anyone's job). (Note: This case can be used with Chapter 22, Accounting Changes and Error Analysis.) 11-65 FINANCIAL REPORTING PROBLEM (a) P&G classifies its property, plant and equipment under three descriptions in its balance sheet: Buildings, Machinery and equipment, and Land. P&G's "depreciation expense is recognized over the assets' estimated useful lives using the straight-line method." P&G depreciates its assets based on estimated useful lives of 15 years for machinery and equipment and 3 to 20 years for manufacturing equipment. Buildings are depreciated over an estimated useful life of 40 years. P&G's statement of Cash Flows reports depreciation and amortization of $1,733 million in 2004, $1,703 million in 2003, and $1,693 million was charged to expense in 2002. The statement of cash flows reports the following capital expenditures: 2004, $2,024 million; 2003, $1,482 million; and 2002, $1,679 million. (b) (c) (d) (e) 11-66 FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS CASE (a) McDonald's used the straight-line method for depreciating its property and equipment. Depreciation and amortization charges do not increase cash flow from operations. In a cash flow statement, these two items are often added back to net income to arrive at cash flow from operations and therefore some incorrectly conclude these expenses increase cash flow. What affects cash flow from operations are cash revenues and cash expenses. Noncash charges have no effect, except for positive tax savings generated by these charges. The schedule of cash flow measures indicates that cash provided by operations is expected to cover capital expenditures over the next few years, even as expansion continues to accelerate. It is obvious that McDonald's believes that cash flow measures are meaningful indicators of growth and financial strength, when evaluated in the context of absolute dollars or percentages. (b) (c) 11-67 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS CASE (a) Property, plant, and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation: Coca-Cola at 12/31/04 PepsiCo at 12/25/04 Percent of total assets: Coca-Cola ($6,091 $31,327) PepsiCo ($8,149 $27,987) 19.4% 29.1% $6,091 million $8,149 million (b) Coca-Cola and PepsiCo depreciate property, plant, and equipment principally by the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Depreciation expense was reported by Coca-Cola (includes amortization) and PepsiCo as follows: Coca-Cola 2004 2003 2002 $893 million 850 million 806 million PepsiCo $1,062 million 1,020 million 929 million (c) (1) Asset turnover: Coca-Cola $21,962 $31,327 + $27,342 2 = .75 PepsiCo $29,261 $27,987 + $25,327 2 = 1.10 11-68 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS CASE (Continued) (2) Profit margin: Coca-Cola $4,847 $21,962 = 22.07% PepsiCo $4,212 $29,261 = 14.39% (3) Rate of return on assets: Coca-Cola $4,847 $31,327 + $27,342 2 = 16.52% PepsiCo $4,212 = 15.8% $27,987 + $25,327 2 With the exception of the asset turnover ratio, each of Coca-Cola's ratios is superior to PepsiCo's, especially the profit margin. PepsiCo's lower margins are primarily due to its large food business which experiences larger investments in property, plant, and equipment and lower margins compared to the beverage segment. Coca-Cola sales are derived almost entirely from higher margin beverages. (d) Coca-Cola's capital expenditures were $755 million in 2004 while PepsiCo's capital expenditures were $1,387 million in 2004. Neither Coca-Cola nor PepsiCo reported capitalizing any interest as part of construction costs. 11-69 RESEARCH CASE (a) EBITDA is an income subtotal that adds back certain expenses. Specifically, EBITDA stands for "Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization." Companies report EBITDA because it more closely approximates cash flow from operations. Some companies feel that their financial results are unfairly tainted by accounting rules calling for depreciation when in fact the infrastructure that they were depreciating was holding its value. Other companies, who had been doing acquisitions liked to focus on EBITDA because they could add back goodwill amortization, which before FAS No. 142 was amortized to expense. The Worldcom case highlighted the importance of depreciation expense as an operating expense. Worldcom wrongly treated $3.8 billion in certain operating expenses as capital expenditures. As a result the costs were not immediately expensed, but were subject to depreciation. While the move enhanced current earnings, it has an even more dramatic effect on EBITDA, which also excludes depreciation from the earnings measure. As a result, holders of other EBITDA-oriented stocks ditched them based on the worry that the same EBITDA-enhancing games were going on at these companies. The biggest problem appears to be the bias in choosing which nonearnings measure to report. Investors have a growing disdain for alternative measures that exclude a wide range of costs while including all manner of gains. Many believe that net income provides a more reliable picture of a company's financial performance. In particular, EBITDA is a poor metric for companies with high depreciation and amortization because it results in misleading comparisons to companies with lower depreciation and amortization. Some have criticized EBITDA and other pro-forma metrics because they give companies too much flexibility in deciding how to account for expenses. (b) (c) 11-70 INTERNATIONAL REPORTING CASE Liberty (a) (1) ROA 125 5,577 = 2.2% $297 $4,696 Kimco = 6.32% Liberty (2) Profit Margin 125 741 = 16.9% $297 $517 Kimco = 57.5% Liberty (3) Asset Turnover 741 5,577 = .13 $517 $4,696 Kimco = .11 Based on return on assets (ROA), Kimco is performing better than Liberty. The main driver for this difference is strong profit margin, which is over three times that of Liberty. Even though Liberty has a higher asset turnover (.13 vs. .11), this results in only a 2.2% ROA when multiplied by the lower profit margin. Summary Entry Land and Buildings ......................................................... Revaluation Reserve............................................ (b) 1,550 1,550 (c) Relative to U.S. GAAP, an argument can be made that assets and equity are overstated. Note that in the entry in (b) above, the revaluation adjustment increases Liberty's asset values and equity. To make Liberty's reported numbers comparable to a U.S. company like Kimco, you would need to adjust Liberty's assets and equity numbers downward by the amount of the revaluation reserve. 11-71 INTERNATIONAL REPORTING CASE (Continued) For example, after adjusting Liberty's assets downward by the amount of the revaluation reserve, Liberty's ROA increases to: $125 ($5,577 $1,952) = 3.45%. This is still lower than Kimco's ROA but the gap is narrower after adjusting for differences in revaluation. Note to instructors: An alternative way to make Liberty and Kimco comparable is to adjust Kimco's assets to fair values. This approach could be used to discuss the trade-off between relevance and reliability. 11-72 PROFESSIONAL RESEARCH: ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL REPORTING Search Strings: "impairment of assets," "impairment and testing," "evidence of fair value," "impairment loss" (a) INTRODUCTION FAS144, Par. 1 1. This Statement addresses financial accounting and reporting for the impairment of long-lived assets and for long-lived assets to be disposed of. This Statement supersedes FASB Statement No. 121, Accounting for the Impairment of Long-Lived Assets and for Long-Lived Assets to Be Disposed Of. However, this Statement retains the fundamental provisions of Statement 121 for (a) recognition and measurement of the impairment of long-lived assets to be held and used and (b) measurement of long-lived assets to be disposed of by sale. It would appear that this standard covers a potential impairment of these long-lived assets. (b) FAS144, Par. 8 When to Test a Long-Lived Asset for Recoverability A long-lived asset (asset group) shall be tested for recoverability whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that its carrying amount may not be recoverable. The following are examples of such events or changes in circumstances: a. b. c. d. e. A significant decrease in the market price of a long-lived asset (asset group) A significant adverse change in the extent or manner in which a long-lived asset (asset group) is being used or in its physical condition A significant adverse change in legal factors or in the business climate that could affect the value of a long-lived asset (asset group), including an adverse action or assessment by a regulator An accumulation of costs significantly in excess of the amount originally expected for the acquisition or construction of a long-lived asset (asset group) A current-period operating or cash flow loss combined with a history of operating or cash flow losses or a projection or forecast that demonstrates continuing losses associated with the use of a long-lived asset (asset group) A current expectation that, more likely than not, a long-lived asset (asset group) will be sold or otherwise disposed of significantly before the end of its previously estimated useful life. f. (c) Fair Value--FAS144, Par. 2224 22. The fair value of an asset (liability) is the amount at which that asset (liability) could be bought (incurred) or sold (settled) in a current transaction between willing parties, that is, other than in a forced or liquidation sale. Quoted market prices in active markets are the best evidence of fair value and shall be used as the basis for the measurement, if available. However, in many instances, quoted market prices in active markets will not be available for the longlived assets (asset groups) covered by this Statement. In those instances, the estimate of fair value shall be based on the best information available, including prices for similar assets (groups) and the results of using other valuation techniques. 11-73 ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL REPORTING (Continued) 23. A present value technique is often the best available valuation technique with which to estimate the fair value of a long-lived asset (asset group). Paragraphs 3954 of FASB Concepts Statement No. 7, Using Cash Flow Information and Present Value in Accounting Measurements, discuss the use of two present value techniques to measure the fair value of an asset (liability). The first is expected present value, in which multiple cash flow scenarios that reflect the range of possible outcomes and a risk-free rate are used to estimate fair value. The second is traditional present value, in which a single set of estimated cash flows and a single interest rate (a rate commensurate with the risk) are used to estimate fair value. Either present value technique can be used for a fair value measurement. However, for long-lived assets (asset group) that have uncertainties both in timing and amount, an expected present value technique will often be the appropriate technique. (Example 4 of Appendix A illustrates the use of that technique.) 24. If a present value technique is used, estimates of future cash flows shall be consistent with the objective of measuring fair value. Assumptions that marketplace participants would use in their estimates of fair value shall be incorporated whenever that information is available without undue cost and effort. Otherwise, the entity may use its own assumptions. 11-74 PROFESSIONAL SIMULATION Explanation (a) The purpose of depreciation is to allocate the cost (or other book value) of tangible capital assets, less salvage, over their useful lives in a systematic and rational manner. Under generally accepted accounting principles as presently understood, depreciation accounting is a process of allocation, not of valuation, through which the productive effort (cost) is to be matched with productive accomplishment (revenue) for the period. Depreciation accounting, therefore, is concerned with the timing of the expiration of the cost of tangible plant assets. (b) The factors relevant in determining the annual depreciation for a depreciable asset are the initial recorded amount (cost), estimated salvage value, estimated useful life, and depreciation method. Assets are typically recorded at their acquisition cost, which is in most cases objectively determinable. Cost assignments in other cases-- "basket purchases" and the selection of an implicit interest rate in asset acquisition under deferred-payment plans--may be quite subjective, involving considerable judgment. The salvage value is an estimate of an amount potentially realizable when the asset is retired from service. The estimate is based on judgment and is affected by the length of the useful life of the asset. The useful life is also based on judgment. It involves selecting the "unit" of measure of service life and estimating the number of such units embodied in the asset. Such units may be measured in terms of time periods or in terms of activity (for example, years or machine hours). When selecting the life, one should select the lower (shorter) of the physical life or the economic life. Physical life involves wear and tear and casualties; economic life involves such things as technological obsolescence and inadequacy. 11-75 PROFESSIONAL SIMULATION (Continued) Measurement (a) Compared to the use of an accelerated method, straight-line depreciation would result in the lowest depreciation expense and the highest income. For example, under straight-line depreciation, expense in each year would be: ($100,000 $10,000)/4 = $22,500 Using the double-declining balance method, depreciation expense in 2006 would be: $100,000 X (1/4 X 2) = $50,000 Depending on the level of use in the first year, use of the units-ofproduction method could yield an even lower expense in the first year compared to straight-line. (b) Over the entire four-year period, all methods will produce the same total depreciation expense. Use of alternative methods only results in differences in timing of the depreciation charges. All methods used for financial reporting purposes results in the same cash flow in 2006. That is, a cash outflow of $100,000 for acquisition of the machine. However, use of an accelerated method for tax purposes, such as MACRS, results in the higher cash flow in 2006. This is because a larger tax deduction can be taken for depreciation expense, which reduces taxable income, resulting in less cash paid for taxes. Note that over the life of the asset, cash flows for taxes are the same regardless of the tax depreciation method used. Use of MACRS simply allows companies to defer tax payments. (c) Journal Entry Cash........................................................................... Accumulated Depreciation................................. Gain on Sale of Equipment...................... Equipment ..................................................... 84,000 45,000* 29,000 100,000 *($100,000 $10,000)/4 = $22,500 per year X 2 years (2006, 2007) 11-76

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380 BC MENO by Plato translated by Benjamin Jowett MENO PERSONS OF THE DIALOGUE MENO; SOCRATES; A SLAVE OF MENO; ANYTUS Meno. Can you tell me, Socrates, whether virtue is acquired by teaching or by practice; or if neither by teaching nor practice, th
Loyola Maryland - PHIL - 201
Meno Study Questions Pre reading Questions1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. How did Meno's definition of virtue make virtue be a part of virtue? How does Socrates reformulate Meno's question about how to look for something we don't know? After Socrates teache
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MEDITATION I. OF THE THINGS OF WHICH WE MAY DOUBT. 1. SEVERAL years have now elapsed since I first became aware that I had accepted, even from my youth, many false opinions for true, and that consequently what I afterward based on such principles was
Loyola Maryland - PHIL - 201
Book IScene: The house of Cephalus at the Piraeus. The dialogue is narrated by Socrates the day after it actually took place to Timaeus Hermocrates, Critias, and a nameless person, who are introduced in the Timaeus. I went down yesterday to the Pira
Loyola Maryland - PHIL - 201
Introduction to Philosophy Republic Quiz 1 Plato's Republic Book 1 1. The Republic begins, &quot;I went down to Piraeus yesterday with Glaucon, the son of Ariston. I wanted to say a prayer to the goddess, . . . &quot; What goddess is being referred to? a. Athe
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Republic by Plato translated by Benjamin Jowett Republic Book 2 (Socrates, Glaucon.) With these words I was thinking that I had made an end of the discussion; but the end, in truth, proved to be only a beginning. For Glaucon, who is always the most p
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Present Tense Review (page 1)Present Tense Review (page 2)Present Tense Review (page 3)
Loyola Maryland - ENG - 101
&quot;Southern Myth: A Note on 'Noon Wine,'&quot;Critic: Elmo Howell Source: Louisiana Studies, Vol. 11, No. 3, Fall, 1972, pp. 252-59. Criticism about: Katherine Anne Porter (1890-1980) Nationality: American [(essay date 1972) In the following essay, Howell
Loyola Maryland - ENG - 101
Overview: Noon Wine, by Katherine Anne PorterAuthor: Katherine Anne Porter (1894-1980) Genre: Novellas Date: 1937 Biographical Katherine Anne Porter Callie Russell Porter (who later changed her first name to Katherine Anne) was born in a log cabin
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Introduction to Philosophy Meno 1. The a. b. c. d. e. 2. The a. b. c. d. e. 3. The a. b. c. d. e. 4. The a. b. c. d. e. Meno begins with Socrates asking Meno, Socrates asking Meno, Socrates asking Meno, Socrates asking Meno, none of the above. Meno b
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BACKGROUND on Henry James's Daisy MillerDuring the time of James' story, The United States was experiencing an era of rapid economic industrialization and growth, which brought new wealth to many people like the Millers of Schenectady. These people
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Repaso para Captulo 7 (5 pages) Answers to this page in center of page.(page 2) No answer key: Check charts in text.(page 3) Answer key on page 4(page 4) Answers at bottom.(page 5) Answers at bottom.
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Repaso: Captulo 10(Answers at end) Vocabulario I. Escoja la respuesta ms lgica. 1. 2._ Cuando vamos a la playa, nos sentamos y nos acostamos en.a. a. el bosque. b. el arrecife. c. el paisaje.d. la arena._ Muchos cientficos dicen que el consum
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Grader: _Quiz Taker:_DAISY MILLER Reading Quiz #2 Chapters 3 &amp; 4.1. The day after they meet, Winterbourne and Daisy go a. to see the Castle of Chillon, taking a steamer by Daisy's request p. 74 b. to see the Castle of Chillon, taking a carriag
Loyola Maryland - ENG - 101
Grader: _Quiz Taker:_DAISY MILLER Reading Quiz #2 Chapters 3 &amp; 4.1. The day after they meet, Winterbourne and Daisy go a. to see the Castle of Chillon, taking a steamer by Daisy's request b. to see the Castle of Chillon, taking a carriage, by W
Loyola Maryland - ENG - 101
The 'Lectric Law Library's Lexicon On Murder, First Degree *http:/www.lectlaw.com/def2/m053.htm MURDER, FIRST DEGREE - In order for someone to be found guilty of first degree murder the government must prove that the person killed another person; th
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DEFINITION OF SYMBOLA symbol works two ways: It is something itself, and it also suggests something deeper. It is crucial to distinguish a symbol from a metaphor: Metaphors are comparisons between two seemingly dissimilar things, while symbols asso
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KATHERINE ANNE PORTER STORIES SMALL GROUPS APRIL 3, 2008 GROUPS SHOULD PREPARE ANSWERS AHEAD OF TIME TO PRESENT IN CLASS. Look at the questions assigned to the other groups they will suggest how you should narrow your answer. You do not have to pro
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&quot;The 'Demonic' O'Connor: The Violent Bear It Away and 'The Lame Shall Enter First.'&quot;Critic: Marshall Bruce Gentry Source: Flannery O'Connor's Religion of the Grotesque, pp. 142-59. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1986. [(essay date 1986) I
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STUDY QUESTIONS: Flannery O'Connor's `THE LAME SHALL ENTER FIRST&quot;1. Discuss the theme of evil in, &quot;The Lame Shall Enter First&quot;. What does it reveal about O'Connor's feelings about the origins and the nature of evil? Discuss the relevance of the rel
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&quot;TheStory of An Hour&quot;by Kate Chopin (1894)Knowing that Mrs. Mallard was afflicted with a heart trouble, great care was taken to break to her as gently as possible the news of her husband's death. It was her sister Josephine who told her, in bro