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An World Exploration of connection: What is Geography? A spatial science. The study of human/environment interrelationships as they vary across space and time. Verbal map scale: 1 inch equals 1 mile Graphic Scale: [----------------] 3 miles RF Scale: represents a fraction. Scale is 1:3,000,000 1:45,000,000 is less detailed. Largest # = smallest Region: an area that has more in common inside its boundaries than outside. Latitudes: parallels, never touch run EW but are described as NS. Climate Longitude: meridians. Run NS, but described EW. International dateline, prime meridian.
World Geography Keywords: Mental maps Regions- sub regions "The Border" Culture: Material, non- material, institutional Ethnic group Culture group Diversity Religion Proselytizing, ethnic Gender Vs. Sex
Buddhism, Christianity, Islam Hinduism, Judaism Traditional (Animism) Cultural marker sacred space Ganga River Language Ancient, Dialect Lingua Franca Race-melanin-vitamin D
How we shape the world in our mental maps: (why men don't ask for directions) Which States are in the Midwest? OH, IN IL, KY, MO, AR, OK, KS, ND, CO, WI, NV, UT. Midewest is seen as neutral American culture. Everyone's opinion is different on were the Midwest is. Material Culture: physical, taste, touch feel. Non-Material Culture: beliefs systems, superstitions, folk traditions, ideas. The Stork, etc Institutional Culture: Company setting. Laid back, loose, uptight, blue collar, Big Orange Screw, closing office for lunch, etc Ethnic group: German, Irish, etc genetic Culture Group: don't share the language, food, etc. ex ancestors are German, but I don't eat sour crout. Scale: can also mean scope of something. City scale, state scale Sub-Regions: West Africa, east Africa, etc We don't spend much time with this in the lecture. Religion and Geography: religion plays an important role in culture and how people act. Religion and language go hand in hand. Pros: seek converts, or universalizing religion. Buddhism, Christianity, Islam. Ethnic: born into this religion. Hinduism (south Asia and India), Judaism converts are very rare. Ganga River: Ganges River. Remains are cremated along the bank of the river. India Hinduism.
Keywords: IMR Population growth Thomas Malthus Exponential vs arithmetic growth London, England Industrial revolution John snow Cholera Delayed marriage Celibacy Divine intervention China's one child policy sustainability soil degradation Sub-Saharan Africa neo-colonialism
IMR: infant mortality rate. # of infant deaths per 1000 live births up to first year of life. If you make it to your first birthday you will make it to your 5th. If you make it to 5, you will live to adulthood. Southeast US has a higher IMR than the rest of America. #1 reason for IMR is low birth weight (premature) LE- life expectancy- women live longer than men. Men are more likely to use drugs, labor intensive jobs, less likely to go to the Dr for symptoms. Life expectancies are fluid. Sub-Saharan Africa and Afghanistan have one of the highest IMR. Greenland has one of the best IMR. Male children are preferred over girls. They can do physical work, get money, carry on the family name, the son takes care of old parents, etc. When resources are scarce, males will get fed first. Parents also have to present a dowry to marry her off, this is hard for many families, especially if there are many girls. This can be a year's salary. Causes of death for children under 5: measles 4%, diarrhea 17%, HIV 3%, injuries 3%, pneumonia 19%, malaria 8%, other 10% over 5 million kids die from diarrhea (kidneys shut down).
Industrial revolution manifested itself by replacing animate power with inanimate power. Machines started working for humans. Generally believed to have started in London, England used water power to make cloth no cities, no factories, no jobs First factory workers were women and children. Their fingers were small, which made threading, etc easier. Thomas Malthus: first to scientifically and mathematically to write about world population in 1798. He said that people were suffering, and he needed to do something about it. BOOM TOWN PROBLEM: housing is in short supply. A one family house is now a 4 family house. Trash and urine get thrown out of the window onto the streets. This soaks into the ground, then the water, people drink the water, and now die. Cholera: from contaminated water. A horrible death. Body fails, but brain stays is perfect shape. Skin turns blue and rubs off, all internal organs liquefy, etc. Dr. John Snow: makes a map of London of dying patients. Tried to figure out the pattern of death, Interviewed people and the only thing in common was the same water well. You tube ghost map check blackboard for the video. Malthus tries to understand the math behind the problem of over population. "Humans reproduce exponentially. Food reproduced arithmetically." Less food than people. Thought this brought forth the end of the world, and had some solutions. Delay marriage: 14-44 most women have kids (fertility rate). He said get married after 20. Celibacy: no sex, no kids. Divine Intervention: God will kill you, or you will kill each other. Every 20 years there would be a terrible disaster to kill off people. Malthusian theory: his answer was right, but calculations were wrong. Humans reproduce arithmetically, food exponentially. Delayed marriage is right on. People don't perform Celibacy... Divine Intervention kinda happens, tsunamis, earthquakes, etc. 1993 flood 10 people died. Katrina ~5000 people died. This hardly affects world population. WWII- millions died, then baby boom, more people total. How many people can the world support? This is the big question. The earth can support a lot more, if we live wisely. Soil degradation is a huge problem. If there is no soil to grow on, there is no food. Soil takes thousands of years to form. Madagascar has horrible soil. Sustainability: how are we going to support life?
Sub-Saharan Africa: SSA is defined by environmental qualities. SSA lacks Infrastructure like computers, highways, things that the government or large corporations build. All needs to be connected. SSA has very little power grid. Africa is the biggest expansion of cell phone service. It's not practical to build telephone lines in SSA. Clean safe water is a luxury in SSA. (Diamonds, tea, gold, cocoa, and coffee are all from Africa) Gangs trade in Vanilla beans fighting for orchids. They are destroying the forest getting the vanilla. Raw materials are taken out, and sent somewhere else. Read Africa Chapter. Tuesday Feb 5, 2008 Chapter 7 Ethiopia Liberia Population Refugees Botswana Zimbabwe- Europeans came and colonized. Europeans didn't go to Africa until late because it is a rough place with deserts, etc. they also couldn't get there in a ship because of the cliffs along the ocean. ITCZ: inter-tropical conversion zone on the equator, rains every day. Always stays between the tropics. Blocks moisture from the horn of Africa, making the equator wet, and everything else deserts. Environmental determinism: mainly German. People who were born in tropical parts of the world are not very smart because of the heat. They just want to lay around. Cold climates are very energetic. Europe didn't think that Zimbabwe would have culture. Found the remnants of a technical building. They were doing deep mining. They had to get oxygen, etc and Europe didn't know how to do that. They had a huge trade system. Atlantic Slave trade- already around when Europeans got there. Slavery was used as a strategy against enemies. The Europeans saw this and recognized it. They took advantage f it. Portuguese are normally the first Europeans to explore areas. West coast was the focus of the slave trade. This is because of the natural wind and currents. Trade winds. 25% died before they got to their destinations. Took slaves to brazil and US. 1809 British made slave trade illegal. Slave, Gold, Ivory, Pepper are all traded on the west coast. Monoculture: one crop.
Europeans cut out sections of the map to make countries, they did not think about cultures. Belgian Congo: Democratic Republic of the Congo (if you see the word democratic, it more than likely isn't) King Leopold- by the time he started to colonize, all of the good things were taken. Congo doesn't have a lot of perks. Wanted to claim Congo, but others were against it. He said he wouldn't get involved, later said that he was `investing' then had a full scale army invasion. He named the capitol Leopoldville after himself. Congo is very rich in resources, which Belgium is NOT. Labor reserves: nice name for slavery. 10 million people died as a result of this `labor reserve.' They died of disease, starvation, beatings, etc. King Leopold did not care about them, there are always more people to enslave! South Africa: Portuguese were the first to explore. They claim Angola. They then travel to the Cape of Good Hope. Everyone wanted the Cape of Good Hope. The Portuguese did not set up a `colony' but just trading system. They weren't good colony managers. So the Dutch come and boot them out (1660s). they liked it because it is low, wet, cool, and good crops. Then come the Brits about a century later (1790s). This is the first colony in Africa were Europeans actually came to live. Boers: the Dutch Boer War: Brits tried to push the Dutch from the coast to the interior. This is similar to the trail of tears. They were pushed from nice land to deserts. Then they found diamonds and gold in the deserts. 1910 everything was settled between the two countries. South Africa becomes its own independent countries. 1960s most African countries became independent. Apartheid: 1938 separated races. They must carry papers determining race. Skin color, race, hair, were used to determine race. The US government did not speak out against Apartheid until the 1990s because we traded with them. Finally the US decided to hit Africa in the wallet, they will respond faster to that than anything else. BUT they had our minerals for jet engines and uranium. Only South Africa and the Soviet Union had these things. We were NOT doing business with the Soviet Union during the cold war. So there was no action taken. So private owners stopped stock owning with anyone that had ties with South Africa. Song artists stopped going to SA until Nelson Mandela was freed. 1994 Nelson Mandela gets out of prison and is elected president being the first black president for South Africa. But life is still not equal and perfect for everyone. In the US we have economic Apartheid; the gap between poor and rich is getting bigger. After Mandela there was little leadership because all were killed or afraid. HIV/AIDS was a huge problem in South Africa. Sexual assaults are rampant. Men wanted to sexually assault younger women because they had a small chance of having aids, although the man would spread the disease to the girl afterwards. South Africa's number of women being assaulted became so high that they had to start charging. Women were turned away because they had no money. The president then told everyone that HIV/AIDS was NOT transmitted by sex. He told them to do silly things, and take
traditional medicine to get rid of HIV/AIDS. So a German pharm. Company who makes HIV kits donated kits free of charge to hospitals. The president of SA said `we don't want your rape kits!' a month after this statement was made, SA hosted an AIDS rally. There was so much pressure on the president that he allowed the rape kits to be sent in to SA. Sometimes independence comes with a cost. Where does the leadership come from? The colonial model have been the only model people for them, authoritarian. They are extremely corrupt; they are often propped up by the military. They are Authoritarian, not democratic. It is hard for Iraq to have leaders because Sadam killed them all. Straight line boundaries always cause problems. Ethiopia: Has the best soil. Ethiopia has many volcanoes. Coffee comes from Ethiopia. The nutritional value of coffee sucks. To grow something like coffee that will be exported, that is a problem. They were very adept with farming and trading though. Carrying capacity-the max number of people an area can support sustainably with food, water, and other essential resources. Rift valley has great soil because of the volcanoes and lakes. The lakes have many fish (protein, which is most important). Many lakes are over-fished. Refugee population fluctuates depending on wars and drought. Darfur people are fleeing from militia to Chad. Chad has about 10 million plus .5 million refugees. HIV/AIDS: was named "the slims." Geographers were the first to study the origin of AIDS. Liberia & Ethiopia are the only 2 countries that were not colonized. Feb 7, 2008 Exam next Tuesday Religions: three main groups Traditional animists groups, located in remote places. Islam: mainly from the Sahel north. Islam diffused out of the Arabian Peninsula in the 17th century. First started going west, then to India and Indonesia. In some areas where it is dominate, there is a law based on morals from their bible are used. Nigeria has a lot of problem because of Islam and Christianity. Northern Nigeria is more Islam. The Government lets the north do whatever. Christianity: missionaries came with colonization. Kings used missionaries to keep the peace. They used missionaries for work. They would set up school, hospitals, clinics, while the government would do nothing. Victorian ideal for women was to be seen and not heard. Women in Africa were much more empowered. The British changed the way for the women to live. Marriage was different. Marriage was a social alliance between families, where they would live with the extended family. The Victorians broke that tradition up.
FGM: female genital mutilation. David Bowie's wife had this procedure done on her. She speaks out against it. Female Circumcision: the removal of external sex. Makes sex none pleasurable so the women will not cheat on men. The vaginal opening is sewn shut except for just a little. This is to prove that she is still a virgin on her wedding night. This is not done by doctors. This is Majorly in Islamic areas. You cannot get married until this is done. It is a `becoming of age' procedure. Broken glass, razor, anything at all, and may be done with one utensil for several years. They often die (bleeding to death, infection, etc). No one knew of this until the 1980s. Some came to the US as refugees. The parents would take them to the hospital for their daughters to be treated, the doctors would say no, and there would be a law suit. Later laws were passed in Africa to stop this, but it is just as prevalent. Started talking to the old women, then decided to pay the old women more than they would be paid to do it. These women talk to other and say that doing this procedure is bad. This is in Kenya and Ethiopia. Grassroots movements are working very well. Lingua Franca: Language that everyone can understand a few words (hello, where is the bathroom, etc) Arabic is the lingua franca. East Africa: Swahili. Hausa is for West Africa. Nigeria has 3 VERY different language families, and even more different languages. Single commodity Economy: majority of GDP comes from selling one thing. Where you find goats, you find poverty. Somalia's only export is live goats. Somalia has no government. Diamonds are a girl's best friend, but in Botswana they are NOT. 80% live in poverty. They must export half of the food. A country without food is in trouble. World Bank helps countries like Botswana get factories. They lend money for the building of factories. They now need Debt Forgiveness. The countries agree, but never can get out of debt. Tanzania started a factory for shoes, but high end, designer shoes. The market was for Europe, and no one bought them! They didn't want to have shoes from Tanzania, also the shoes were last year styles, and the shoe company went bankrupt. Interest piles up. They could not even afford to pay the interest. They decided to make other shoes, but they had the wrong equipment. Debt debt debt. Self-Reliant Development: small improvements at the village level will help the most. Micro-credits are for SMALL loans. www.kiva.com has loans that are only a couple hundred dollars. Desertification deforestation: high demand for fuel wood. Convert wood into charcoal. They are cutting down the rainforest for farm land and for wood. The Sahara desert is expanding because of over farming and over-raising. Watch Play Pump Video. Merry go round water pump. Water Supplies: they have no safe water. Infectious diseases are from dirty water. Pull water up from deep in the ground. Sub-regions: West Africa: Nigeria is oil and unstable. They have petro dollar power, but the government is a train wreck. Floods are great. Central Africa: has the lowest level of development. Has no paved
roads at all. It is very culturally diverse. East Africa: Kenya has crisis with elections and seen as the stable country. This has brought the country to a halt. Their biggest money income is tourism, but no tourists are coming now. Some tourists are going to other African countries. Southern Africa: South Africa has the most successful economy in this region, but has terrible aids and social health issues. Exam 60-70 mc 30-40 maps most miss the US Canada stuff. City, water feature, state, etc. spelling counts. Always say `democratic republic of the Congo'
Climate A: tropical humid B: arid semi-arid C: temperate D: cool humid E: arctic high altitude
<3 Feb 14, 2008 <3
South Asia- India
South Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Indian ocean, British colonization, village life, Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, Sikhism, Himalaya Mts, Tibetan plateau, Deccan plateau, Vertisols, Ganga river, ITCZ, bay of Bengal, Meghalaya, Brahmaputra river, Indus river, monsoons (wet and dry). Ancient cultural influences: India is the crossroad. Hinduism is the dominate religion/culture. Once India was taken over by Muslims, shrines were torn down and replaced with mosks, this happens over and over for centuries. Colonization: British India, still to this day India is affected by England. English as a second language is huge in India. There are many layers of bureaucracy. The extremes between rich and poor are increasing. Population: over a billion people in India. FR and NI are much higher than China. India will soon be the most populated nation in the world. They are starting to worry about having enough food to feed all of the citizens. Environment: Many people are trying to live in a small area. They are cutting down fuel wood in Northern India, causing farming problems with erosion, etc. India's e-mail is delivered like regular snail mail. The e-mail is printed in India, causing the delivery to be faster than snail mail, but not as fast as e-mail. India broke off of Africa, hit Asia and is still pushing into the Asian Himalayans. Himalayas store water. Melted snow form the water of the three main rivers. Indus River drains Pakistan. Brahmaputra River Bangladesh. Ganga (Ganges) in northern India. The names of the countries are tending to be changed to the old names. In history, new rulers would come in and slightly change the name. (ex Ganga and Ganges River). ITCZ: inter-tropical conversion zone. In the winter it drifts to the south with dry winds, in the summer it blows to the north, allowing wet moist air. In the summer, some countries measure rain in feet, not inches. Flooding along rivers is good. This is natural re-fertilizing. The country that has the worst floods (devastating floods) is Bangladesh. It is one of the most poor and one of the flattest. Rivers have a mind of their own.
The winds do not go to Pakistan or Afghanistan. Afghanistan has no major river. It has no outlet to the sea. By the time air masses come up from the sea, it is dry before it hit Afghanistan. Very few things can be grown there. Poppy grows there. Poppy will grow almost everywhere. Poppy makes Heroine. Poppy is the only way that Farmers can make money. Ganga River Valley is the most densely populated rural region in the world. This is a `green is good' area. This is the easiest place to grow food. This is one of the most polluted rivers. Bodies are cremated along the bank of the river, and throwing the ashes in the river. Wood is cut down for the cremation, then monsoons come, wash the soil away, making growing food harder. Thar Desert: B climate desert. Purple climate is like Siberia. The Soviets tried to take Afghanistan over, but it was so cold and mountainous even they couldn't do it! This is the best place to hide in the world. Sri Lanka is suffering from a civil war with terrorist attacks. Many times American tourists aren't allowed in because of danger. This is a direct result of the Brits who brought outsiders in to Sri Lanka. This makes conflicts, often time religious. Major export is Tea. Deccan Plateau: the average farm size is 2 acres. Many impoverished farmers. Much of the soil is bad, with Vertisols. Vertisols: have HUGE dry cracks in the soil. You can stick your arm down in it. They are kind of like Hemorrhoids. Shrinking, swelling, cracking, gray clay soils, clay has a plastic quality. Clay and water stick together through thick and thin. This is why rust occurs on cars. Monsoons make clay swell, when the rain stops the clay dries and cracks. Characteristics of settlement and people in South Asia: Arians left cultural baggage behind, the Caste system. This is mostly associated with Hinduism, but it was widely borrowed from the Arians. Caste is status, something that you are born into and cannot be changed. Caste determines most about a person's life. The lowest caste is the Dalits or the Untouchables. These people sweep out waste from streets, they cannot ride on public transportation, etc. Castes have changed slightly now. Dalits have a section of Parliament now. The Brahmin were of the warrior or high priest caste. This is the highest caste. Some people in Boston with old money call themselves the Brahmin. They sound like they are from London.
Feb 19, 2008 British India (South Asia): British liked tropics. They also liked tea with sugar, so India was great. The Industrial revolution fuelled the making of these crops. Muslin Cloth: made in British India. It is tan, rough, like on the back of quilts. The Brits saw this and liked it. The Asians showed them how to make it, so the Brits took over the technology and took it back to England, then sold it back to people in India. The Brits taxed locally made cloth so that the British cloth was cheaper. Brits pushed farmers off of their lands. They replaced food crops with Jute (ropes and burlap bags), Tea, Indigo, cotton and sugar. These are called Industrial crops. They did this because these things don't grow in England while food does. Jute is in the same family as marijuana. This is like Hemp. Sugar was very important; Brits were using Honey instead of sugar. Indigo was an important color of dye. What did the Brits give back to India? Not a whole lot, nothing they left behind was helpful. Infrastructure was built by the Brits, but only from the coast to the jute crops or from cotton to the factory, there were a lot of dead end roads. The only positive was the English Language. Lingua Franca became English. This is nice because it gives us a 24 hour work day, while we are sleeping, India is working, visa versa. English is the lingua franca of the internet and aviation. 1947 British India became independent. Independence was hard for India after this and many people died. This was the Partition 1947. After WWII there were a lot of shifts in the country lines. This made Britain not an Empire anymore. The countries formed from S Asia had to be Secular Government. The Brits wanted to prevent a Hindu State like a separation of Church and State. They didn't want a Muslim state in Pakistan or Bangladesh. They carved out an East Pakistan (Bangladesh) and West Pakistan (Pakistan). There was total chaos. Minority religious groups were scared that they would be punished by the majority. Many people fled. Hindus in Pakistan were afraid for their life because of hate crimes by Muslims. Sikhs is a blend of Hinduism and Islam. They are mainly in NW India border. They serve in the military and police a lot. They didn't feel comfortable in a Muslim country. At least a million people died through all of this. While fleeing, they would be attacked by the opposing religion. India is the world's largest Democracy. It is not a perfect Democracy; they have a lot of assassinated leaders. East Bangladesh has had problems. Long held century old grudges came to front when the Brits left.
Sri Lanka was given independence a year later. They are rough too. US will often tell tourists to not go there because it is so dangerous. Their problems can be traced to the Brits as well. They needed cheap labor so they brought in the Tamils. Sri Lanka was mainly Buddhists, so they looked down on the Tamils. Sri Lanka wanted to get rid of the Tamils when the Brits left. Tamils want more representation now and Sri Lanka says NO. French and Portuguese colonies along the coast were more like port trading colonies. These were just for Business. Population: South Asia is the most densely populated world region on the planet (especially India). The most harsh areas have very few people (NW, Thar Desert as well as Afghanistan, etc). The cities are huge and fast growing with many homeless people. Calcutta (Kolkota) at night the homeless people lay in the street to sleep. As people find it more difficult to grow crops because of less land, they have to go to the city to find work. 10 million people Mumbai (Bombay) has over 13 million people. Urban pressure Basic forms of fuel is used (wood, charcoal, coal). The atmosphere gets messed up. What about human waste? Rare sewage goes into the streams. Trees are cut, causing land deficiency. The population of the state of Texas is added to India a year (18 million a year). India has not be effective in doing any sort of population policy. A woman ruler tried to do sterilization and was assassinated. Most population policies are directed to women. India decided to try to work on the men. They went around and worked on the sidewalks and asked for a Bisectamy (sterilize), and would pay men to do it. The men would take the money and never get sterilized. That cost millions of dollars but went nowhere! From rural to urban, people needed to have smaller families! FR (fertility Rates) Things that spurred large families were having kids until they had a son. In India, Hinduism felt that having a son carried the family name, at your death the son takes care of your funeral, your family, your mother or wife. It is embarrassing to have no son. And daughters had to give a huge dowry, so they didn't have money for a lot of girls, they just wanted males. So many people that India has to make 4 million new jobs a year! How can the government afford this? School in India isn't that good. But the classes are terrible! Their schools are just a dirt circle with nothing else. Most parents send their kids to private schools and must pay for tuition. Not many people are paying taxes for school because the middle class is small. The average amount of money spent per pupil is $9 a year! State schools are horrible! Sri Lanka has had the biggest decline in FR. They spent more money on Education (sex education included). Getting women in the work force is the most passive way to decrease fertility. They would rather make money than spend it on a new baby.
The base of Sri Lanka gets smaller, Pakistan gets bigger. Life expectancies suck in both, but later Sri Lanka's will get better. Sri Lanka is the role model for education on babies and not having them. Children work more factory type settings. Child Labor is a huge problem. As companies start to offshore and go to India, etc. Many children end up in the same workforce. Languages there are many different languages. Sri Lanka uses Sinhalese and the Tamils. The boundary between India and Pakistan has a huge cultural change. India-Hindi is the Lingua Franca. There are a dozen official languages. The US has no "official language" but some states do (such as TN, which has English as the official language). Bollywood was Bombay, now Mumbai. Movies are the main thing that is entertainment. The whole film seems like a music video. There is almost no physical touching or kissing. Everything is like a Victorian kind of love.
Feb 21, 2008
Communal conflict Ganga River Valley Agrarian Economy Hindu is the largest religion, Muslim is 2. South Asia Religion Sikhism NW part of India (blend of Hindu and Islam) historically have been police, bodyguards, etc. they were caught in the cross fire of the partition. Tribal/animism is mainly in remote places such as the Himalayans. Kerala (SE Asia coast) has the highest LE, education, for women. The majority of the leaders are communist. It has the largest Christian minority in India. They claim to be the first descendants to be converted by Thomas. Purdah: the practice of secluding women from non-related males during child bearing years, this way they don't have kids. Islam idea, but some Hindus do this as well. If you travel through India, in the south the women will work in the fields during the day. In the north, you will be hard presses to find a woman in town.
"Bride Burning" religion. "Dowry deaths" marriage is sacramental. The government does not seal the marriage; it is the religion, a sacrament. People who have abusive or bad marriages, they have little chance to get out, especially for women. In the 1980s human rights heard about husbands murdering their wives because they did not want to be married anymore. He would murder by stabbing or strangling, then set her on fire, then call the police. He would make up a story about her death. The males would not be prosecuted. Only in the last 10 years would they consider this murder. The man would claim that he didn't have enough of a dowry, so he would kill her, causing the term `dowry death'. Being a Junior Bride means that you live with your in laws until you are old enough to marry, they take care of you. Junior Brides become the live-in maid. Arranged marriages can happen in the Brahmin class as well. This is becoming less common, but is still practiced. This is Hindu and Sikhism. Now they are become Cyber-arranged-marriages. (Singles ads have a geography! They are different depending on where you are in the world. "How far would you be willing to drive to meet someone for a date?" In Memphis, TN. The more education and income, the less distance would be traveled. PHD would only drive 10 miles.) Dating ads in England are more realistic on their looks. India ads `must be attractive and smart, must fit traditional role, but be well travelled and educated" They want to mix traditional and modern women. Indians claim that there is no such thing as caste. They ended up having their own revolution. The Untouchables were given more rights (the Dalits). Affirmative action. The Green Revolution: Started around 1960 by a group of people who got together who were going to change the world for the better. Social issues became very import (pollution, poverty, etc over population). Only about 10% of land on the planet is Arable (farmable). Intensive Land Use: maximize the per acre output. Extensive: pave over land and put up Wal-mart, grow more crops other places this is the US. Millions of acres are consumed by US highways alone. America tried to copy the Netherlands by growing hay on landing strips of planes. This lasted one season. Trash got stuck into the hay. So this plan was a failure. o Green revolution used hybrid seeds, pesticides, herbicides, etc. to produce better crops. The first crop was Wheat. They tried to make wheat double the size, so land amount would be the same, but the crop would be twice the size. They first tried this in Mexico. It was fabulous. This worked until about a week or so before harvest, and all of the plants were lying down on the ground, which caused the wheat to mold. The plant was too top heavy and fell over. They modified the plant to have a heavier stalk to hold the work. This was perfect for Mexico Next was rice: The Philippines & India. They went from importing rice to exporting rice in 5 years. This worked until 1973. Arab oil embargo happened.
They put diesel fuel into the irrigation pumps. The crops had to be sprayed all the time with pesticides, etc. The price of the fuel doubled or tripled so they didn't have the money to spray stuff. 1973 also started a global drought. This caused the farms to collapse. Hybrid seeds needed to be bought, they didn't reproduce. The real people who benefitted from the green revolution were the people involved in the Agribusiness. High tech isn't always good tech. British farmers sent tractors in the 1970s. They fixed broken tractors and sent them to Sri Lanka, where there were no tractors. In one year the farmers returned, and the found tractors being used for personal transportation! Tractors were overturned in ditches, rusting in ponds, etc. At that time it was illegal for people in Sri Lanka to have cars, only government officials could drive cars. Tea is the biggest export. Tea is a bush, and Sri Lanka is mountainous. Both of these mean that Tractors won't work. They should have given horses and cows, these are better and can reproduce themselves. Low tech in some parts of the world is much better than high tech, especially with agriculture. Economic Reform (SAPs): the want to get into industry. The government took over industries. The steel industry in particular (steel is the most important for industry, it is the basic building block) were so inefficient. Japan has the best steel factories in the world. 8,000 Japanese workers is the same as 250,000 Indian steel workers. They started making things like washing machines, and stopped making axes, hammers, etc, things that were needed. o SAPs: structural adjustment program. Took state industries up for sale, allowing private industries to buy them. Most help is for the middle and upper class, which is the minority. The quality of life for the poor is now worse than it was. o Micro credits helped the poor people. Started in Bangladesh. Grameen Bank, or the people's bank (less than $500 a year). Uses an efficient approach, where almost all loans get paid back (99%). One person borrows money, and if they can't pay it then the others in the village will help pay it back. If she doesn't pay the loan then you won't be able to get one later. Kiva.org 100% pay back rate, plus interest! The Taliban: brought in to come and fight the Soviets (they did it by throwing rocks, etc)Muja hadean. Pakistan really created the Taliban. They maintained power for a long time because of the Patron-client relationship. This is like land owner-tenant farmer. If you were the client, you looked to the patron for protection, he would help you out with money and food when you were in need, but the next year you would work harder to make more money to give to the patron. The Taliban told people without jobs to come to them, and they would give the client weapons.
Look up movie! It will be on the test!
Feb 28, 2008 Movie: Incense sticks were made, and because the British American tobacco company came in and started making incense. These women now had no income.
Youtube: outsourcing 45 minute version Thomas Freedman Take Notes.
"Heck no, we wont go GMO!" some countries are worried that the plants will somehow genetically pollute genetic species. Fake seeds scare people...
Environmentalism: are there more people than there are resources. The first environmental movement was in 1973 called the Chipko movement. It was started by women! Women are not empowered in India. Women did feel empowered enough to stand up for environment They stood against deforestation This was more profound for the women, because the wood was being used for something they considered meaningless. The wood was for a sporting goods company to make tennis rackets. Wood rackets were even on the way out of popularity. Fuel wood is their major source of cooking and heating. There isnt a whole lot of wood in India either... Where does the wildlife live if all the natural space has been modified? Tigers are prized for hide and body parts (Asian folk medicine). So the tigers are poached. So the wildlife and environment are all endangered. PG 425, Most of the people in the world live like this. Ganga River has a LOT of issues. The most densely populated area in the world. There are a couple of main issues: 1. The relationship between Bangladesh and India over the winter. During the dry monsoon, the river level starts to drop. "Nature likes things at
equilibrium." The mouth of the river comes out of the delta region near Bangladesh, at the Bay of Bengal. The bay tries to move up the delta and and even things out. 2. India promises to not take any more water from the river, which pulls the fresh water back, emptying the bay. This just hurts Bangladesh. In the middle of the river there is another river named the Narmada River (think of it like the TN river). There were people living in the N River valley. They built a dam, and the water backed up, but there is no place to move these people in India. They had to relocate 320,000 farmers. This is a cross of TVA and the Cherokee removal. The government took the land ,,for a good cause and said that they had great land, the Thar Desert. They got mad and marched on the capitol, Delhi, and the government did nothing. This was the Narmada River Project. Water also plays a role in religion. The Ganga River is the most religious area in India. Benares (Varanasi) your loved ones will be cremated here along the banks of the Ganga River. In order to do this you need a ton of wood in order to completely cremate the remains. This had developed into an industry. The vendors have had to travel farther to get wood. They are getting it from the Himalayas. Supply and demand plays a big role in pricing. Price of wood has increased, but working price has not. In the last 10 years, cremations along the banks have been PARTIAL cremations. So they put half of the body in the river. There are a million people in India, about 800,000 are Hindu, so thousands of bodies are in the Ganga River. Government said that they couldnt do this anymore, but the practice continues. People are drinking from this water, and washing in it. Funeral Pyres March 6 we are going to have a work session in class. The TAs will be here to help out. Don't have to come to class. Some images we are looking at might look at pollution. Bhopal, India there was a gas manufacturer, and thousands of people were affected. Some were blinded, some had long term health problems, and many died. The same company is in Charleston, WV but nothing has ever happened there because there are many safety concerns there, while there were none in India. Union Carbide did not take the proper precautions because there were
no laws set in place for safety in India. So they could produce things cheaper because they did not have to pay for safety features. The average compensation was $500 for damages (dead father, blinded son, etc). Sub regions: study for place locations, figure 8-9. People in this area are still seeing each other as tribal groups, not one country (mainly Afghanistan). Countries are the Himalayans are sparsely populated. This region is very agricultural. They have a lot of fruit, and some areas have rice. Delhi and New Delhi the Brits didnt like Delhi, so they made New Delhi and proclaimed it New Delhi. They styled it after England. But it is one of the most polluted cities in the world. The air you breathe in New Delhi is equivalent to smoking 20 cigarettes a day. People are dying of respiratory problems because of the pollution. Eastern Asia: Calcutta is extremely populated with squatter settlements. They have a lot of cyclones that have killed over 130,000 people. Everything is flat. It is very polluted. Central Asia Ahmadabad is the Manchester of India. They have a ton of goods, but it is not as cool as it was back in the day, like Manchester, England is as well.
China, Mongolia, Taiwan, Japan, N & S Korea, Huang He, Chang Jiang Themes: growing disparity of wealth, changing roles of Japan and China. Population structure is a big deal. Obedience to authority, the first son is the alpha male. There is a growing divide between the wealthy and poor. The environment is messed up from an industrial revolution in one decade. Both Japan and China want to be the powerhouse. Japan was the big dog, now china is coming to head. Olympics are coming to China, and many Olympians dont want to go b/c of health issues. Some are bringing their own food and water. Chinas plan was to relocate the factories down wind. The place names here will be challenging. Many places have changed their names, and most are impossible to pronounce. In China, especially, the Pinyin
was to replace Chinese names reclaimed the more traditional names. Chang Jiang (Jiang means river). We may call it the Tibetan Plateau.
March 4, 2008
Physical geography of East Asia: Four steps of Asia Tibetan Plateau: very high and rugged. Source water for many major rivers. This is where the majority of ethnic people live. The Hain live in the Eastern part of the country mainly. Basins, Mongolian Plateau, rivers, Yunnan Plateau: a lot like the Appalachians one of the last wild places in China. This area is stressed as well. Deltas: lowland area. A lot of Agriculture takes place here, as well as major cities. There is a lot of conflict between urban development and farmland. Continental Shelf: coast line with indentation of seas, as well as many islands (Japan). All of the islands are parts of the pacific ring of fire. This area has volcanoes and earthquakes on a regular basis.
We have a strange relationship with China. We use them for their goods, but they are Communists. Sometimes our relationship is tense, and is never transparent. Climate extremes are normal in the center of Asia. There are 2 major climate factors Continientality and Maritime effects. Continientality creates vast dry areas, desserts and semi-desserts.
The east part of Asia has the Maritime East. These climates are moderated because they have water. Monsoon East creates monsoons like the summer monsoon, but areas in the east like Japan have almost 2 monsoon seasons.
Getting Rich Movie Test questions over this video! Many become rich off of Private Enterprise. Zwo made a motorcycle private company to become rich. Most of his motorcycles are sold in SE Asia. There is a mix of communism and capitalism. This has raised the income of many people. Agriculture is increasing in profit because the government has loosened their control. There have been big changes in the past couple of years in the Agriculture business. Many people are "migrant workers" who will commute long distances or move for a better job. Not everyone is being helped cities are making more money farmers are being pushed off cities. There have been many by the new economy. People in the than those in the country, and many of their land to make room for riots because of this.
Jack Maw of Taobao.com is an internet auction site that rivals Ebay. He also runs alibaba.com which is the largest trafficked site in China. "After the reform in opening up" means that the revolution helps people. Bank of china also brings money to the owners. He says that people must work together day by day, year by year. Yiwu has brand new commodities with the best prices. Cheap goods made in china are transforming the world's economy. Yiwu is the world's largest suppliers of socks, stockings, and pantyhose. Factory working is also a means of money. They make enough to take care of themselves and send some money home. They may work 12 hour days, 5 days in a row. They live in Dorms, 10 to a room. This factory arranges entertainment for workers as well, such as Karaoke. Cheap migrant labor has made china a world leader. Life in a factory is hard, but it is better than living in the
country. When she saves enough money she will study anything she wants to. Lawyers are trying to protect workers' rights, but the government doesn't like it much. Many people are homeless and destitute because of getting hurt on the job. China is not only making more products, but buying more as well. Make people make counterfeit goods. China is like the Wild West with bad guys running around. Busting counterfeit goods makes good money. Counterfeiting costs westerners tens of billions dollars. Fake stuff has cost many lives in China. There was fake milk powder and dozens of babies died. Pollution is bad in china because of the increase in economy. This guy wants to use solar energy. His AC has been used all over the world, but selling them is a little harder. But his don't pollute the air at all.
MARCH 12, 2008 China was a bunch of Feudalistic area of tribes scattered around. Qin Dynasty in 221 didn't last long. They created the framework for much of the Chinese culture. Emperors needed money and power, so they got bureaucrats to go get money from the country people on the pretense that if they paid then they would get protection. This group of bureaucrats (or government workers) were held in high esteem by the people. They have more status and more respect. Confucianism: philosophy. Belief in Patriarchy (power lies with the eldest male, then the next oldest male, then the baby boy, then the oldest woman). There is much sexism in this. Merchants vs peasant farmers. Peasant farmers are the ones to be respected because they make the food and make the world go round. Merchants are the scum of the earth. His profit is not from physical labor, but makes money from OTHER PEOPLE'S labor.
Marco Polo came to china and thought that the Chinese weren't civil. Then he was blown away by the size and urbanization of the cities. The next group to come is the Portuguese then followed by the Spanish. The Portuguese set up a colony on Malkal. Spanish were in the Philippines. The Spanish and potuguese brought the natives a gift (law of unintended consequence) The gifts were new world crops (tomato, potatoes, peppers). These things all grew very well in china. Arable China was great for these crops. The bad part was that the food supplies were increased, so the population grew as well as the life expectancy. The arrival of the Brits, Dutch and later the French was later. They made Spheres of influence in coastal areas of china (trading posts). They weren't colonizing. The Brits got hong kong. The Brits weren't nice guests, they brought the opium war. Shanghai became a miniature England. It was a cosmopolitan western kind of place. The east was Hahn, the west is ethnic population and more rural. Chinese dynasties eventually fell out. As they started to collapse, they were in a power vacuum trying to decide who will lead. China and Japan do not have a good relationship. China is fighting within itself, so Japan comes and tries to take China over. Ching dynasty 1912 is the last dynasty. Mao Sedong (communist party CCP) (all about the peasant and farmers and wanted to get rid of the westerners) and Chang Kai Shek Nationalist party (KMT). They had many problems. A civil war broke out, and the Japanese ran in. WWII Many terrible war crimes did the Japanese do. These war crimes are terrible and still are an irritation today. In Japan there is a war memorial and some of the names on the memorial are the bad guys who did terrible things (like the Nazis praising the guards at the concentration camps). The history book in Japan leaves out all of these unpleasant things. WWII ends and Japan surrenders. So the civil war in china continues. KMT went to the educated elite, while CCP reached out to the peasants (hundreds of billions) CCP won. KMT fled mainland China, and went to Taiwan (republic of China) is now the People's Republic of China. China does not recognize Taiwan as a country. US says that Taiwan should be recognized.
CCP gets power and has to do these election promises, and did. He turned out to be no better than any of the other emperors though. He broke up the big farms into smaller farms. And then they found out that small farms were worse than big farms. So they made communes. Gave an amount that had to be made, and an amount to send to other areas of the country. The road promises had a catch. They gave shovels and picks and said "hey make your own road" so the farmers were pulled away from their crops to build roads, hospitals, and schools. So there were not enough bushels of rice. And the government didn't care that the country didn't have enough rice for their own family. Mao came up with the plan of Regional self sufficiency. This didn't work out very well (everything consumed in TN must be produced in TN. Cars, corn, sugar, etc. we don't have any iron ore or oil. How do we make plastics, cars, etc). This failed miserably. Regional specialization: one area makes cotton, another rice, etc. The cultural revolution: started in 1966 was an attempt by CCP to purge china of all western influences (any non-Chinese culture) this was a brutal thing. If you have any Mozart, Shakespeare books, they better be gone. English literature professors were TOAST. They would be reeducated to be peasant farmers. As well as lawyers, doctors. Many people died as a result of this. This was the end of Mao. People started to see what was really happening. Mao died in 1976 and was pretty much discredited as well as all of his followers. Slowly but surely through rulers, we start to see an opening of China, and see that they think it isn't so bad to have contact with the outside world. This starts in 1970. They start land reforms. The centrally planned economy starts to fall apart. The government had set prices and wages (centrally planned economy). This involves a lot of bureaucrats. The gap between rural and urban is very profound By the 1990s china is in an industrial revolution. Its per capita income has doubled in the last 10 years. It is the largest producer of textiles and shoes. Until 1990s Japan was the model for economic success in East Asia. America was unhappy with Japan in the 70s, 80s, and early 90s. They said that J had an advantage over the US. The called them "Japan incorporated" in the US there is supposed to be a separation of economy and the government.
1980s Chrysler was about to go out of business to they went to the government saying that if they shut down that there would be an instant depression because there were so many workers. The US gave them a bail-out. They came out with the K Car it saved them. Chrysler paid the government back early. Japanese government is extremely ready to help the economy. They will fund the research. So the US says "we like free trade when it helps, but hate it when it hurts" The US taxed all things from Japan to make it more expense than American cars. 1990s Japan caught the Asian-economic flu. Corruption scandals by the government and everything turned into a mess. Japan is still trying to be one step ahead of everyone else though. But they see green products as huge for future, even though they are losing money through them. Think eco-friendly cars, think prius, not ford. One child policy has been controversial. Started in 1970s where most families had 5 kids per woman. They thought like Thomas Malthus. This wouldn't work in America. We are all about individuals. America rewards for individual success, china for the greater good of the community. The one child policy was "voluntary." It was aimed at women. They used peer pressure and economic status as ways to reward or punish. "if everyone in the factory signs the one child pledge, then you all get a raise and can bring your baby in the winter time to the factory to give your baby a warm bath." The women didn't have warm baths at their home for their babies. One person says that they won't sign, so everyone in the factory pressures or threatens her to sign. The bureaucrat gets bonus points for getting so many people to sign for the children thing. The workers had to then ask the bureaucrat when they could get married and when they could have their baby. An "unauthorized baby" was a baby that there was no permission for. The baby would have to be aborted. She could be sterilized against her will, her salary could be taken away for a while as a fine. Peer pressure still ensued. Granny police would knock on the door as asked if you had taken birth control that day.
March 13, 2008
The more affluent a person is, the more you want. You dont want to live in a tiny apartment with the more affluence you have. Typical Asian cuisine, meat is a background flavor, they have a lot of vegetables, grain, etc. but now that people are making so much money, they arent willing for brothy stir fry; they want more expensive meat, like steaks. This is causing food shortage problems in China. Cows are fed 100 pounds of grain, but only produce 10 pounds of meat. This is costing china more, and making a shortage of food. This causes additional tension between the wealthy and poor in china. Housing is also a problem in China. There is not enough housing for everyone. First to pick who gets the home is those who are married, then single men, then single women. "48 legs and the whole chicken." 48 legs is counting the legs of chairs, tables, etc. this means that they must have STUFF and be rich. The whole Chicken means that they have a lot of food, meaning once again that they have money. Population pyramids for china: there is an indent for the one child policy. In 2050 the life expectancy will be much greater. There may be a gender problem since families abort girls. Later there will not be enough women to repopulate. In china, coal is burned directly. Here it is burned as a secondary means of electricity. This causes a ton of pollution. They have hundreds of millions families burning coal for heat, there are many factories, ocean freights, trains, etc. All of this smoke ends up in the atmosphere. Knoxville is one of the 10 most polluted cities in the US. Knoxville is the asthma capitol of the US as well. Beijings air pollution is terrible, that is why no one wants to go to the Olympics there. The US team is bringing all of their own food and water. Particulate matter is a huge problem; it is small particles floating around in the air. Japan has a large area of acid rain. This area includes some of eastern china.
China is #1 in coal mining. The US is the #1 in coal reserve (we have the most in the ground). Thousands of coal miners die every day in china. It is very dangerous in China, it is one of the worst occupations in China. The Three Gorges Dam will stop flooding, and provide new water systems for people. It is the largest construction project in human history. There have been no environmental studies whatsoever. The lake has torn down so many homes of people (millions of people) whole cities have been moved for this project. The river was used as a source of income, and transportation. Now it will not be able to be used. Sturgeons are in the lake, they are migratory, and now will not be able to swim because of the dam. The Surgeon general says that this is unhealthy and will stop the breeding etc of the fish. This could be devastating for peoples diets and jobs. Sub regions: The northeast: Beijing area. It has the worst pollution. It is very cold in the winter, causing more coal to be burned. Manchuria is the old name for this area. All of the acid rain that blows from this area blows right to N and S Korea and Japan. These other countries are very unhappy about this. Loess Plateau has windblown soil. During the last ice age, there are ice sheets that push material in front of it, when the ice sheets move backwards, there is a pile left over. This left over stuff is very compact like concrete. In this area, the people dig out their homes. In other areas it is very loose and will erode easily. Dry and cold, wheat is grown. Huang He: is either called the mother of china or chinas sorrow. The mother is the flooding that brings good stuff. The sorrow is from all of the people who die in the floods. 100,000s people die in every flood. The dominate river in the northeast. Central China: the largest by population. 1/3 of the pop of the US live here. This is the area of wet rice cultivation. It is warmer and wetter here. They can get at least 2 crops a year out of one field. The farmers here are a little more affluent here than other areas. Shanghai is in Central China. Historical buildings are being torn down for skyscrapers. They are mostly destroying British buildings.
Northwest China: towards Tibet. Minorities are prosecuted, although today the government is supportive of them, and think that they can benefit with their cheap labor, and people coming to stare at them. The Great Wall of China is located here. Southern China: Yunnan Plateau, Hong Kong. #1 shipping port in the world is Hong Kong. Hong Kong is very wealthy and crowded. The Karst Forest is not made of trees, but rocks. What kind of trees are most commonly found in the Karst Forest of China? Limestone Trees. Karstopography are the rocks. There is resistant limestone and weak limestone. The karst forest is the strong limestone. It is a very big tourist attraction. Continental shelf: Japan has a really long North/South extent. Nova Scotia to Jacksonville, Florida. Japan also has a housing problem. There are a lot of wealthy people. Most people live in very small apartments. People who are affluent express the fact that they are by the clothes, and purses. Japan is one of the largest markets for luxury goods in the world. They have trouble showing their money because there is not a lot of space for homes. Tourists want to go to NY to buy luxury goods because their Yen will go farther. Americans have issues with space. We like to be spread out and want people at their distance. "Magical ATM Distance" everyone understands that we must be several feet away from someone. This is not the way in Japan! They are so close to each other. The shover the train doors open, and the last person in line will shove the other people in the train so that optimal space will be used. Free-ter is a freelancer. This horrifies parents and grandparents. They say your first job is your last job. Young people in Japan think grown up are stifled. Women in Japan are not acting like their mothers. They are waiting longer to get married. They are getting married around their 30s, or not getting married at all. The fertility rate is stopping. They are worried about where kids are going to come from. 97% of the population of Japan is ethnically Japanese. Burakamin and the Ainu are the 2 minorities and are very discriminated against.
There are about 2 million Burakamin and look JUST like Japanese, but they have very different names than Japanese. Because they are very discriminated against, they work in slaughterhouses and leather work. Religions (Buddhist) is not happy about animal slaughtering. They are kind of like the untouchables in India. It is legal to discriminate against in employment. Ainu means Human. But they arent treated like humans. They are VERY different 16,000 ainu in Japan. They are physically different They are Caucasian Northern Japan They are fishermen and farmers Have curly hair and heavy beards Their numbers are dwindling. Taiwan (ROC: republic of china) this is where if you bought electronics, it was assembled or made in Taiwan. They find themselves in competition with mainland china. North and South Korea are always in the news. Condolesa Rice and the NY Symphony just went to N. Korea. North Koreas climate is like Canada. South Korea is like Northeast US. Half of N. Koreas income goes to military. There is a lot of tension in this area between almost all of the countries. Mongolia: Mongolia and china are not happy with each other. This is the reason for the Great Wall. There are more millionaires in Moscow than anywhere else. Mongolia says ,,hey what about us? so the doors to Mongolia were opened, many people started living like the UK, but then other people lived in permanent poverty. Mongolia is putting up fences, like the US in the wild west. This is messing stuff up a little.
2-21 FILM: Indian call center, competition among the 1billion people, `accent neutralization' class, `Americanization' has been in india for decades, since the beatles, woodstock. Now the money they are making is driving consumer culture. Affecting youg people the most in Bangalor, more money. indias young generation is building careers and money. " all you need to do is talk American'= opening mouth wider. `more materialistic, brand conscious,'
Future?- going to be a real happening country in the future. Parents= in early days more respect to gurus and teachers. Girls model Bill Gates. Mom: "they have to be within the limits' families stick together, To Keep the Bond, "Learn the good, and leave the bad". young generation is `westernized'. 54% under 25yrs. 500 million + Globalization = homogenization. Family Bonds that hold India will lead to problems of the west. Family is safety net, western countries it is Social security. RSS - Hindu Radical group. `concerned with westernization' Valentines Day is new, `we don't like it' love should be year round. Call centers separate families, may lead to loss of culture and loss of rituals Globalization = loss of culture "Glocalize" part of global economy by using local traditional-skills, Yoga each day at one (Jada) animation company. transforming traditional skills of carving into digital. Krishna Animation- art directors mother is traditional painter. Outsourcing complaints in US are people waking up to the `real world', this is just the tip of the iceberg. a fundamental shift in talent and markets. 300 MILLION Middle Class , Larger than US pop and Europe. so much of the wealth in the west is from access to global markets. Lots of wealth has not trickled down to all citizens. As bad as subSahara Africa, in the same city. the Working Poor. Migrant construction workers 1-2 dollars a day. 700million + live in rural villages, 100 miles out of town 100 years behind. Globalization is taking away what little the rural population has. Incense production taken over by Large Multinat Company. certian ways of life are canonized as `the right way' `don't make us poor', why can't the village survive? what are they losing, it's being felt. Village School- low caste, untouchables, kids are hungry, never seen running water. - IT Exec has used wealth to build school for these kids. To break barriers of Society. - "High Tech segment is only 3Million of 1Billion, what happenes to the rest. 2-26 Chinese Migrant workers, largest movement in human history. - rural families still 50 per cent - farmers are making more money after lift of restrictions - Big changes in the past few years, out of poverty. New economy is a more comfortable life - many farmers are still very poor, forced off lands for development= protests that get violent
Shanghi grand prix moto race on New racetrack. Taibao.com = Internet auction site, `if ebay is strong = shark, we are crocidile in the river, dangerous to shark' also - Alibaba.com manufacturers connected to buyers across the world. - He showed Western tourist around in exchange for lessons in English. - "After Reform and Opening Up" the west doesn't understand. - How to make sure chinese economy continues to grow. - China theory was `gradualism'. There is no guarantee on future, but the past gives us confidence. Huge Population to accomplish great things, Yiwu hass grown tremendously Chinese textiles are crushing competition. 4000+ migrant workers. @ .60c a day. living in 10 bed Dorm rooms. Life may seem rough, but it is better than back home on the farm. Rural farmer = "we aren't looking for beautiful scenery" - operating toy machine, his hand was cut off. he was refused compensation Lawyer that Represents injured workers, housing and feeding many of them or giving them jobs. spending more money, Chinese economy is like old west= counterfiet goods and imitations. Smiling Wolf = investigator of counterfiet producers. started to make money now it's a responsibility. counterfiet milk powder led to infant deaths. Broad Air Conditioning- sustainable designs, organic farm for workers,
March 27, 2008
***shortest place location of the semester*** this doesn't mean it's easy to study We use the name Burma instead of Myanmar. Timor-Leste is the proper name instead of East Timor, but she will accept either.
Themes of the chapter: distinct culture groups (mosaic), disparities of well-being, management of
the tropical environment (deforestation, shopping at Wal-Mart, etc), labor and resources for manufacturing (received a lot of plants from japan, europe and us), challenges to national unity (Indonesia 14000 islands! Different languages, tradition, etc also the Philippines), persistence and change in family structure Southeast Asia is better described as a mosaic, NOT a melting pot. Our engagement in the Vietnam War, the idea was the domino theory. If one country becomes commies, then the others will. This came from a fundamental misunderstanding that the people in this area are all the same, same culture, looks, etc. There are Environmental protests in Thailand. China is the #1 consumer of copper. Laos is landlocked. They have horrible political problems. It is the poorest country in this region.
Burma or Myanmar?
The us government (CIA Fact book website) does not recognize the name Manymar. We think this is an illegal military political ruling collective that took over the democratic Burma. This was a joke on Seinfeld one day. Pacific ring of Fire is serious here. Sumatra, the biggest island was the epicenter of the 2005 earthquake. It was on Oche, India. Tsunami resulted from this. Philippines are also volcanic, as well as almost every island here. Mayla peninsula and the island of Sumatra form a land strip, the strait of Malacca is one of the most contested regions. Borneo is separated into other countries, like Malaysia, Indonesia, and others.
Java is the most densely pop island in Indonesia. Indonesia is the largest Islamic by population. Hindu is the oppressed minority in Indonesia. So much cultural diversity is because of migrating patterns. The last major ice age, water got bound up in ice sheets and the ocean waters fell and coasts expanded. Most of Southeast Asia was land, not water, so people could walk from China to java. The line separates Flora and Fauna (plants and animals). This is why there are kangaroos in Australia, but not Thailand. Could not walk or wander past this line. This is Wallace's line. He was a contemporary of Darwin. Darwin got his stuff published before Wallace did. Land bridges! Bali is Hindu today because of the land bridges.
2 major migrating groups:
New Guinea: (part this chapter, part of the next chapter) West New Guinea is part of Indonesia. They came from the Australo-Melanesians. They may have migrated from South Asia. Some have blonde hair, like Caucasians. The other group, that migrated more recently (10,000 years), were the Austronesians. There were no more land bridges and probably came from south china. They were expert seafarers. Most of the climate is Tropical Wet. The ITCZ is wiggling its way through this region as well. It blocks moisture from going north. The northern parts are very dry such as Vietnam and north Philippines. Java and Sumatra are very big on coffee. The island of Java is the Goldie locks islands. Has the best soil for agriculture. It has a lot of population pressure. Sumatra does not have pop problems, and is much bigger. The soil isn't as good here. Green is good in Thailand, Vietnam etc, but is on MOUNTAINS. Oxisols are red rusted tropical soils. Like red clay of Georgia. This soil isn't very good. There are big green trees, with little undergrowth on the soil. Leaves fall from the trees, and end up with Detritus, or humus, decaying organic material on the forest floor. Everything in the decaying process is accelerated because of the heat and humidity. They practically melt and are consumed in the trees. Aluminum tends to concentrate in the soil here. This isn't good. When trees are cut down, all the good things in the soil is taken with the tree. So it's harder to grow things in this soils. When things are clear cut, the species diversity isn't the same. They tend to grow junk trees, like Sumac, poplar, etc.
Most of the wood gets cut down, and BURNED. It doesn't even get used! It gets cleared for major agribusinesses or cattle fields. This could be a direct source of global warming. The rainforest in SE Asia are being destroyed faster than the Amazon! Continental breathing--the exhaling of the continent. Pushes wind across the ocean and picks up rainfall. Colonial activity was with the British, French, The US, Dutch, Japanese, and then the Portuguese. First from Europe were the Portuguese then the Spanish. Southern Philippines are Islamic, northern have the largest group of Christians. Portuguese and Spanish arrived 500 years ago with the Spice trade, especially cinnamon. Vietnam has the most expensive cinnamon. Indonesia was the spice king. Cinnamon was at one time better than gold in Europe. Portuguese and the Spanish were both leaving the inquisition period. All non believers had to leave Spain. The Portuguese went where they were all Islamic and hated them. They said "Convert or Die!!!!" The Portuguese was not very successful. They only got Timor. And they held on to Timor until 10 years ago. Indonesia invaded Timor, and finally Timor-Leste partitioned. The Spanish had a different philosophy here. They realized that they had to be nice. The said "hi, we are bringing gifts, what do you have for us?" they waited a while before they did the convert or die thing. Thus the Philippines became Christian. The US says that the Philippines has training camps for the Al Quida. Spain ruled this for 4 centuries. Thus Philippines are the most European. The Dutch arrived with the Dutch East India Company. They had Indonesia. At this time they were powerful. The Dutch were horrible to the SE Asia people. Thousands of people died. They were all about making money. It was like have a corporation running a country. They did whatever it took to get the spices for the spice trade, as well as coffee, sugar, and indigo. They ruled with an IRON FIST. The Dutch did Economic conversion, not religious. They forced farmers to grow non-food crops. Indonesia rose up against the Dutch came from the alienation of their lives. They had no control over ANYTHING. The only people who would listen to the Indonesians where the other Indonesians, especially the religious leaders.
Krakatoa Eruption August 1883
The leader said that Allah would tell them when to rise against the infidels, that the sky would rain blood (sort of, red rust), cattle would die (from the bad stuff in the air), tsunamis would rise up. So the Indonesians destroyed the Dutch power.
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University of Toronto - POL - B91
LECTURE 1: The Meaning of Development I. Course Intro. II. The Era of Development III. Development Defined a) Mainstream View b) Alternative View c) Radical View _I. Course Intro. see syllabus II. The Era of Development The second half of the twent
St. Bonaventure - CLAR - 111
Folts 1 Derek Folts CLAR 110-06 Ms. Kara Manning September, 2, 2007 My Criticism of "A Fable for Tomorrow" Descriptive essays are one of the most influential essays someone can write. In an excerpt from the story "A Fable for Tomorrow" by Rachel Carl
Winona - ECON - 201
It Costs What It CostsI agree with this blog one-hundred percent, I work at a boat rental in Lake Geneva, Wisconsin and have to listen to people complain about the prices every day and I sometimes want to strangle them. I truly believe that there i
Miami University - MBI - 111
MBI111 Exam 3 Notes10/12/2007 3:00:00 PMo Streptococcal diseases- upper respiratory tract (nasal, oral, throat cavity) o Streptococcus- encapsulated, gram +, chain forming o ClassificationHemolytic pattern: (red blood cell destruction) o Beta- cl
Miami University - MBI - 111
GEO101-D Notes Part 3 11/2/2007 12:00:00 PMStreet Fight Movie Running for mayor of Newark, NJ Too much poverty 40% graduate from high school There is low turnover in city politics in Newark NJ Lots of corruption and fierce politics in Newa
Texas Tech - POLS - 2303
Lecture 10 (Outline): U.S.-Mexican Relations (1890s-1920s) and Good Neighbor Policy (1933-1945) U.S.-Mexican Relations 1. Porfirio Daz 2. Precursors to Revolution 3. Francisco Madero 4. Zapata, Villa, Carranza, Obregn, Huerta 6. Taft Administration
Texas Tech - POLS - 2303
Lecture 14 (Outline): The Cold War Chill 1. Brazil and NICs 2. OAS Functions 3. Test of OAS (Korean War) Mutual Defense System 4. Security vs. Economics Revolution Bolster Military Defense 5. U.S. Interests in Cold War: Economic and Strategic 6. S
Yale - PSYC - 320
Ricardo Rodriguez Cog Neuro Article Sumary Rueckl et. Al. A Computational Model of "What" and "Where" in Visual Systems The primate visual cortex is a powerful tool for navigating complex physical environments. For every visible stimulus, it simulta
UConn - BADM - 250
Aug 30 Role of Marketing What motivates marketing managers to pursue the marketing concept (i.e., consumer satisfaction at a profit)? What is the value of building long term relationships with customers (why is the notion of "repeated exchanges" incl
UConn - EKIN - 284
Defining a sport organization:-a social entity in the sports industry; it is goal-directed, with a consciously structured activity system and a relatively identifiable boundary. *social entity: group of people *goal-directed focus: to make money *c
Pittsburgh - ENGLIT - 0500
1 The Duality of Kim Throughout Kipling's Kim, the protagonist, Kim, moves between the white and nonwhite worlds in India with the ease and skill of a chameleon. His unique ability to ignore caste divisions and experience true freedom of motion allow
Purdue - NUR - 214
Nur 214 Exam II: Fluids and Electrolytes ReviewI. Body Fluid Imbalances A. We are approximately 2/3 water B. Functions: 1. Transportation medium 2. Lubrication 3. Elimination of waste 4. Basic metabolism subject C. Distribution of Body Fluids 1. Tot
Tennessee - MUSICOLOGY - 201
Page 184 6. The Stone's music had more of a Blues influence with an arrangement that sounded loose and prominently featured the slide guitar, while the Beatle's were more tightly arranged and focused on the vocals more. The Beatle's used AABA forms a
RIT - ENG - 101
How to login and work in an UNIX X-Windows System for Microsoft Windows UsersBy XXXXXXXVersion 1.1 October 2007Warranties, Warnings and RestrictionsThe author of this text is not responsible for any damage to your computer as a result of use of
Tennessee - MUSICOLOGY - 201
History of rock assignment #5Page 351 5. Glam rock has some ideas that are connected to psychedelia and progressive rock. Glam rock is also mainly an English movement. Glam rock was extremely influential on the music that followed it. Glam rock art
Tennessee - GEO - 101
In June 2000, the upper part of this valley was affected by a "30-year" recurrence interval (R.I.) flood. Although of lower magnitude and somewhat different nature from that of 1957 (>100-year R.I. flood), the 2000 event induced serious damage to inf
Clarkson - BIO - Gen Bio
Homework #2 Due: January 30, 2008Name: _ Lab Section: _1. What limits the resolving power of the light microscope? The wavelength of light. If the objects are closer than the wavelength, then they will appear blurry. 2. What is the difference bet
Tennessee - MUSICOLOGY - 201
Weems 1Lara Weems Musicology 120 Section # 002 April 3, 2008Edison and the Phonograph Introduction Thomas Alva Edison's invention of the phonograph has shaped American entertainment today. Living in a world where we could not listen to Justin Tim
Clarkson - BIO - Gen Bio
Review Sheet Exam II BY1601. Know what a positive signal at G1 means for the cell cycle. Pg. 229 Section 12.3 The cell cycle control system. 2. Know what phase of the cell cycle is the longest. Pg 221 Section 12.2 Phases of the cell cycle. 3. Know
Wake Forest - ECN - 274
j wood Fall 2008 ECONOMICS 274: TOPICS IN MACROECONOMICS MWF 2pm, Carswell 019. Office, MWF 4-6, Carswell 125Course objectives 1. Macroeconomic theory. We want to know what goes on in the economy and why. We will examine the data and theories of th
Wofford - ENG - 310
I am FAA Flight Services Director Bill Peacock At 8:45 a.m. a hijacked passenger jet, American Airlines Flight 11 coming out of Boston, Massachusetts, crashed into the north tower of the World Trade Center, which tore a gaping hole in the building an
Wofford - ENG - 310
In order to expand Wofford's student body in years to come we're going to have to make some residential expansions and improvements. Residential housing must be constructed. The housing must be safe for college students to live in; it must be located
Washington - RELIG - 211
Islamic Art IDs 1. Arabesque.(tawriq) The arabesque is an elaborative application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. Arabesques are an element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques. Co
Tennessee - MUSICOLOGY - 201
Nonformality | http:/www.nonformality.org The power of money Posted by Andreas Karsten on June 29, 2006 in Participation, power and power relations | No Comments When the findings of the OECD  "Programme for International Student Assessment" PISA
SUNY Geneseo - HIST - 263
1 Our Reconstruction History class has spent a great deal of time trying to accurately construct a picture of the Antebellum Period, the Civil War, and the following reconstruction and reunion. I say an accurate picture, because many ideas and concep
Tennessee - GEO - 101
STUDY GUIDE EXAM II GEOGRAPHY 101 GRIPSHOVERDIRECTIONS: Use the study guide to assist in your preparations for the exam. Do not rely solely on the study guide! Be sure to review all notes, assignments, and readings. Good luck!1. What is "caste" an
Pittsburgh - ENGLIT - 0500
Notes on the The Congo Spoken Tradition The Congo directs the language like that of a sermon. Lindsay attempts to mimic the negro dialect o Stage directions o Find your own relation to the rhythmic dialogue Restore the appeal to the ear o Not abstrac
Maryland - ASTR - 100
Jaclynn Hilligoss Section 0203 Homework #1 1. (a) i. 83,321,134 = 8.3321134 x 10^7 ii. -370,165,373 = -3.70165373 x 10^8 iii. 0.00541 = 5.41 x 10^-3 iv. -0.00001816 = -1.816 x 10^-5 v. 5410 = 5.41 x 10^3 (b) i. -6.9354 x 10^6 = -6,935,400 ii. 9.388 x
Maryland - ASTR - 100
Jaclynn Hilligoss ASTR 100 Section 0203 Homework #4 1. Types of Light lowest to highest energy: Radio, Infrared, Visible, Ultraviolet, X-Rays, Gamma Rays Lowest to highest frequency: Radio, Infrared, Visible, Ultraviolet, X-Rays, Gamma Rays *Same bec
Pittsburgh - PS - 1521
Marxism Continued I Questions Left A What if instead of a revolutionary, man just wants his life better? 1 Just better life 2 Trade union consciousness 3 What should revolutionists do? a Teach them revolutionary consciousnessYes, Elevate their minds
Walden University - HIST - 102
11/7/07Wednesday, November 07, 2007 11:02 AMClass NotesThemes: Post-war Arrangement of Europe Topics: The Versailles Peace and its Components The division of the Middle EastI. Peace a. b. c. Making in Perspective Different from the peace of the
Vassar - ANTHROPOLO - Anth-140
Wood 1 Lindsay Wood Prof. Varghese Cultural Anthropology 14 November 2007 Men with Power and Women with Veils: Gender Ideology and Hegemony Cultural ideas, especially the most successful and pervasive, seem necessary and central to life in such a way
Vassar - PHILOSOPHY - Phil-102
Wood 1Lindsay Wood History of Western Philosophy II Prof. Borradori 3 March 2008 Stop Fighting Emotions Self-awareness and Spinoza Baruch Spinoza's philosophical goal was to "improve the character of human beings [.] by improving their self-unders
Princeton - CEE - 262B
Bridges Midterm ReviewNellie Morris Identifications location (country or city), designer, structure Equations to know F = Q/A (ksi/psi) Horizontal Reactions = qL^2/8d Vertical Reactions = qL/2 (lb or k)3/9/2008 7:08:00 PMEssay o Reoccurring them
Loyola Chicago - CMUN - 160
Perfect competition: 1) Many firms sell identical products to many buyers 2) There are no restrictions on entry into the industry 3) Established firms have no advantage over new ones 4) Sellers and buyers are well informed about prices Perfect compet
Loyola Chicago - CMUN - 160
ANTH 102 MIDTERM II STUDY GUIDE Unit 5: The Construction of Reality Totemism entity that looks over a family or clan of people; a thing or animal that is a symbol of a whole clan Symbolic action Collective effervescence the perceived energy formed
Colorado - IPHY - 3430
LECTURE OUTLINE (CHAPTER 10) LECTURE OBJECTIVES 1. Establish how sensory neurons interpret specific stimuli. 2. How is this sensory information processed in the PNS and CNS? 3. Discuss some of the conditions that result from malfunction of sensory in
Colorado - IPHY - 3430
Neurons: Cellular andNetwork PropertiesLECTURE OUTLINE (CHAPTER 8) LECTURE OBJECTIVES 1. Describe the functions of the glia and neurons in the nervous system. 2. Briefly review of membrane potential. 3. Introduce basic concepts, such as hyperpolar
Colorado - IPHY - 3430
Three major types of communication: 1. Gap Junctions 2. Nerves (nervous system) 3. Endocrine System Gap Junctions: Important in Communication Mechanistically, how does this structure work? How is it able to communicate? 1. Direct connection by a tunn
New Haven - E - 110
Gibbons 1 Kelli Gibbons Dr. Russo English 110 04 April 2008 A Desire for Acceptance The Kite Runner, a novel by Khaled Hosseini, is a moving work that deals with some of society's most sensitive issues. It is a work with no boundaries that explores t
Clemson - SOC - 201
Chapter 1 The Sociological PerspectiveHenslin Chapter 1 OutlineAdapted from: Fowler, L. A. (2008). Instructor's manual for Henslin: Essentials of sociology a down-to-earth approach (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Henslin, J. M. (2007). Essential
Clemson - SOC - 201
Chapter 4 Social Structure and Social InteractionHenslin Chapter 4 OutlineAdapted from: Fowler, L. A. (2008). Instructor's manual for Henslin: Essentials of sociology a down-to-earth approach (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Henslin, J. M. (2007)
Clemson - SOC - 201
Henslin Chapter 7 Outline Adapted from: Fowler, L. A. (2008). Instructor's manual for Henslin: Essentials of sociology a down-to-earth approach (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Henslin, J. M. (2007). Essentials of sociology: A down-to-earth approach
Pittsburgh - ENGLIT - 0500
The Double Lives of Servants: A Comparison and Contrast Between the Representation of Servants in Virginia Woolf's Between the Acts and Jamaica Kincaid's Lucy In her novel Between the Acts, Virginia Wolf explores the dichotomy that arises when two en
Northwestern - HIST - 265
Aaron Houska Africa in the 20th Century Fall 2007 Midterm Paper Navigating Social Sea-changes:Cultural Misunderstandings Between British and Africans in the Shire HighlandsAt the first European contact with those living in the Shire Highland villa
SMU - MATH - 1303
Name:Sample QuizScore:Directions:This is a sample of what the questions might look like on your upcoming quiz. This is almost certainly longer than the actual quiz, but reflects the type of questions that might appear. 1. Consider the equations and
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - BA - 201
Joe Purnell Robin Hood Assignment02/27/08Robin and his Merry Men don't know whether to free King Richard from prison to get a pardon to be safe, or not to. The risk of attempting this jailbreak lies in the possibility of failure, in which case Jo
New Haven - PH - 100
Gibbons 1 Kelli Gibbons Sweeney Physics 100 Lab 1 February 2008 Estimation, Measurement, and Dimensional Analysis Lab Write Up Title: This lab focuses on estimations in comparison to actual measurements and the dimensional analysis that follows both.
Yale - PSYC - 320
Ricardo Rodriguez Writing Sample A Computational Model of "What" and "Where" in Visual SystemsThe primate visual cortex is a powerful tool for navigating complex physical environments. For every visible stimulus, it simultaneously computes location
Temple - PSYCH - 1061
8/30/2007 Chapter 1 psychology The study of mental processes and behavior Lecture outline: ~Brief history ~perspectives in psycholgy -Psychodynamic -Behaviorist -Cognitive -EvolutionaryPsychology is defined as the scientific investigation of mental
Temple - THEATER - 1411
Review Sheet for Quiz 2 (March 31st) Theatre 1411 Inst. Andrew Laine Color: Hue Primary, Secondary and full-spectrum (in light). Diagram it. Primary, Secondary and Complementary Hues (in pigment) name some pairs of complimentary hues. Value Tint vs.
Temple - HEBREW - 1002
CRITICAL LANGUAGES HEBREW ELEMENTS I I (1002) SPRING 2008 AYALA GUY TTH 2.40-4.30OFFICE: ANDERSON 351 (inside 345) TEL: 215-204-8274 AYALAGUY@YAHOO.COM It is better to contact me by email. You can expect an answer within a day OFFICE HOURS: MON, 10
Temple - FRSHMN - 1001
Tamar Godel 9/17/2007 "I learned three important things in college - to use a library, to memorize quickly and visually, to drop asleep at any time given a horizontal surface and fifteen minutes. ~Agnes DeMille, Dance to the Piper, 1952"What do you
Temple - HIST - 1102
BUSH SUPPORTED! Sci teachers against reading statement that said darwin's just a theory, so asst super attendant read it 6 school board membs quit 11 parents sued, with ACLU on their side Judge Jones appointed by Santorum, and approved by bush Mathte
Temple - DANCE - 2803
Tamar Godel 12/2/07 Dance in Human Society Professor Coward-Gilmore On Friday, November 11th, The Martha Graham Dance Company had a performance from it's 80th anniversary season in the Zellerbach Theatre at the Annenberg Center for the Performing Art
Temple - DANCE - 2803
Tamar Godel Observations of October 8, 2007 On Monday, October 8th, the class explored ballet. They were taught a short floor routine, and practiced it many times over. They did it first as a whole group, then to music, and then to music in two halve
Temple - ENGLISH - 1002
Assignment 2 In the next few weeks we will be discussing several genres of film and television including Reality TV, Talk Shows, Science Fiction, and Gangster films, to name a few. Whether you like them or not, these shows and movies have had a profo
Temple - ENGLISH - 1002
Temple - ENGLISH - 1002
Free Speech in Times of ConflictA Look at Why the Government Hinders Free SpeechTamar Godel TUID911252355 English 1002 Fall Semester Professor Joshua IsardTamar GodelHuman nature is to argue. Be it for a cause just or unjust, people will persi
Temple - ENGLISH - 1002
I really enjoyed this tale; it was so interesting seeing how the same story changed when different layers were added to it; a perfect example of different perspectives and valid sources. I still have a few remaining questions, though. First, what cau