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Org. 7512 J. Chem. 1997, 62, 7512-7515 NMR Chemical Shifts of Common Laboratory Solvents as Trace Impurities Hugo E. Gottlieb,* Vadim Kotlyar, and Abraham Nudelman* Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel Received June 27, 1997 In the course of the routine use of NMR as an aid for organic chemistry, a day-to-day problem is the identification of signals deriving from common contaminants (water, solvents, stabilizers, oils) in less-than-analytically-pure samples. This data may be available in the literature, but the time involved in searching for it may be considerable. Another issue is the concentration dependence of chemical shifts (especially 1H); results obtained two or three decades ago usually refer to much more concentrated samples, and run at lower magnetic fields, than today's practice. We therefore decided to collect 1H and 13C chemical shifts of what are, in our experience, the most popular "extra peaks" in a variety of commonly used NMR solvents, in the hope that this will be of assistance to the practicing chemist. Experimental Section NMR spectra were taken in a Bruker DPX-300 instrument (300.1 and 75.5 MHz for 1H and 13C, respectively). Unless otherwise indicated, all were run at room temperature (24 ( 1 C). For the experiments in the last section of this paper, probe temperatures were measured with a calibrated Eurotherm 840/T digital thermometer, connected to a thermocouple which was introduced into an NMR tube filled with mineral oil to approximately the same level as a typical sample. At each temperature, the D2O samples were left to equilibrate for at least 10 min before the data were collected. In order to avoid having to obtain hundreds of spectra, we prepared seven stock solutions containing approximately equal amounts of several of our entries, chosen in such a way as to prevent intermolecular interactions and possible ambiguities in assignment. Solution 1: acetone, tert-butyl methyl ether, dimethylformamide, ethanol, toluene. Solution 2: benzene, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethyl acetate, methanol. Solution 3: acetic acid, chloroform, diethyl ether, 2-propanol, tetrahydrofuran. Solution 4: acetonitrile, dichloromethane, dioxane, n-hexane, HMPA. Solution 5: 1,2-dichloroethane, ethyl methyl ketone, n-pentane, pyridine. Solution 6: tert-butyl alcohol, BHT, cyclohexane, 1,2-dimethoxyethane, nitromethane, silicone grease, triethylamine. Solution 7: diglyme, dimethylacetamide, ethylene glycol, "grease" (engine oil). For D2O. Solution 1: acetone, tert-butyl methyl ether, dimethylformamide, ethanol, 2-propanol. Solution 2: dimethyl sulfoxide, ethyl acetate, ethylene glycol, methanol. Solution 3: acetonitrile, diglyme, dioxane, HMPA, pyridine. Solution 4: 1,2-dimethoxyethane, dimethylacetamide, ethyl methyl ketone, triethylamine. Solution 5: acetic acid, tertbutyl alcohol, diethyl ether, tetrahydrofuran. In D2O and CD3OD nitromethane was run separately, as the protons exchanged with deuterium in presence of triethylamine. Figure 1. Chemical shift of HDO as a function of temperature. Results Proton Spectra (Table 1). A sample of 0.6 mL of the solvent, containing 1 L of TMS,1 was first run on its own. From this spectrum we determined the chemical shifts of the solvent residual peak2 and the water peak. It should be noted that the latter is quite temperature(1) For recommendations on the publication of NMR data, see: IUPAC Commission on Molecular Structure and Spectroscopy. Pure Appl. Chem. 1972, 29, 627; 1976, 45, 217. dependent (vide infra). Also, any potential hydrogenbond acceptor will tend to shift the water signal downfield; this is particularly true for nonpolar solvents. In contrast, in e.g. DMSO the water is already strongly hydrogen-bonded to the solvent, and solutes have only a negligible effect on its chemical shift. This is also true for D2O; the chemical shift of the residual HDO is very temperature-dependent (vide infra) but, maybe counterintuitively, remarkably solute (and pH) independent. We then added 3 L of one of our stock solutions to the NMR tube. The chemical shifts were read and are presented in Table 1. Except where indicated, the coupling constants, and therefore the peak shapes, are essentially solvent-independent and are presented only once. For D2O as a solvent, the accepted reference peak ( ) 0) is the methyl signal of the sodium salt of 3-(trimethylsilyl)propanesulfonic acid; one crystal of this was added to each NMR tube. This material has several disadvantages, however: it is not volatile, so it cannot be readily eliminated if the sample has to be recovered. In addition, unless one purchases it in the relatively expensive deuterated form, it adds three more signals to the spectrum (methylenes 1, 2, and 3 appear at 2.91, 1.76, and 0.63 ppm, respectively). We suggest that the residual HDO peak be used as a secondary reference; we find that if the effects of temperature are taken into account (vide infra), this is very reproducible. For D2O, we used a different set of stock solutions, since many of the less polar substrates are not significantly watersoluble (see Table 1). We also ran sodium acetate and sodium formate (chemical shifts: 1.90 and 8.44 ppm, respectively). Carbon Spectra (Table 2). To each tube, 50 L of the stock solution and 3 L of TMS1 were added. The solvent chemical shifts3 were obtained from the spectra containing the solutes, and the ranges of chemical shifts (2) I.e., the signal of the proton for the isotopomer with one less deuterium than the perdeuterated material, e.g., CHCl3 in CDCl3 or C6D5H in C6D6. Except for CHCl3, the splitting due to JHD is typically observed (to a good approximation, it is 1/6.5 of the value of the corresponding JHH). For CHD2 groups (deuterated acetone, DMSO, acetonitrile), this signal is a 1:2:3:2:1 quintet with a splitting of ca. 2 Hz. (3) In contrast to what was said in note 2, in the 13C spectra the solvent signal is due to the perdeuterated isotopomer, and the onebond couplings to deuterium are always observable (ca. 20-30 Hz). S0022-3263(97)01176-6 CCC: $14.00 1997 American Chemical Society Notes Table 1. proton solvent residual peak H2O acetic acid acetone acetonitrile benzene tert-butyl alcohol tert-butyl methyl ether BHTb mult s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s t, 7 q, 7 m m s s s s s s s s s s s t, 7 q, 7d sc,d s q, 7 t, 7 s q, 7 t, 7 se m br s t m d, 9.5 sh sc,h s t, 7 m d, 6 sep, 6 m m m s m m s m m t,7 q, 7 CDCl3 7.26 1.56 2.10 2.17 2.10 7.36 1.28 1.19 3.22 6.98 5.01 2.27 1.43 7.26 1.43 3.73 5.30 1.21 3.48 3.65 3.57 3.39 3.40 3.55 2.09 3.02 2.94 8.02 2.96 2.88 2.62 3.71 1.25 3.72 1.32 2.05 4.12 1.26 2.14 2.46 1.06 3.76 0.86 1.26 0.88 1.26 2.65 3.49 1.09 4.33 0.88 1.27 1.22 4.04 8.62 7.29 7.68 0.07 1.85 3.76 2.36 7.17 7.25 1.03 2.53 1H J. Org. Chem., Vol. 62, No. 21, 1997 7513 NMR Data (CD3)2SO 2.50 3.33a 1.91 2.09 2.07 7.37 1.11 4.19 1.11 3.08 6.87 6.65 2.18 1.36 8.32 1.40 3.90 5.76 1.09 3.38 3.51 3.38 3.24 3.24 3.43 1.96 2.94 2.78 7.95 2.89 2.73 2.54 3.57 1.06 3.44 4.63 1.99 4.03 1.17 2.07 2.43 0.91 3.34 0.86 1.25 2.53 3.16 4.01 4.42 0.86 1.27 1.04 3.78 8.58 7.39 7.79 1.76 3.60 2.30 7.18 7.25 0.93 2.43 C6D6 7.16 0.40 1.55 1.55 1.55 7.15 1.05 1.55 1.07 3.04 7.05 4.79 2.24 1.38 6.15 1.40 2.90 4.27 1.11 3.26 3.46 3.34 3.11 3.12 3.33 1.60 2.57 2.05 7.63 2.36 1.86 1.68 3.35 0.96 3.34 1.65 3.89 0.92 1.58 1.81 0.85 3.41 0.92 1.36 0.89 1.24 2.40 3.07 2.94 0.87 1.23 0.95 3.67 8.53 6.66 6.98 0.29 1.40 3.57 2.11 7.02 7.13 0.96 2.40 CD3CN 1.94 2.13 1.96 2.08 1.96 7.37 1.16 2.18 1.14 3.13 6.97 5.20 2.22 1.39 7.58 1.44 3.81 5.44 1.12 3.42 3.53 3.45 3.29 3.28 3.45 1.97 2.96 2.83 7.92 2.89 2.77 2.50 3.60 1.12 3.54 2.47 1.97 4.06 1.20 2.06 2.43 0.96 3.51 0.86 1.27 0.89 1.28 2.57 3.28 2.16 4.31 0.89 1.29 1.09 3.87 8.57 7.33 7.73 0.08 1.80 3.64 2.33 7.1-7.3 7.1-7.3 0.96 2.45 CD3OD 3.31 4.87 1.99 2.15 2.03 7.33 1.40 1.15 3.20 6.92 2.21 1.40 7.90 1.45 3.78 5.49 1.18 3.49 3.61 3.58 3.35 3.35 3.52 2.07 3.31 2.92 7.97 2.99 2.86 2.65 3.66 1.19 3.60 2.01 4.09 1.24 2.12 2.50 1.01 3.59 0.88 1.29 0.90 1.29 2.64 3.34 4.34 0.90 1.29 1.50 3.92 8.53 7.44 7.85 0.10 1.87 3.71 2.32 7.16 7.16 2.58 1.05 D2O 4.79 2.08 2.22 2.06 1.24 1.21 3.22 (CD3)2CO 2.05 2.84a 1.96 2.09 2.05 7.36 1.18 1.13 3.13 6.96 2.22 1.41 8.02 1.43 3.87 5.63 1.11 3.41 3.56 3.47 3.28 3.28 3.46 1.97 3.00 2.83 7.96 2.94 2.78 2.52 3.59 1.12 3.57 3.39 1.97 4.05 1.20 2.07 2.45 0.96 3.28 0.87 1.29 0.88 1.28 2.59 3.31 3.12 4.43 0.88 1.27 1.10 3.90 8.58 7.35 7.76 0.13 1.79 3.63 2.32 7.1-7.2 7.1-7.2 0.96 2.45 chloroform cyclohexane 1,2-dichloroethane dichloromethane diethyl ether diglyme 1,2-dimethoxyethane dimethylacetamide dimethylformamide dimethyl sulfoxide dioxane ethanol ethyl acetate ethyl methyl ketone ethylene glycol "grease" f n-hexane HMPAg methanol nitromethane n-pentane 2-propanol pyridine silicone greasei tetrahydrofuran toluene triethylamine CH3 CH3 CH3 CH CH3 OHc CCH3 OCH3 ArH OHc ArCH3 ArC(CH3)3 CH CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 OCH3 CH3 CH2 CH3CO NCH3 NCH3 CH CH3 CH3 CH3 CH2 CH3 CH2 OH CH3CO CH2CH3 CH2CH3 CH3CO CH2CH3 CH2CH3 CH CH3 CH2 CH3 CH2 CH3 CH3 OH CH3 CH3 CH2 CH3 CH CH(2) CH(3) CH(4) CH3 CH2 CH2O CH3 CH(o/p) CH(m) CH3 CH2 1.17 3.56 3.67 3.61 3.37 3.37 3.60 2.08 3.06 2.90 7.92 3.01 2.85 2.71 3.75 1.17 3.65 2.07 4.14 1.24 2.19 3.18 1.26 3.65 2.61 3.34 4.40 1.17 4.02 8.52 7.45 7.87 1.88 3.74 0.99 2.57 a In these solvents the intermolecular rate of exchange is slow enough that a peak due to HDO is usually also observed; it appears at 2.81 and 3.30 ppm in acetone and DMSO, respectively. In the former solvent, it is often seen as a 1:1:1 triplet, with 2JH,D ) 1 Hz. b 2,6-Dimethyl-4-tert-butylphenol. c The signals from exchangeable protons were not always identified. d In some cases (see note a), the coupling interaction between the CH2 and the OH protons may be observed (J ) 5 Hz). e In CD3CN, the OH proton was seen as a multiplet at 2.69, and extra coupling was also apparent on the methylene peak. f Long-chain, linear aliphatic hydrocarbons. Their solubility in DMSO was too low to give visible peaks. g Hexamethylphosphoramide. h In some cases (see notes a, d), the coupling interaction between the CH3 and the OH protons may be observed (J ) 5.5 Hz). i Poly(dimethylsiloxane). Its solubility in DMSO was too low to give visible peaks. show their degree of variability. Occasionally, in order to distinguish between peaks whose assignment was ambiguous, a further 1-2 L of a specific substrate were added and the spectra run again. 7514 J. Org. Chem., Vol. 62, No. 21, 1997 Table 2. CDCl3 solvent signals CO CH3 acetone CO CH3 acetonitrile CN CH3 benzene CH tert-butyl alcohol C CH3 tert-butyl methyl ether OCH3 C CCH3 BHT C(1) C(2) CH(3) C(4) CH3Ar CH3C C chloroform CH cyclohexane CH2 1,2-dichloroethane CH2 dichloromethane CH2 diethyl ether CH3 CH2 diglyme CH3 CH2 CH2 1,2-dimethoxyethane CH3 CH2 dimethylacetamide CH3 CO NCH3 NCH3 dimethylformamide CH CH3 CH3 dimethyl sulfoxide CH3 dioxane CH2 ethanol CH3 CH2 ethyl acetate CH3CO CO CH2 CH3 ethyl methyl ketone CH3CO CO CH2CH3 CH2CH3 ethylene glycol CH2 "grease" CH2 n-hexane CH3 CH2(2) CH2(3) HMPAb CH3 methanol CH3 nitromethane CH3 n-pentane CH3 CH2(2) CH2(3) 2-propanol CH3 CH pyridine CH(2) CH(3) CH(4) silicone grease CH3 tetrahydrofuran CH2 CH2O toluene CH3 C(i) CH(o) CH(m) CH(p) triethylamine CH3 CH2 a 13C Notes NMR Dataa (CD3)2SO C6D6 CD3CN 1.32 ( 0.02 118.26 ( 0.02 173.21 20.73 207.43 30.91 118.26 1.79 129.32 68.74 30.68 49.52 73.17 27.28 152.42 138.13 129.61 126.38 21.23 31.50 35.05 79.17 27.63 45.54 55.32 15.63 66.32 58.90 70.99 72.63 58.89 72.47 21.76 171.31 35.17 38.26 163.31 36.57 31.32 41.31 67.72 18.80 57.96 21.16 171.68 60.98 14.54 29.60 209.88 37.09 8.14 64.22 30.86 14.43 23.40 32.36 37.10 49.90 63.66 14.37 23.08 34.89 25.55 64.30 150.76 127.76 136.89 26.27 68.33 21.50 138.90 129.94 129.23 126.28 12.38 47.10 CD3OD 49.00(0.01 175.11 20.56 209.67 30.67 118.06 0.85 129.34 69.40 30.91 49.66 74.32 27.22 152.85 139.09 129.49 126.11 21.38 31.15 35.36 79.44 27.96 45.11 54.78 15.46 66.88 59.06 71.33 72.92 59.06 72.72 21.32 173.32 35.50 38.43 164.73 36.89 31.61 40.45 68.11 18.40 58.26 20.88 172.89 61.50 14.49 29.39 212.16 37.34 8.09 64.30 31.29 14.45 23.68 32.73 37.00 49.86 63.08 14.39 23.38 35.30 25.27 64.71 150.07 125.53 138.35 2.10 26.48 68.83 21.50 138.85 129.91 129.20 126.29 11.09 46.96 177.21 21.03 215.94 30.89 119.68 1.47 70.36 30.29 49.37 75.62 26.60 D2O (CD3)2CO 29.84 ( 0.01 206.26 ( 0.13 172.31 20.51 205.87 30.60 117.60 1.12 129.15 68.13 30.72 49.35 72.81 27.24 152.51 138.19 129.05 126.03 21.31 31.61 35.00 79.19 27.51 45.25 54.95 15.78 66.12 58.77 71.03 72.63 58.45 72.47 21.51 170.61 34.89 37.92 162.79 36.15 31.03 41.23 67.60 18.89 57.72 20.83 170.96 60.56 14.50 29.30 208.30 36.75 8.03 64.26 30.73 14.34 23.28 32.30 37.04 49.77 63.21 14.29 22.98 34.83 25.67 63.85 150.67 124.57 136.56 1.40 26.15 68.07 21.46 138.48 129.76 129.03 126.12 12.49 47.07 77.16 ( 0.06 175.99 20.81 207.07 30.92 116.43 1.89 128.37 69.15 31.25 49.45 72.87 26.99 151.55 135.87 125.55 128.27 21.20 30.33 34.25 77.36 26.94 43.50 53.52 15.20 65.91 59.01 70.51 71.90 59.08 71.84 21.53 171.07 35.28 38.13 162.62 36.50 31.45 40.76 67.14 18.41 58.28 21.04 171.36 60.49 14.19 29.49 209.56 36.89 7.86 63.79 29.76 14.14 22.70 31.64 36.87 50.41 62.50 14.08 22.38 34.16 25.14 64.50 149.90 123.75 135.96 1.04 25.62 67.97 21.46 137.89 129.07 128.26 125.33 11.61 46.25 39.52 ( 0.06 128.06 ( 0.02 171.93 20.95 206.31 30.56 117.91 1.03 128.30 66.88 30.38 48.70 72.04 26.79 151.47 139.12 127.97 124.85 20.97 31.25 34.33 79.16 26.33 45.02 54.84 15.12 62.05 57.98 69.54 71.25 58.01 17.07 21.29 169.54 37.38 34.42 162.29 35.73 30.73 40.45 66.36 18.51 56.07 20.68 170.31 59.74 14.40 29.26 208.72 35.83 7.61 62.76 29.20 13.88 22.05 30.95 36.42 48.59 63.28 13.28 21.70 33.48 25.43 64.92 149.58 123.84 136.05 25.14 67.03 20.99 137.35 128.88 128.18 125.29 11.74 45.74 175.82 20.37 204.43 30.14 116.02 0.20 128.62 68.19 30.47 49.19 72.40 27.09 152.05 136.08 128.52 125.83 21.40 31.34 34.35 77.79 27.23 43.59 53.46 15.46 65.94 58.66 70.87 72.35 58.68 72.21 21.16 169.95 34.67 37.03 162.13 35.25 30.72 40.03 67.16 18.72 57.86 20.56 170.44 60.21 14.19 28.56 206.55 36.36 7.91 64.34 30.21 14.32 23.04 31.96 36.88 49.97 61.16 14.25 22.72 34.45 25.18 64.23 150.27 123.58 135.28 1.38 25.72 67.80 21.10 137.91 129.33 128.56 125.68 12.35 46.77 acetic acid 14.77 66.42 58.67 70.05 71.63 58.67 71.49 21.09 174.57 35.03 38.76 165.53 37.54 32.03 39.39 67.19 17.47 58.05 21.15 175.26 62.32 13.92 29.49 218.43 37.27 7.87 63.17 36.46 49.50c 63.22 24.38 64.88 149.18 125.12 138.27 25.67 68.68 9.07 47.19 See footnotes for Table 1. b 2J PC ) 3 Hz. c Reference material; see text. Notes J. Org. Chem., Vol. 62, No. 21, 1997 7515 For D2O solutions there is no accepted reference for carbon chemical shifts. We suggest the addition of a drop of methanol, and the position of its signal to be defined as 49.50 ppm; on this basis, the entries in Table 2 were recorded. The chemical shifts thus obtained are, on the whole, very similar to those for the other solvents. Alternatively, we suggest the use of dioxane when the methanol peak is expected to fall in a crowded area of the spectrum. We also report the chemical shifts of sodium formate (171.67 ppm), sodium acetate (182.02 and 23.97 ppm), sodium carbonate (168.88 ppm), sodium bicarbonate (161.08 ppm), and sodium 3-(trimethylsilyl)propanesulfonate [54.90, 19.66, 15.56 (methylenes 1, 2, and 3, respectively), and -2.04 ppm (methyls)], in D2O. Temperature Dependence of HDO Chemical Shifts. We recorded the 1H spectrum of a sample of D2O, containing a crystal of sodium 3-(trimethylsilyl)propanesulfonate as reference, as a function of temperature. The data are shown in Figure 1. The solid line connecting the experimental points corresponds to the equation ) 5.060 - 0.0122T + (2.11 10-5)T2 (1) which reproduces the measured values to better than 1 ppb. For the 0 - 50oC range, the simpler ) 5.051 - 0.0111T (2) gives values correct to 10 ppb. For both equations, T is the temperature in C. Acknowledgment. Generous support for this work by the Minerva Foundation and the Otto Mayerhoff Center for the Study of Drug-Receptor Interactions at Bar-Ilan University is gratefully acknowledged. JO971176V ... View Full Document

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