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3 Chapter Outline: Personal and Social Development I. Personality Development A. Temperament: how a student reacts to environmental factors i. influence learning opportunities ii. affect how students engage classroom activities B. Parent's Influence i. significant impact on child's personality ii. closely attached to parents amiable, independent, self confident; not as attached unpopular, disruptive, aggressive C. Parenting Styles i. Authoritative: a. loving and supportive b. hold high expectations c. include children in decision making d. provide age-appropriate independence ii. Authoritarian: a. less emotional warmth b. high expectations and standards c. establish rules w/o children's input d. little give-and-take in decision making iii. Permissive: a. loving, supportive b. few expectations or standards c. rarely punish children d. let children make own decisions iv. Uninvolved: a. little, if any, emotional support b. few expectations or standards c. little interest in children's lives - Child Maltreatment: parents neglect children; fail to provide nutritious meals, adequate clothing, and other basic necessities of life D. Cultural Expectations and Socialization i. Socialization: shape child's views to fit that of the culture ii. Culture Shock: Confused feeling in a new environment that differs from own Development of Sense of Self A. Intro II. your perceptions, beliefs, judgments, and feelings about who you are as a person is defined as your sense of self ii. Children and adolescents tend to act in ways that mirror their beliefs about themselves B. Factors Influencing Sense of Self i. Previous Performance - students' self-assessments are influenced by prior success ii. Behaviors of Others - students performance to others in activities alters their self-evaluations - are also affected by how others behave towards them iii. Group Membership and Achievements - ethnic identity children are both aware and proud of their ethnic group and willing to adopt some of the group's behaviors C. Developmental Changes in Self i. childhood - children think of themselves in concrete, observable characteristics and behaviors - in racially and culturally diverse communities - positive sense of self ii. Early Adolescence - greater capability for abstract thinking - perceive how others view them - feel that they're always in the spotlight: imaginary audience - think they are completely unlike anyone else: Personal Fable iii. Late Adolescence - reflect on self-perceptions - form a sense of identity: self constructed definition of who they are, what they find important, and what they want to accomplish in life - search for long-term identity - search for identity: Identity diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, and identity achievement i. III. Development of Peer Relationships and Interpersonal Understandings A. Roles of Peers in Children's Development i. provide an arena for learning and practicing social skills ii. provide social and emotional support iii. serve as socialization agents iv. mold children's beliefs v. serve as role models - Peer Pressure: peers strongly encourage some behaviors and discourage others B. Characteristics of Peer Relationships i. Friendships - similar in age, sex, and race - enjoy similar activities ii. Larger Social Groups - Cliques moderately stable friendship groups of perhaps 3-10 individuals - Crowds larger than cliques, share common interests - Subculture group that assists a powerful dominant culture by adopting a significantly different way of life iii. Gangs - initiation rites, distinct colors and symbols, specific territory, rival other groups iv. Romantic Relationships - can have positive and negative affects v. Popularity and Social Isolation - Popular Students - Rejected Students - Neglected Students C. Social Cognition: consider other's thoughts and feelings i. Perspective Taking: step into other people's shoes - Draw inferences about what others think Theory of Mind ii. Childhood - think of people in fairly concrete ways - focus on observable characteristics and behaviors - realize what they know and what other people know - engage in recursive thinking: can think about what others think about them Late Adolescence - draw inferences about people's psychological characteristics, intentions, and needs - realize that others don't always understand why they act the way they do iv. Social Information Processing: mental processes involved in understanding and responding social to events - consider one or more goals they hope to achieve during an interaction D. Aggression i. Aggressive Behavior: intentionally hurt another personal physically or mentally ii. Physical Aggression: can cause bodily injury - proactive aggression: initiate aggressive behavior to obtain desired goals - reactive aggression: react due to frustration or provocation - bullies: direct aggression towards individual person iii. Cognitive and motivational factors underlie aggressive behavior: - Poor perspective-taking ability - Misinterpretation of social cues physically or relationally aggressive toward peers, interpret other's behaviors as reflecting hostile intentions: hostile attributional bias - Prevalence of self-serving goals - Ineffective social problem-solving strategies - Belief in the appropriateness and effectiveness of aggression E. Fostering Social Skills i. Provide numerous opportunities for social interaction and cooperation ii. Help students interpret social situations accurately and productively iii. Teach specific social skills, provide opportunities for students to practice them, and give feedback - ask students to practice newly learned social skills - give concrete feedback iv. Label and praise appropriate behaviors iii. IV. Establish and enforce firm rules for acceptable classroom behavior - discourage inappropriate behaviors, aggressions, prejudicial remarks, and inconsiderateness Moral and Prosocial Development A. Developmental Trends in Morality and Prosocial Behavior i. use internal standards to evaluate behavior at an early age ii. increasingly distinguish between moral and conventional transgressions - moral transgressions: cause damage or harm, violate human rights, or run counter to basic principles of equality - conventional transgression: violate widely held understandings about how one should act iii. emotional response to others' harm and distress increases over the years - guilt a feeling of discomfort after inflicting damage or causing someone else pain or distress - shame feel embarrassed or humiliated when they fail at something - empathy experience same feelings as a person in an unfortunate event - sympathy assume other persons feelings and have concerns for their well-being iv. moral issues become abstract and flexible with age - dilemmas B. Kohlberg's Stages i. Preconventional Morality - have not adopted or internalized society's conventions in regards to right and wrong - recognize importance of saving someone else's life ii. Conventional Stage - accept society's views of right and wrong - obey these rules iii. Postconventional Morality - view rules as useful but changeable - may disobey rules that go against their principles v. V. C. Criticism Kohlberg i. included moral issues and social conventions ii. paid little attention to helping and showing compassion to others iii. underestimated young children, who can acquire some internal standards of right and wrong iv. overlooked situational factors that youngsters take into account with issues of right and wrong v. many psychologists today believe that moral reasoning involves general trends rather than distinct stages D. Factors Affecting Moral Development i. General Cognitive Development - moral development depends on cognitive development, but not vice-versa ii. Use of Reasons and Rationales - induction: giving children reasons that certain behaviors are unacceptable, with a focus on other people's perspectives iii. Moral Issues and Dilemmas - children develop morally when challenged by moral dilemmas they cannot adequately deal with disequilibrium iv. Sense of Self - children are more likely to engage in moral behavior when they think they are actually capable of helping other people Diversity in Personal and Social Development A. Cultural and Ethnic Differences i. differences in sense of self ii. interpersonal skills vary from culture to culture iii. conceptions of right and wrong vary cultures B. Gender Differences i. boys rate themselves more highly than girls ii. females stage 3, males stage 4 C. Gilligan's Rebuttals i. Kohlberg's stages focus on justice orientation fairness and equal rights more common in males, females are socialized in care orientation focus on interpersonal relationships and take responsibility for others' well being ii. Males are apt to view the problem as involving a violation of someone's rights iii. Females are likely to show compassion and caring ... View Full Document

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