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Chapter 3 Outline: Personal and Social Development I. Personality Development A. Temperament: how a student reacts to environmental factors i. influence learning opportunities ii. affect how students engage classroom activities B. Parents Influence i. significant impact on childs personality ii. closely attached to parents amiable, independent, self confident; not as attached unpopular, disruptive, aggressive C. Parenting Styles i. Authoritative: a. loving and supportive b. hold high expectations c. include children in decision making d. provide age-appropriate independence ii. Authoritarian: a. less emotional warmth b. high expectations and standards c. establish rules w/o childrens input d. little give-and-take in decision making iii. Permissive: a. loving, supportive b. few expectations or standards c. rarely punish children d. let children make own decisions iv. Uninvolved: a. little, if any, emotional support b. few expectations or standards c. little interest in childrens lives- Child Maltreatment: parents neglect children; fail to provide nutritious meals, adequate clothing, and other basic necessities of life D. Cultural Expectations and Socialization i. Socialization : shape childs views to fit that of the culture ii. Culture Shock : Confused feeling in a new environment that differs from own II. Development of Sense of Self A. Intro i. your perceptions, beliefs, judgments, and feelings about who you are as a person is defined as your sense of self ii. Children and adolescents tend to act in ways that mirror their beliefs about themselves B. Factors Influencing Sense of Self i. Previous Performance- students self-assessments are influenced by prior success ii. Behaviors of Others- students performance to others in activities alters their self-evaluations- are also affected by how others behave towards them iii. Group Membership and Achievements- ethnic identity children are both aware and proud of their ethnic group and willing to adopt some of the groups behaviors C. Developmental Changes in Self i. childhood- children think of themselves in concrete, observable characteristics and behaviors- in racially and culturally diverse communities- positive sense of self... View Full Document

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