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Terms Definitions
tariffs fees on imported goods
Anti-Federalists those who opposed the Constitution
Connecticut Compromise the Great Compromise; so-called because Connecticut delegates played an important role in the compromise
(24) dissenters those who opposed the official church; the two largest groups included the Catholics and the Puritans
(25) Enclosure Movement English landholders began evicting tenant farmers and enclosing their fields with hedges in order to raise sheep
(29) Bacon's Rebellion Nathaniel Bacon and other frontiersmen marched on Jamestown and burned it to the ground in defiance of Governor Berkeley
confederacy a voluntary union in which the central government is subordinate to the local governments and has only the powers they grant it
In what year did the Constitutional Convention take place? 1787
bicameral legislature a legislature composed of two houses
(23) Magna Carta the "Great Charter"; an important document signed by King John in 1215 which helped to prepare England for limited government
(31) Mayflower Compact an important early document which, although it did not actually set up a government, expressed the Pilgrims' willingness to show due submission
(30) congregationalism the theory of church government which says that every body of believers should be independent and self-governing
(28) private enterprise (capitalism) individuals are free to make a living and prosper on their own enterprise
What was the first state to ratify the Constitution? Delaware
Independence Hall Name for the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia; where the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution were signed.
elastic clause necessary and proper clause; added to ensure that Congress should not be bound in any important matters by mere oversights or omissions in the Constitution
Three-fifths Compromise determined that 3/5 of a state's slave population would be counted for both taxation and representation
"Critical Period" the years 1781-1789, during which the Articles of Confederation served as the basis for America's national government
(31) Mayflower the ship that carried the Pilgrims to America
(37) Fundamental Orders of Connecticut considered the first written Constitution in America; established a representative government and designated powers of government
(24) Northwest Passage a supposed water route through North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific
(27) "starving time" during the winter of 1609-1610, the hungry settlers of Jamestown were forced to eat dogs, horses, and even rats and mice
"The Federalist" A series of 85 essays which gave sound arguments in favor of the Constitution; helped bring victory to the Federalists in New York
(29) House of Burgesses an assembly of delegates from various districts of Virginia which acted as an advisory body to the governor of the colony
(40) proprietary colonies formed on land grants from the king to individuals
checks and balances a system devised to check the power of the various branches of the national government; protects citizens against tyranny
In what two states was the connection between church and state the closest? Virginia and Massachusetts
Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise granted Congress power to regulate commerce with certain limitations; it could not levy export tariffs; and it could not regulate the slave trade, at least until 1808
(39) King Philip's War a fierce Indian uprising led by a Wampanoag chief called King Philip in 1675-1676; put down by the New England Confederation
Why were the Articles of Confederation considered too weak to effectively govern the new United States? Did the Articles accomplish anything constructive? Explain. Under the Articles, the central government lacked the authority needed to deal with the very serious problems that were being faced by the new nation. It was too difficult to get the necessary cooperation from the states when approving legislation; the central government had no executive or judicial branches to provide strong leadership and a just court system; and Congress lacked the power to tax and to perform other essential duties. In spite of the weakness of the Articles, the government was successful in establishing a sound land policy for the Northwest Territory; namely, the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.
(37) Puritan work ethic the belief that work is a gift from God and a way to glorify Him
Why is America not considered a true democracy? How can a democracy fail? Why is a democratic republic a better form of government? America is actually a democratic republic, with a written constitution to protect the basic rights of the minority from being infringed upon by the majority. In America's democratic republic, the people, through their chosen representatives, determine the course of a political action. In a true democracy, the majority literally rules. Such governments often end in revolution, bloodshed, and tyranny. The primary reason, though, for the failure of a democracy is usually the failure of the people to embrace a moral code based upon the Bible.
How large was a township and a section in the Land Ordinance. Townships were six miles square; sections were one mile square.
Explain the importance of the Great Compromise. It reconciled the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan by having the national government consist of two houses -- an upper house with equal representation for each state, and a lower house with representation based on state population; this arrangement satisfied both the larger states and the smaller states, allowing the delegates to move on to other matters.
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