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Terms Definitions
Alliances ...
phytoliths plant stones
genotype genes, DNA
Acculturation Two cultures collide
Synchronic emphasizes the present
Semantics A languages meaning system.
Affinal kin Kin by marriage
Polyandry marriage to multiple husbands
megafauna Literally,"large animals," those weighing over 100 pounds.
chronemics cultural understandings of time
Maternal Care mother cares for them
etic describes and analyzes culture according to principles and theories drawn from Western scientific tradition
Oldowan earliest stone toolmaking tradition, 2.5 million yrs. ago. Include core tools and sharp-edged flakes made by striking one stone against the other. Flake tools predominate. (choppers)
Behavioral Dancing, eating (communal or privately), work, music.
Two ways of considering circulation: ...
artifacts clothing, jewelry, tattoos, piercings, and others
cranium the braincase of the skull
Core Values key, basic, central values
phoneme smallest sound contrast that distinguishes meaning
conceivable capable of being conceived; imaginable.
Sacsayhuaman architectural complex built by Inca Religious-military construction on hill north of Cuzco
Band A relatively small and loosely organized kin-ordered group that inhabits a specific territory and that may split periodically into smaller extended family groups that are politically independent
Primate characteristics Generalized skeleton structure - flexibility. Enhanced Touch - better gripping ability. Enhanced Vision - increased depth and color. Reduced Smell - smaller snouts/noses, decreased sense in smell. Dietary Plasticity - change in diet.
_________________ took a landmark x-ray photo of DNA Rosalind Franklin
localization the transformation of global culture by local cultures into something new
Religion belief and ritual concerned with supernatural beings, powers, and forces; An organized system of ideas about spiritual reality or the supernatural, along with the associated beliefs and ceremonial practices by which people try to interpret and influence aspects of the universe otherwise beyond their control
Gradualism Ex. Anagenesis. Small changes over time, fossil record with smooth, gradual transitions. Over time enough change has occurred to result in new species
Shem Middle Easterners, meaning "close to god"
subnationality dependent subgroup within a larger nationality that lacks the concept of a seperate homeland
patrilocality live with boys side of family
glottochronology Attempts to calculate the relative timing of separation between languages
tolerance recognizing a different society or culture or ethnic group as different and respecting that
Ethnographer A cultural anthropologist who writes ethnographies.
Gibbons and Siamangs are... FRUGIVOROUS AND MONOTONOUS
rituals formal - stylized, repetitve, and stereotype. people perform them in special (sacred) places and at set times
Hydraulic theory The theory that explains civilization's emergence as the result of the construction of elaborate irrigation systems, the functioning of which required full-time managers whose control blossomed into the first governing body and elite social class.
Ecotypic spreads out across landscapes, occupy different niches in the same habitat
(twins brought up in the different environments are different physically)
What is the difference between (C)ulture and (c)ulture? Universalities.
Internalized Controls self imposed by individualsSocial Derrants:-shame-fear of divine punishment-fear of magical retaliation -common in bands and tribes
monogamous Gibbons typically group in a BLANK pair
Clines There are no biologically based "great divisions,"only clines
(race is a constructed category)
Chiefdom A political unit of permanently allied tribes and villages under one recognized leader.
Marcel Mauss reciprocity and social obligation of Gifts, building relationships and cultivating social structure. Studied Kula and Potlatch. Wrote The Gift. He is French. From 1950s.
cline A gradual change in some phenotypic characteristic from one population to the next
minimalism a mode of consumption that emphasizes simplicity, is characterized by few and finite(limited) consumer demands, and involves an adequate and sustainable means to achieve them
social capitol the mutual support and cooperation enabled by a social network
Rank society a society having no socially structured unequal access to economic resources, but having socially structured unequal access to status positions and prestige.
Adaptive radiation: Rapid expansion and diversification of life forms in new environments.
*Foraging -All Humans were foragers until 10,000 B.P
-Most Foragers became food producers
-Some are at least partially dependent on food production or food producers.
-Live in bands: small groups (fewer than 100 people), members related by kinship or marriage, may split up during part of the year.
-Social Mobility: foragers may join a band to which they have kin or marital links
-Egalitarianism:Only minor contrasts in prestige, based on age and gender (equal)
-Gender based division of labor
-Age based social distinctions
Louis & Mary Leakey Discovered Homo habilis (1960s)
Revitalization Movements Movements for radical culture reform in response to widespread social disrupt and collective feelings of great stress and despair
third gender neither man nor woman; mediates maleness/femaleness; cultural distinction between social being and biological body; seen as a good thing in India and Native Americans; hijras
Heterozygous Having two different alleles of a particular gene.
medical anthropology the comparative, biocultural study of disease, health problems, and health-care systems
bioarchaeology study of human skeletal remains from archaeological sites
applied anthropology The use of anthropological knowledge and methods to solve practical problmes, often for a specific client
Territorial-state A vast expanse of land, often comprised of multiple ethnic groups, controlled by a single government which may or may not reside in an urban center
Homozygeous has two identical alleles for a trait
recessive allele expressed phenotypically only in a homozygote
Hammurabi (ham-oo-rah´-bee) Early Babylonian king, ca. 1800-1750 B.C.
Refugee Flee harsh living conditions in search of a better life
theory In science, an explanation of natural phenomena, supported by a reliable body of data.
Derek Freeman highly critical of Meads research "only saw what sh e wanted to see"- some people only give you the answers you want to hear
During World War II American anthropologists studied Japanese and German "culture t a distance" in an attempt to preidct the behavior of the enemies of the United States.
closed society status is ascribed rather than achieved.
The study of past life-forms using fossil remains and their geological contexts Paleontology
-nonkin groups that extend across an entire tribe Stratification
Leveling Mechanism A custom or social action that operates to reduce status differences and thus to bring standouts in line with community norms; another form of social control.
endogamy marry within the group or within the subculture
evidence for migrations mtDNA indicates that the original populations of native Americans (people from Southern Canada southward) originated from common ancestors between ...... SEE SLIDE
John Ray Same speceis were similar and could reproduce and classes them into groups
Race The idea we ascribe to biology. There are variations in the race rather than outside of the race
sign language a few nonhuman primates have learned to use ASL
bilocal couples move bak and forth between the households of both sets of parents according to preferences and circumstances
Linguistic anthropology The study of human languages, looking at their structure, history, and/or relation to social and cultural contexts.
Ambilocal Settle in the vicinity of either the husbands or brides kin
Physical Anthropology focuses on the evolution of human beings-they
study human remains to develop a picture of how
and why humans have changed over time.
Sir John Lubbock Helped Darwin establish high antiquity of man with his book "Prehistoric Times" (1865)
heretic those that ask "is it really right" ex: gallileo
the Ju'wasi are organized around what kind of pair? and have how many people? brother-sister, 10-40
Informal Economy A network of producing and circulating marketable commodities, labor, and services that for various reasons escape government control
False In the essay "a pariah's life" because the woman is a midwife and possesses important knowledge about birthing, none of her own children have died.
Cultural Relativism the thesis that one must suspend judgment of other people's practices in order to understand them in their own cultural terms
Linguistic Determinism the language that you learn determines your preception of the world
Culture The major way in which human beings adapt to their environments and give meaning to their lives.
Sexual Dimorphism marked differences in male and female biology besides the contrasts in breasts and genitals
Ethnocentrism A tendency of people to regard their own culture, or group, as superior
Racial classification most modern scientists find it most productive to see explanations for this diversity rather than trying to pigeonhole people into races
Modes of Production Accoring to Louis Henry Morgan, different societies move through stages of savage, to barbarian, to civilized, each with an increase in the mode of production produced by the people.
the movement by sir frances galton to improve and control hereditary traits. \"keep the blood pure\"--Nazis used this to justify the Holocaust folate
Intrasexual selection a form of sexual selection in which members of the same sex are competing with each other for access to members of the opposite sex
negative reciprocity people outside or on the fringes of their social systems; attempts to get something for as little as possible, even by cheating or being deceitful
"The Gift" Used to talk about Mask Dance. An obligation to give and an obligation to receive. Generalized without obligation, creates a social relationship.
Social Control All societies have some way to bring people into line. Differences between kin-based and class-based societies. Social control is the responsibility of kin groups.
The Upper Paleolithic Cultural Revolution Global Population increase. Global disperse. Cultural complexity increases.
Shamanistic Part time specialism in the form of a shaman; work in direct communication with the supernatural; !Kung San trance dance
kinship calculation the system by which people in a society reckon kin relationships
Anthropology The study of the human species and its immediate ancestors.
II. Evolutionary Trends a. Bipedalism. Between 10 to five mya.
b. Distinctive dentition. Changes to teeth occur so that we can be omnivoruous more easily.
c. Bigger brains. Around 2.4 million years ago. Why did we think this happen?
d. Culture. Social groups and patterns, learned behaviors.
The "vitamin D hypothesis" held that dark skin would be at a disadvantage in northern climates, since the lack of vitamin D would lead to?
A. Malaria
B. Small Pox
C. Kwashiorkor
D. Malnutrition
E. Rickets
Answer: E Rickets
Ethnic group a corporate group based on some shared cultural traits-language, religion, history- which finds itself in competition with other groups for wealth, power, opportunity, and recognition. shares an identity and destiny and therefore competes as a group
Prisoner's dilemma outcomes -one round, temptation to turn the other in
-multiple, benefits from cooperation
family of orientation nuclear family in which one is born and grows up
What is Bird of Passage? Moving back and forth between countries
culture as a machine- bronislaw malinowki culture provides the learned behaviors, cooperative patterns, and social institutions that make need fulfillment possible; each part has to function properly to make the machine run smoothly
Patrilineal extended family In rural China what did family life center around
what is encultration? this is the process by which culture is passed from one generation to the next and through which indviduals become members of a society
long bones the limb bones as well as finger and toe bones
changing names and addresses, partially censors it, and constructs a story What literary liberities are taken by the ethnographer of "In Search of Respect"
Define cultural anthropology and distinguish it from other social sciences the description and explanation of the similarities and differences in thought and behavior among groups of humans. sociology,psychology, literature and philosophy are all closely related but what distinguishes anthropology is the specific question set it answers.
internally displaced person someone who is forced to leave his or her home but who remains in the same country
Masculinity vs. femininity value dimension The degree to which a culture values "masculine" and "feminine" behaviors.
Lineal Kinship Terminology Four parental kin terms: M, F, FB = MB and MZ = FZ
How was the Neandertal described by public? -Half crazed type man, idiotic, a freak, strupid roman foot soldier, victim of water on the brain.
Explain why ethnocentrism is both normal and unacceptable. it is important to have a sense of ethnocentrism socially and culturally but having a pride for our way of life does nothing for us when observing other cultures except distort our observations.
Exogamy: ...
Species: Sapiens ...
Roma: Kumpania- PACKET
homo sapiens **100 kya-present
consanguine related by birth
(dashed line) conditional unity
[9/17/2010 11:22 AM] Tarsier ...
Sex Refers to biological differences
Malnutrition faulty or inadequate diet.
trance altered state of consciousness
communication with spiritual realm
fasting, self torture, sensory deprivation, meditation, ritual dancing and drumming, hallucinogenic drugs
exogamy cross social boundaries, marrying someone of a different social group
Lucy -discovered by Donald Johanson
-Australopithecus afarensis
Coggeshall Had the ideas that:
•Gender redefined in prison context.
•Male and female gender roles emerge in all male society.
Excavation the "dig" ; very systematic
6,200 Amount of language spoken today
no King as god? - Inca
agriculture Cultural activities associated with planting, herding, and processing domesticated species; farming.
Freud (stage theory)- Ego, supergo, ID-constant clash between wanting and being reminded no by school, family, etc.
Cultures with an agricultural surplus, social stratification, labor specialization, a formal governments, rule by power, monumental construction projects, and a system of record keeping Civilization
Shaman A religious intermediary, usually part time, whose primary function is to cure people through sacred songs, pantomime, and other means; sometimes called witch doctors by Westerners
Matrilineal Descent Descent traced through women only
Transnationalism social movement and scholarly research agenda grown out of the heightened interconnectivity b/w ppl and the receding economic and social significance of boundaries among states
In particular, bird colors, plumage, and mating dances were difficult to ascribe to natural selection. A male peacock, for instance, skirts great risk with his colorful, elaborate plumage. How easy for a predator to catch a male peacock who is displaying ...
mapping Assessing where people live in relationship to their land, livestock, each other etc. The lay out of the village, town, and surrounding area
Italian American Population descendants 15 million today
Divination magic manipulating a sacred(associated with the supernatural) material object to get an answer to a question
Animatism --Belief that nature is enlivened, energized by an IMPERSONAL spiritual/supernatural power.
--Impersonal meaning it is an abstract, supernatural force whose power is beyond human senses.
--E.g. luck good fortune, karma, etc.
--Found in cultures who see themselves as a part of nature.
diffusion borrowing of cultural traits between societies
core dominant structural position in the world system; consists of the strongest and most powerful states with advanced systems of production
lactose intolerance condition characterized by diarrhea, cramps which results from the ingestion of milk
Acclimatization the physiological adaption of an animal or plant to changes in climate or environment, such as light, temperature, or altitude
Texts Includes written or oral stories, myths, plays, sayings, speeches, jokes, and recordings of discourse, or language in use.
Agribusiness large-scale business involved in food production, including farming, contract farming, seed supply, also known as corporate farming, it contrasts with smaller family owned farms
General Anthropology the academic discipline of anthropology, which includes the subfields sociocultural, archaelogical, biological, and linguistic anthropology
generalized reciprocity exchanges among closely related individuals
Sivapithecus Found in India
Direct ancestor of Gibbon
Farming using animal or mechanical labor and complex technologies Agriculture
What is the difference between "feeding" and "eating?" .
Unvoiced consonant f, t, p, k, s, sh
steps in excavation horizons, pedestalling, photograph and draw, screening, flotation
lactose a sugar that is the primary constituent of fresh milk
Speech Communities groups of people who regularly interact with one another
Matrilocal System under which a husband lives with his wife's family after marriage.
biocultural approach the scientific study of the relationship between what humans have inherited genetically and culturally
Homo habilis extinct species of upright east African hominid having some advanced humanlike characteristics
Class A system of stratification in which membership in a stratum can theoretically be altered and intermarriage between strata is allowed
cultivation care towards plants and animals, plant response is to increase production
hawthorne effect research bias due to participants changing their behavior to conform to expectations of the resercher
colonialism life change due to domination. Ex: buffalo bill
eskimo system focus on nuclear family by indentifying mom, dad, brother, sister and everyone else is aunt/uncle/cousin
fossilize preserve in clay or stone after death
The earliest member of our genus, Homo, belongs to the species hablilis
Three kinds of Reciprocity Generalized, Balanced, and Negative
Population number of people in a particular area
Transhumance one of two variants of pastoralism; part of the population moves seasonally with the herds while the other part remains in home villages.
primate the subgroup of mammals that includes lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans
carl Linnaeus System Nature- developed methods to classify and name plants and animals.
Ethnography a detailed desription of people based on field work, looking at way of life for people
Archaic Homo Sapiens
450,000-90,000 years ago
lasted two glacial periods
same sized brain as ours
covered area in coastal Africa and Southern Eurasia coast
Teeth 40% bigger than ours
Chimps Common chimps
social group - band of related males defend a large area contains smaller female ranges
eats ripe fruit and monkeys
make and use many tools and learns with regional variation aka CULTURE
bipedal when carrying things
social group: group of femals collectively dominate males
females bonds reinforced with sex
sex is currency of bonobo society and occur between all groups
one drop rule--children classified with minority group parent--used historically to justify poor treatment hemoglobin, carotene, melanin
foster to promote the growth or development of; further; encourage:
life history details of an organisms existence from conception through senescence and death
moiety when a whole society is divided into two decent groups.
natural selection The process whereby members of a species who have more surviving offspring than others pass their traits on to the next generation, whereas the less favored do not do so to the same degree.
extended household a co residental group that comprises more than one parents-child unit.
Homo Erectus Brain size overlaps range of modern humans. Tool use. Possible fire use
Characteristics of Pastoralism Nomadic, small group size, Egalitarian (equal social relations), communal property, & division of labor by gender & age.
C/P3 Honing Complex Involves large upper and lower canines, a diastema, and lower premolars that are sectorial. Sectorial premolars: "honing" device to sharpen canines. Diastema: space. Enamel surface goes to the root in the premolar -->sharpener!
stabilizing selection selective forces may favor a balanced polymorphism in which frequencies of 2 or more alleles remain constant between generations, example: Hb^A and Hb^S
Nuclear Family A family unit consisting of only parents and children
cultural construct a conceptual model of reality shared by a group
folklore a term coined by 19th century scholars studying the unwritten stories and other artistic traditions of rural peoples to distinguish between "folk art" and the "fine art" of the literate elite
Culture & Socially Enculturation Because culture is socially constructed and learned rather than biologically inherited, all societies must somehow ensure that culture is adequately transmitted from one generation to the next - a process we have already defined enculturation
Archaic state A for of government with internally specialized and hierarchichal leadership structure, w/ 3 or more levels.
dumb barter one group leaves goods, other group comes and takes them and leave their goods
Money of Cattle gained by selling cattle of girls
revitalization movement attempts to change a group's worldview as well as its social organization, often following a period of social or economic upheaval
myth a narrative with a plot that involves supernaturals (oral religions)
essentialism a view of ethnicity that holds that ethnic groups are distinguished by essential, historically rooted, and emotionally experienced cultural differences
PHILOPATRIC remaining in one's natal group or home range as an adult; in most of the nonhuman primates, the philopatric sex is female
Social Organization o Social Organization - how we arrange our social relationships
 Macro
 Micro  norms  folkways , mores, taboos
• ^ - Roles, Status
Founder Effect A type of genetic drift in which allele frequencies are altered in small populations that are taken from or are remnants of a larger population.
Residence rule a rule about who belongs to the descent group and where they should live after they get married
Pelvic Girdle shape (humans) -Basin (bowl) shaped. -Wide and short
Java Man 800 kya, found in java, indonesia, no associated stone tools
Innovation Term used by Barnett to refer to the single cognitive process that encompasses both "invention" and "diffusion". Understood by him to be a normal human ability, not the product of some special "genius" possessed by only a few
Labor migrants People who migrate each year to work during a specific time without any intention of establishing a permanent residence
cargo system a ritual system common in central and South America in which wealthy people are required to hold a series of costly ceremonial offices
Culture had 3 Traits: Historicist- each society reflected an atonomous world of value & meaning
Holistic- each culture needed to be examined as a totality; traits in their own context
Deterministic- culture shapes behavior (action, think, who we become)
folk taxonomy a rule of descent whereby children of a union between members of different groups are automatically placed in the lower group. black + white = black
CORE AREA the portion of a home range containing the highest concentration and most reliable supplies of food and water; usually the area that will be defended
Wet Rice Agriculture the cultivation of rice by planting on dry land, transferring the seedlings to a flooded field, and draining the field before harvesting.
According to Marshall Sahlins, what are the characteristics of a Melanesian "big-man"? found in egalitarian, segmentary societies. created through enactment or costum that defines right and reasonable behavior and is enforceable though threat or punishment
Man has these 3 things like God: Intellect, Emotion, and will
Differences in morphology and adaptation between H. habilis & H. erectus H.Erectus had more sophisticated tools than H.habilis and therefore had greater reliance on hunting. The back teeth of H.erectus were smaller and the front teeth larger because of hunting as well as expansion of cranial capacity.
lesson of Too Many Bananas trading wasn't considered buying; to refuse a gift shames the giver; regift what is given to you
Status System- Chiefdoms and States -based on differential access to resources
--some had privileged access to power, prestige, wealth
-tied to kinship
-hereditary elites
-elites marry elites, commoners marry commoners (stratum endogamy)
dont have sex for a yr after having a babdy kung
What were some of the first plant and animal domesticates of the Americas? Plants-beats, squash, potatoes
Animals-llamas, alpacas, guinea pigs
age-set (chapt. 10) a group of people born in the same time period; may hold political, religious, military, or economic power as a group
Rickshaw art in Bangladesh- sunni restriction on art. ways around this? - Bangladesh= country populated by Sunni Muslims
- Rickshaw= 3 wheeled bicycle transport that communicates a powerful message about beliefs and values in the sunni culture
- Hadith= traditions of the Prophet Muhammed that prohibit artistic representations of the human form
- Rickshaw artists push the limits of what is appropriate by communicating, reflexively, about the process of communicating through art
--*there are things that are "sort-of" appropriate
ex) sights of nature, designs, temples, humans as animals performing human activities
Explain how an apparently marginal activity is related to some of the central human issues of our time, using one or more specific ethnographic examples (holism.) linguists state that the manner in which men and women converse in the work place leads the women to be at a disadvantage. the lazy beds of the new foundlanders is a prevention of disease scurvy and promotes self sufficancy and reprocity
What evidence suggests that Neanderthals probably had some for of a language? They had a modern for of the FoxP2 gene.
They had a large brain, which allows for a complex language.
They had large thoracic nerve openings.
Which of the following does not correctly describe food foraging societies? They are primitive because they did not progress to a higher level.
Way subsistence is derived from herds in pastoral societies Milk and blood are used as food, skins and fur used as clothing
mormons utah
spontianious abortions miscarriages
heredity/blending explain it
gibbons Asia, smallest ape
infrastructure economics including subsistence
Craniometry Big brain=smarter; little brain=stupid; scientists made this assumption to try and prove that white men are at the top of the hierarchy.
Gracile Small teeth & jaws
Discordant if twins are dissimilar
neolocality Couple establishes new residence
Universalization (cultural anthropology)
-attempt to trace out the general rules that may govern social life across a range of contextscul
Interglacials Extended warm periods between glacials.
sociolinguistics relationship between social and linguistic variation, focus on features that vary w/ social position and situation, observe/define/measure
problem-oriented ethnography most ethnographers investigate specific problems and collect data relevant to that problem
Dr. pangloss in candide by Volitare
khipu knotted cords used for recordkeeping
Phylogenetic tree diagram showing evolutionary relationships of organisms with a common ancestor; resembles a tree
Postindustrial Genetic engineering and genetic modification to make the food look pleasing when it is not healthy. Shift from the use of direct labor to the use of advanced machinary to mass-produce materials.
Gendering Kids-Barbie Learning:
-Connection between personal appearance and happiness
-Connection between appearance and acceptance among peers
-Teaching lessons about grooming for social events (proms, dates, weddings)
Homo Erectus remains were first discovered in 1990 False
Food production Cultivation of plants and domestication of animals first develpped in the Middle East 10,000 to 12,000 years ago.
gracile australopitecines included anamensis afarensis africanus which all of them have smaller dentition and lighter facial and dental musculature
prosimians members of prosimii that includes lemurs, lorises, galagoes, and tarsiers
Wealth accumulation of resources or ability to produce resources
consanguineal a blood relationship (mother, father, brother, sister)
Four Anthropology Groups Cultural, Physical, Linguistic, Archaeology
cercopithecines frugivore, low cusp molars, cheek pouches, old world monkeys (cattarhine) baboons
pedestrian a person who travels by foot
omnivorous feeding on both plants and animals
Intersex people born with reproductive organs, genitalia, and/or sex chromosomes that are not exclusively male or female
Analogies In biology, structures possessed by different organisms that are superficially similar due to similar function; without sharing a common developmental pathway or structure.
Paleoanthropology the scientific study of human fossils
Emic Research strategy focusing on local explanations and meanings; how the local people perceive things.
Code Switching Switching, mid-sentence, between two languages in a conversation with the intent to keep ethnicity of one language.
stereoscopic vision Complete three-dimensional vision (or depth perception) from binocular vision and nerve connections that run from each eye to both sides of the brain allowing nerve cells to integrate the images derived from each eye.
Malinowski- practical anthropology, his term for colonial applied anthropology should focus on westernization, the diffusion of european culture into tribal society. questioned neither the legitimacy of colonialism nor the anthropologists role in making it work. He saw nothing wrong with aiding colonial regimes by studying land tenure.
-Specifically how much tenants should get to keep.and how much Europeans should get
______ focuses on the production, transmission, and reception of speech sounds, or phonemes. phonetics
perpendicular vertical; straight up and down; upright.
It is likely that homo erectus_____out of africa B.walked
qualitative data non statistical information that tends to be the most important aspect of ethnographic research.
Parallel Evolution In cultural evolution, the development of similar cultural adaptations to similar environmental conditions by peoples whose ancestral cultures were already somewhat alike
Hawaiian Kinship (Generational) System in which all females of parents generation are referred to as "Mother" and all males as "Father". Male cousins as "Brother" and female cousins as "sister"
A. Africanus 3-2 mya
likely ancestor to A. robustus
Taung Child
participant observation a research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activities
Characters of Culture(6x) 1. Shared
2. Patterend
3. Learned
4. Symbolic
5. Integrated
6. Changes over time
paleopathology study of disease and injury in skeletons from archaeological sites
independent invention the independent development of a cultural feature in different societies
heterodont tooth array in which different teeth have different forms and functions
Law Formal rules of conduct that, when violated, lead to negative sanctions
reciprocity mutual exchange of commercial or other privileges
hemoglobinopathies s group of related genetic blood diseases characterized by abnormal hemoglobin
kinship what one calls a specific family member
incest taboo The prohibition of sexual relations between specified individuals, usually parent and child and sibling relations at a minimum.
Meiosis process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
gift exchange cultures trading surplus for needed with other cultures
FGM/Infibulation The practice of surgical closure of the labia majora (outer lips of the vulva) by sewing them together to partially seal the vagina, leaving only a small hole for the passage of menstrual blood
Glossolalia Blabbering or jabbering that does not have meaning. A transe of speech (often religious).
hominins any member of the family hominadae, includign all species of austrapithecus and homo
holistic approach recognize that behavior is connected to other parts of culture
reconnaissance walking or driving around trying to find sites, targeting areas for excavation
urban anthropology Anthropological study of cities and urban life
A behavior containing most but not all of the characteristics of a cultural behavior; A precursor to culture which can be seen in primate populations Protocultural
Monogamy Marriage in which both partners have just one spouse.
What can DNA/Isotopes tell us about kinship? Nuclear family
Polygamy having more than one husband at a time
witchcraft an explanation of events based on the belief that certain indiv's possess an innate psychic power capable of causing harm, including sickness &power
Miscegenation A term for the undesirable effects of the mixing of different genetic types or populations, especially race groups. Often refers to the very notion of mixing the races.
primates group of mammals that have a complex behavior, varied forms of locomotion, and a unique suite of traits, including larger brains, forward-facing eyes, fingernails, and reduced snouts
Parallel Cousins children of two brothers or two sisters
Proscriptive Rules Define categories of people with whom marriage (also sex) is prohibited. Especially "close" relatives- "incest taboo"
multiculturalism the view of cultural diversity in a country as something good and desirable; a multicultural society socializes individuals not only into the dominant (national) culture, but also into an ethnic culture
 Gloger's Rule  Populations living in warmer climates have more melonin than populations of the same species living in cooler areas
political organization the political make up and/or structure of a society, it provides a form of structure to abide by; group of people who pursue common goals and involves itself in the political process
Mutations changes in the DNA molecules of which genes and chromosomes are built
residence rules Rules that stipulate where a couple will reside after their marriage.
Taboo things you don't want to do because bad things will happen to you
DK The site at Olduvai Gorge where a stone circle was found, suggesting evidence of a temporary structure built on a home-base site.
Closed Communication communication in which the user cannot create new sounds or words
acheulian this culture was in the Homo Erectus biology.
Competitive Egalitarian Society Equality of opportunity but not outcome
Every individual has equal chance for success
Egalitarian was a basic form of human social life
A group of people who are organized to live productively together by sharing a common culture Society
21st century ppl, alot of contact with neighboring populations, new technology !Kung
patrilineal descent a form of unileneal decent where the ancestory is traced through the fathers side of the family
Fossilization (the process) (1) animal dies near shore (2) skeleton (3) water level rises and lake sediments settle (4) bones fossilize in the thick layer of sediment. Fossil is embedded in a geologic stratum, (5) erosion exposes strata revealing fossil.
slash and burn a farming method involving the cutting of trees, then burning them to provide ash-enriched soil for the planting of crops
Bride Service groom works for bride's family for a set period of time, usually not much wealth or property owned
interview schedule form guide used to structure a, but personal, interview
 Bergmann's Rule  Slender populations of species in habit the warmer parts of its geographic range, and more robust inhabit the warmer region
Allen's Rule mammals in cold climates tend to have short, bulkier limbs, allowing less loss of body heat, whereas mammals in hot climates tend to have long, slender limbs, allowing greater loss of body heat
In lecture, an important axis of modern anthropology was described as History vs Science
affine avoidance rules the cutlural stripulations as to which inlaws a married person should not speak to or be alone with
specific language impairment faminly of language disorders in which the affected person experiences difficulty using language but it of otherwise normal intelligence. SLI = hereditary
hidden transcripts when people are being oppressed by a power, method they use to communicate to each other in ways the oppressor cannot understand. ex.myan indians did dance of the conquest. rulers thought they were accept them and getting on board, but they were actually trying to call back old leader.
V. Ratha Yatra. "Chariot festival". Pulling a chariot for several kilometers to the other side of town. "Juggernaut" comes from this "unstoppable force". In the media, this is referred to as a "secular" holiday, despite the religious contexts. It's called a secular holiday because all of the religions participate in it. In these terms, "secular" doesn't mean "non-religious" but instead "many cultures". Also, there is no gender distinction in this language (no he/she).
Compare the differences between peaceful and violent societies. one differenece is the encouragement in violent societies of competition over resources; which leads to people having to protect their own property by violent means
division of labor determines what mens jobs are and what womens jobs are within an economy
Social behaviors of marmaosets and tamarins: One female, multi male (polyandry)
anthropology and education Study of students in the context of their family, peers, and enculturation
Explain the generalized model of culture change and apply it to a specific ethnographic example. problems and opportunities result in either cultural innovation or an environmental change, this is an evergoing cycle seen in cars enviromental factors such as war led to fuel shortage which led to better gas mileage which led to less gas purchased and it goes on and on in a cycle
What genders were recognized by the Navajo of the Southwest? Man woman, Woman man.
multiple genders were very common
Theory of causation (EEEP on witchcraft) In "Magic, Witchcraft, and Oracles among the Azande," E.E. Evans-Pritchard described a people who regard all misfortune as a consequence of witchcraft. In a famous example Evans-Pritchard tells of how several Azande were killed when a granary doorway collapsed. The Azande attributed their deaths to witchcraft.
Australopithecines adaptations to new diet bone tools were found used for digging up roots and tubers in the ground
I. Primate Evolution and Contemporary Diversity a. What are general characteristics of primates? What makes a primate a primate?
b. What are the major primate groups?
c. What are some major threats to primates?
Example of Word Order Language SVO is the English word order S = Subject V = Verb O = Object
When words appear in SVO we know which words are what in English
Example #1
The dog chased the ball
S = dog V = chased O = ball
Example #2
Buffalo buffalo buffalo
S = are the actual buffalo V = buffalo means to bully O = are the other buffalos
So the sentence means the buffalo are bullying other buffalo
Other languages have other orders
The Han Empire (206 B.C. - A.D. 220) •206 BC: Xianyangwas sacked by Han dynasty, who ruled China for subsequent four centuries
•Essentially took over the administration and infrastructure established by QinShihuangdi
How else is Ali involved so that he is more accepting of his new-born sister? Singing and getting involved with the baby
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