Complete List of Terms and Definitions for AP Euro 116

Terms Definitions
Zollverein ...
Navigation Acts ...
Robert Owen Communist City
The Successor States Austria. Prussia.
Jean-Jacques Rosseau The Social Contract; Emile
Christian humanism (Northern humanists), interpreted Italian ideas about and attitudes toward classical antiquity, individualism and humanism in terms of their own traditions. They were interested in the ethical way of life, therefore a combination of classical and Christian cultures.
Education prepared citizens for responsibilities and shaped character
CHEKA secret police, formed by Lenin
Schuman Plan called for special international organization to control and integrate all European coal and steel production.
Sir Walter Raleigh (1552?-1618) English courtier, navigator, colonizer, and writer. A favorite of Elizabeth I, he introduced tobacco and the potato to Europe. Convicted of treason by James I, he was released for another expedition to Guiana and executed after its failure.
Hitler dictator of Nazi Germany, developed total control; led Germany into WWII and the Holocaust
Enclosure The process of taking common open-field land and enclosing in through fences to make it available to only the owner. This process left many peasants landless and created the population that was required to man the factories during the industrial revolution.
Disraeli British prime minister with major interest in the Suez Canal, extended vote to all middle-class males
Adam Smith Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)
cameralists Germans who pushed for economic changes similar to the physiocrats.
Jacques Chirac replace Mitterrand; had promised vigorous attack on unemployment, but wasn't able to because of the Maastricht Treaty; instead had to cut expenses, which led to strikes
Carbonari A secret society; designated to overthrow Bonapartist rulers; they were liberal patriots.
Great Britain europe's most advnaced women's movement
danse macabre a medieval dance originating during plague years in which a skeleton representing death leads a procession of others to the grave
treaty of locarno created by Gustav Stresemann(foreign minister of German) & Aristide Briand (foreign minister of France), guaranteed Germany's new western borders w/ France & Belgium
-was viewed as a new era of peace
William Laude Archbishop of Canterbury, tried to impose elaborate ritual and rich ceremonies on all churches. Insisted on complete uniformity of the church and enforced it through the Court of High Commission.
Henri Bergson a French philosopher (1859-1941) who explored the ideas of creative evolution and the limits of human intelligence. His major works include Time and Free Will, Creative Evolution, and The Two Sources of Morality and Religion.
Ludwig Erhard German finance minister who helped stabilize economy
william gladstone liberal, Prime Minister 1868-74 Best government is least government. (began as a Tory). Voted for free trade, lowered taxes, abolished tariffs, cut defense spending, disestablished Anglican Church in Ireland. Reformed army - removed purchase of commissions. Reformed civil service to separate it from political influence. Secret Ballot introduced. Made elementary schooling available to everyone.. Considered private philanthropy best way to handle social problems.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau philosophe who believed in democracy and wrote "The Social Contract"; thought that children needed an education, and claimed the source of corruption was property
Identify the most important issue on the table at the Peace of Ryswick. Religion
Abstract-Expressionism An artistic movement that focused on expressing emotion and feelings through abstract images and colors, lines and shapes.
"The Holy Roman Empire is neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire Voltaire
John Calvin religious reformer who believed in predestination and a strict sense of morality for society, 1509-1564. French theologian. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings.
Alexander III A determined reactionary Tsar who nevertheless sped forward with economic modernization
Triple Entente An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
Danton One of the leaders of The Mountain
Pacificism Anabaptists laid great stress on this; they would not run for office or serve in the armed forces; not being involved in many wars.
Cornlaws of 1815 These controversial laws were created to prevent corn prices from plummeting after the Napoleonic wars. This affected Britain because they were big importers of corn, and needed a lot to feed their growing population. Thus, regulated prices were not in their best interest.
Why did Spain and the Netherlands lose power? ...
Charles Tallyrand foreign minister of France, during the Council of Vienna
Lateran Accord This settled an argument between the Italian Government and the Pope that had been going on for nearly sixty years. the Pope agreed to accept the Fascists and Mussolini agreed that the Catholic religion would be taught in every Italian school. He also promised to pay the salaries of Catholic priests and set up the Vatican City in Rome. This convinced many Italians that they should support Mussolini.
Protestantism This was caused by the strictness and the incompetence of the Catholic Church.
modern devotion centered in the Netherlands, led by the Brothers of the Common life, which encouraged religious life outside the clergy, It was a popular mystical movement that downplayed religious dogma and it stressed the need to follow the teachings of Christ. It believed in individualism.
the boxer rebellion This rebellion involved a secret Chinese martial-arts society that launched attacks against foreigners in China.
Columbus Italian explorer who went to the West Indies and enslaved natives/killed people for gold; resulted in Spanish ecomiendas (given to anyone willing to inhabit the New World)
Alfred Jodl German general who said "The French covering army would have blown us to bits."
"Bloody SUnday" officials were scared when all the people gathered at the winter home. called military to desperse crowd. hundreds died. it snapped moral bonds up which all stable government rests.
Tour of Europe Peter the great visits eastern countries and brings back culture and army technique.
Henry IV the first Lancastrian king of England from 1399 to 1413
Scientific Method Use of inductive logic and controlled experiments to discover regular patterns in nature, natural laws
Francois Mitterrand Unlike the other Western leaders, this French socialist leader launched a vast program of nationalization and public investment—essentially trying to spend France out of economic stagnation. This completely failed.
"Blood and iron" Refers to Prussian tactics brought about by Otto von Bismarck; his unification of Germany was through a policy of "blood and iron".
Parlement Law court staffed by nobles that could register or refuse to register a king's edict
Friedrich Engels Condition of Working Class in England - society's problems caused by capitalism and competition.
Lorenzo de Medici r(1469-1492) The Medici's were a great banking family in Florence in the 15th century. Ruled government of Florence from behind the scene.
Philosophy of the Enlightenment This dealt with skepticism, the government, and the role of reason in everyday life
alliance system most powers in Europe were involved in a defense _______ that required them to go to war on the side of their allies if any members of the _______ were under attack/attacked another country
Frederick William III 1797-1840. In 1815 he promised to institute some form of constitutional government. After stalling he formally reneged on his pledge in 1817. Instead he created a Council of State which improved administrative efficiency, was responsible to him alone. In 1823 he established eight provincial states or diets. These bodies were dominated by the Junkers and exercised only an advisory function.
the great depression The Great Depression was an economic depression notable for its duration and intensity that struck the world from 1929-1933. Recovery was a long and difficult process.
Thomas Hobbes author of the Leviathan, a book which emphasized absolutism and the suppression of the people: the government should rule the people
Charles V Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain from 1519 to 1556.
The Three Giants The great masters of the high renaissance were Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo Buonarroti. Leonard da Vinci was a true master of many skills. One of the greatest painters of all time, he also advised Princes on military engineering. He also advocated scientific experimentation, dissected corpses to learn anatomy, and was a self taught botanist. His inventive mind foresaw modern machines such as the airplane, submarine. His great skill of showing inner moods through detailed facial expression is apparent in both the Mona Lisa and his self portrait. Raphael was a man of great kindness and a painter of sensitivity, and the people loved his work as much as they loved him. He most well knew his tender Madonnas and the great fresco in the Vatican, The School of Athens, which was a virtual perfect example of the Renaissance technique. Michelangelo was a genius who excelled in a variety of arts. His eighteen-foot sculpture of David is a perfect example of Renaissance devotion to harmony, symmetry, and proportion, all serving the glorification of the human body. Michelangelo was commissioned by four different popes. The frescoes in the Vatican's Sistine Chapel are the most famous, painted during the pontificated of Pope Julius II, who also commissioned Michelangelo to work on his tomb. The Sistine frescoes covers 10,000 square feet, and involved 343 figures, with over half of them exceeding ten feet in height. This project took over four years to complete.
What started the reformation in England Henry VIII wanted divorce
more abundant food supply what mainly occurred with population explosion
Hitler (Germany) 1. tried to seize power by copying Mussolini
2. Effort failed, Hitler jailed briefly
Act of Supremacy Declared henry supreme head of church in england.
Helmut Kohl (Christian Democratic Union) Chancellor who's speed and determination brought about German reunification in 1990.
Reform Bill of 1832 This bill gave representation to most people in England
Treaty of Utrecht The treaty that ended the War of Spanish Succession and stopped Louis XIV's attempts to gain more land for France, defending the balance of power.
salvation by faith one would get to heaven by being faithful and good in their daily lives - luther believed in
Oliver Cromwell Member of the HOC who emerged as a military leader
The Committee of Public Safety The National Convention formed the Committee of Public Safety and gave it dictatorial power to deal with the crisis affecting France, primarily the economic struggles for the sans-culottes. Robespierre and other Mountain representatives were members.
Franklin Roosevelt Roosevelt was one of the Big Three who created the post-war world at Yalta. Often blamed for "giving" eastern Europe to the Soviets. (However, the soviet army was already there). Roosevelt died in 1945 before the war ended.
"Milk parent" A milk parent was a wet nurse who would take the child of a wealthy family and breast-feed and raise the child through infancy. This was important because it allowed parents to not have the duty of raising children day in and day out, as well as letting them resume sexual activity, since women who were breast-feeding avoided having sex since they thought it would ruin their milk.
Describe the balance of power? when a city-state appeard to be gaining power other city-states would combine and fight against the city-state making sure all power remained equal
Louis XI (Spider King) Charle's son Louis XI was a very traitourous and in other words Renaissance king. He said that money will reduce feudal disorder. So, he promoted new industries like silk and welcomed foreign craftsmen establishing many different trade treaties with England, Portugal, Hanseatic League. In addition he used the revenues and sever taxation to strengthen the army which thus helped stopp Aristocratic wild-like operations. Also, with the timley death of Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, in 1477 dies and then Louis invades gaining the territories causing a extinction of the house of Anjou leadin to the extension of Anjou, Bar, Maine, and Provence counties.
Treaty of Paris 1763 One of the treaties ending the Seven Years War in 1763. Canada and all of North America east of the Mississippi River went to England. Territory west of the Mississippi River went to Spain.
Ricardo (Iron Law of Wages) This man stated that because of population growth, the wages would always sink to subsistence level
Golden Bull of 1356 This was an edict by Charles IV, the Holy Roman Emperor, specifying the process of how Holy Roman Emperors were to be elected by German princes. It took some power from the Pope and codified the process in a definite way.
Thermidorian Reaction and The Directory This was the reaction to the despotism after the Second Revolution which led to the establishment of the five-man executive that supported the French military which was not popular with the French people
Urban planning and public transit This was the act of planning out a city and building it from the blueprints. This caused in increase in public transit that millions of people used a day instead of their own transportation or walking
How did the Protestants and the Catholics view Copernican hypothesis? The Protestants believed he was a fool while the Catholics in 1616 declared fasle