Complete List of Terms and Definitions for Abnormal Psychology Test

Terms Definitions
detoxification
Motivational Interviewing nonconfrontational
Dissociation splitting of consciencousness
zoophilia attraction towards animals
Rate of psychological disorders 1/6
 
 
Fear
-The present-oriented mood state
-involves the abrubt activation of sympathetic nervous system
-immediate fight/flight response to danger or threat
-stong avoidance/escape tendencies
-marked nagative affects 
Prochaska & DiClement's Transtheoretical Model of Change Pre-contemplation
contemplation
determination/preparation
action maintenance
relapse (repeat cycle over again)
Phenotype -Expressed genetic material-Observable behavior and characteristics
DSM-IV the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition), a widely used system or classifying psychological disorders. Presently distributed in an updated "text revision" (DSM-IV-TR).
Narcissistic PD prev rates 1 percent
IDEA Inds with Disabilities Education Act
 
 
Simple Phobias
Starts during Childhood
 
Seek treatment because they realize their fear is irrational
 
Begins by having fearful experience or seeing parent having fear
Fetishism 6+ months, urges/fantasies involving use of nonliving objects by themselves; not just articles of clothing meant for sexual use (i.e. lingerie)
Repression DM (Defense Mechanism) unconscious pushing of unacceptable thoughts into the mind
exorcism treatment for supernatural tradition; various religious rituals to drive out spirits and demons
Heritability of EDO AN: 33-88BN: 28-83
Humanistic-Existential Perspective emphasizes our uniquenessas individuals and our freedom to make our own decisions
137) Which symptom differentiates paranoid schizophrenia from paranoid personality disorder? Bizarre delusions
Anxiety Disorders (5) -Generalized Anxiety Disorder
-Panic Disorder
-Phobias
-Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
-Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Panic Control Treatment(PCT) Cognitive-behavioral treatment for panic attacks, involving gradual exposure to feared somatic sensations and modification of perceptions and attitudes about them.
Agreeableness willingness to cooperate and empathize with others
 
 
 
 
Histrionic PD
Rapidly shifting moods, unstable relationships, and intense need for attention and approval; dramatic, seductive behavior
 
connected to somatoform/mood disorders on axis 1
 
 
3 subtypes of ADHD iattentive, predominately hyperactive-impulsive, or combined
What percentage of Americans have experienced one or more panic attacks? 15%
Fear Immediate alarm reaction to perceived present danger, it takes all of our attention
Prevalence Worldwide lifetime prevalence is about 1% and equal for men and women. Usually develops in early adulthood and has a variable course but generally chronic.
Cluster B: Dramatic-Erratic -Dramatic, emotional, impulsive, erratic
-Histrionic, Narcissistic, Boderline, Antisocial
Psychopathy refers to syndrome casued by psychological deficits (slef-centered, manipulative, lack of empathy)
Tricyclic antidepressants -Increase norepinephrine and serotonin activity (to a lower extent)
 
-examples: Elavil (amitriptyline), Anagranil (clomipramine), Tofranil (imipramine), Pamelor (nortriptyline)
clinical assessment systematic evaluation and measurement of psychological, bioloical, and social factors in an individual presenting with a possible psychological disorder
During auditory hallucinations we see a marked increase in activation in what brain area? Broca's
Dysthymic Disorder -A form of depression-Continuous absorption of cortisol (stress hormone)
Sign - Any observable feature of behavior.
Variable-Ratio Schedule reinforcement varies around an average number of responses (e.g. it might be required that on avg 10 responses must be made before a reinforcement is given).
48) Blood-injury-injection phobias are different from other phobias in a unique way involving vasovagal syncope. This condition involves parasympathetic nervous symptoms.
The belief that phychological funtioning has to do Somatogenic perspective
Negative Symptoms (Schizophrenia) -subtracitve (not "bad)
-absence of appropriate behaviors
-toneless voice, expressionless faces, mute, rigid bodies
An involuntary reoccurrence of perceptual distortions can occur weeks or months after taking a particular drug. The phenomenon is called ________; the drug is called ________. a flashback; LSD
Free Association involved having patients talk freely about themselves thereby providing info about their feelings, motives, and so forth.
Culture -plays a large role in determining what is appropriate or acceptable at a given time and place
-culture differes in
-degree of emotional expression
-individualism vs. collectivism
Definition Fear Immediate alarm reaction to danger
An emotional reaction to a specific perceived danger
Enmeshed family Families whose members are overly involved in one another's lives
Impulsivity Children act before they think. Ex: don't wait the ir turn, blurt out answers in class. The motivation behind these actions is innocent. Children w/ impulsivity generally want to be good, not bad, but they seem unable to control their behavior according to situational demands
Case study detailed description of a person's life or of psychological problem. Little basis for generalization.
cognitive assessment measurement of thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes that may be associated with emotional problems
Jill did not remember the accident happening, or the following two days. What form of amnesia is this memory loss characteristic of? localized
Primary Prevention Consists of efforts to improve community attitudes and policies. It's goal is to prevent psychological disorders althogether
When you have schizophrenic symptoms for only a short time. Schizo-phrenoform disorder
19th century American advocate of asylum reform Dix, D.
Stigma destructive beliefs held by a society that are ascribed to groups considered in some manners, such as mental illness
Pessimistic Attributional Style Negative Events: internal, global, stable
Positive Events: external, specific, unstable
learned helplessness animals encounter situations they have no control over
Dissociative Fugue -sudden, unexpected travel away from home with loss of memory for past-confusion about identity or adoption of new identity
Social Tx and Schizophrenia Social skills training, problem-solving, housing, medical care, med compliance, adviceHelpful for relapse prevention
Psychodynamic Approach human functioning based upon the interaction of drives and forces within the person, particularly unconscious between the different structures of the personality.
Techniques:
looking for resistance (when client refuses to talk about a certain topic)
providing opportunities for free associations
interpretations
dream analysis
Advantages:





Projective Tests (TAT, Rorschach)
Highlighted the importance of Childhood
first time psychological problems are caused by unbiological problems
theories explain normal and abnormal behavior

 
 
Disadvantages:

Unscientific (lacks empirical support)
does not help client with their problems, just figures out what they are 

People: FREUD
Sedatives slow activities of body and reduce responsiveness
Probands People who have the disorder under investigation in a family history study.
Measures of Central Tendency provide descriptive numerical summaries of a groups behavior
Coping Skills the techniques available to an individual in making attempts to overcome difficulty
Psychophysiological Test A test that measures physiological responses as possible indicators of psychological problems.
102) Substance dependence involves the two characteristic features of withdrawal and tolerance.
two early methods of curing mental illness trephining
exorcism
Manic Episode a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
Which of the following is most likely to be used to produce sleep? barbiturates
Family History Method requires that an investigator observe samples of realtives of each proband or index case to see whether the incidence increases in proportion to the degree of hereditary relationship
Narcisstic PD defnition a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration and lack of empathy
Antisocial personality disorder differs from psychopathy in that antisocial personality disorder focuses more on observable behaviors.
Negative body image Highly critical evaluation of one's weight and shape
ultimate goal of socializatino self-control, the internal regulation of behavior
Anterograde amnesia inability to learn or remember new material after a point in time
epidemiological studies research studies that track rates of occurrence of particular disorders among different population groups
Which of the following disorders was once the most frequently diagnosed disorder amongst soldiers? conversion disorder
OCD A disorder in which a person has recurrent and unwanted thoughts, a need to perform repetitive and rigid actions, or both
Cognitive Distortions: Overgeneralization tendency to draw larger general conclusion from smaller isolated event
frontal lobe involved in controlling a number of complex functions, including reasoning, planning, emotion, speech, and movement.
treatment of eating disorders no demonstrated efficacy for AN,
 
no long terms for bulimia, though antidepresants reduce frequency of binging and purgining
Beck's Cognitive Theory -Early experiences lead to formation of dysfunctional beliefs
-Late in life current stressors activate dysfunctional beliefs
-Leads to development of negative automatic thoughts centering on the negative cognitive triad
-Leads to symptoms of depression
Neuropsychological testing measures abilities in areas such as receptive and expressive language, attention and concentration, memory, motor skills, perceptual abilities, and learning and abstraction in such a way that the clinician can make educated guesses about the person's performance and the possible existence of brain impairment
Define Personality Unique and LT pattern of inner experience and outward behavior Tends to be consistent It's flexible
Objectification Theory Female bodies as objects judged by appearance
Generalized Anxiety D/O
(definition)
anxiety d/o characterized by intense, uncontrollable, unfocused, chronic, and continuous worry that is distressing & unproductive, accompanied by physical sympotms of tenseness, irritability, and restlessness.
Etiology - The causes or origins of a disorder.
Mediators a link (ex. between a stimulus and the resulting behavior); does not make an independent contribution to an outcome, rather its influence is due to another variable related both to it and to the outcome
Concurrent Validity Criterion available at the time of testing confirms results
12) While psychoanalytic and humanistic models assume that abnormality lies within the individual, biopsychosocial models assume that abnormal behavior must be understood in a larger context outside of the individual
What is it called when a stone instrument is used Trephination
Cycle of Depression 1 - stressful experiences
2 - negative explanatory style
3 - depressed mood
4 - cognitive and behavioral changes
phobia a fear of an object or situation that is diproportionate to the threat it poses
Family Intervention in Anorexia -defuse unproductive blaming and form mutual support
-changes in family function
 
 
 
What are the symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder?
-excessive uncontrollable anxious aprehension and worry
-coupled with strong and persistant anxiety
-persists for 6 or more months
 
Dopamine Hypothesis for schizo function of specific dopamine pathways in the limbic area of the brain; excessive levels of dopaminergic activty
Anorexia Nervosa Refusal to eat enough to maintain a normal, healthy body weight. Causes an interruption in menstruation for at least 3 months.BMI Fear of becoming fat.
selection factor a type of bias in which differences between experimental and control groups result from differences in the types of participants in the group, not from the independent variable
General stress level is inherited (like a vulnerability to stress)
Residual Type People who have had at least one episode of schizophrenia but no longer manifest major symptoms. May display "leftover symptoms" like negative beliefs or unusual ideas that are not fully delusional.
psychopharmacology the study of the use of medications to treat psychological disturbances; has been the most promising avenue of biological treatment.
positive and negative punishment (+) giving something bad (spanking)(-) taking away something good
The Rosenhan Study The Rosenhan study, while flawed and widely critiqued, raised several important issues
 
1) Should people who were once diagnosed with a psychological problem carry that dianosis for the rest of their lives?
2) To what extent are disorders the product of a particular environment, and to what extent do they inhere in the individual?
3) What is the level of institutional care available if the imposters could go undetected fro a period of days and, in some cases, weeks?
Peers substance use and you Alters your PERCEPTION of norms
How do AN feel about food? Obsessed Reading/thinking about it
Short term effects of alcohol (2) 1. Initially stimulating2. Depressant
Behavior genetics Study of the processes by which genes affect behaviior and the extent to which personality and abnormality are genetically inherited.
Parasympathetic Nervous System A group of autonomic nervous system fibers that returns heart rate and other body processes to normal.
What do positive symptoms of schizophrenia refer to? behavior, thought, or mood
Major Depressive Episode -a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
-this becomes MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER when multiple episodes are experienced with an interval of at least two months between episodes during which the individual does not meet the criteria for a Major Depressive Episode
PTSD: Prolonged Exposure (PE) -taking about hte traumatic event in first person as if it were happening in the moment.  Record this narrative for daily playbakc In vio expsure is similar but in safe locations
How does CBT contribute to recovery/remission? Identifies situtions where heavy drinking might occur
 
 
 
 
Separation anxiety disorder
children who show much more than the usual anxiety when separated from caregivers
 
 
 
3% of kids under 11 years of age
Cognitive Distortions: Mind reading tendency to assume what others think instead of clarifying
what is behavior genetics is the study of how individual differences in genetic makeup contribute to differences in behavior
Why is OCPD not OCD? Lack of true obsessions and compulsions OCPD inflexibility is more limited
Paranoid Personality Disorder: Treatment Treatment- Need to gain trust in treatment
Monozygotic (MZ) Twins Twins who share 100% of their genes because the developed from a from a single fertilized eggs
27) Clinical assessments for outcome evaluation may be repeated over time during treatment in order to evaluate progress and assess for treatment termination.
Behaviorism: Skinner - Observables and not the past: if you want to increase a behavior, reinforce it.
- This approach uses more problem-specific therapies.
- The behaviorist ideas make sense in terms of the human tendency of seeking positive appraisals and avoiding punishment.
- The “Second Wave” of psychology
Dependent Personality Disorder Definition A pervasive and excessive need to be taken care o that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation
What are the findings from Functional Brain Imaging (PET, fMRI) for schizo? Dysfunctions in various neural networks, including some regions of prefrontal cortex and several regions of temporal lobes; structural and functional irregularities in frontal cortex and limbic areas of temporal lobes
Over the past two years, Kelly has experienced depressive episodes three different times. Two of the three episodes occurred in the winter and the third occurring last spring. It is now winter and Kelly's depressive symptoms once again are consistent with recurrent major depressive disorder
What are cultural bound syndromes These are patterns of symptoms that are unique to one specific group of people in the world and almost never seen anywhere else
Social selection theory Tendency to fall into lower SES due to impairments assoc. w/schizophrenia
Describe the Psychoanalytic Theory of Depression According to Freud, depression is created in early childhood. During the oral period, child's needs are insufficiently or over-sufficiently gratified, causing fixations in this stage
Cognitive behavior therapy, compared to operant bx treatments, has been found to be:
a. less effective across most dx categories
b. superior with more intelligent clients
c. approx equally effective with all types of disorders
c. approx equally effective with all types of disorders
123) Genetically speaking, if both parents are diagnosed with schizophrenia, there is a 50% chance of their child also developing the disorder
Individuals with personality disorders generally are unable to live up to societal expectations.
How is ODD different from ADHD? Current concensus is that the 2 disorders are separate but overlapping problems and frequently comorid. Issues focused on learning rather than behavior control.
what psychological factors buffer the effects of stress -a good social support system, coping styles, self-efficacy expectancies, and psychological hardiness
Average age on onset for Eating Disorders AN: adolescence (15-19 years old)
BN: young adulthood (20-24 years old)
Biological Dimensions of Mood Disorders (4) 1. Genetics - Family studies - Twin studies2. Sleep - REM sleep- Deep sleep 3. Neurotransmitters- Serotonin- Norepinephrine 4. Endocrine Function - Elevated Cortisol
38) The categorical model of classification used by the DSM-IV-TR implies what about how disorders are classified must meet a certain number of symptoms to be classified.
What are the five major DSM-IV symptoms of bulimia? 1. Recurrent episodes of binge eating over which ind feels a lack of control 2. Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior 3. Ave frequency of at least 2 episodes per week over a pd of at least 3 months 4. Undue influence of weight and body shape on self-evaluation 5. Disturbance doesn't soley occur during anorexia
Three Sub-types of Bipolar Disorder -Bipolar 1 --Episodes of both MDD and Major Mania-Bipolar 2 -- MDD and Hypomania-Cyclothymia -- Mild Depressive Dissorder and hypomania
Criteria/Symptoms of a Panic Attack Four or more of the following during a specific period of time: Sweating, Trembling, Shortness of breath, Feeling of choking, Chest pain, Nausea or abdominal distress, Feeling dizzy, Derealization(unreality), Depersonalization(detached from oneself), Fear of losing control, Fear of dying, Paresthesias(numbness), Chills or hot flushes.
In order to make a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa, the client must not meet the criteria for anorexia nervosa.
A diagnosis of bipolar II disorder indicates that the person has experienced an episode of hypomania and an episode of major depression.
Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement:
a. a truck driver stops speeding after rec her third ticket for driving fast
b. a child keeps whining bec of the negative attention she rec whenever she does so
c. a college student's fear of
C. a college student's fear of flunking out of college ensures that she studies for at least twenty hours a week - negative reinforcement is occurring when a bx is performed in order to escape or avoid a stimulus Negative reinforcement, like positive reinforcement, results in an increase in a behavior
Most PD are high on which of the 5 factors?High E is tied to:Low E is tied to: *Hi N, Hi Antagonism (Low A)*Histrionic,Narcissistic *Schizoid, Schizotypal, Avoidant PD
DA Theory of Schizophrenia: *Caused by: *Treatment D/o due to excess levels of DADA blocking agents eg. Chlorpromazine
A.A. What is it How does it work Asks for: Largest self-help groupRegular meetings, support, acceptanceComplete abstinence