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Terms Definitions
hallucinogens
sedatives/anxiolytics relieving anxiety
non crime disaster 33
anorexia nervosa self starvation
Classifications of Schizophrenia (4) Positive/Negative
Chronic/Acute
 
 
Obsessions 
 
 
Unwanted and repeated thoughts, feelings, ideas, or sensations 
roger emphasized client centered therapy
Behaviorism John Watson- observable behavior
Axis II Personality and Mental Retardation
-developmental disorders (autism and mental retardation)
-pervasive and throughout entire persona/lifelong
all drugs have ____ results different
Separation Anxiety distress expressed following separation from an attachment figure, typically a caregiver or a parent. Begins around 8 months and peaks around 15 months
 
 
 
 
clinicians' duty
may break confidentiality if
 
threat to harm others
suspected child or elder abuse
Exhibitionism "flashers"6+ months, recurrent intense sexual urges/fantasies involving exposure of genitals to unsuspecting stranger; causes distress, impairmentusually aroused and masturbating during event, begins before age 18, usually not interested in contactpersonality; shy, dependent, no social/sexual skills, doubt masculinity, feelings of inferiority
Hippocrates Separated medicine from religion, magic, superstition. Believed mental disorders were caused by natural events in the brain. (Disease and virus) 
shaping process of reinforcing successive approximations to final behavior
Social phobias Anxiety disorder-feelings of embarrassment or shame when in front of others-avoid people, lonely, refuse to attend social events, do not speak in public, fear of being evaluated by others
Thoughts ideas, concepts, and internal dialogue with one's self
82) The most important personality trait found to be predictive of anorexia nervosa is perfectionism.
Subtypes of Schizophrenia (3) Paranoid, Disorganized, Catatonic
Situational Phobia Anxiety involving enclosed places(for example, claustrophobia) or public transportation (for example, fear of flying). 
What is the most used drug? alcohol
Cluster C Avoidant PD, Dependent PD, OCPD
 
 
 
 
7 contributors to Antisocial PD
Genetic Predisposition
Testosterone (too much)
Serotonin (not enough)
ADHD - develop ASPD in response to social rejection
Executive functions - deficits in planning and self-monitoring
Arousabilty - low
Social cognitive factors - harsh parents who promote aggression
developmental deviations signif departures from age-appropriate norms in specific areas of functioning. Ex: reading (dysgraphia), or arithemetic (dyscaulia) are considered to be learning disorders
culture A people's common history, values, institutions, habit, skills, technology, and arts.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder: DSM-IV identifies several characteristics that distinguish GAD from nonpathological worry: People with GAD describe their worries as difficult to control and as more pervasive and distressing, while people with nonpathological levels of anxiety view their worries as more controllable and are less likely to have worry-related physical symptoms (especially adults).
Antipsychotics Neuroleptics provided the first real hope for people suffering from schizophrenia. Reduce most of the positive symptom. Neuroleptics target the dopamine NT system. Poor compliance is common in patients and there are sever side effects (weight gain, diabetes, hypertension, and CV problems.)
Female > Male gender difference Boderline PD
Personality
Personality Disorder Cluster C
Avoidant
Anxious
Avoidant: hypersensitivity to rejection or social derogation; shyness; insecurity in social interactionand initiating relationships
 
Bipolar Disorder
-Prevalence
-Gender diff.
2-3% prevalence
no gender difference
scientist-practitioners mental health professionals taking in science to their own practice/approaches
Naltrexone, Naloxone Blocks endorphins stimulated by alcohol, reduces cravingsHelps a lot when used w/CBT
Syndrome Constellation of symptoms that occur together
Symptom - Any self-reported feature of behavior.
Extinction weakening or a response following removal of reinforcement
90) What structural brain abnormalities have researchers discovered in patients with anorexia nervosa when they are ill? Reduced gray matter
Distress Subjective feeling that there is something wrong o
Positive Symptoms (Schizophrenia) -additive (not "good)
-presence of inappropriate behaviors
-hallucinations, deluded speech, inappropriate laughter, tears, rage
Alcohol abuse is often associated with personality disorders. true
Resilience Ability to adapt successfully to even very difficult circumstances.
Latino Women have a _____ prevalence rate compared to white women in eating disorders same
Phobias tend to be very _______ therefore, treatment is important chronic
Relapse Prevention Increasing people's beliefe that they will be able to control their own behavior and events in their lives
Course of ADHD symptoms of hyperactivity generally decline during adolescence, while attention deficits and impulsivity are more likely to continue
gender-sensitive therapies Treatment approaches geared to the special pressures of being a woman in Western society. Also called feminist therapies.
basal ganglia an assemblage of neurons located between the thalamus and cerebrum, involved in coordinating motor processes
Dissociative identity disorder was formerly known as multiple personality disorder
Alarm Reaction triggered by perception of an immediate stressor (ex car coming at you in the road)-this mobilizes your body to prepare for the stress or challenge, its the bodies first line of defense-complex, integrated response that involves both the CNS and endocrine system
A sub-type of schizophrenia where Motor symptoms are teh issue. Catatonic schizophrenia
What are signs? Signs are observable characteristics which canbe objectively identified by an observer or which show up in various diagnostic tests.
Francis Galton father of genetic research
used twins to show heredity linked to behavior
Biopolar I Disorder Alternative manic episodes and MDEs
projective tests several assessment measures used with a variety of methods in which ambiguous stimuli (pictures of people/things) are presented to people who are asked to describe what they see
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) -Persistent re-experiencing event (flashbacks, dreams, etc)-avoidance, numbing, increased arousal-CRF and HPA systems involved, possible damage to hippocampus-Tx: early structured sessions are best-caused by life-threatening trauma and intense fear-formerly called "shell shock" or "combat fatigue
Schizophreniform d/o Same sxs as Schizophrenia 1-6 months
Bipolar II D/O
(definition)
alternation of major depressive episodes w/ hypomanic episodes (not full manic episodes)
Causes of Schizophrenia (5) 1. Genetics2. Neurobiological Influences - Excess dopamine to reduce this sometimes works3. Brain Structure 4. Social Class- Higher rates among lower class5. Family Communications - Environment with criticism, hostility, and emotional over-involvement
Oedipus Complex Major conflicy of male sexual development during which boys are sexually attracted to their mothers and hate their fathers as rivals.
Postive Reinforcer achieves reinforcement by provoking a reward or pleasure
Coping how people deal with difficulties and attempt to overcome them.
Intelligence Quotient A general score derived from intelligence tests that is considered to represent a person's overall level of intelligence.
136) The behaviors that are characteristic of Cluster C personality disorders are described as anxious or fearful.
the renaissance brought more _____ treatment of the mentally ill with the exception of _____. humane
witch hunts
Linkage Analysis DNA samples are taken from affected and unaffected individuals and analyzed for differences/similarities
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Anxiety disorder characterized by intense, uncontrollable, unfocused, chronic, and continuous worry that is distressing and unproductive accompanied by physical symptoms of tenseness, irritability and restlessness.
Behavior Genetics field that focuses on studying the heritablilty of mental disorders as well as other aspects of psychological functioning.
Psychological Factors in Schizo - mental processes, cognitive difficulties, beliefs and attributions, and EE
Impulsivity and extreme instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and mood best characterizes borderline personality disorder.
Effectiveness of therapies Currently little evidence taht shows any of these treatments are effective. Antidepressants seem to offer little relief for anorexia. 50-60% of patients have a weight within normal range, but may continue to be preoccupied with diet, weight, and body shape
Onset of externalizing disorders Externalizing problems that begin BEFORE adolescence are more likely to persist over the ind's life course than are problems that begin during adolescence. It is true that scientists are beeter able to predict adult antisocial behavior from info obtained from childhood than from info obtained from adolescence
Dementia vs. Depression Depression is a vicious cycle, Dementia just goes in one direction
abnormal psychology the branch of psychology that deals with the description, causes, and treatment of abnormal behavior problems
Yearning and searching for a loved one who has died is a sign of normal grief, not depression. true
Trephination An ancient operation in which a stone instrument as used to cut away a circular section of the skull, perhaps to treat abnormal behavior.
Transexualism in children 4+ needed:1. repeated expression of desire to be opposite sex2. preference for wearing clothes of other gender3. persistent fantasies about being member of other gender or assume role of other gender in play4. desire to participate in activities and games considered stereotypical of other gender5. strong preference for playmates of other gender
right cerebral hemisphere involved in spatial organization and analysis.
Trait view fo personality a collection of fixed attributes
NT activity during Biopolar Disorders Norepinephrine: increased activity during manic phases. Not lower during depressive phases.
Dopamine: increased activity during manic phases.
Serotonin: activity is low during both manic and depressive phases.
 
gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) an inhibitory transmitter; regulates transmission of information and action potentials
Inappropriate affect Emotional responses that don't fit the situation
Mixed Manic Episode
(definition)
condition in which the indiviudal experiences both elation and depression or anxiety at the same tie. 
Attachment Theory - A developmental theory that proposes that the selective bonds that develop between infants and their caregivers are significant and manifest themselves throughout life.
Physiognomy the art of judging human character or personality from facial features
Aversion therapy the use of classical conditioning to create an unpleasant response
40) In the U.S., the average age of onset for an anxiety disorder is 11.
Genes A unit of inheritance which forms part of a chromosome. Genes control the characteristics (traits) that we inherit from parents.
cognitive therapy for phobias -seek to identify and correct dysfunctional or distorted beliefs
-helps to identify the logical flaws in their thinking and to view situations rationally
-clients may be asked to gather things to support their irrational beliefs to see that there is no reality supporting them
-
SES in Schizoprhenia -highest prev rate found in these ares
stigma a stamp or label that sets the person apart from others, connects the person to undesirable features, and leads others to reject the person
Threshold model liability is viewed as lying along a continuum, but the probability that certain symptoms will be present changes dramatically as the person crosses a threshold
Lewy Bodies Deposits in cells found in brain stem nuclei of Parkinson's Disease patients
criterion validity the degree to which a test correlates with an independent, external criterion or standard
Tourette's Disorder  
 
A diagnosis of Tourette's Disorder requires the presence of multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics. About 50% of children with Tourette's have symptoms of ADHD, while 40 to 60% have symptoms of OCD. (DSM-IV lists obsessio
Haloperidol alleviates symptoms in about 70% of people with this disorder, and the effectiveness of this drug confirms the hypothesis that Tourette's Disorder is related to excessive or oversensitivity to dopamine.
Neurotransmitter Influences (Dopamine Hypothesis) Drugs that increase dopamine (agonist) may cause schizo like behaviorDrugs that decrease dopamine (antagonist) may reduce schizophrenic-like behavior.
central nervous system includes the brain and the spinal cord
psychosexual development - oral (birth to 18 months)- infant derives pleasure from eating and biting-anal (18 to 3 years) - the focus of pleasure is the anus- phallic (3 to 6 years) -the genitals are the focus of pleasure- latent (6 to 12 years) – id impulses are dormant- genital heterosexual intrests are dorminant
Intern's syndrome The tendency to see in oneself the characteristics of disorders about which one is learning
Treatment of Histrionic PD Often seek helpDifficult to work with
Of the 2 social theories of Schizophrenia the most support is for: Social selection theory
Schizophrenia: Paranoid subtype section (2) 1. Delusions and Hallucinations - Ideas of Reference2. Intact Cognition and Affect, no disorganized speech
Feedback Loops A system which changes in one element result in changes in a second element, then changes in the second element to change the first element again.
Exposure and Response Prevention A behavioral treatment that exposes clients to anxiety arousing thoughts or situations and then prevents them from performing their compulsive acts.
what are beliefs that have no basis in reality? delusions
treatments for depression are often ______ or __________ serotonin or norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
Hypothesis on Dopamine in Schizophrenia -proposed that an overproduction of dopamine or an increase in number or sensity of dopamine receptors is responsible for schizo
"abstinence violation effect" refers to guilt a person feels when they find themselves having a drink
What is the difference between positive symptoms and negative symptoms in those with Schizophrenia? Positive symptoms are exaggerations or distortions of normal thoughts, emotions, and behavior, and are viewed as direct lead-ins to the full expression of psychosis while negative symptoms involve functioning below the level of behavior regarded as normal.
Alright, I'm too lazy to put in the rest of the last day of notes we took since it's pretty fresh in our heads. In theory.
*Humanistic/ Existential Paradigms focus on - focus on insight into the motivations/ needs of the person - these paradigms place greater emphasis on the persons freedon of choice (Free will) - the humanistic paradigm does not focus on how problems develop in a person
Rational Emotive Behavior Theory Natural for humans to think in irrational waysSome handle this better than othersCan learn to handle it better
Binge-Purge Subtype of AN Binge eating-Eating more food than one would consider "normal"Purging-Reduce calories via vomiting, diuretics, enemas, or laxatives
Informed consent: Clinical Practice (2) - Clients entering assessment or treatment must be informed of the procedures - Competency to consent
Object Relations A view held by a group of modern psychodynamic theorist that one develops a self-concept and appraisal of others in a 4 stage process during childhood and retains them throughout adulthood; psychopathology consists of an incomplete progression through these stages or an acquisition of poor self and other concepts.
23) Random assignment to groups is a critical part of the methodology in controlled design experiments because each participant has control for third variables.
Acute Stress Disorder: PTSD symptoms that last for less than a month
Difference between Schizophrenia and Delusional Disorder? -Type of Delusion and presence or absence of other symptoms
what is currently known about treatment for childhood anxiety and mood disorders? Biological treatments have been rarely studied among children and adolescents; some forms of CBT and interpersonal therapy show promise for treating children's depression; no treatment for childhood depression has been well-established; certain internalizing disorders often persist over time; OCD is likely to continue into adolescence; childhood depression doesnt have a good prognosis
Which of the following has been demonstrated about the effects of psychogenic amnesias on memory? Implicit memory is generally intact.
After our variables have been operationalized, we need to pick our subjects.  These subjects will be randomly selected from the total population so we can generalize our findings - have good reason to believe that whatever we discovered with our sample might hold true for the general population known as external validity.
Family relations and stimulants Teens who progress from one drug to another, tend to not have close relationships w/their parents
Name some psychological problems associated with mood disorders (4) - Panic attacks - Substance abuse- Sexual dysfunction- Personality disorders
Among depressed adolescents, suicide risk has been found to increase when:
a. the depression is atypical
b. the depression is accompanied by phobic anxiety
c. the depression is accompanied by conduct problems
d. there is a family hx of depression
c. the depression is accompanied by conduct problems
What is histrionic personality disorder? a person who exhibits overly dramatic behavior
What is the main difference between Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD)? People with OCD are more perfectionistic than people with OCPD.
How is ODD different from CD? ODD consists of pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior. Involves minor transgressions, such as refusing to obey adults, arguing, and acting angry. CD is a series of persistent and repititve serious rule violations, most of which are illegal and antisocial. Ex: assault or robbery
what roles do psychologists play in the prevention of HIV/AIDS and treatment of people with HIV? -our behavior patterns influence our risk for contracting HIV
-psychologists have become involved in the prevention and treatment of AIDS b/c AIDS can have a devastating psychological effect on victims, their families and friends, and society as a whole
-AIDS CAN BE prevented by reducing risky behavior (unprotected sex & unsafe needle usage)
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
 
Latest edition DSM-IV-TR
Provides a way for pscyhologists to diagnose their patients.
 
It contains the symptoms of eveyrthing currently considered to be a psychological disorder
Homosexuality has been removed from DSM from defining abnormality
Long term Psychical Effects of Alcohol (4) 1. Liver Disease- Hepatitis - Cirrhosis 2. Cardiovascular Disorders3. Brain Damage4. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
What is a simple or specific phobia? intense unwarranted fear of a situation or object
How is comorbid binge eating/purging related to treatment outcome measures? People with anorexia who do not binge eat or purge generally feel better adjusted on other measures of mental health. For example, they have lower rates of depression.
What is the primary explanation for the development of Dissociative Identity Disorder? The primary explanation for DID is that it is caused by disturbances in childhood in the development of the sense of self. Most victims of DID have been victims of childhood sexual or physical abuse.
how are mood disorders categorized either unipolar or bipolar? based on the presence or absence of mood episodes
When it comes to comparing one's actual body image with the ideal body, young women are more likely to be dissatisfied than young men.
In what way was Freud's view of conversion disorder consistent with behavioral theories? He believed that the symptoms of conversion disorder were maintained by the relief from anxiety they provided.
When working with a client suffering from Panic Disorder, a therapist adopting Beck's cognitive approach would initially:
a. have the client id the antecedents and consequences of his symptoms
b. help the client understand how the symptoms are controlling
d. help the client see how he misinterprets the meaning of his symptoms - Beck: Panic Disorder stems from "catastrophic misinterpretations" of bodily senasions and mental experiences.
Two Paths to Alcohol Abuse *Boys *Girls *Drinking early in adolescents and continued to increase throughout HS*Lesser amts in adolescents, jump up during Jr. High, jump up again during HS
21. When using exposure to tx a client with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, it's important to keep in mind that
a. in vivo exposure is most effective when combined with response prevention
b. in vivo exposure is more effective when it is gradual
c. in vivo
a. in vivo exposure is most effective when combined with response prevention
HPA: *Function *Mood D/O *Manages stress reactions -releases Cortisol *HPA may be over active
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