Complete List of Terms and Definitions for Blood cells and such
|Where are Hemes made?||Mitochondria|
|Plasma Proteins||Albumins, Globulins, Fibrinogen|
Too Few: Neutropenia/Infections
Too Many: Leukemia/Organ Enlargement
Too Few: Thrombocytopenia/Bleeding
To Many: Thrombocytosis/Clotting
-single, U-chaped nucleus.
|Platelet structure contains...||
Granules : Alpha contain clotting proteins.(Fibrinogen, PDGF, VWF, Thrombospodin, Fibronectin)
Delta contain energy molecules(ADP, ATP, Ca++, Seratonin)
Membrane adhesion molecules
Inherited coagulation disorder that causes increased bleeding.
Factor IX deficiency
|What are the lifespan of Platelets?||8-10 days|
|What do the Basophil granules contain?||
|What are Monocytes derived from?||Granulocyte-Macrophage precursors|
Too Few: Antibody deficiency/Bacterial infections
Too Many: Excess antibody/Viscous plasma
|What are the skeletal proteins of RBC?||
|Abnormal B-Lymphocyte function||
Autoimmune problems-can be too much.
Impaired immunoglobin production and increase bacterial production.
|Function of Neutrophils?||
Chemotaxis: crawl and move towards bacteria. Cell sticks to tissue via adhesion molecules.
Phagocytosis: eat bacteria.
Digest: granules contain Proteolytic enzymes needed to kill bacteria. Oxygen radicals are produced by cytoplasmic enzymes.
They stain nuetro to a H&E stain.
About 10-12 micrometers
Nuclei: multiple segments (3-5)
Cytoplasm: pinkish salmon color.
"Polymorphonuclearleukocyte"(PMN) or "seg"
|What is Heme?||
Site located inside of hemoglobin.
Binds to Fe.
Then Oxygen binds to Iron
|What is the function of Hemoglobin?||Carries Oxygen|
|RBC's that are too small?||
..also not round
|Bicarbonate Ions||Are important in maintaining the osmotic pressure and pH of plasma.|
|What is the function of Eosinophils?||Phagocytose antigen-antibody complexes.|
|What is the function of B-Lymphocytes||
Plasma cells(mature version of Lymphocytes)
|Erythropoietin||Controls the rate of red blood cell formation. The kidneys make it. It is also a hormone.|
|What are the characteristics of Mononuclear Cells (agranulocytes) And what are the two chategories.||
Single, non-segmented nucleus.
Contain non specific, light purple granules.
-Lymphocytes B- and T- cells
|How big are Monocytes and what % of WBCs do they make up?||
|RBC's that are too big?||
(example) Vitamin B12 or folic deficiency
may have dots
|RBCs that are too light in color||
-not enough hemoglobin
-central pallor(whole in donut) is really wide
|The average count||Ranges from approximately 4 to 6 million cells per micoliter of blood.|
|RBCs that are too Dark in color||
-reduced cell size increases the concentration of hemoglobin.
-totally round cells.(no donut)
-tells you there is a disease process going on
|When will you see increased # of Eosinophils?||
|Which coagulations aren't made in the Liver?||
Made by megakaryocytes and endothelial cells
|How would you recognize and Easinophil at the EM level?||Granules contain crystalloid major basic protein. (MBP)|
|A differential white blood cell count||Indicates the percentages of various types of leukocytes.|
|What are the RBC inclusions?||
Nucleated: You can tell it is an RBC because the cytoplasm is stained the same color as the surrounding RBCs.
Nuclear Remnant: (Holly Jolly body) left over tiny nucleus. Seen after splenectomy because spleen is supposed to remove these things.
Basophilic Stipling: lead poisoning. Lead blocks production by binding to the spot on the Heme where Fe is supposed to bind. Ribosomes build up on the surface and are stained as a result.