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Terms Definitions
Axons fibers connecting neurons
Hypoglossal (XII) tongue muscles (XII)
Thalamus diencephalon structure through which all information from all snesory systems is integrated and projected into the appropriate region of the neocortex
Interneuron association neuron interposed between a sensory neuron and a motor neuron; thus, in mammals, interneurons constitute most of the neurons in the brain
Thermoregulation Example of homeostatic redundancy; sensors in skin, core body structures, brain; mediate responses on different time scales; two types of responses to temperature variation, behavioral & autonomic; different brain sites coordinate different types of responses; Hypothalamus acts like thermostat; controls autonomic & endocrine systems
Up-regulation increases number of receptors available to the receptors antagonist
Stress Common trigger for anxiety-related disorders, prolonged stress compromises health (fatigue, muscle wasting, steroid diabetes, high blood pressure, ulcers, psychogenic dwarfism, bone decalcification, suppression of ovulation, impotency, loss of libido, apathy, accelerated neural degeneration during aging, impaired disease resistance
natural selection differential success in the reproduction of different characteristics (phenotypes) results from the interaction of organisms with their environment
Tract large collection of axons coursing together within the central nervous system
Astrocyte glial cell with a star-shaped apperance that provides structural support to neurons in the central nervous system and transports substances between neurons and capalaries
dopamine amine neurotransmitter that plays a role in coordinating movement, in attention and learning, in behaviors that are reinforcing
Panic Attack recurrent transient episodes of intense fear & anxiety, increased release of NE from locus coeruleus, associated with temporal love, anterior cingulated gyrus, & frontal cortex abnormalities (PET, fMRI), alleviated by benzodiazepines (Valium) or SSRIs (Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors)Benzodiazepines; GABA- Valium; alleviates panic disorders- bind to endogenous receptors sites on GABAa receptor, enhance action of GABA in brain• Fewer binding sites for benzodiazepine in panic disorders
Psychopathy an individual incapable of feeling remorse, extreme disruption of normal social regulation of behavior, impulsive, severe emotional detachment, blunted response to violence symbols, reduced activity in prefrontal cortex, shrunken prefrontal cortex
inherited behavior part of the evidence supporting Darwin's suggestion that emotional expression is inherited is the finding that people from all parts of the world display the same emotional expressions
Hindbrain evolutionarily the oldest part of the brain; contains the pons, medulla, reticular formation, and cerebellum; structures that coordinate and control move voluntary and involuntary movements
Meninges three layers of protective tissue that encase the brain and spinal cord
Heterozygous having two different alleles for the same trait
Depolarization decrease in electrical charge across a membrane, usually due to the inward flow of sodium ions
postsynaptic membrane membrane on the transmitter-input side of a synapse
EPISODIC memory general knowledge, with no personal information attached, facts, verbal (distributed in brain by information type)
Amygdala Lesions of the amygdala eliminate fear conditioning, LTP in amygdala associated with fear conditioning• Serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine all released in response to amygdala activation
Set point, zone Humans 98.2 degrees/97-100 degrees; too high- damages to enzymes & proteins, brain functions abnormally, cells die; too low- cell membranes damaged, ice crystals form on membrane, destroys lipid by-layer
cerebral cortex outer layer of brain tissue surface composed of neurons
Neurons the brain contains about 80 billion of these cells and uses them to carry out the brain's major functions
Paralysis loss of sensation and movement due to nervous system injury
Oscilloscope a device that measures the flow of electrons to measure voltage
Hypovolemic thirst thirst created by reduction in fluid volume
occipital lobe cerebal cortex at the back of the brain
Autonomic Nervous System balances the body's internal organs to "fight or flee" or engage in vigorous activity through the sympathetic (arousing) nerves
transmitter-activated receptor protein embedded in the membrane of a cell that has a binding site for a specific neurotransmitter
Homeostatic control of internal environment maintain physiology within normal limits, return system to normal balance following stress
Nucleus (pl. Nuclei) a group of cells forming a cluster that can be identified with special stains to form a functional grouping
Osmotic thirst thirst created by too much salt in the extracellular fluid
Role of hypothalamus in regulation of biology and behavior acts like thermostat, controls autonomic and endocrine systems
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