Complete List of Terms and Definitions for Child Development 4

Terms Definitions
Synapses gaps between neurons
helps undress 24 months
birth order companionship and competition 
leadership and dependence
handles spoon well 24 months
Genotype Set of genetic instructions
Alzheimer's Disease irreversible brain disease characterized by progressive deterioration of metal functioning
Key Physical Developmental Aspect in Middle Childhood
Family Conversations *Through conversations, adults clarify and also socialize emotional knowledge, conveying expectations about appropriate emotional behavior and the cause and consequences of emotional displays*this helps kids understand and interpret others' emotions *this is needed for the development of empathy*should be constant, well before kindergarten age
Foot grasp reflex until 9 months
Internalization Vygotsky
The idea that processes between a child and others become the basis for processes which go on within the child.
Language is orginally a social means of communication but becomes also the main way in which people become able to reason and regualte their own behaviour
Right Hemisphere Visual-Spatial information including "sign language"
Chorion membrane that contains the amniotic sac and fetus
Organogensis Part of the embryonic stagedevelopment of internal organs
What has impacted child immunizations the most?
overregularization applying grammar rules even when exceptions occur, making the language more "regular" than it actually is
ACHIEVEMENT EXPECTANCIES *cognitive expectations of succeeding or failing at a particular achievement related activity
the less similar the genetic information the __________lower/higher_______ the correlation lower
displeasure at breaking social contact 16 wks
EFFORTFUL CONTROL ability- to supress strong-behaviors
Imprinting Lorenz
Used in ETHNOLOGY whereby birds have a strong attachment to a moving object
Exosystem is involved when experiences in another social setting in which the individual does not have an active role influence what the individual experiences in an immediate context. Example work experiences can effect a womens relationship with her husband and t
Cross-sectional study study that compares individuals of different ages or developmental levels at the same point in time
Doula and Midwives • A trained, knowledgeable companion who is present at a birth to support the woman through her labor and delivery
Populations Everyone in the category we are interested in studying or learning more about, but usually we cannot study an entire population so we use a sample
Sickle-cell anemia • Common in African Americans, blood cells crescent shapes, very painful
Componential intelligence the ability to allocate mental resources, to encode and store information, to plan and monitor, to identify problems, and to acquire new knowledge.
Episiotomy An incision into the perenium and vagina to allow sufficient clearance for birth
focus on appearance a characteristic of peroperational thought in which a child ignores all attributes that are not apparent
Critical Functions 1) Circulation : circulates blood2) Respiration: take 1st breat
SOCIAL REFERENCING the use of others' emotional expressions to gain information or infer the meaning of an otherwise ambiguous situation* children quickly acquire knowledge this way and help them to understand the world they live in
Social-Self *The self primarily regarded in a social context*even basic sense of self (self-recognition) doesn't develop if a person is isolated
MASTERY MOTIVATION *an inborn motive to explore, understand, and control one's environment*a basic aim of socialization is to build on children's inborn mastery motivation to encourage them to pursue important objectives and to take pride in their accomplishments
John Dewey A 20th century educator whose philosophy called for humane and democratic education and who was a major force in the progressive education movement. Stated that \"education is the process of living and not preparation for future living.\"
ALTRUISM Acting unselfishly- to aid someone else
Double disassociation Evidence that two cognitive processes appear to be unrelated to each other
Considered to be a poweful tool in identifying the component parts of cognition
Temperament Your emotional approach to the world that you are born with, personality traits, it can be a good indicator for future actions
Fetal stage stage of prenatal development in which the fetus develops, beginning around the ninth week of pregnancy and lasting until the birth of the child
Making a series of vowel sounds w/ consonant sounds slowly put together to form words are called... babble
Microsystem the interaction of the person in her immediate settings, such as home, school, or friendship groups
Standardized tests The most common methods of assessing individual differences in cognitive development
emergent literacy the early skills that help children learn to read, such as letter recognition and page sequencing
OWN-SEX SCHEMA detailed knowledge or plans of action that enable a person to perform gender consistent activities and to enact his or her gender role
what did Scarr and Weisburg's study show? - ?
when prone --> lifts head and chest, head in approx vertical axis, legs extended 16 wks
AGGRESSION negative acts- intended to harm- others (or)- their possessions
Intersensory redundancy Evidence that information from two or more modalities provide similar or linking information facilitating CROSS-MODAL PERCEPTION
concrete operational stage in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
Pleiotropic effects • Any single gene can have many very different effects
REM and NREM REM- Rapid Eye Movement NREM- Non rapid eye movement regular sleep state
Displacement Being able to talk about things in the past (past-tense)
What are Emotional Attachments? ***Bowlby: defines attachment as the strong emotional ties that we feel for the special people in our lives*people who are securly attached take pleasure in their interactions and feel comforted by their partner's presence in times of stress and uncertainty*Reciprocal relationships
ask anselmi about the risk factors sheet in intelligence packet
Righting rxns correct alignment of head to trunk and of trunk to limbs
develops soon after birth
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) A group of developmental disorders which include AUTISM & ASPERGER'S
body righting on body stimulus-rotate baby's head to one side; response-baby's body will follow in segments
Basic research Primary goal of adding to our body of knowledge rather than having immediate, direct application
Reflex : Moro The startle reflex. Baby will tend to arch their backs and fling their arms out as though to cry for help.
1. ASOCIAL PHASE * approximately the first 6 weeks of life, in which infants respond in an equally favorable way to interesting social and nonsocial stimuli; meeting their needs is important
EMOTIONAL DEPENDENCY child's - atypical need - for continual reassurance- and attention from adults
Functionalist Approach to Emotions * A theory of emotions saying that the major purpose of an emotion is to establish, maintain, or change one's relationship with the environment to accomplish a goal; * emotions are not seen as discrete early in life but rather as entities that emerge with age* says infants emotions consist mainly of global experieces of positivity (excitement) and distress)* this theory also says that successful adaptation also means that the child must learn to control their emotions to maintain social harmony and achieve important goals
Naming explosion or vocabulary spurt a point in a childs language development at which they show a sudden increase in the number of names they use for things
Learning to regulate emotions: School Age children * redirect attention (think of a happy day)* reconceptualize situations* deliberate cognitive strategies to manage feelings
What do you need before Language? To be able to differentiate visually, cognitively need to know what it is and means, motor development needed is the use of your tounge
Which of the following terms are considered to be professional terms in the early childhood field? Child Care, early childhood care and education
what are 4 things that IQ are highly correlated with 1) verbal ability 2) perceptual speed 3) social class/ parents education 4) job success / socioeconomic status
("QUANTITATIVE CONCEPTS") quantitative defined as:
SPERMARCHE first ejaculation of mobile sperm
- adults - individual differences
Cultural Mismatch Cultural Differences in Math Achievement
A (classification system )- where items (CATEGORIZED)- using (HIERARCHY) of (SUBORDINATE).........................................- and (SUPERORDINATE) classes
confusion between - relationship between subordinate concept of room .........and the larger concept of house eg. OF CLASSIFICATION.......................confusion
Kohlberg's theory- moral reasoning based on - fear of punishment or desire for reward CONVENTIONAL MORALITY
GONADOTROPINS Pituitary hormones - that affect hormone output by gonads
I.Q. Test appropriate for all cultures in which it is used DECONTEXTUALIZED THOUGHT
end of this section of headings EG. OF CONSERVATION
PERSONAL FABLE teenagers exaggerated belief in - their own uniqueness
ADRENARCHE increase in adrenal androgen levels - in middle childhood
GONADARCHE increase in gonadal - sex hormone levels at puberty
still lack broad base of knowledge that adults have (reasoning seems immature)
- to be (recalled) into - (meaningful) categories
- Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences- Sternbergs Triarchic Theory EXPLAINING IQ DIFFERENCES
- with (SUBPARTS) that (GO TOGETHER)- because of (proximity) MATRIX COMPLETION
FORMAL OPERATIONS Piaget's Theory:- set of principles- of formal logic- on which cognitive advances - of adolescence are based
COGNITIVE SOCIALIZATION influence of social environment - on development of cognitive skills
PLASTICITY Ability of brain regions- to take on new functions
ASSESSMENT OF CONSERVATION - Researchers use TASKS to ASSESS childrens - UNDERSTANDING of conservation during (MIDDLE) childhood(see)* conservation of NUMBER* conservation of LENGTH* conservation of AREA* conservation of MASS* conservation of DISPLACED LIQUID(these are the tasks researchers use)
- they have acquired the cognitive skills - needed to master format of jokes and riddles- and to understand the humor INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORY
MEASURE of INTELLIGENCE - based on - COMPARISON / of child's PERFORMANCE- with PERFORMANCE of OTHERS- the SAME AGE - Originally Mental Age divided by Chronological age ACADEMIC INTELLIGENCE
ADRENAL GLANDS - small glands - located above kidneys that produce androgens- and other hormones- related to stress - metabolism, &- reproduction
GONADS sex glands- testes in men - ovaries in women
HYPOTHETICO - DEDUCTIVE REASONING ability to think- of hypothetical solutions to a problem - to formulate a systematic plan for deducing - which of these solutions is correct
SOCIAL LEARNING EXPLANATION - as they spend more time with peers piagetian explanation for .....WHY CHILDREN ENJOY TELLING JOKES
STRATEGIES to lure opponent into making moves to her advantage. FINALLY - (LIMITATION) elementary children/ cannot reason maturely ABOUT ABSTRACT / and HYPOTHETICAL PROBLEMS
- (simultaneously) along (two) ...............independent dimensions....such as- (shape and color)
- PIAGET BELEIVED: - moral development is / direct consequence of cognitive development '/ and increased social experience - FOR INSTANCE:- as centration declines- children able to consider consequences- and intentions simultaneously (when) judging morality of an act- IN ADOLESCENCE - ability to consider ones own and others opinions systematically makes possible recognition / of different moral viewpoints and idea that moral rules are based on social agreement
WHY DID PIAGET SEE AGE 7 - AS TURNING POINT? important transition from:
(LIMITATION) they sometimes have trouble / using a skill they possess as part of a larger problem solving system. capable of taking another persons position (8 year old) but not when playing checkers
WHAT DO ADVANCES IN "LOGICAL REASONING" abilitie ALLOW adolescents .....? - increasingly skilled and often passionate - at debating both - real and hypothetical issues
- the issue of cultural bias- What IQ scores can predict CULTURE AND SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT
(limits) reasoning confined to CONCRETE HERE AND NOW - eg. what would you do if remote control car wouldnt run?
could not think of things that ..."might be wrong" and the / systematically / propose "how" to test each one, alone (or) in various combos. COGNITIVE WORLD OF (MIDDLE) CHILDHOOD .............looks at 3 areas, what are they?
KOHLBERG'S MODEL OF "MORAL DEVELOMENT" vs PIAGET'S MODEL ...... - broadly similar to piaget's- kohlberg divided development into more stages
boy doesn't realize he can be both a catholic and an american at same time when are errors in reasoning conquered?
- Piaget/- begins with an amoral stage - which is characteristic of children about age 7- during concrete operations period / stage of "MORAL REALISM" emerges- At this stage / treat morality as absolute and moral constraints as unalterable.- Seeing b - Piaget's next stage /AUTONOMOUS MORALITY- usually attained late in childhood or early adolescence- now children see morality as relative to situation- when judging if action is right or wrong - they consider intentions - as well as consequences- YOUNGSTERS AT THIS STAGE - recognize possibility of
- capacity for logical - systematic thinking / using multiple pieces of info - / due in part to MARKED DECLINE IN CENTRATION - ability to percieve / underlying reality -/ despite superficial appearance