Complete List of Terms and Definitions for Criminology Terms

Terms Definitions
Criminalize To make illegal.
night watchmen 13th centruy, unarmed/untrained citizen who walked th streets at night looking for any disturbances.
Cesare Beccaria "On Crimes and Punishment"
Positivism using Scientific Method and collecting data in order to explain social phenomena. Darwin.
ratinal, reason, free wil Humans are ?
Physical Stigmata characteristics of crime.  (chin, tatoos)
Date Rape Unlawful forces sexual intercourse with a woman against her will which occurs within the context of a dating relationship.
Moral Development Kohlberg:individs pass thru sev stages to develop their ability to reason morally. But not everyone makes it thru all stages
Criminalistics : The
scientific study of physical evidence.
terrorism, characteristics 1. illict drug trafficking
2. money laundering
3. infiltrationing of legal business(fronts)
4. computer crime
5. illicit arms trafficking
6. traffic in persons
7. Destruction of cultural property
terrorism, characteristics there are seven of them
police subculture socilziation and unity among police officers due to anxiety and stress produced while on the job
Ceasre Lombroso Father of Criminology.  Wrote "the criminal man" 1876.  said criminals were born criminals.  Criminals are throwbacks
Rape As defined by the NVCS, carnal knowledge through the use of force or the threat of force, including attempts. Statutory rape (without force) is excluded. Both heterosexual and homosexual rape are included.
Reaction formation COHEN, rejecting goals and standards that seem impossible to achieve (can't get into college, education is a waste of time)
Classical school Becarria and Bentham believed pple acted rationally(weigh adv and disad), act on free will, pursue pleasure, avoid pain. Law proportional to crime. Becarria=founder of modern criminology.
Background of criminal telemarketers Middle class, entrepreneurial backgroundsUnremarkable educational backgroundsMany have previous small time criminal offenses
Self Report Studies anonymous questionnaires that invite the respondents to record voluntarily whether or not they have committed any of the offences listed.
How measure political legitimacy? attitudes- trust in government

behavior- civil litigation and political participation
Hedonistic Calculus produces positive result and allows to avoid negative result
Simple Assault An attak without a weapon, resulting either in minor injury or in undermined injury requiring less than two days of hospialization.
At risk children and adults who lack the education and skills needed to be effectively in deman in modern society
self report data survey via school to get info
Victims of homicide by gender 76,5% men, 23.5% women
Differential Reinforcement theory suggests that the persistence of criminal behavior depends on whether or not it is rewarded or punished and the most meaningful rewards and punishments are those given by groups that are important in an individuals life.

in essence, people respond more readily to the reactions of the most significant people in their lives.
20.What is the most common violent crime experienced by households? simple assault
Trial by ordeal "Women accused of witchcraft were tied up and thrown in the water.  If they survived, they were innocent."  This type of practice is known as:
Social Learning Theory the view that human behavior is modeled through observation of human social interactions, eith directly or indirectly, interactions that are rewarded are copied and those punished are avoided
advs of NCVS 1. more accurate estimate of crime2. avoid issues of popo bias3. you got an in to offenders and victs
atavistic stigmata physical features of a human beeing at an earlier stage of development, which according to Cesare Lombrosso distinguish a born criminal from the general population.
2.In what way(s) were the telemarketers different? a.Disproportionately drawn from middle-class, entrepreneurial backgrounds. Markedly individualistic in their dealing with one another and with law enforcement. Their work organizations are more permanent and conventional in outward appearance than the criminal organizations created by blue-collar offenders, which were grounded in the culture of the industrial proletariat.
Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Reporting A Federal Bureau of Investigation summation of crime statistics tallied annually and consisting primarily of data on crimes reported to the police and of arrests.
Murder rate 1980s vs 1990s High in 1980s, dropped dramatically after 1993
Crime prevention-2 strategiesearly middle postwarand late postwar front-end - prevent before it happens (patrol, drug treatment, early intervention)

back-end - deal with crime after it happens(prison, punishment, deterrence)
4.What is a permissive environment? a.Social settings where people feel free of constraints
i.Mardi Gras
ii.Bars
Lifestyles of criminal telemarketers Blow a lot of money on gambling, drugs, expensive consumer goods, prostitutes
In all time periods of decreased political legitimacy, was collective action present? No. Only in 60s
What operation is the Drug Enforcement Administration known for in 1986?In what states did the Drug Enforcement Administration have controversies in the 1990s? It is known for operation pipeline
 
They had controversies in Maryland and New Jersey
Lafree says no to Strain Theory because Merton said Strain is stable(If doesn't change cant' explain changing crime rates)

US strong economy/increasing access to education had high crime rates
What are the first 6 steps of the criminal trial process? 1. pretrial motions
2. jury selections
3. opening statements
4. prosecutors case
5. defense case
6. rebuttal
When collective action decreased, did the crime rate get lower? No. Against Lafree's hypothesis.
1. collective action requires sustained organization and commitment
2. gov't better at preventing riots than crime
What are 2 reasons why racial profiling is so difficult? 1) only the officer knows the true reason for the stop
2) extremely difficult to  measure racial profiling
crime is the biggest but least understood social problems tend to be social patterns and roots to explain. likelihood influenced by society and social structure, social insts, social processes
In the 1990s, did political attitudes for Whites improve?Did they improve for Blacks? Yes and crime rates lowered (seems to conform Lafree's hypothesis)

No...also supports hypothesis