Complete List of Terms and Definitions for Evolution 5
|Evolution||Descent with modification|
|comparative embryology||compare embryological development|
|Gondwanaland||-southern landmass of Pangea|
-depending on how far from starvation, the same amount of food might give donor 6 hours of life, while the same amount would give the recipient (closer to death) 16 hours.
|Prokaryotic Success||Reproduction– Asexual: binary fission– Sexual recombination• PlasmidsRapid generation time• E. coli can clone once every 20 minutes• 1-3 hours is commonProduction of endospores• Dormant stages• (Bacillus anthracis)|
|Microsphere||Tiny, abiotically produced vesicle formed by short chains of Amino Acids.|
|macroevolution||evolution of substantial phenotypic changes-great enough to create new species (branches)|
|point mutation summary||
Example of kin selection
Environment and Cannibalistic Development in the Tiger Salamander
The effect of genetic relatedness on the development of cannibal forms of the tiger salamander in aquaria with equal larval densities.
Rates of cannibalism increase as the proportion of nonsiblings present increases.
SPADEFOOT TOAD-siblings of discriminating cannibals 2x as likely to survive (B=2), cost to discriminating cannibal almost zero.
Hamilton's rule... at what level of relatedness does this work??
|Adaption||an inherited characteristic that improves an organisms ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.|
|nitrogen||(primitive reductive) nh3 - n2 (present oxidative)|
|Exaptation||evolved in one environmental context but becomes beneficial in another. Preadaptation without any intention implied|
|What is Vi?||Epistatic interactions: interactions between 2+ lovi in which the expression of one or more loci is modified.|
|Parsimony||minimizes the number of evolutionary changes that occur; minimizes the number of homoplasies|
|Paedomorphosis||evolution of a more "juvenilized" morphology of the reproductive adult|
|Burgess Shale Fossils||-British Columbia 525-515mya-Abundant sponges, jellies, comb jellies-Brand new animals with eyes, mouths, limbs, shells, and with feeding appendages|
def: movment of alleles between populations (gene flow)
technical def: seasonal movement between two home-ranges of an organism
Migration includes dispersal of individuals or gametes
-internal vs external fertilization (dif potentials of dispersal)
-dispersal agents (plants have higher potential)
-barriers (what will prevent it?)
|Punctuated Equilibrium||evolution in sharp stepsirregular rates|
|evolutionary adapation||An accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance organisms’ ability to survive and reproduce in specific environments|
|speciation||process by which new species form|
|Fitness||the contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation compared to the contribution of other individuals|
|intermediate fossil||evolutionary link between one species and another|
|The Three Eras to Know||Paleozoic, mesozoic, cenozoic|
|Divergengent Evolution||Population becomes isolate and evolves into different spicies|
|Alfred Wallace||Essay with evolution (published before Darwin)|
Inherited traits that enhance an organisms ability to survive and reproduce in its particular environment
Example: Blue-footed booby on galapagos islands
|Heterochrony||evolutionary change in the timing or rate of developmental events|
|Darwin||Three Points of Evidence: Geology and FossilsBiogeographical Separatoin or BiogeographyAnatomical SimilaritiesCollected specimens as evidence Theory of evolution by natural selection|
|silent point mutation||does not affect produced protein|
When should an individual start reproducing?
How many offspring should an individual have?
-why don't some species maximize each reproductive event?
How often should an individual reproduce?
**Drosophila... premature death at old age has little effect on fitness, can compensate by laying one more egg early on (as survival probability is so low at high age)
|Embryological Developmetn||Embryo:orgamisns at early stages of developement|
|Possible individual interctions, and whether evolution favors||
Co-operatinon/mutualism = yes
selfishness = yes
spite = no
altruism = ?(yes and no)
|fossil||A preserved remnant or impression of an organism that lived in the past|
|microevolutionary processes||(mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, nat. selec) stability or change is the outcome, influence by pop. size and enviro. conditions|
|homologous structure||structural feature with a common evolutionary origin|
|Genetic Drift||Process of change in the genetic composition of a population due to chance or random events rather than by natural selection, resulting in changes in allele frequencies over time|
|sympatric speciation||formation of new species within the range within the range of the parents|
|polygenic trait||trait controlled by 2 or more genes|
|the modern synthesis||Combines field of population genetics with Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection.|
|Alfred Russel Wallace||Darwin co-present evolution with him to Royal Society of London|
|Descent with modification||a result of natural selection; multiple branches with diverging phenotypes|
If a biologist was studying the concept of one species splitting into two or more new species, that biologist would be studying which of the following?
C. prezygotic isolation
|adaptive radiation||-emergence of a number of lineages from a single ancestral species-Darwin's finches|
|arbitrary hypothesis||male traits have no correlation with genetic quality|
|Darwin's Observations (5)||
1. South American fossils resembled living animals
2. Parts of the world with similar climates (ie. Aus+S.Am) populated by very different organisms (ie. polar regions... polar bears and penguins)
3.Plants and animals on each continent are distinctive (why are marsupials so abundant in australia?)
4.Many specis on oceanic islands are found only there (endemic) (Galapagos finches)
5.Endemic species on islands closely resemble species on adjacent mainland (likely colonization + similar ancestor)
woodpecker finch uses a stick in a hole to acquire grubs
|Geographic barrier||A type of reproductive isolation that includes mountains, rivers and roads.|
|patterns of evolution||coevolution-2 or more closely related species change in response to each other|
What is the difference between the distribution of alleles in linkage equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium?
**allele frequencies are exactly the same
-haplotypes or 'chromosome frequencies'?
haplotype: haploid genotype (ie gametes, organellar genome)
D = coefficient of linkage disequilibrium
D=gABgab - gAbgaB
(difference in genotype frequencies)
When D=0, loci are not linked.
-max D = 0.25
LOCI ARE IN EQUILIBRIUM IF (one of three ways):
1)frequncy of B on chromosomes with A= frequency of B on chromosomes with a
2)frequency of AB=frequncy of A times frequency of B
|the most common form of selection acting at the genic level is||purifying selection|
|genetic persistance||(macro) basis of unity of life. biochemical and molecular basis of inheritance extends from the first cells through all line of descent|
|gene flow||when an organism enters or leaves the gene pool|
|Problems with Typological Species Concept||1) Polymorphism within populations2) Variation among population3) Sibling or cryptic species|
Selection with environmental heterogeneity
(2) Temporal heterogeneity
Different phenotypes are favored at different seasons
Example: Darwin's finch beak size in drought vs. wet years (large beak favored in drought years)
|Mullerian mimicry+ ex||2+ unpalatable species are co-mimics. Example = mimicry ring of moths.|
|Mutation||A change in the base sequence of a DNA molecule|
|Burgess Shale||520 mya - impressive Cambrian fossil - shows early animal forms, soft bodies|
|what vestigial organ is commonly seen in limbless animals?||reduced hip/leg bones|
|HMS Beagle||The ship that Darwin boarded that led him to propose a revolutionary hypothesis about life.|
|homeotic gene||Any of the genes that control the overall body plan of animals and plants by controlling the developmental fate of groups of cells.|
|how life started||lighting mixed up molecules to make amino acidsunicellular, prokaryotic, heterotrophsunicellular, prokaryotic, autotrophsmade O2evolution/genetic variation/mutation|
|Fossils shoehorned||For a while many of the fossils of these deposits were shoehorned into still living lineages, and this forced to represent the ancestors of modern groups no matter how poorly they fit. This came from a mistaken view that phylogenitic diversification occured in a gradualistic manner,( v shaped) rather than arising in a short interval (u shaped) Each of the four persistant classes of arthropod are present in burgess shale, but there are over 20 other distinct plans that are not present today|
|Disruptive Selection + example||selection for both extremes. Example = Seedcracker Finches|
|Heterozygote Advantage||1-S, 1, 1-T (WAA, WAa, Waa) - sickle cell anemia|
|What is Descent with Modification?||Species have descended with changes, from over species over time|
Need to be able to recognize kin, but how?
-phenotype matching: imprint on parent's traits
-recognition genes: eg. major histocompatability complex (MHC) produce odor cues
Belding's ground squirrel.. individuals reared apart.
-Sibling pairs are less aggressive.
armpit effect - learn what you smell like and others with a similar smell are relatives
|for natural selection to occur||There must be heritable variation for some trait. Examples: beak size, color pattern, thickness of skin, fleetness.There must be differential survival and reproduction associated with the possession of that trait.|
|What are the possible genetic and non-genetic contributions to Vp?||
Va Additive variance, Vgxe genetic by environment, Vi epistatic
|what influenced D to believe that species change gradually?||Lyells beliefs on geographic uniformatarianism|
|On The Origin of Species||The book on Darwin's findings about evolution.|
|giraffe's evolved according to Darwin's Theory of Evolution||survival of the fittest so the giraffes with short necks couldn't reach the food and only the long-necked ones could so the short necks died out while the long necks lived|
|what are frame shift mutations?||a base is deleted causing the reading frame to change.|
|evolution aside, (aka proving that intermediate eye structure were functional without being complex) what other peice of evidence disproved the idea of "irreducible complexity"||even though eyes are "perfect" they break down all the time.|
|What are the 7 difficulties in creating phylogenetic trees?||1. scoring characters is hard2. homoplasy is common3. evolution erases evidence4. rapid divergence = low speciation5. gene tree may be wrong6. hybridization happens7. horizontal gene transfer (think parisitoid wasps and virus article)|
|Name two examples where gene flow can prevent evolution/fixation by natural selection.||
Example 1: Wind blowing metal resistant grass seeds to non-metal areas hence preventing fixation of the metal resistant allele and non-metal allele
Example 2: Northern water snake; the gene flow between populations leads to large-scale heterogeneity, and thus no fixation
|What geological discovery did D ahve? What inspired/confirmed it?||
While exploring the Andes, D thought that they seemed like old and volcanic structures. He found sea beds up there with marine fossils too.
He experienced an eathquake while at sea. He saw a portion of the earths crust rise out of the water and he saw the marine life exposed dying on it. This explained to him the formation of mountains.
|What two things make up genotypic and phenotypic variation? (this one doesn't really have any logic attached to it_||1. generation of new genotypes and thus phenotypes2. phenotypic variations in a population|
|In 1859 what did Darwin publish?||"On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection"|
|when do you use sigma and when do you use s in detwemining variance?||sigma is for when you measure every single individual in a pop. s is for when you take a sample|