|aldehyde||R-C(=O)H ; (-anal)|
|open-chains||Aliphatic or Acyclic|
|Linus Pauling developed||Hybridization theory.|
|Larger Ka means||stronger acid|
|carbon tetrachloride||nonpolar, inert solvent|
|Petroleum||Mixture of hydrocarbons. Fractional distillation used to separate.|
|R-NH2||The General Formula of Amines|
|cyclohexane has ___ hydrogens (arranged in a hexagon form)||12|
|Functions of Carbohydrates||structural molecules and Chitin|
|carboxylic acid||CH3-C(=O)-OH, contains a terminal O=C-OH group|
|abbreviation of a structural formula||Line formula|
|isomers||same molecular formula but different structural formula thus different properties|
|deactivating and ortho/para||halogens (weakly electron withdrawing)|
|Plant and animal fats mainly composed of||Triglycerides|
|Cholesterol||Steroid that forms the outer membrane in animal cells|
|Molecules that are non super imposable mirror images of each other.||Enantiomers|
|geometric||Isomers which are unable to fully rotate due to the presence of a double bond or ring|
|Nitration||the substitution of a nitro group (NO2) for a hydrogen on benzene (H2SO4)|
|Common names for ethene, and ethyne, and the iupac name for chloroform||Ethene-EthyleneEthyne-AcetyleneChloroform- Trichloromethane|
|The only other element that can bond to any other element in the periodic table||Silicon|
|Agarose gel electrophoresis||Type of Chromatography, used to separate nucleic acids based on size/length of chain. The media serves as the stationary phase and the nucleic acid as the mobile phase. Negatively charged nucleic acids travel toward the anode (positive end). Smaller strands travel faster than larger chains.|
|Acid chlorides||have a chlorine bonded to the C=O|
|infrared light||the amount of energy needed to increase certain molecular motions, cuch as bond vibrations, in organic molecules.|
|carbon atoms always have||4 bonds, no lone pairs|
|Natural gas, why?||Fossil fuel composed primarily of Alkanes with 1-4 Carbon atoms, lower mass with lower connecting forces|
|aldol condensation||in base, enolate from one carbonyl adds to another carbonyl (acid, enol) to form beta-hydroxy ketone (heat and base allows for elimination to alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl)|
|Carboxylic Acids||have an -OH group bonded to the C=O|
|racemic||A mixture with equal parts L and D forms of a substance is said to be...|
|sigma bond, pi bond||A double bond consists of this|
Nucleus- lg mass, sml vol
e- - smal mass, lg vol
(proton most heavy--> greatest mass)
A method of separating the colors in a mixture based on the different weights of the molecules that make up the different pigments in the mixture. ◦Classically used to separate pigments in dyes.
◦Solvent = mobile phase. Paper = stationary phase.
◦Pigments in dyes stick to paper, solvent tries to wash them along, those with greater affinity to paper stays behind, those with greater affinity to solvent gets washed along.
◦Rf value = distance traveled by pigment / distance of solvent front.
◦Rf = 0 means that pigment has not moved.
◦Rf = 1 means that pigment moved as far as the solvent front.
|Type formula (example CnH2n+2)||The formula that indicates the carbon to hydrogen ratio in a Hydrocarbon|
|Polar covalent charges are defined as||
unequal sharing of electrons
(carrying a pseudo charge)
|Cylinder of sigma bond contains||2nuclei (nodes) and the pair of negative electrical charges|
|hydrogenation||a rxn where H2 is added to 2x or 3x bond.|
|If a reaction temperature is decreasing, and the Kw gets smaller -- this means||Reaction favors the endothermic rxn. (it usually favors the exothermic).|
|a anti pi bonding occurs when||2 overlapping sideways pi bonds with different signs interact|
|How to prep an amino acid||1) Protein and water takes 7 years2) protein + 6NHCl, 12hrs, 100degreesC3) bromination to a CA then amination (won't work on kerosene) 1) Br2 Pbr3 2)H2O then NH4OH4) from a alpha CANH3then 1)NaBH4 2)H2O5) from a malonate1) alpha halogenate malonate2) Gabriel amine synthesis3) alpha-alkylation4) hydrolysis/decarboxylation6)strecker synthesis1) aldehyde + NH3 + CN-2) H3O+|
|•π bonds are double and triple bonds. They make up||the second bond in a double bond, and both the second and the third bond in a triple bond.|