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Give examples of conclusion indicator keywords a. Thus b. Therefore c. Hence d. Consequently e. As a result f. So g. Accordingly h. Clearly i. Must be that j. Shows that k. Conclude that l. Follows that m. For this reason..
15. Give some keywords that indicate quantity Quantity indicators a. All b. Every c. Most d. Many e. Some f. Several g. Few h. Sole
13. Can a statement be both a conclusion and a premise? yes
Give some numerical terms Numerical terms: Amount, Quantity, sum, total, count, all
Define assumption An assumption is simply an unstated premise of the argument; that is, an integral component of the argument that the author takes for granted and leaves unsaid. 2. The answer you select as correct must contain a statement that the author relies upon and is fully committed to in the argument.
A Piece of information that isn't explicitly stated but is necessary for and argument to remain valid. Bridges the gap and without it the argument falls apart. What is missing from the stimulus? Assumption Questions
10. What do you need to identify if the stimulus contains an argument? The conclusion
how do you write the contrapositive for the following logical statement: a-&gt;b ~b-&gt;~a explanation: a-&gt;b means if a, then b if the above line is true then the contrapositive is also true. The contrapositive, ~b-&gt;~a , means if not b, then not a To create the contrapositive for an if-then relationship. Change the positions (i.e. direction of the arrow), change the signs (~), change any 'and' to &quot;or&quot; and any &quot;or&quot; to &quot;and&quot;
Which one of the following is inferable from the argument above? Which of the following is implied in the argument above? The author suggests that... If all the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true? The statements above, Inference Questions Stems
Weaken or strengthen the assumption. Maybe the assumption inherent in the stimulus is revealed as unreasonable! Weaken does not mean disproving; strengthen does not mean proving. Strength and Weaken Questions
Give 7 common logical fallacies 1. Explanations often identify the wrong cause. An argument that commits this error attributes a causal relationship between two events where none exits or at least the relationship is misidentified. 2. Analogies are often false. This error occurs when a conclusion drawn from one situation is applied to another situation – but the two situations are not similar 3. A generalization may be weak: Basing a large conclusion on too little data 4. Some arguments use terms ambiguously: anytime there is a shifting in the meaning of terms used in an argument, the argument has committed a fallacy of ambiguity 5. Some arguments use irrelevant evidence: an argument that appeals to the popularity of a position to prove the position is fallacious 6. Some arguments are circular: the conclusion to be proved appears also as a premise 7. Ad Hominem arguments attack someone personally: Any argument which is directed against the source of the claim rather than the claim itself is an ad hominem attack
What’s the difference between an implicit vs. an explicit premise? Explicit premises are specifically stated Implicit premises are not stated. Implicit premises are also known as hidden premises
Differences/similarities between method of reasoning and flaw in the reasoning questions? c. Method of reasoning and flaw in the reasoning are the same except that flaw of reasoning explicitly notes that the stimulus contains an error of reasoning. In a method of reasoning question the stimulus contains valid or invalid reasoning.
1. Identify the Question type. 2. Untangle the Stimulus. 3. Predict the Answer 4. Evaluate the Choices Method for answering Critical Reasoning Questions.
What are the two roles that assumptions can play? Define them Roles of assumptions a. Supporter by adding a link: link together new or rogue elements in the stimulus or fill logical gaps in the argument. b. Defender by eliminating objections/weakeners: These assumptions contain statements that eliminate ideas or assertions that would undermine the conclusion. In this sense, they defend the argument by showing that a possible avenue of attack has been eliminated (assumed not to exist).
What is the ASSUMPTION NEGATION TECHNIQUE? aka DENIAL TEST Use the ASSUMPTION NEGATION TECHNIQUE (same as DENIAL TEST) to decide between contenders or to confirm that the chosen answer is correct. This can only be used on assumption questions. a. Logically negate the answer choices under consideration b. The negated answer choice that attacks the argument will be the correct answer.
Weaken questions will always contain what? The stimulus will contain an argument... Identify, isolate, and assess the premises and conclusion of the argument.
Argument-part questions are subsets of what? 8. Argument Part questions: subset of method of reasoning questions. in A-P questions, the question stem cites a specific portion of the stimulus and then asks you to identify the role that the cited portion plays in the structure of the argument or alternatively the stem cites two portions of the stimulus and about the role the two portions play in relation to each other. a. Stimuli in Method-AP questions are usually more complex
What rules are for Strengthen and weaken questions involving numbers and/or percentages? Rules for Weaken and Strengthen questions: Look carefully for information about the total amount(s) -- does the argument make an assumption based on one of the misconceptions listed? a. Increasing percentages automatically lead to increasing numbers b. Decreasing percentages automatically lead to decreasing numbers. c. Increasing numbers automatically lead to increasing percentages d. Decreasing numbers automatically lead to decreasing percentages e. Large numbers automatically mean large percentages, and small numbers automatically mean small percentages. The size of a number does NOT reveal anything about the percentage it represents unless you know something about the size of the overall total that number is drawn from. f. Large percentages automatically mean large numbers, and small percentages automatically mean small numbers.
A premise that weakens the conclusion should do either of two things? expose a faulty assumption OR introduce a piece of detracting evidence
What must the correct answer in resolve the paradox questions do? Correct answer will positively resolve the paradox so that both sides are true and the conditions in the stimulus have been met. If an answer supports or proves only one side of the paradox, that answer will be incorrect. The correct answer must show how both sides coexist. You are not seeking to disprove one side of the situation; you must select the answer choice that contains a possible cause of the situation.
How can assumptions strengthen an argument? 1. Assumptions can serve to fill avoid 2. Assumptions can establish the feasibility of the premises of the argument 3. Assumptions can eliminate alternate paths to the same end. 4. Assumptions can eliminate alternate models of causation
What are the 9 primary objectives in critical reasoning? 1. Determine whether the stimulus contains an argument or if it is only a set of factual statements 2. If the stimulus contains an argument, identify the conclusion of the argument. If the stimulus contains a fact set, examine each fact. 3. If the stimulus contains an argument, determine whether the argument is strong or weak. 4. Read closely and know precisely what the author said. Do not generalize! Make sure you recognize quantity and probability indicators if they are presented in the stimulus. Also recognize the scope that the stimulus is limited or not limited to. 5. Carefully read and identify the question stem. Do not assume that certain words are automatically associated with certain question types. 6. Pre-phrase: After reading the question stem, take a moment to mentally formulate your answer to the question stem. 7. Always read each of the five answer choices. 8. Separate the answer choices into Contenders and Losers. After completing this process, review the contenders and decide which answer is the correct one. 9. If all five answers appear to be Losers, return to the stimulus and re-evaluate the argument.
What is true of all averages? 8. Average is a composite number, and within the average there can be a significant degree of variation and no single entity need embody the exact characteristic of the average (for example, the average weight of a 1 pound rock and a 99 pound rock is 50 pounds)
Give 16 common errors of reasoning. (usually show up in flaws in reasoning questions) In no particular order: 1. Uncertain use of a term or concept 2. Source argument (Ad homimen) i.e. attacking the source of the argument rather than the argument itself. 3. Circular reasoning: assumes as true what is supposed to be proven. 4. Errors of conditional reasoning: 4a. confuses a sufficient condition for a necessary one. 4b. confuses a necessary condition for a sufficient one. 5. Mistaken cause and effect 5a. assumes causal relationship is based on sequence of events 5b. assumes causal relationship when only a correlation exists 5c. fails to consider alternate cause for the effect or for both the effect and the cause. 5d. fails to consider the possibility that the events may be reversed (the cause is actually the effect) 6. Straw Man: distorts an argument in order to be able to knock it down more easily. 7. General lack of evidence for the conclusion: uses irrelevant data or information. 8. Internal Contradiction: the author makes conflicting statements. 9. Appeal fallacies: 9a. Appeals to opinions of an unqualified authority 9b Appeals to popular opinion or numbers 9c. Appeals to emotion 10. Survey Errors: 10a. survey uses a biased sample. 10b. survey uses a sample that is self-selected i.e. individuals being polled choose to whether or not to respond. This introduces bias into the sample. 10c. improper or misleading survey questions. questions that make presumptions in the question itself. 10d. respondents to the survey give inaccurate responses. People sometimes give false answers to surveys. 10e. states a generalization that is not representative of the group about which the generalization is supposed to hold true. i.e. sample size is too small. 11. Errors of composition and division: 11a. composition error: attributes a characteristic of part of the group to the group as a whole. 11b. division error: attributes a characteristic of the whole (or each member of the whole) to a part of the group. 12. False Analogy. Uses an analogy that is too dissimilar. 13. False Dilemma: assumes that only two courses of action are available when there may be others. (do not confuse this where the author legitimately establishes that only two possibilities exist) 14. Errors in the use of evidence: 14a. Lack of evidence for a position is taken to prove that position is false. 14b. Lack of evidence against a positions is taken to prove that position is true. 14c. some evidence against a position is taken to prove that position is false. introduction of evidence against a position weakens it, it doesn't necessarily prove it false. 14d. some evidence for a position is taken to prove that position is true. the introduction of evidence for a position only provides support for the position; it does not prove the position to be undeniably true. 15. Time shift errors: assumes that conditions will remain constant over time, and that what was the case in the past will be the case in the future. 16. Numbers and percentage errors: improperly equates a percentage with a definite quantity or quantity information is used to make a judgement about the percentage represented by that quantity.
Translate the following sentence to logical notation: &quot;You will not be admitted to Yale Law School UNLESS you take the LSAT&quot; Yale -&gt; LSAT or ~LSAT -&gt; ~ Yale
14. What are 3 commonly used complex argument forms that tricks most test takers? also give some common phrases that identifies one of the forms. Commonly used complex argument forms that tricks most test takers: a. place the main conclusion in the first sentence of the argument, and then place the sub-conclusion in the last sentence of the argument, preceded by a conclusion indicator. This confuses the test taker into thinking the last sentence is the main conclusion. b. Having a stimulus with two speakers. Each presents his or her argument or comment. This can lead to multiple viewpoints on the same subject. c. Alternate viewpoints using a single speaker. Author raises a viewpoint and then immediately disagrees with it. These are recognizable because they often begin with the following phrases (common structure: a number of people believe that…): i. Some people propose ii. Many people believe iii. Some argue that iv. Some critics claim v. Some critics maintain vi. Although some people claim.. vii. It has been claimed that..
How should you handle appeals to authority in CR questions (in surveys and studies)? Don’t be fooled by appeals to authority. Conclusions must be backed up by solid evidence, not by the opinions or actions of experts.
Give some keywords that signal the premises Key words often signal an important premise; In some arguments the premises rather than the conclusion are signaled. Words that signal premises include: since, because, if
What is the most important step in doing CR questions? Read carefully and find the conclustion. Make sure to find the premises and separate the conclusion out from the premises.
Which question types does each family contain? Know in which of the following families each of the question types fall into a. Prove: 1,2,7,8,9 b. Help: 3,4,5 c. Hurt: 6 d. Evaluate the argument is by itself (combination of Help &amp; Hurt): 10 == 1. Must be true / Most supported 2. Main Point 3. Assumption 4. Strengthen / Support 5. Resolve the Paradox 6. Weaken 7. Method of Reasoning 8. Flaw in the Reasoning 9. Parallel Reasoning 10. Evaluate the Argument
In strengthen and weaken questions, what is a good tool to use to help you pick the right answer? list the answer letters and mark them as s (if it strengthens) or w (if it weakens) or slash them if they are clearly incorrect. a b c d e
Give 4 ways you can strengthen a causal conclusion. Ways to strengthen a causal conclusion: a. Eliminate any alternate causes for the stated effect b. Show that when the cause occurs, the effect occurs c. Eliminate the possibility that the stated relationship is reversed d. Show that the data used to make the causal statement are accurate, or eliminate possible problems with the data
What are five categories of correct answers in assumption questions that have arguments with causal reasoning? Assumption answer choices tend to work exactly like strengthen answer choices in arguments with causal reasoning. Because the author always assumes the stated cause is the only cause, the correct answer to an assumption question will normally fit one of the following categories: a. Eliminates an alternate cause for the stated effect b. Shows that the when the cause occurs, the effect occurs c. Shows that when the cause does not occur, the effect does not occur d. Eliminates the possibility that the stated relationship is reversed. e. Shows that the data used to make the causal statement is accurate, or eliminates possible problems with the data.
When a question asks you to evaluate the conclusion, what should you consider? Consider any assumptions upon which the argument is based upon.
What is suspect in strengthen and assumption questions? The information in the stimulus is suspect. There are often reasoning errors present.
What is a characteristic of the correct answer in inference questions? The correct answer to an inference question doesn’t have to reflect every sentence in the text. In fact, it’s more likely that the right answer either rewrites one sentence, or combines two sentences.
Write the logical notations for the following: If A, then B A, only if B A, Unless B If A, then B: A-&gt; B or ~B-&gt;~A A, Only if B: A-&gt; B or ~B-&gt;~A A, Unless B: ~A-&gt;B or ~B-&gt;A
Give some terms that are usually in the question stem for evaluate the argument questions The question stems almost always use the word &quot;evaluate&quot; or synonyms such as &quot;judge&quot; or &quot;assess&quot;
when a question asks for an inference, what should you look for? Infer based only on the premises. Infer so little that the inference seems obvious.
What is the best way to solve assumption questions? Don't look for the perfect answer. Instead, eliminate wrong answers until you have only one left
When should you not use the VARIANCE TEST in evaluate the argument questions? This only applies to evaluate the argument questions: The VARIANCE TEST should only be applied to contenders. Applying it to all answers will be a waste of time. VARIANCE TEST : supply two opposite responses to the question posed in the answer choice and then analyze how the varying responses affect the conclusion in the stimulus. If different responses produce different effects on the conclusion, the answer choice is correct. If different responses do not produce different effects, the answer choice is incorrect
when the logical indicator is the word UNLESS, what is the rule for logical notation? Negate whatever We put INTO the circle
What will be a big feature of the correct answer for ResolveX type questions? In ResolveX questions the correct answer would most likely confuse the situation or most likely have no impact on the situation.
What are some terms that often introduce a cause and effect relationship ? (13) Terms that often introduce a cause and effect relationship: a. caused by b. because of c. responsible for d. reason for e. leads to f. induced by g. promoted by h. determined by i. produced by j. product of k. played a role in l. was a factor in m. is an effect of
What will the stimulus contain in Method of reasoning or flaw in reasoning questions? The stimulus for a Method or reasoning question will contain an argument, and the argument can contain either valid or invalid reasoning.
What are the five methods of attacking a cause and effect relationship? Methods of attacking a cause and effect relationship a. Find an alternate cause for the stated effect b. Show that even when the cause occurs, the effect does not occur c. Show that although the effect occurs, the cause did not occur d. Show that the stated relationship is in fact reversed e. Show a statistical problem exists with the data used to make the causal statement
When you see “most” in the question type, what still holds to be true regarding the answers? there will still be only one answer that will be correct
For each of the family types, define what is suspect and what needs to be taken for its word? Also draw a diagram showing it Know in which of the following families each of the above question types fall into a. Prove: 1,2,7,8,9 i. You must accept the stimulus information -- even if it contains an error of reasoning -- and use it to prove that one of the answer choices must be true. ii. Any Information in an answer choice that does not appear either directly in the stimulus or as a combination of items in the stimulus will be incorrect. b. Help: 3,4,5 i. The information in the stimulus is suspect. There are often reasoning errors present, and depending on the question, you will help shore up the argument in some way. ii. The answer choices are accepted as given, even if they include &quot;new&quot; information. Your task is to determine which answer choice best meets the question posed in the stem. c. Hurt: 6 i. The information in the stimulus is suspect. There are often reasoning errors present, and you will further weaken the argument in some way. ii. The answer choices are accepted as given, even if they include &quot;new&quot; information. Your task is to determine which answer choice best attacks the argument in the stimulus. the ten Critical Reasoning question types 1. Must be true / Most supported 2. Main Point 3. Assumption 4. Strengthen / Support 5. Resolve the Paradox 6. Weaken 7. Method of Reasoning 8. Flaw in the Reasoning 9. Parallel Reasoning 10. Evaluate the Argument
What are the 3 elements used to figure out numerical situations in CR questions? How many of these elements are needed to make a judgment about the remaining element(s)? Numerical situations normally hinge on three elements: an overall total, a number within that total, and a percentage within the total. Without at least two elements present, you cannot make a definitive judgment about what is occurring with another element.
What is true if the causal statement is in the conclusion and what is true if the statement is in the premise? Give an example. Causal statements can be used in the premise or conclusion of an argument. If the causal statement is the conclusion, then the reasoning is flawed. If the causal statement is a premise, then the argument may be flawed, but not because of the causal statement. a. Example of argument with causal conclusion: premise1: In north America, people drink a lot of milk.. premise 2: there is a high frequency of cancer in North America. Conclusion: therefore, drinking milk causes cancer b. Example of argument with causal premise: premise1: drinking milk causes cancer, premise2: the residents of north America drink a lot of milk. Conclusion: Therefore, in North America there is a high frequency of cancer among the residents
Where is the correct answer proven for Must be true questions? Must be true questions require you to select an answer choice that is proven by the information in the stimulus.
What will most likely be attacked in weaken questions? The conclusion is the part of the argument that is most likely to be attacked, but the correct answer choice will not simply contradict the conclusion. Instead, the correct answer choice will undermine the conclusion by showing that the conclusion fails to account for some element or possibility. In this sense, the correct answer often shows that the conclusion does not necessarily follow from the premises even if the premises are true.
Give 5 general things you can do to help to strengthen any argument. Points to use to strengthen an argument: a. Identify the conclusion b. Personalize the argument c. Look for weaknesses or holes in the argument and patch them up d. Arguments that contain analogies or use surveys rely upon their validity. Answer choices that establish their soundness are usually correct. e. The correct answer can strengthen the argument just a little or a lot.
What are two scenarios or traps that lead to false causal conclusions? There are two scenarios that tend to lead to causal conclusions in Critical Reasoning questions: a. One event occurs before another. Don’t fall into the trap of assuming that the first event caused the second event. b. Two (or more) events occur at the same time. Don’t fall into the trap of assuming that one event caused the other when they both occurred at the same time.
What can be said about the stimulus in resolve-the-paradox questions? The stimulus will not have a conclusion. If you read a fact set that does not contain a paradox, expect to see a Must be true or a cannot be true question)
What do you need to find in parallel reasoning questions? These questions ask you to identify the answer choice that contains reasoning most similar to in structure to the reasoning in the stimulus.
What 3 rules are for Must be true questions involving numbers and/or percentages? Rules for Must Be True questions a. If the stimulus contains percentages or proportion information only, avoid answers that contain hard numbers. b. If the stimulus contains only numerical information, avoid answers that contain percentage or proportion information c. If the stimulus contains both percentage and numerical information, any answer choice that contains numbers, percentages, or both MAY be true
What 5 things does a good inference do? A good inference does all of the following: i. Stays in line with the gist of the passage ii. Stays in line with the authors tone iii. Stays in line with the authors point of view iv. Stays within the scope of the argument or the main idea v. Its neither denied by, nor irrelevant to, the argument or discussion
What 2 items do you NOT need to parallel? The following elements do NOT need to be paralleled: a. The topic of the stimulus b. The order of presentation of the premises and conclusion in the stimulus
What can be said about fill in the blank questions? Fill in the blank questions are almost always assumption questions in disguise (when they are not assumption questions, they are Must be true/Main point questions).
What are you NOT seeking to do in the correct answer in resolve the paradox questions? You are not seeking to disprove one side of the situation; you must select the answer choice that contains a possible cause of the situation.
What is the FACT TEST and how do you use it? Use the FACT TEST to eliminate answers in Method and Flaw question: If an answer choice describes an event that did not occur in the stimulus, then that answer is incorrect. ALL parts of the answer must be identifiable in the stimulus.
Give 2 things that you can you use to eliminate one or more of the questions. The scope - especially if that scope is broad - often helps eliminate one or more of the answer choices 7. When a stimulus contains only the opinions of others, then you can eliminate any answer that makes a flat assertion without referencing those opinions.
Give some keywords that indicate probability of something happening/not happening. Probability indicators a. Most b. Will c. Always d. Not always e. Probably f. Likely g. Would h. Not necessarily i. Could j. Rarely k. Never
Can the conclusion be the first sentence? yes
Define conclusion Conclusion: a statement or judgment that follows from one or more reasons
Give examples of premise indicator keywords a. Because b. Since c. For d. For example e. For the reason that f. In that g. Given that h. As indicated by i. Due to j. Owing to k. This can be seen from l. We know this by
Differences/similarities between weaken and strengthen questions? Weaken and strengthen are polar opposite question types and both are often based on flawed or weak arguments that contain holes that must be closed or opened further.
What are 3 characteristics of incorrect answers in weaken questions? Incorrect answers a. Opposite answers b. Shell game c. out of scope
What are 6 misconceptions in Number and percentage questions? Misconceptions: a. Increasing percentages automatically lead to increasing numbers b. Decreasing percentages automatically lead to decreasing numbers. c. Increasing numbers automatically lead to increasing percentages d. Decreasing numbers automatically lead to decreasing percentages e. Large numbers automatically mean large percentages, and small numbers automatically mean small percentages. The size of a number does NOT reveal anything about the percentage it represents unless you know something about the size of the overall total that number is drawn from. f. Large percentages automatically mean large numbers, and small percentages automatically mean small numbers.
MAKE THE ASSUMPTION MORE/LESS LIKELY! Immediate thought for Strengthen/Weaken Questions.
What is another name for the main point of an argument? the conclusion
Give 5 characteristics of incorrect answers in method/flaw of reasoning questions. Incorrect answers: a. New element answers: correct Method of Reasoning answers must be based up on elements of the stimulus, an answer that describes something that did not occur or describes an element new to the argument cannot be correct. b. Half right, half wrong answers: start by describing something that happened in the stimulus and finish by describing something that did not occur in the stimulus. c. Exaggerated Answers d. The opposite answer e. The reverse answer: contains familiar elements from the stimulus but reverses them.
11. What is the conclusion identification method? When do you use it? And how do you use it? Conclusion Identification method: take the statements under consideration for the conclusion and place them in an arrangement that forces one to be the conclusion and the other(s) to be the premise(s). Use premise and conclusion indicators to achieve this end. Once the pieces are arranged, determine if the arrangement makes logical sense. If so, you have made the correct identification. If not, reverse the arrangement and examine the relationship again, continue until you find an arrangement that is logical.
FIND WHAT MUST BE TRUE! Immediate thought for Inference Questions.
What are two characteristics of incorrect answers in resolve-the-paradox questions? Incorrect answers a. Explains only one side of the paradox b. Similarities and differences: i. If the stimulus contains a paradox where two items are similar, then an answer choice that explains a difference between the two cannot be correct. ii. Conversely, if the stimulus contains a paradox where two items are different, then an answer choice that explains why the two are similar cannot be correct. iii. In short, a similarity cannot explain a difference, and a difference cannot explain a similarity.
Strengthen and assumption questions often yield what? These questions often yield strong pre-phrases.
Define inference That which must be true in order to satisfy the conclusion or link the evidence with the conclusion.
Define market share Market share: the portion of a market that a company controls. Can be measured in terms of revenue (i.e. sales) or units sold.
Which of the following is assumed by the author? Upon which of the following assumptions does the author rely? The argument depends on the assumption that... Which of the following, if added to the passage, would make the conclusion logical? The validity Assumption Question Stems
What are some key features of the question stem in resolve the paradox questions? Question stem features: a. An indication that the answer choices should be accepted as true b. Key words that indicate your task is to resolve a problem
What should you focus on in strengthen and assumption questions? Focus on the conclusion.
What is the difference between parallel flaw and parallel reasoning questions? Parallel Flaw questions are Parallel Reasoning questions where the stimulus contains flawed reasoning.
What are the two incorrect answer types that you need to look out for when doing Main Point questions? Incorrect answer types a. Answers that are true but do not encapsulate the author's point. b. Answers that just repeat premises of the argument but don't encapsulate the conclusion along with the premises
In parallel reasoning questions, What must you look out for when comparing the wordings of the conclusions? i. Answers that have identical wording to the conclusion are contenders. If the conclusion in the answer choice has similar wording to the conclusion in the stimulus, then the answer is possibly correct. ii. Do not eliminate answers just because the wording is not identical. Make sure you do not eliminate an answer that has wording that is functionally identical to the wording in the stimulus. iii. The presence of a negative term in the stimulus is NOT ground for dismissing the answer when the stimulus has positive language (and vice versa).
Give some percentage terms or terms of probability that could lead to percentages Percentage terms: percent, proportion, fraction, ratio, incidence, likelihood, probability, segment, share
Difference between method of reasoning and flaw in reasoning questions? 2. Flaw in the reasoning are exactly the same as Method of reasoning except that there is a flaw in the reasoning in the stimulus. You need not make a determination of the validity of the stimulus. The stimuli for both method and flaw questions will contain an argument. In Method questions, the argument can contain either valid or invalid reasoning; in flaw question the argument must contain invalid reasoning
What is suspect in weaken questions? The information in the stimulus is suspect. There are often reasoning errors present and you must read the argument carefully.
Parallel reasoning questions are an extension of which question type? Parallel reasoning questions are a one step extension of Method of Reasoning questions.
Which question types appear the least frequently? e. Main point, Method of reasoning, flaw in the reasoning, parallel reasoning and evaluate the argument appear the least frequently
What family of questions are Evaluate the argument questions a combination of? 2. These questions are a combination of the second and third family of questions (combination of help and hurt). The information in the stimulus is suspect, so you should search for the reasoning error present.
Which of the following, if true, would most weaken/strengthen the argument above? Which of the following, if true, would most seriously damage/would provide the most support for the argument above? The argument above would be more persuasive if which one Strengthen and Weaken Question Stems
Where is the conclusion usually placed in Main Point questions? Most main point questions have the conclusion at the beginning or middle of the stimulus. (because having the conclusion at the end of the stimulus is too common)
What is a big characteristic of inferences and assumptions? Inference and assumptions MUST be true in order for the argument to hold.
What are the 10 critical reasoning question types? 1. Must be true / Most supported 2. Main Point 3. Assumption 4. Strengthen / Support 5. Resolve the Paradox 6. Weaken 7. Method of Reasoning 8. Flaw in the Reasoning 9. Parallel Reasoning 10. Evaluate the Argument
In weaken questions, what is true about the answer choices and what can they bring in? 5. The answer choices are accepted as given, even if they include new information. You can bring into consideration information outside of or tangential to the stimulus.
What is true for strengthen and assumption questions? The stimulus will contain an argument. Identify, isolate and assess the premises and the conclusion of the argument
When the passage has a cause-effect argument and asks for an assumption, what should you look for? Look for an assumption that eliminates alternate models of causation.
when you have conditional reasoning in the stimulus and a weaken question, how should you attack the problem? Immediately look for an answer that attacks the necessary condition. i.e. provides an alternate cause or shows that when the cause does not occur, the effect still occurs, etc..
Give two characteristics for method of reasoning/ flaw of reasoning questions Part of first family of questions --&gt; structure a. You can only use the information in the stimulus to prove the correct answer choice b. Any answer choice that describes information or a situation that does not occur in the stimulus is incorrect
In weaken questions, what are 3 scenarios that can occur in the stimuli that you can use to exploit the arguments weakness? Scenarios that can occur in the stimuli a. Incomplete information b. Improper comparison c. Qualified conclusion
Define the VARIANCE TEST and how you can apply it to evaluate the argument questions Apply the VARIANCE TEST by supplying two opposite responses to the question posed in the answer choice and then analyze how the varying responses affect the conclusion in the stimulus. If different responses produce different effects on the conclusion, the answer choice is correct. If different responses do not produce different effects, the answer choice is incorrect.
What is a characteristic of the wrong answer in inference questions? The wrong answers in an inference question depart from the scope of the text, go too far, or contradict the text.
What must the correct answer address in resolve the paradox questions? and what will the wrong answer lure you toward? You must address the facts of the stimulus. Many answers will try to lure you with reasonable solutions that do not quite meet the stated facts. These answers are incorrect.
What is one trick that test makers use that is characteristic of incorrect answers in Argument-part questions? b. Trick: test makers sometimes create wrong answers that describe parts of the argument other than the part named/bolded in the question stem.
When the author concludes that one occurrence caused another, what does he also assume? When a GMAT speaker concludes that one occurrence caused another, that speaker also assumes that the stated cause is the ONLY possible cause of the effect and that the stated cause will ALWAYS produce the effect.
In weaken questions, what will the correct answer most likely do with regards to the conclusion? And what will it often show? The conclusion is the part of the argument that is most likely to be attacked, but the correct answer choice will not simply contradict the conclusion. Instead, the correct answer choice will undermine the conclusion by showing that the conclusion fails to account for some element or possibility. In this sense, the correct answer often shows that the conclusion does not necessarily follow from the premises even if the premises are true.
What must you find in Evaluate the argument questions? 1. These questions ask you to consider the question, statistic, or piece of information that would best help determine the logical validity of the argument presented in the stimulus. You must ask the question that will help analyze the validity of the argument.
What are the 6 incorrect answer types for Must be True questions? Incorrect answers a. Could be true or likely to be true answers b. Exaggerated Answers (out of scope) c. New information answers d. The shell game answer e. The Opposite Answer f. The Reverse Answer
What question type is a sub category of Must be true questions? Main point questions are a subcategory of Must be True questions and thus fall into the first family type.
When a question asks you to resolve a problem, what should you consider? use the specific details from the premises only as the basis of your solution
What is a general thing you can you do to identify a flaw in the argument? 9. Personalizing the argument can help you identify its flaw and thus how you can weaken it. Imagine how you would respond if you were talking directly with the author.
What are the 4 tests that you can use to analyze, attack and eliminate answers in parallel reasoning questions? Analyze, attack and possibly eliminate answer choices by testing whether the answer choice under consideration matches certain elements in the stimulus. If not, the answer is incorrect. The following list outlines the four tests you can use to evaluate answers in rough order of usefulness: b. Match the Method of Reasoning c. Match the conclusion d. Match the premises e. Match the Validity (logical force) of the Argument
What should you be looking out for in the stimulus for Method/Flaw of reasoning questions? Watch for the premise and conclusion indicators
What is true of the answer choices in evaluate the argument questions? The answer choices are accepted as given, even if they include new information. Your task is to determine which answer choice best helps determine the validity of the argument.
What must be true for the total market share? Regardless of the size of the market, the total market share must always add up to 100%.
What do you do if all 5 answers appear to be losers? return to the stimulus and re-evaluate the argument
What are the 3 elements that you must parallel? You MUST PARALLEL ALL of the following elements a. The Method of Reasoning b. The Validity of the Argument: If the stimulus contains valid reasoning, eliminate any answer choice that contains invalid reasoning. If the stimulus contains invalid reasoning, eliminate any answer choice that contains valid reasoning. c. The conclusion: Match the certainty level or intent of the conclusion in the stimulus, not necessarily the specific wording of the conclusion. A stimulus conclusion that contains absolutes (must, never, etc.) will be matched by a conclusion in the correct answer with similar absolutes, the same is true for opinions, conditional conclusions, etc...
If you read a fact set that does not contain a paradox, then what type of question will it most likely be? The stimulus will not have a conclusion. If you read a fact set that does not contain a paradox, expect to see a Must be true or a cannot be true question)
In CR questions that ask you to draw a conclusion (the passage will only be a fact set), what should you do and what should you avoid doing? do: Remember that the correct answer will NEVER go beyond the premises. They usually summarize or restate the information supplied in the premise. Eliminate as many incorrect answers first! Avoid: Any answer that goes beyond the premise. Also, be wary of extreme answers.
What can you do if all else fails in parallel reasoning questions? If all else fails, create a short statement that summarizes the action in the argument. Then take the abstraction and compare it to each argument. If the answer doesn't match your generalized version of the stimulus, then it is incorrect.
What do you need to do once you finish a problem? When you finish a problem, you must immediately put it out of your mind and move to the next problem with 100% focus.
What is the FACT TEST for must be true questions? All must be true answer choices must pass the FACT TEST: a. The correct answer to a Must be true question can always be proven by referring to the facts stated in the stimulus.