지금 공부하루 6시간 하는것은 앞으로 professional study and work하기위한 기본이고 minimal work이다. 이 정도는 몸에 베여있어야 앞으로 하고자 하는일을 꿈이라도 꿀수있다. 그러니 지금은 꼭 이정도는 지키자.
Look for parallel form
Look for logical similarity
3 exponent principles:
1.for opportunities to factor and multiply to put yourself in a position to use your multiplication-heavy exponent expertise.
2.Most exponent rules require you to have common bases, so break down bases into prime factors so that you have common bases with which to work.
3.Exponents are very pattern-driven, so when large numbers are present you can often establish a rule using small numbers and then extrapolate it to the larger ones.
RC APPROACH 1
~ previewing RC questions and 'skimming' passages only for Short Passages.~ SOME kind of notes ~with a Long Passage, especially~a scientific journal or similar.
What details you actually consider worth noting down depends on you as an individual and is something that can be honed with further practice.
Good managers do more than just dole out assignments
In written language, "based on" has to modify a NOUN
Here are a few questions to ask yourself to make sure you fully break down and understand the problem BEFORE you start to solve!
1.What is the problem really asking?
Taking the time to do this will also ensure you never leave a problem half finished. If you dive into setting up an equation too quickly, you may realize half-way through that you're solving for the wrong variable. Sometimes word problems will add an extra step at the end. You may be busy solving for "x" and forget that the problem is asking for the value of "1/x".
2.What information am I given?
~ offer information in an organized manner. Go sentence by sentence, translating any 'English' into 'Math,' looking for the relationship between variables, and creating variables for unknowns (for example, "Jenny's profit" might become J, or "total profit" might become T).
3.What do the answer choices tell me?
Are there variables in the answer choices? See a bunch of numbers? Can you Backsolve, plugging the answer choices back into the problem using trial-and-error? Often the answer choices will give you clues on how to go about solving. Remember, one of them must be correct!
4.What formulas do I know?
After you've broken down the question, you can start to think about setting up and solving it. If this problem deals with distance and speed, you might need to use the D = R x T formula. If I involves Average Speed, perhaps Average Speed = Total Distance / Total Time. Use your brain as a Rolodex. You've spent so much time memorizing formulas, now comes the pay-off! Flip through your mental Rolodex and pull up any relevant formulas.
RC APPROACH 5
I have to agree with another beatthegmatter who mentions about using Kaplan's Verbal Workbook. I think the strategies
mentioned in the book are quite simple and the more you practice the better you get at it. Even if you are using paper based practice questions its alright. The main aim is to quickly get the gist of the passage, the medium should not pose a problem (generally, though I know there are people who prefer to choose practicing questions on the computer than paper-based ones). So the best way to attack RC questions is to practice, practice, practice, practice and practice even more. Even when you are reading the newspaper or browsing a website like CNN, just think that the passage on your screen is a GMAT RC question and practice. It helps!
RC APPROACH 4
One strategy might work for one person but might completely fail for the second one.
I initially started doing RC by taking regular notes of "gist" of paragraph.. but felt that taking these notes actually
1. caused delay in reading complete paragraph
2. disrupted the thought process
Nowadays, I try to keep RC as simple as possible..I read the paragraph and try to understand it(sounds simple enough??).. If some section is awkward and is taking too much of time to "understand", I pass over it.. The idea in RC q's is not to remember each and every point the paragraph tries to explain ... rather the idea is to know where the information is present in a set of 3-4 paragraphs along with the mood and the main idea of the complete set.. Again, we need not cram this information since it is always present with us to find answers from..
On the contrary, if you are taking too deep interest in understanding paragraph, then
1. u end up spending more time in reading
2. u might also do some mistakes if you answer the questions using based on ur "understanding" rather than what is in the paragraph...
Since a mistake is costly affair, it is better to get each answer from paragraph!!! In other words, if information is in front of you, then why not use it?
RC APPROACH 2
Bottomline: RC will take time and its better that we respect it with extra time. Try to do SC and CR qns in lesser time.
1. Read the passage carefully once. Now you know what parts of passage speak about what. (5 mins)
2. Consider we have 6 qns on the passage:
Generally 1 would be main idea (need not look back at passage for this)
1 would be application (this takes longest as answer is nowhere in passage)
Others are mixture of supporting ideas, inferences etc.
3. When answering qns I look back at parts passage atleast 2-3 times while answering a qn.
At the end it takes me about 12 - 13 mins to answer a 6 qns passage. DOnt get discouraged if you take longer in RC. Spead up other sections
RC TIME MANAGEMENT
Don't let stress over the clock have a negative impact on your confidence or your GMAT score! You do not want the time crunch to take focus
away from answering the questions correctly.
Consistently practicing time management skills will allow you to become more comfortable with this aspect of the test and refocus your energy on reasoning skills necessary to pick the correct answer choice.
At Knewton we recommend spending around 6 minutes on a reading comprehension passage with 3 questions, and around 8 minutes on a passage with 4 questions.
In 2-3 minutes you need to read the passage carefully, absorb the information, and take notes.
During your GMAT prep, put yourself on the clock. Start getting used to reading a passage in 2 minutes (if the passage is between 25 and 40 lines) or 3 minutes (if the passage is more than 40 lines). After your time is up, force yourself to move on to the questions. For each question, time yourself once again. After 1 minute 30 seconds has passed, force yourself to choose an answer, even if you're guessing.
While practicing pacing skills, you can return to the questions later and see if you would choose the same answer if you had unlimited time. As you continue to practice, the answers you choose in the time constraint situation should more and more begin to mirror what you would choose if allowed unlimited time.
My high school basketball coach used to say, "Practice makes permanent." Why didn't he say "Practice makes perfect?" If you continue to practice for the GMAT without forcing yourself to pay attention to time constraints, you may get really good at answering questions — you might even get close to perfect. But you would be practicing wrong! "Practice, Practice, Practice" only works if you are practicing the right way. And on the GMAT, time matters!
Start getting used to spending 6-8 minutes reading and answering questions for a passage and it will become easier to work with the time you have without feeling pressured.
One more note: be mindful not to focus exclusively on pacing too early in your study preparation. First, focus on developing the skills necessary to pick the right answer in the Reading Comprehension section. Then, practice applying these skills in a timed environment.
How To Turn Algebra Into Arithmetic(plug in numbers)
1.Recognize when you can turn algebra into arithmetic(Plug in numbers)
*in the answer choices, indicated is the following
-A variable expressions eg. x+3 or a variable equation eg. x+y = 3, in the answer
-Fractions or percentages : I make up either variables or numbers.
*if the problem keeps talking about some number but never gives you a real number for it, and the answers are in the form of a fraction or percentage of the original,
2.Deciding whether to turn algebra into arithmetic
After we determine that we can use this method, . The very general rule is that you use algebra on problems that are easier (for you) and you use arithmetic on problems that are harder (for you). The particular line, though, is different for every student. So how do you decide?
Which one to use?. -practice practice while studying and trying both ways.
3.Turning algebra into arithmetic
-Picking Numbers: By practicing, will know which numbers are not going to be used twice.
*Don't pick zero.
* Don't pick one.
*Don't pick a number that already shows up in the problem.
*Don't pick a number that would result in a calculation that gives you that same number again. For example, a percentage problem asks you to reduce the price of a TV set by a certain percentage and then do something with the new price relative to the amount saved off of the original price. You probably don't want to discount that TV set by 50%, because then both the amount saved and the new price are the same number!
*Pick small integers.
*Slightly different characteristics if need to pick more than one- an even and an odd, for instance.
*Pick something that will still give you an integer after you divide.
When you're studying, go back over what numbers really worked well or really didn't.
-Doing the Arithmetic
Wherever the problem says x, you now use 2, and wherever the problem say y, you now use 3. When you're done, you've got a numerical answer
What do inference questions look like?
Before diving into an example, let's make sure you know how to spot an inference question. Most inference questions are characterized by the words suggest, infer, or imply. They might look something like this:
What might be inferred by the final paragraph?
The author implies that the frontiersmen quickly packed because...
By revealing the results of the scientific study, the author suggests...
For a certain exam, was the standard deviation of the scores for students U, V, W, X, Y and Z less than the standard deviation of the scores for students A, B and C?
(1) The standard deviation of the scores of students U, V, and W was less than the stand
When the statements are considered together, we know that the sets U, V and W and X, Y and Z both have a standard deviation that is less than the set of A, B and C. However, we do not know the relationship between the two former sets. It is possible that U, V, W, X, Y and Z are all closer together than A, B and C are, but it is also possible that the sets U, V and W and X, Y and Z are so far apart from each other that the overall set ends up having a larger standard deviation than the set A, B and C. Therefore, together the statements are still insufficient; answer choice (E) or (5)—not enough information here is the answer to this question.
we did not have to use our scratch paper necessarily or compute any actual mathematical calculations...more focused on your conceptual understanding, and instead of becoming overwhelmed when you see words like "standard deviation", you should stay calm, read carefully, and remind yourself of the concepts you do know as you analyze the question.
But I used numbers to varify the answer. I got it right. E.
GMAT SC Case Study: Idiom Errors for Non-Native English Speakers
Dont worry about the idiom that I dont know, focus on the gramma and eliminate all the choices that are gramatically wrong. And then pick the one that sounds best and natural.
1. Don't draw on outside knowledge
Every answer can, and should, be found or inferred directly from the passage.
2. Look out for logical keywords
Logical keywords, or direction indicators for what direction the author's argument is taking. Many of these keywords fall into two groups: those that indicate continuity (e.g. furthermore, in addition, also), and those that indicate contrast (e.g. despite, but, nevertheless).
3. Learn how to recognize question types
Nearly all RC questions fall into three distinct categories. Global questions ask about the passage as a whole, detail questions require test-takers to locate and paraphrase a specific claim, and inference questions require test-takers to note implications not explicitly stated.
4. Keep your perspectives straight!
many passages will provide multiple perspectives: One person will suggest a theory, and another will disagree with it in certain cases for a specific reason. Be sure to keep track of which side of the argument the author is on.
5. Start reading GMAT-like texts now
Reading comprehension passages on the GMAT tend to be dry (read: boring), even by standardized test standards. Reading similarly convoluted and/or jargon-heavy texts prior to test day will help your brain prepare. For suggestions, check out our tips on what to read to help your Reading Comprehension.
6. Practice RC skills in everyday reading
the author's tone, extend passage information to new situations, and/orhow and why the passage is structured a certain way. Practice identifying the author's tone when you're reading newspaper articles, magazines, books, or blogs, and think about the author's reasoning for using the structure s/he did.
7. Pay attention to context
especially detail questions. Before answering, read the sentence or lines referenced, as well as a few sentences before and after.
8. Use your scrap pad!
track of the paragraph's progression, arguments, and main point. may seem to slow you down, but trust us: it will save you time in the end!
9. Don't let "glazed eye syndrome" get you down
Find yourself losing focus? Take a deep breath and look away from the passage for a few seconds. When you go back to the passage, start from the last sentence where you felt engaged by the material.
10. Don't panic!
If you start to feel overwhelmed, don't let fear take over! Take a deep breath and be patient with your brain; often a quick mental break is all you need to get back on track.
NOT A REGULAR STRUCTURE
1. many times, some sort of topic sentence at the beginning ... but not always
2.many times, transition words(however, also, furthermore) but not always
3. no longer rely on the importance of certain places in the passage
4.concentrate exculstively on the 2 focus qeustions:1.WHAT IS THE POINT? WHAT IS THE AUTHOR'S ARGUMENT?;2. when there are facts/details. WHY ARE THEY THERE?WHAT ARGUMENT(S) ARE SUPPORTED REFUTED by these facts/details.
1) Reading the passage in too much detail the first time
paying attention to the following two questions: 1) What is the general idea (topic, purpose, author's tone)? 2) What is the structure of the passage (organization, location of details)?
2) Not clarifying the question
3) Failing to go back to the text to prove your answer
Reading Comprehension is like an open-book test. Everything you need is there in the passage — it's just a matter of finding it. One of the main reasons you don't need to read the whole passage carefully the first time is that you should be going back to the passage later anyway to read the important sections when it's time to answer specific questions. Reading Comprehension answer choices can turn on tiny details in the passage, and it's unlikely you'll know them by heart. Train yourself to find the text in the passage that proves the answer choice you pick.
4) Turning to the answer choices too soon
. There's a big difference between reading and understanding. The point is that after you read the relevant text from the passage, you need to give yourself a moment to process that information before you turn to the answer choices. Think about what you've just read and what it means,. The clearer of an idea you have about what you're looking for, the easier it will be to work with the answer choices.
5) Looking only for good stuff in the answer choices
What too many people never develop is the ability to see reasons to eliminate it. There are parts of answer choices that you literally will not even notice unless you are specifically looking for flaws.
like vs as
"Like" is used to compare two things.
CORRECT: Josh's hair color is just like his mother's.
"As" is used to link two ideas together.
CORRECT: Just as yoga is a form of low-impact exercise, pilates is easy on the joints.
My advice is to experiment with as many strategies as possible, including:
•Skimming the passage while taking notes
•Reading through the whole passage carefully while taking notes
•Reading through the whole passage carefully, and afterward creating an outline •etc.
The Kaplan, PR, and MGMAT books should provide you some guidance on the various strategies. However, you may find that you need to come up with your own unique strategy.
Plug in numbers question: 가장 좋은 방법은 처음 algebra공식 만들어놓고 가장 계산 쉬운 plug in #를 결정.
*Before being simplified, the instructions for computing income tax in country R were to add 2 percent of one's annual income to the average (arithmetic mean) of 100 units of country R's currency and 1 percent of one's annual income. Which of the following represents the simplified formula for computing the income tax, in country R's currency, for a person in that country whose annual income is I?
(A) 50 + I/200
(B) 50 + 3I/100
(C) 50 + I/40
(D) 100 + I/50
(E) 100 + 3I/100
RC APPROACH 3
My approach for RC after trying so many things is:
-Read the passage first. Don't try to skim it.
Understand it properly. ~not to remember each and every detail. ~but to find out topic, scope, main idea(author's point using my CR skills)
-Sometimes, there will be details mixed with the idea. I CONSCIOUSLY tell myself that these are details by which he's supporting the main idea. sometimes, i dont get into details and read along.
-Structure from transitional eg.However/Although/ Seems like/Rather etc etc. This tells u that how the structure of the passage is progressing.
-Till the end, I read CONSCIOUSLY ,always judging what the author is telling.
Then i go to questions. In the questions, I follow this:
- Scope is very important. If the question is of main idea. And there is some word which was used as detail, I eliminate it immediately.
- Sometimes, the questions are easy (depends on the easiness of the passage also). So i just find the right answer and tick it.
- Sometimes , I follow elimination strategy. After reading the question, Most of the times, I eliminate 3 choices very quickly. Then it boils down to 2. There i follow the scope technique or re read that portion of the passage.
RC is not only abt reading. It's about thinking right thru ur reading or reading the mind of author.
How to find the main idea
-Always ask yourself: which answer choice best addresses the specific question being asked?
Not necessarily correct because an answer choice is reasonable, true, or mentioned in the passage,
Eliminate answer choices : outside the scope of the question, extreme language such as always and never.
-Find the Main Idea for the entire passage
For "Main Idea" questions, we're looking for the answer choice with a scope that matches that of the entire passage, not just one paragraph or the individual pieces themselves.
-Read actively and take notes
It's easy to do this if you write down the Purpose of the passage BEFORE reading the first question.
If you forgot to write down the Purpose, or you can't make a strong prediction, there are a few good places in the passage to look for the "Main Idea." Try re-reading the last few sentences of the opening paragraph. Does the author include a thesis? Does he express a strong point of view about the topic?
Another good place to look is the concluding paragraph. Does the author re-iterate a main purpose here? What is he summarizing? Focus especially on the first and final sentences.
-Predict before reading the answer choices?
MATH:PERCENTAGE WITH A VARIABLE
:Percentage,fraction, propotion구하는 문제는 variables가 있어도 숫자를 plugin해서 답을 구할수있다
In 1998, the profits of Company N were 10 percent of revenues. In 1999, the revenues of Company N fell by 20 percent, but profits were 15 percent of revenues. The profits in 1999 were what percent of the profits in 1998?
MATH:combination(simply count by my reason)+probability
A cube with its sides numbered 1 through 6 is rolled twice, first landing on a and then landing on b. If any roll of the cube yields an equal chance of landing on any of the numbers 1 through 6, what is the probability that a + b is prime?
5 Uncommon GMAT Verbal Question Types, and How to Approach Them
About half of all Critical Reasoning questions ask you to strengthen or weaken an argument, while Reading Comprehension questions tend to focus on main ideas and inferences.
The following five each constitute less than 5% of the Verbal section
1. Role of Statement (RC/CR)
boldface phrases on CR and highlighted sections on RC. The question asks you to describe the function of one specific sentence, phrase, or word. Often the answer choices are abstract descriptions of the argument's structure. For example, an answer choice might say, "the first statement adds evidence to support the author's conclusion; the second undermines a common objection to this conclusion."
Approach: For CR, eliminate choices ~exeggerating its force or misstating its tone;
RC,focus on the usage of single words, and require a bit of pre-phrasing - coming up with your own right answer before looking at the choices. Again, think to yourself, "Why does the author include this statement at all?"
2. Conclusion (CR/RC)
Conclusion questions appear in a few different ways. For CR, you can expect either a passage with a __________ at the end, or a short passage with the question stem like "the author is arguing that..." Usually the wrong answer choices will try to confuse evidence with conclusions or toss in an irrelevant topic.
Approach: In short, what is the author trying to convince you of?
3. Paradox (CR)
Approach: Often the most tempting options are topposite answers that make the paradox worse instead of resolving it.
4. Parallel Reasoning (CR)
These are REALLY rare. You get some sort of argument in the stimulus, then have to pick the answer choice that mirrors the logic of the passage. The quickest way to spot this question type is to look for the word "analogous" in the question stem. On rare occasions there will be a __________ in the question stem, with answer choices that complete the sentence.
Approach: Brush up on your debate analogies to prepare for these questions. When you're in a discussion with a friend, it's second nature to reach for analogous examples to prove a point (i.e. "We shouldn't split the bill, because you ate more at dinner. That would be like me asking to share rent evenly if your room were in the closet.")
5. Tone (RC)
~the author's attitude, usually with two-word phrases like "passionate disdain" or "dispassionate analysis." There is not a lot of strategy involved; you really just need to get a feel for the passage overall and figure out which answer choice fits best.
Approach: Be mindful not to confuse the tone of people quoted in the passage with the tone of the author. T~dont be tricked by describing the perspective of an opposing group~
Before being simplified, the instructions for computing income tax in country R were to add 2 percent of one's annual income to the average (arithmetic mean) of 100 units of country R's currency and 1 percent of one's annual income. Which of the following
I have one variable, I, and this is a percent problem. 100 is usually a nice number in a percent problem, but this problem uses the number 100 in this formula I'm supposed to find... so I'm going to use something different on this one. I also have to calculate 1% and 2%, so I don't want to go smaller than 100 or I'm going to have fractions; let's go bigger instead. And, hey, I'm eventually going to have to divide this I variable by 200, 100, 40, and 50 (look at the answers!), so let's use 200. Now, 200 = "one's annual income."
"add 2% of one's annual income..." okay, so that's 200*2% = 4.
Next, take "the average (arithmetic mean) of 100 units of country R's currency and 1 percent of one's annual income..." okay, so 1% of one's annual income is 200*1% = 2, and I'm going to average 2 and 100. That's (100+2)/2 = 51.
Now I add those two together: 4 + 51 = 55. That's my target answer. I have to find which answer choice equals 55, and I do that by substituting 200 in wherever the answer says I.
RC INFERENCE : extrapolate from a specific word. In this case "forever~spirituality"
In 800AD, a man named Lu Yu wrote the first known book on tea cultivation and preparation. The work, called the Ch'a Ching, melded Zen Buddhi
st teachings with the art and craft of tea, forever linking the drink to spirituality.
Which of the following inferences may be drawn from the discussion of Lu Yu's work?
A. Before 800AD, it was largely unknown how to cultivate tea.
B. Some people even today drink tea for reasons other than its physical benefits.
C. Drinking tea was primarily a Zen Buddhist practice until the late 700s.
D. The Ch'a Ching is one of the earliest works of Chinese origin that is concerned with agriculture.
E. Lu Yu was interested in popularizing tea in countries other than China.