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Terms Definitions
Zapruder videod assassination
MAD Mutually Assured Destruction
Feminists Activists for women's rights
Kennedy: First Inaugural Address ?
against civil rights movement kkk
De jure racial seperation by law
NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional.
Americans Disability Act -reasonable accommodation
-cannot meet bona fide qulifacations found in the job analysis don't have to hire
-put job quailifactions in writing to make legal
Brown v. Board of Education ...
fighting words words intentionally directed toward another person and causes distress-- not protected by first amendment
James Meredith first African-American student to integrate the University of MS
Presedent Truman Ordered the military desegregated .
Thoreau Wrote books and articles on self-sufficiency and civil disobedience—influenced Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr.
Sit-In a tactic, of nonviolent civil disobedience. The demonstrators enter a buisness or public place and remain seated until forcibly evicted or until their greivances are answered
Chicano Movement The Mexican-American movement that sought political and social justice. The Chicano Movement addressed negative stereotyping of Mexicans, this stereotyping was addressed through works of literary and visual arts.
integration the bringing together of racial or ethnic groups into free and equal association
Segregation The policy of dividing groups of people, especially based on race.
Civil Rights rights that guarantee all citizens equal opportunities regardless of race, religion, sex or national origin.
Negro spirituals Religious narratives and songs by blacks often times showing praise
Thurgood Marshall American civil rights lawyer, first African-American justice on the Supreme Court of the United States.
Greensboro Sitins The Greensboro Sit-ins were protests where 4 students from the NC Agricultural and Technical College sat down at whites only lunch counter. Once they were there, they refused to move. Each day, they came back with many more protesters. Sometimes, there were over 100. These sit-ins led to the formation of the SNCC. Led to sit-ins across the country.
suspect classification classification of people based on their race or ethnicity
Harlem Renaissance African American cultural Artists were known nationally.
Jim Crow Laws Segregation laws in the south.
bombingham 16th street baptist church bombed. 4 girls killed
Filibuster tactic by which senators give long speeches to hold up legislative business
Equal Rights Amendment The proposed constitutional amendment that would have prohibited national or state governments from denying equal rights on the basis of sex.
A group of segregation activists who rode buses all over the segregated southern USA, to challenge segregation travel facilities in the South, and bring in civil rights.
Cities where they traveled:  Washington DC, Richmond, Petersburg, Farmville, Lynchburg, Danville, Greensboro, Highpoint, Salisbury, Charlotte, Rock Hill, Winnsboro, Columbia, Sumter, Augusta, Athens, Atlanta, Anniston, Birmingham, New Orleans, Ardmore, Nashville, Montgomery, and Jackson.
Many of these riders were arrested for many causes.
Equal Employment opportunity Comission not discriminating against someone based on gender, race, or color.
Reverse discrimination Describes policies or habits of social discrimination against members of a historically dominant group with an implication of unfairness.
Sit ins to protest at lunch counters that served only whites, African Americans students began staging this
Freedom Riders goal to protest segregation, got on buses in north and refused to take segregated buses, killed by members of the KKK
Ku Klux Klan an organization, originating in the South after the Civil War, intent on the restoration of White supremacy by means of intimidation and violence.
Malcolm X Black Muslim leader who said Blacks needed to have separate society from whites, but later changed his views. He was assassinated in 1965.
US v. Nixon court allowed executive privelege but it could not be used in criminal cases
Civil Rights Act of 1968 ended descrimination in housing
Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court decision (1896) that ruled "separate but equal IS legal"
de facto segregation attempts to eliminate de facto segregation have included redrawing school district lines and reassigning pupils- (racial segregation that occurs not as a result of deliberate intentions but because of past social and economic conditions and residential patterns)
Rostker v. Goldberg "Congress can draft men without drafting women"
boycott To join others in refusing to deal with a person or group.
1964 Civil Rights Act Created legal basis for nondiscrimination in housing, education, public accommodations, federally assisted programs, & employment.
Prohibits discrimination based on: race or color, sex or religion, national original.
Aug. 28, 1963 March on Washington by 250,000 whites and blacks.
14th Amendment Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
Affirmative Action Policy a policy that requires any employers or government agencies that have practiced past discrimination to compensate minorities and women by giving them special consideration in their selection for employment and education
Medgar Evers NAACP lawyer who worked on Till case and later was murdered by the KKK
Plessy vs. Ferguson case This case officially legalized the idea of "separate but equal"
civil disobedience Opposing a law one considers unjust be peacefully disobeying it and accepting the punishment
Mont. Improvement Association and SCLC Mont. Improvement Association was precursor to Southern Christian Leadership Conference, a massive and nonviolent opposition to unjust laws- used Ghandi's methods
Craig v Boren 1976 ruling the SC established the "medium scrutiny" standard for determining gender discrimination
"jail, no bail" served out sentences to avoid paying into unfair legal system
Stokely Carmichael a black civil rights activist in the 1960's. Leader of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee. He did a lot of work with Martin Luther King Jr.but later changed his attitude. Carmichael urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing black power. He was known for saying,"black power will smash everything Western civilization has created."
Declaration of Independence Document signed July 4, 1776 declaring that the early 13 colonies of the US are free and independent from the UK. This document declares the United States as a nation that that is able to provide the rights that they choose, including the rights of African Americans.
Little Rock Nine A group of nine African American students who were enrolled at a previously white high school in Arkansas who were picked out by the Little Rock superintendent to be escorted by an air division for their first day in 1957. 
martin luther king jr U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Civil Rights organization, founded in 1909, that relied heavily on a legal strategy to pursue its objectives
The Little Rock Nine The group of African American students who desegregated Central High School in Arkansas. President Eisenhower was forced to send the National Guard to escort the students to school.
Civil Rights Cases (1883) Name attached to five cases brought under the Civil Rights Act of 1875. In 1883, the Supreme Court decided that discrimination in a variety of public accommodation, including theaters, hotels, and railroads, could not be prohibited by the act because such discrimination was private discrimination and not state discrimination
March on Washington - A large political rally for civil rights
- Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his I Have A Dream Speech
Montgomery Bus Boycott In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Tinker v.s Des Moines Supreme Court case that stated that students do not lose their freedom of speech rights in high school. Mary Beth tinker wore black arm bands to protest the Vietnam War.
Bakke vs. Davis Bakke sued UC Davis because he was denied admission and thinks it was due to the schools AA policy, which set out 16 spots of 100 for minorities. and those who got the 16 spots weren't as smart as Bakke, yet he didn't get in... so he went to court with it.
Oregon v Smith THe court said that a Native American who smoke peyote as part of his religious ceremonies could be denied unemployment benefits if he got fired because of this practice.
Voting Rights Act of '65 law signed by LBJ, it outlawed literacy tests & allowed federal officials to oversee registration
Civil Rights act of 1957 Primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted by Republicans in theUnited States since Reconstruction. User-contributed;Est Civil rights Commision
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education 1971 Supreme Court: Busing could be used to correct racial imbalances; set the guidelines for all subsequent cases involving school segregation
Civil Rights Act of 1964 This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Jus Soli the law of the soil of where you are born
US Constitution and 14th Amendment Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Oliver Brown sued the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. His daughter was refused by the princapal saying this school is for whites only.
What was the 1964 Civil Rights Bill? This was broad in scope and had strong enforcement measures
Pushed through by Johnson after JFK's assassination
Cloture was enacted, filibuster was stopped and that was the first time that had happened
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