Complete List of Terms and Definitions for Human Development 14
|B. F. Skinner||Behaviorism|
|Bandura||Social learning: empasized self-expectation|
|Comprehension should precede memorization so one of the best strategies for helping your students learn their material is to make it:||meaningful|
|Freud's stages are described as:||Psychosexual|
|An enduring emotional connection between people is known as:||attachment|
|In regards to Piaget's theory, reflexes play the biggest role in which stage?||sensorimotor|
|Erik Erikson's stages are described as:||Psychosocial|
|The statistical research of David Elkind supports Piaget in regards to what concept?||Conservation|
|The ego is dependent on:||the Id|
|The process of changing existing schemata to fit new information.||accommodation|
|The information processing system has ______ filters.||2|
|Who said: development comes from action/doing.||Piaget|
|Who coined the term "anaclitic depression" in reference to children suffering from maternal deprivation?||Rene Spitz|
|Development is a _____ process which begins at _______.||
|Which theorist's name is closely associated with attachment and bonding?||John Bowlby|
|Describe comparative psychology.||Laboratory research using animals which attempts to generalize the findings to humans.|
|Edward Titchener||Structurealism (can be split into sylables Titch-e-ner)|
|Knowledge about one's own learning or about how to learn (thinking about thinking) is called||metacognition|
|The central conflict in the eighth stage of Erikson’s theory focuses on integrity vs. despair and involves reflecting back on your life. Those who are unsuccessful at resolving this conflict will look back with regret, anger, and bitterness. Those who a||wisdom|
|Who said: guided discovery learning is more beneficial for students.||vygotsky|
|Who said: development has no set stages.||Vygotsky|
|Children's first words most commonly refer to what?||concrete objects|
|Define dualistic thinking.||
Things are conceptualized as good/bad or right/wrong.
Common to teens.
Black & white thinking; no ambiguity.
|Define relativistic thinking.||
Ability to perceive that not everything is right or wrong; an answer can exist relative to a situation.
Common to adulthood.
There is more than one way to view the world.
|In the Heinz dilemma, what stage of moral development is the husband in?||Postconventional|
Occurs in stage 2 of the pre-conventional level.
"If I'm nice to others, they'll be nice to me and I'll get what I want."
|Max Wertheimer||Gestalt (use ither senses to say name)|
|In which component of memory does active thinking take place?||working memory|
|Which of the following senses is the LEAST developed at birth?||vision|
|Who said: disequilibrium is a stage of struggle.||piaget|
|Our working memory has a very limited capacity - we can attend to only about ________ items at a time.||7|
|Jane, a preschooler, insists on dressing herself each morning for school, even though she generally selects mismatching outfits, misses buttons, and wears her shoes on the wrong feet. When her mother tries to dress Jane or fix her outfit, Jane brushes her||initiative vs guilt|
|What 2 things do symbolic mental processes allow for?||
Symbolism in play
|Define instinctual behavior.||Behavior that manifests itself in all normal members of a given species|
|Describe Maslow's hierarchy of needs.||
Lower-order needs: physiological & safety needs
Higher-order needs: self-actualization (a person becomes all the can be)
Who developed the concept of animus and anima?
What do they refer to?
Anima=female characteristics of the personality
Animus=male characteristics of the personality
They are "archetypes": inherited unconscious factors
|The concepts of permanency & constancy of objects is mastered in which of Piaget's phases?||Sensorimotor (Birth-2 years)|
|Rob sees a bully picking on a little kid. He tells the bully to leave the little kid alone, because little kids have rights just like everyone else, and it's not fair for people to push people around just because they are smaller. At what stage is Rob rea||conventional|
|Which two psychologist independently studied attachment:||John Bowbly and Mary Ainsworth|
|Eight-year old Steven has a difficult time making friends at school. He has trouble completing his schoolwork accurately and on time, and as a result, receives little positive feedback from his teacher and parents. According to Erikson’s theory, failure||feelings of inferiority|
|Vygotsky’s term that represents the gap between what children can do on their own and what they can do with the assistance of others.||zone of proximal development|
|Who was Robert Kegan?||
Well-known figure in the area of cognitive development.
|The formal operational stage is characterized by: (2)||
The emergence of abstract thinking.
Problem-solving using deduction.
|What is the organismic viewpoint?||Slanted toward qualitative rather than quantitative factors that can be measured empirically.|
|What is the male tendency to be more aggressive due to as opposed to other sex differences?||Androgen hormone|
|When adults break tasks into a set of subroutines that the child can successfully complete on his or her own, according to Vygotsky the adult is __________?||providing scaffolding|
|A major goal of education is to help learners store information in ________ memory and to use that information on later occasions in order to effectively solve problems.||longterm memory|
|Who said: I am a constructive theory.||Both, Piaget and Vygotsky|
Whose theories are defined as epigenetic? (3)
Each stage emerges from the one before it.
Kohlberg, Erikson, Maslow
|What are Havinghurst's tasks for middle age?||
Assisting teenage children to become responsible adults
Developing leisure-time activities
|What are the two stages of the conventional level of morality?||
Good Boy/Good Girl Orientation
Authority, Law, & Order Orientation
|Describe Freud's Oedipus Complex.||The stage in which fantasies of sexual relations with the opposite-sex parent occur.|
Major Periods of Human Development
|Puberty leads to an adult-sized body and sexual maturity. Thought becomes abstract and idealistc and school achievement more serious. Adolescents focus on defining personal values and goals and establish autonomy from the family.|
|Which of the following is FALSE regarding the cognitive-psychological approach to learning?||people are generally passive learners|
|What is Arnold Gesell known for?||Using a one-way mirror for observing children.|
|Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of "expert" problem solving?||Experts have misconceptions or intuitive notions about a subject.|
|What do ego psychologists like Erikson believe in regards to behavior?||Man's powers of reasoning to control behavior|
|What are Havinghurst's tasks of later maturity?||
Dealing with the death of a spouse
Adjustment to retirement
|What did Rene Spitz find in regard to maternal deprivation?||Children reared in impersonal institutions (esp. during the 6-8 months of life) cried more, experienced sleeping difficulties, and had more health-related difficulties.|
|What are the 3 reasons given for the slow development of elementary school counseling?||
1) Majority of people believed teachers could double as counselors.
2) Counseling was conceptualized as focusing on vocational issues, which would not be primary in elementary school.
3) Secondary schools utilized social workers and psychologists who would intervene if emotional problems were still an issue as the child got older.
|When an individual has mastered all Erikson's stages they feel:||A sense of integrity in the sense that their life has been worthwhile|