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#### Complete List of Terms and Definitions for LEADERS Physics 37

Terms Definitions
What is CAEX? Computer assisted exploration
What are beta rays composed of? electrons
Who became the first country to commercial the use of natural gas? Britian
Which state has the most recoverable reserves at producing mines in the US? Wyoming
The two largest oil fields contant alrady about what percent of all the oil found to date? 8%
What is the key to the energy crisis? Conservation
What percent of US energy used comes from oil? 37%
In 2006, what percent of the Nation's coal came from the Gillette coalfield? 36%
Biomass energy Biomass energyCord: a stack of wood comprising 128 cubic feet (3.62 m3); standard dimensions are 4 x 4 x 8feet, including air space and bark. One cord contains approx. 1.2 U.S. tons (oven-dry) = 2400pounds = 1089 kg1.0 metric tonne wood = 1.4 cubic meters (solid wood, not stacked)Energy content of wood fuel (HHV, bone dry) = 18-22 GJ/t (7,600-9,600 Btu/lb)Energy content of wood fuel (air dry, 20% moisture) = about 15 GJ/t (6,400 Btu/lb)Energy content of agricultural residues (range due to moisture content) = 10-17 GJ/t (4,300-7,300 Btu/lb)Metric tonne charcoal = 30 GJ (= 12,800 Btu/lb) (but usually derived from 6-12 t air-dry wood,i.e. 90-180 GJ original energy content)Metric tonne ethanol = 7.94 petroleum barrels = 1262 litersethanol energy content (LHV) = 11,500 Btu/lb = 75,700 Btu/gallon = 26.7 GJ/t = 21.1MJ/liter. HHV for ethanol = 84,000 Btu/gallon = 89 MJ/gallon = 23.4 MJ/literethanol density (average) = 0.79 g/ml ( = metric tonnes/m3)Metric tonne biodiesel = 37.8 GJ (33.3 - 35.7 MJ/liter)biodiesel density (average) = 0.88 g/ml ( = metric tonnes/m3)
In the world, how many barrels do we burn for every one barrel discovered? 4
What was the total final consumption by fuel in the world in 2007 in Mtoe? (Global) About 8,000 Mtoe
Is the oil shale layer hot enough to complete the oil generation? No
What is dry natural gas? Contains amounts of condensable hydrocarbons that are too samll for economical recovery
What is the total US energy consumption in J? 1 x 10e20 J
At the current consumption rates, how many people could live on Earth? Less than 6 billion
What are the 3 combinations of hydrocarbons? 1. Paraffin hydrocarbons2. Cycloparaffin hydrocarbons3. Aromatic hydrocarbons
Is Production in the kingdom of saudi arabia decling? Yes since 2005
What are 5 solutions to oil (Mitigation) 1. Conservation and efficiency, personal and societal2. Rapid deployment of existing technology, public transport, electric-transport, wind, solar-heat and phtovoltaic, geothermal (use what we already know because we don't have time)3. Raising awareness by scientists and engineers of locals, media and policy makers (this class)4. Applied engineering reasearch5. Fundamental research done today will have scaled impact after 20 years
Which countries use the most total final consumption of fuel? 1. OECD countries2. Then China
Which types of coal is mainly in the western US? Subbituminous & Lignite
What are the consequences of improper placement of geothermal wells? Earlyloss of heat/pressure, depletion of thegeofluid, or extermination of nearby thermalmanifestations
What is 3D imaging? uses seismic field data to denerate a 3D pictrue of underground formations and geologic features; coud be used to estimate the porbability of gas and oil formations existing in a patricual area
What are semisubmersible rigs? • These are the most common type of offshore drilling rigs combiningthe advantages of submersible rigs with the ability to drill in deepwater• They work on the same principle of ‘inflating’ and ‘deflating’ of thelower hull• The main difference is that when the air is left out of the lower hull,the rig does not submerge to the sea floor• They are held in place by huge anchors, each weighing upwards often tons
In 2008 what was the US coal reserve? 242.7 billion tonnes of coal
What are 5 essentials for reactors? 1. A quantity of fissionable material sufficient to create a self- sustaining or critical nuclear reaction must be present• 2. A moderator is needed to slow the high-energy neutrons produced during fission and the slower neutrons have a higher probability of colliding with other fissionable nuclei• 3. A means for controlling the rate of the resulting reaction is required• 4. The reactor must be surrounded by shielding • 5. A cooling system is necessary
How do geologists use seismographs to map underground geologic formations? by artifically creating seismic waves and the reflections are then picked up by sensitive pieces of equipment called geophones; the data is then trasmitted to a seismic recording truck
When is the well determined a "dry well"? if the exploration team wasincorrect in its estimation of the existence of marketable quantity ofnatural gas and the production hence does not proceed
90% of the worlds coal reserve are owned by which 6 countries? US, Russia, India, China, Australia, and South Africa
A fission bomb must be detonated to achieve what? the high temperatures necessary to start fusion
Why is energy embodied in everything you see? Because someone had to put in energy to create it.
What does the U.S. National Academy of Sciences say about estimated reserves? "Only a small fraction of previously estimated reserves are actually recoverable."
What are 3 types of structural traps for natural gas? 1. Anticline (hill)2. Fault (like a crack inside earth)3. Stratigraphic trap
What does EIA project will happen with energy net imports from now until 2035? The amount of net imports will stay the same (consumption and production will continue to increase) but since comsumption increased, the PERCENTAGE of net imports is decreasing
What will happen if we reduce energy consumption? GDP will reduce but we don't have a sustainable GDP, need to be proactive so we can handle it smoothly
Describe the rate of flow in a car's fuel tank. You can keep going at a constant level at then it stops abruptly at zero. (out of gas)