##### MCAT Physics 6
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#### Complete list of Terms and Definitions for MCAT Physics 6

Terms Definitions
wriggle omega=sqrt(g/L)
(mass)x(acc) F=
Magnification m=id/od
Power (P=) W/t
Hooke's Law F=-Kx
kg x m/s² Newton=
Electric Field E=F/Qforce/unit charge
Medical name for near-sightedness Myopic
dielectric insulator btwn capacitor plates
What is average velocity? Picture.
ideal liquid with no viscocity, compressibility or changing flow
Displacement Vector quantity describing the straight-line distance between an initial and a final position of some particle or object.
vo²/2g In conservative total mechanical energy questions, the formula for max height is?
SI unit for Power Watt (W)
What is polarization by refraction?
∆KE since there is no friction −∆PE=
Pressure Force per unit area : F/A
Free fall Most important uniformed acc situation?
Weight Weight is the gravitational forces acting on an object. Mass is not a force and *does not vary with location
Viscosity measure of internal friction of fluid
Closed cycle ΔU = 0   Q = W
q∆ф= qV Change in Electrical Potential Energy ∆PE=
Node Point of zero displacement in a wave.
Coulomb's Law Law describing the electrostatic force that exists between two charges, q₁ and q₂, given as F(coul) = (kq₁q₂)/r²
a physical quantity that has magnitude but no direction. scalar
Centripetal force Always results from cirucular motion, and is directed to the inside of the circle. Units are Newtons Fc=mv^2/r v=velocity squared, m-mass, r=radius
Centripetal Acceleration acceleration toward center of circle necessary to keep object on circular w/o changing its speed a = v²/r (vector point toward the center of the circle)
What is the formula for momentum? p=? p=(mass)(velocity)
kinetic energy (K, KE) energy of motion  1/2mv2
How do you solve problems with internal resistance?
Power • the rate of energy transfer. • unit of power is the watt (W), which is equivalent to J/s P = ∆E / t ∆E = W + q energy change of the system or... P = W / t
On an incline, what is the equation for the F of weight in the downward direction? Fwcos(x)
Kinetic Energy Energy of an object in motion, calculated by the equation KE = 1/2mv² given in the SI unit Joules (J)
Kinetic friction When there is relative motion between the two surfaces in contact what type of friction is this?
real image image form by actual convergence of light rays real images are always inverted
T/F reali images are usually formed in front of a convex lens F
specific gravity ratio of density of object to water
What is the capacitor voltage at any time t, for any values of R and C, and any battery voltage E?
Mechanical Energy • KE and PE of a macroscopic system KE = ¹/₂ mv²
Simple Harmonic Motion Motion of an object oscillating back and forth about some equilibrium point when it is subject to an elastic linear restoring force.
is a vector, and is defined as the rate of change in velocity. Acceleration
What all the forces toward the center add up to Forcecentripedal is?
Resistors in series One resistor after another along the path of the current; series resistors must share the same 1; V's may be different
When is heat gained? q = mcΔT   q>0 heat is gained
When resolving components, how are the x and y components arranged? Head to tail.
What is electromotive force? Electromotive force is the voltage across the terminals WHEN NO CURRENT IS FLOWING.
In the equation, C = K(e0A/d), what does K stand for? The dielectric constant
tells us quantitatively that when an object is acted upon by a net force, the change in that object's state of motion will be inversely proportional to the mass (/11) of the object and directly proportional to the net force (F) acting upon the object. Newton's Second Law F=ma
Total Internal Reflection TIR occurs when a beam of light striking a boundary does not transmit thru to the next medium, by striking the boundary of a medium with a lower refractive index (n₂ < n₁) at an angle of incidence greater than the critical angle ϑcrit = sin⁻¹ (n₂/n₁)
How does current flow? from high potential to low potential (positive to negative termini)
What is electrostatic induction? ■Induction does not involve any type of conduction. ■Electrostatic induction is where a charged object induces the movement / redistribution of charges in another object. ■The classical example of electrostatic induction is picking up pieces of paper using a comb rubbed against fur. ■It's called electrostatic induction because it's static - the charged species polarizes non-charged species by simply being there. This is not the same as electromagnetic induction, which is how electric generators work.
Centripetal Acceleration (ac) ac = v² / r • objects speed never changes, yet the object is continually accelerating. • only magnitude of ac is constant
Center of Gravity Point on some object or body at which the entire force of gravity is considered to act on the object.
The sign of cosign The sign of Work depends entirely on what?
What happens if light moves from a medium with low index of refraction to high index refraction? bends towards the normal
What is a complete wave? A complete wave starts at the rest position, rises to a crest, returns to rest, drops to a trough, and finally returns to the rest position before starting its next cycle. (Caution: the use of the words crest and trough to describe the pattern are only used to help identify the length of a repeating wave cycle. A standing wave pattern is not actually a wave, but rather a pattern of a wave. Thus, it does not consists of crests and troughs, but rather nodes and antinodes. The pattern is the result of the interference of two waves to produce these nodes and antinodes.)
What is a complete wave? For a simple SINE function, the wavelength can be measured from trough to trough or peak to peak. HOWEVER, this is not always the case! For any other function, a wavelength is measured from any point, to the next point where the function begins to repeat itself. Wavelength has units of meters.
What is momentum? •Momentum = mv, where m is mass, v is velocity and the symbol for momentum is p. Momentum is the power residing in a moving object. In an isolated system, momentum is always conserved. Momentum is a vector.
What EQ determines the wavelength of a standing wave, with 2 fixed ends? Lambda(n) = 2L/n, where n=1,2,3...
Sound Level (in dB) β = 10 log (I/I₀), where I₀ = 10⁻¹² W/m² = threshold of hearing
Describe the work done on a gas by its surroundings negative work decreases volume
What is the density of solids? •Density: ρ=m/V, where m is mass and V is volume. The amount of solids can be manipulated by increasing or decreasing pressure, based on Le Chatelier's Principle. If the mass doesn't change in a chemical process, and we increase the pressure, the volume will decrease (Boyle's law). So if the volume decreases, the density increases of the substance. If the density increases, then you have facilitated the formation of more of that substance. Although these rules generally apply to gases, extremely high pressures make the process possible with solids and liquids. The reason it generally applies to gases is because solids and liquids are for the most part incompressible.
What is the significance of E = mc^2? In physics, mass–energy equivalence is the concept that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content. E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light in a vacuum. The equation E = mc^2 indicates that energy always exhibits mass in whatever form the energy takes. Mass–energy equivalence also means that mass conservation becomes a requirement, of the law of energy conservation, which is the first law of thermodynamics. In physics, mass must be differentiated from matter, a more poorly-defined idea in the physical sciences. Matter, when seen as certain types of particles, can be created and destroyed, but the precursors and products of such reactions retain both the original mass and energy, both of which remain unchanged (conserved) throughout the process. The concept of mass–energy equivalence connects the concepts of conservation of mass and conservation of energy. The theory of relativity allows particles which have rest mass to be converted to other forms of mass which require motion, such as kinetic energy, heat, or light. However, the mass remains. Kinetic energy or light can also be converted to new kinds of particles which have rest mass, but again the energy remains. Both the total mass and the total energy inside a totally closed system remain constant over time. In other words, energy cannot be created or destroyed, and energy, in all of its forms, has mass. Mass also cannot be created or destroyed, and in all of its forms, has energy. According to the theory of relativity, mass and energy as commonly understood, are two names for the same thing, and neither one is changed or transformed into the other. Rather, neither one appears without the other. Rather than mass being changed into energy, the view of relativity is that rest mass has been changed to a more mobile form of mass, but remains mass. In this process, neither the amount of mass nor the amount of energy changes. Thus, if energy changes type and leaves a system, it simply takes its mass with it. If either mass or energy disappears from a system, it will always be found that both have simply moved off to another place.
What is the equation for wave speed involving linear density? v = sqrt(Tension / Linear Density)
What do pressure differences on an object in a fluid give rise to? The pressure diff within a fluid (greater at those portions more deeply immersed) give rise to the buoyant force
What happens when a wave transfers from one medium to the next? IMPORTANT: When a wave transfers from one medium to the next, the WAVELENGTH changes and the FREQUENCY remains the same. The energy is conserved via frequency, just the wavelength changes. The behavior of a wave (or pulse) upon reaching the end of a medium is referred to as boundary behavior. When one medium ends, another medium begins; the interface of the two media is referred to as the boundary and the behavior of a wave at that boundary is described as its boundary behavior. Frequency is inversely proportional to wavelength, but frequency is not 1/wavelength, frequency is 1/period. The speed changes because wavelength changes.
Check if KE before and after collision is the same or not How to determine whether elastic or inelastic?
What creates gas pressure in a container? P = F/A   pressure is created by gas molecules colliding with walls of container
What does the density of field lines around a charged object reveal? One common convention is to surround more charged objects by more lines. Objects with greater charge create stronger electric fields. By surrounding a highly charged object with more lines, one can communicate the strength of an electric field in the space surrounding a charged object by the line density. Not only does the density of lines surrounding any given object reveal information about the quantity of charge on the source charge, the density of lines at a specific location in space reveals information about the strength of the field at that location. Consider the object shown at the bottom. Two different circular cross-sections are drawn at different distances from the source charge. These cross-sections represent regions of space closer to and further from the source charge. The field lines are closer together in the regions of space closest to the charge; and they are spread further apart in the regions of space furthest from the charge. Based on the convention concerning line density, one would reason that the electric field is greatest at locations closest to the surface of the charge and least at locations further from the surface of the charge. Line density in an electric field line pattern reveals information about the strength or magnitude of an electric field.
Object's speed increasing and direction v is changing acc at an angle between 0 and 90 to v means?
What is Relative speed of sound in solids, liquids and gases? The speed of sound is 331 m/s. The speed of sound is the rate of travel of a sound wave through an elastic medium. Elasticity is the physical property of a material that returns to its original shape after the stress (e.g. external forces) that made it deform is removed. The relative amount of deformation is called the strain. Speed of sound in solids &gt; liquids &gt; gases. The reason why sound travels the fastest in solids is because solids is the most stiff. With all else being equal: 1) Speed of sound in stiff objects &gt; elastic objects. 2) Speed of sound in less dense objects &gt; more dense objects. Even though gases are less dense than solids, sound still travels slower in them because they are too elastic. 3) Speed of sound in hot objects &gt; cold objects. Molecules at higher temperatures have more energy, thus they can vibrate faster. Since the molecules vibrate faster, sound waves can travel more quickly. The speed of sound depends on two factors: resistance to compression (stiffness) and density. Higher resistance to compression (an object that is stiff as opposed to elastic) leads to a faster transmission of sound, whereas a higher density will lead to a slower transmission of sound. Sound travels slower in denser material because it's &quot;heavy&quot; - it takes longer for the wave to reach the other side. Sound travels faster in stiffer objects because it by it being stiff, it doesn't strain as much when the sound travels through it. If the object was deformed by a greater amount (if the strain big), then the speed of the sound would travel slower. The wave of the sound is trying to move on to the next particle, so the more it gets hung up, the slower it travels.
What is Relative speed of sound in solids, liquids and gases? Heavier mediums tend to slow waves down, while stiffer mediums to speed waves up. Since a wave must move through the medium in order to pass through it, the inertia of the medium (its resistance to motion) tends to slow it down (density is mass/volume). On the other hand, the greater the elasticity of the medium, the faster it snaps back to position moving the wave along. The elastic component store potential energy, which gets converted into kinetic energy; the inertial component stores kinetic energy, which slows the wave down. The velocity of sound waves in a gas is limited by the average speed of the molecules within that gas. Thus, sound waves move more quickly though hot gases than through cold gases.
What does a positive o, i, or f mean? The distance is in FRONT of the mirror/lens
What are some additional ways that you can calculate buoyant force?
What are some additional ways that you can calculate buoyant force? If we consider an object to be a single particle, the buoyant force acts at the center of buoyancy. The center of buoyancy is the point where the center of mass would be, IF the object had a uniform density. If the object is not uniformly dense, the center of mass and the center of buoyancy will not coincide. This could create a torque on the object and cause it to spin. So if you have a lead substance attached to a foam substance, the center of buoyancy would be in the middle of them, while the center of mass would be in the middle of the lead part of the object.