##### PHYS_101...1_­Circuits
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#### Complete list of Terms and Definitions for PHYS_101...1_­Circuits

Terms Definitions
Horizontal axis or x-axis Time
Polarizing angle tanѲp = n2/n1
Newton's rings circular interference fringes resulting from viewing light reflected from an air film between a spherical glass surface and a plane of glass in contact.
Total Power PT = IT x VT
Thin-lens equation 1/s + 1/s' = 1/f
Ray diagram geometric construction of important rays and how they reflect off a mirror
Birefringence complicated phenomenon that occurs in calcite and other noncubic crystals and in some stressed plastics, such as cellophane. In such cases, light is separated into two rays: the ordinary ray and the extraordinary ray.
Spontaneous emission Random emission where the photons emitted from two different atoms are not correlated
Magnification for a refracting boundary m = -(n1s')/(n2¬s)
Interference-diffraction intensity for two slits I = 4I0*[{sin(φ/2)/ (φ/2)}^2]*[{cos(δ/2)}^2]
Refraction at a single surface (n2 - n1)/r
Analyzer The second of two polarizing elements placed in succession in a beam of unpolarized light.
Dispersion The dependence of the index of refraction on wavelength.
Rayleigh scattering Scattering which occurs when the wavelength of incident light is large compared with the size of the atom.
Alternating current (AC) Current in which electrons oscillate back and forth
Real image An image from which rays actually diverge (in front of mirror, etc.)
Metastable state an excited state with a relatively long lifetime - of the order of milliseconds or occasionally seconds or even minutes
Virtual image Image from which no light actually emanates (behind mirror, etc.)
Lloyd's mirror a method of producing a two-slit interference pattern.
Lens-maker's equation 1/f = (n/nair - 1)(1/r1 - 1/r2)
Fluorescence when an atom is excited by ultraviolet light and emits visible light as it returns to its ground state by multiple transitions.
Total internal reflection Phenomenon which occurs when the incident angle is greater than the critical angle, so no refracted ray exists.
Focal ray drawn through the first focal point, emerges parallel to the axis.
Fraunhofer diffraction pattern diffraction pattern that is observed at a point for which the rays from an aperture or an obstacle are nearly parallel
Spherical aberration blurriness caused by rays striking far from the axis and passing near the image point, but not through it.
Direct current (DC) Electrons made to flow in one direction only along the conductor
Quarter-wave plate Plate whose thickness is such that a 90 degree phase difference exists between the waves of a particular wavelength when they emerge.
Second-order spectrum the spectral line corresponding to m = 2.
Half-wave plate Plate from which the rays emerge with a phase difference of 180 degrees.
Compton scattering when the energy of the incident photon is much greater than the ionization energy. In this type of scattering, a photon is absorbed and another is emitted.
Paraxial rays rays that are almost parallel to the axis and are near the axis
First focal point the focal point on the incident-light side of a converging lens, or on the refracted-light side of a diverging lens.
Series Circuit is A circuit in which the current has only one path to travel
In a Series Circuit the resistance of R1 is 30Ω and R2 is 20 Ω, what is total resistance of the circuit RT = 50Ω
Ohm's law in solving for the total resistance RT = VT/IT
Angle of incidence The angle between the incident ray and the normal.
Law of Malus If the polarizer and the analyzer are perpendicular, no light gets through.
in a Series Circuit The total resistance is equal to the sum of the individual resistances along the path. Current through each circuit element is the same and is equal to the total circuit current. The sum of the voltages across each resistor is equal to the total circuit voltage.
Phase difference due to reflection If light traveling in one medium strikes the surface of a medium in which light travels more slowly, there is a 180° phase change in the reflected light.
Sign conventions for refraction s is positive for objects on the incident-light side of the surface. s' is positive for images on the refracted-light side of the surface. r is positive if the center of curvature is on the refracted-light side.
If the voltage of the source is 100 volts, what current (total current) will flow through the circuit if the total resistance is 50ohms? IT = 2 amperes
Inelastic scattering or Raman scattering when an incident photon that has just the right amount of energy is absorbed and the atom undergoes a transition to a more energetic state.
The total current in a parallel circuit IT = I1 + I2 + I3
Current in a series circuit is the same everywhere in the circuit IT = I1 = I2 = I3