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Terms Definitions
Term:

Analogous Estimating
Definition:
Outputs Scope Planning Project Scope Management Plan
Outputs Scope Planning 1
PMP Project management professional
ADM? Activity Diagramming Method. Activities are placed on arrows. Allows more than one estimate. Seldom used today.
Term:

Precedence diagramming method (PDM)
Definition:
control comparing actual performance twith planned performance, anaylyzing variances, assesing trends to effect process improvements, evaluating possible alternatives, recommending appt. corrective action as needed.
The "fast-tracking" method of schedule compression involves
A. The use of industrial engineering technques to improve productivity; thereby finishing the project earlier than originally planned
B. Work package execution thereby increasing risk
C
Answer: B
The __________ specification describes, defines or specifies the goods/services to be supplied.
A. Performance
B. Functional
C. Technical
D. Bid
E. General Requirements
Answer: C
What does a PM use? Skills
Knowledge
Resources
Earned Value Key Formulas -12 BAC
PV
EV
AC
CV
SV
CPI
CPIcum
SPI
EAC
ETC
VAC
'Order of Magnitude Estimate' '(Accuracy -25
project sponsor protects from external influences, provides funding, approves the charter and PM plan, sets priorities between projects, identifies project manager and authority level, approves or rejects changes, formally accepts deliverables or product of project.
Inputs Create WBS Organizational Process AssetsProject Scope StatementProject Scope Management PlanApproved change requests
Resource Planning inputs? (Cost Management)Inputs: (1)Work Breakdown Structure, (2)Historical Information, (3)Scope Statement, (4)Resource Pool Description, (5)Organizational Policies, (6)Activity Duration Estimates
_____________ involves using project characteristics in a mathematical
model.
A. Analogous estimating
B. Life­cycle costing
C. Parametric modeling
D. Bottom up estimating
Answer: C
Suppose the contingency allowance established to cover unforeseen activities of a project has been set at eight percent of the total project cost. The total dollars in the contingency allowance should be ________ as the project nears completion.
A. retain
Answer: E
. Contract administration change requests may include all of the following EXCEPT
A. Modifications to the terms of the contract
B. Termination of the contract if the seller's work is unsatisfactory
C. Modification to the description of the product or serv
Answer: D
When is integration performed?
A. Project planning
B. Project execution
C. At key interface points
D. At the end of each project management phase
ANS: C
Management styles affect the confidence level given a project manager by subordinates, peers, and superiors. When a project manager is judicial in his/her management style, s/he is ________ .
A. honest, sincere, able to motivate and to press for the best
Answer: E
Collocation can mean:
A. All, or almost all, team members are moved to a central physical location for the life of the project.
B. Active team members may be at different physical locations, but meet on a regular basis.
C. A war room is established where
D
_______________ ensures that project objectives are met by monitoring
and measuring progress and taking corrective action when necessary.
A. Project controls
B. Controlling process
C. Control logs
D. Project chart
Answer: B
Which relationship dependency is indicative of concurrency?
A. Start-to-start
B. Start-to-finish
C. Finish-to-start
D. Finish-to-finish
E. a and d
Answer: A
Outputs Cost budgeting Cost baseline
Project funding requirements
Cost management plan updates
Requested changes
Outputs Cost budgeting 4
Quality Processes - Executing Perform Quality Assurance
functional structure An organizational structure that groups staff members according to their experties. (Silo) Functional structures require the project team members to report directly to the funcational manager. In this type of structure, the project manager's authority and decision-making ability is less than the functional manager's.
'Project Risk Management' 'The process of identification
'Breadboarding' 'The creation of an experimental device to determine the feasibility of an idea
'EVMS' 'Earned Value Management System - (EVMS) A management system and related sub-systems implemented to establish a relationship between cost
analogous estimating uses parameters set from previous activity as a basis to estimate for same activity or measure future activity.
Benchmarking Is the process where an organization will compare its processes, products, performance against other organizations. These other organizations can be in the same or other industries
Outputs Create WBS Project Scope statement (updates)Work Breakdown structureWBS dictionaryScope baselineProject scope management plan updatesRequested changes
Scope Verification Inputs? Inputs: (1)Work Results, (2)Product Documentation, (3)Work Breakdown Structure(WBS), (4)Scope Statement, (5)Project Plan
Communication planning is a process for determining the information and communication needs of the
A. Stakeholders
B. Planners
C. Contractors
D. Customer
E. Team members
Answer: A
Some organizations today are using "six sigma", to set the upper and lower limits on control charts rather than the traditional sigmas, which are?
A. two
B. threes
C. four
D. five
E. twelve
Answer: B
As originally developed and employed, CPM and PERT could have only ________ start point(s) and ________ end point(s), but the current networks can have ________ start and end points.
A. two; one; up to six
B. one; two; up to six
C. one; one; four
D. one;
Answer: D
Contract type selection is dependent on the degree of risk or uncertainty facing the project manager. From the perspective of the buyer, the preferred contract type in a low-risk situation is
A. Firm-fixed-price
B. Fixed-price-incentive
C. Cost-sharing
D.
Answer: A
The presence of communication barriers is most likely to lead to
A. Reduced productivity
B. Increased hostility
C. Low morale
D. Increased conflict
E. Increased stress
Answer: D
Milestones are not
A. Activities of zero duration
B. Significant events in the project life cycle
C. Measures of achievement for expenditures of money or time
D. Set by project stakeholders
E. Best utilized when denoting start and finish of all activities
Answer: E
Quality attributes
A. Are used to determine how effectively the organization accomplishes its goals
B. Can be objective or subjective in nature
C. Are specific quality characteristics for which a product is designed, built, and tested
D. A and B
E. B and
Answer: E
Definitive contract terms are spelled out in the
A. Pre-award phase
B. Award phase
C. Post-award phase
D. Purchasing phase
E. Pre-award phase for fixed cost contracts, and Award phase for cost plus contracts
Answer: C
During closeout, many project managers tend to delay personnel reassignment because ­
a. The team members do not want to move on to new assignments
b. They believe that no one will want to leave the project
c. The functional managers do not want the t
Answer: d
The most common communication problem during negotiations is that
a. One side may try to confuse the other side
d. One side may be too busy thinking about what to say next to hear what is being said
c. Each side may misinterpret what the other side has
Answer: c
The ________ identifies the project elements that costs will be allocated to.
A. work breakdown structure
B. PERT estimates
C. earned value
D. order of magnitude estimate
E. BCWR
Answer: A
Inputs to Integrated Change Control include:
a. Project plan, performance reports and lessons learned
b. Project plan, project reports and change request
c. Product plan, performance reports and change request
d. Project plan, performance reports and
Answer: d
Product verification is different than scope verification in that product verification:
A. occurs during the execution phase.
B. verifies that the correct products have been used.
C. obtains customer sign-off.
D. makes sure all work is completed.
ANS: D
Inputs Cost Budgeting Project scope statement
Work breakdown structure
WBS dictionary
Activity cost estimate
Activity cost estimate supporting detail
Project schedule
Resource calendars
Contract
Cost management plan
Inputs Cost Budgeting 9
Time Management Processes - Schedule Development Project Schedule
Intergration Management Process Outputs - Develop Preliminary Scope Statement Preliminary Project Scope Statement
Human Resource Processes - Planning Human Resource Planning
'Project Matrix' 'An organization matrix that is project based in which the functional structures are duplicated in each project.'
'Requirements Traceability' 'The management of the parent/child relationships of all system requirements.'
'Backcharge' 'The cost of corrective action taken by the purchaser
'Intangible Capital' 'The market value of the knowledge
'ECC' 'Estimated Cost to Complete (ECC) - The remaining costs to be incurred to satisfy the complete scope of a project at a specific data date. The difference between the cost to date and the forecast final cost.'
Name the Planning Process for Communications Communications Management
Change Request request to expand or reduce the project scope, modify policies, processes, plans or procedures, modify costs or budgets, or revise schedules.
Reserve A provision in the project plan to mitigate cost and/or schedule risk. Often used with a modifier (e.g., management reserve, contingency reserve) to provide further detail on what types of risk are meant to be mitigated
An individual who manages a group of related projects is called a:a. Project managerb. Project expediterc. Functional managerd. Program coordinatore. Program manager E
A statistical technique that calculates the average outcome when the future is uncertain commonly used in decision tree analysis. Expected Monetary Value (EMV)

[Technique]
(Quantitative Risk Analysis)
The scope management provides:
A. A basis for future decisions about the project.
B. A baseline to accomplish verification measures.
C. A baseline to evaluate potential scope changes.
D. All of the above.
Answer: D
The pillar(s) of quality is (are)
A. Quality is free
B. Doing it right the first time
C. Zero defects
D. Process improvement
E. B and C
Answer: E
Which of the following BEST describes the project manager's role during project planning?
A. Creating a Gantt chart and getting management to approve it
B. Coordinate the creation of a document that can be used to guide the project
C. Making a list of tas
ANS: B
You have never managed a project before and are asked to plan a new project. It would be BEST in this situation to rely on _______ during planning to improve your chance of success?
A. your management skills
B. your previous training
C. historical records
ANS: C
A project manager has finished the project. He knows that all the scope has been completed and is within cost and time objectives set by the sponsor. The sponsor, however, says that the project is a failure, because the original schedule was for 27 weeks ANS: D
A project manager has just been assigned to a project that has been in progress for two months. A team member has requested more time on a task he is working on. The extra time needed will not delay the project, and the customer has emphasized the importa ANS: D
Quality assurance is defined as the managerial process that determines ________ that provide the customers with performance standards and feedback on the performance.
A. time, scope, cost, and resources
B. human resources, dollars, materials, and duration
Answer: D
Which process is not included in Project Time Management?
A. Activity definition
B. Activity sequencing
C. Schedule development & schedule control
D. Work breakdown structure (WBS)
Answer: D
Assigning resources is an attempt to find the shortest project schedule consistent with fixed resource limits is called __________________.
a. Resource Quantification.
b. Resource partitioning.
c. Resource leveling.
d. Resource-constrained scheduling.
e.
Answer: d
When the procurement item is available from only one supplier, all of the following evaluation criteria should be identified and documented to support an integrated assessment EXCEPT
A. Management approach
B. Financial capacity
C. Life cycle cost
D. Techn
Answer: E
The most accurate estimates (and the most expensive to produce) are _______.
A. analogous estimates
B. parametric estimates
C. top-down estimates
D. bottom-up estimates
E. function point estimates
Answer: D
In order to determine the project's Estimate at Completion, which of the following information is needed?
A. BCWP and ACWP
B. BCWP and CV
C. CPI and CV
D. ACWP and CPI
E. ACWP and ETC
Answer: E
Life cycle costing is a concept whereby all costs for a system are computed to determine the total cost of ownership. Life cycle cost categories include ________.
A. purchase, repair, and operation
B. development, procurement, and operation/maintenance
C.
Answer: B
. Projects have direct and indirect costs that the project manager must track to ensure the budget is not exceeded. The project manager has the most control over direct costs such as ________.
A. bonuses, fees, and awards
B. labor, materials, and equipmen
Answer: B
In the earned value system for determining project status, there are several methods of accepting credit for the completion of work. In the most common method, full credit is allowed after the work package is complete. A second method is to allow full cre Answer: D
. The output from resource planning includes
A. Job descriptions
B. Salary schedules
C. The types of resources required
D. Analogous estimating
E. Historical informaiton
Answer: C
Linear programming is an example of what type of project selection criteria?
a. Constrained optimization
b. Comparative approach
c. Benefit measurement
d. Impact analysis
Answer: a
To assess the implications of crashing a project, a project manager should first compute
A. Cost and time slope for each activity that can be expedited
B. Cost of additional resources to be added to the project
C. Time that will be saved in the overall sc
Answer: A
Your schedule analysis has shown that your project has a high likelihood of experiencing a schedule overrun. You know this because the BCWP is much
A. Higher than the ACWP
B. Lower than the ACWP
C. Higher than the BCWS
D. Lower than the BCWS
E. Higher tha
Answer: D
Which of the following statements best characterizes the quality management practice called benchmarking?
A. The ISO term for progress measurement
B. Comparing planned project practices to those of other projects.
C. A technique used to test certain types
Answer: B
Suppose the summary network for a major project has 500 activities. For a briefing requirement for senior management, the best method of displaying the progress on the project (schedule vs. calendar) is by using a ________.
A. bar chart of all activities
Answer: A
The critical path, by definition, is considered the longest track through the network. The computation of the critical path will determine that the network has ________ longest (time) path(s).
A. only one
B. one or more
C. always more than one
D. always m
Answer: B
SPI SPI = EV / PV

You are only progressing at ____ % of the rate originally planned.
(<1) is bad
(>1) is good
Project management The supervision and control of work required to complete the project vision.
Cost Budgeting Also known as Cost Baseline. Takes estimated project expenditures and maps them back to dates on the calendar. Used to plan cash flow and likely expenditures.
Project Selection Methods Benefit Cost Ratio
Internal Rate of Return
Net Present Value
Economic Value Add
Opportunity Cost
Return on Investment
Return on Invested Capital
Cost Management Processes - Cost Control Performance Measures
Forecasted Completion
Feasibility Studies To determine whether a product is viable and/or to determine the probability of succeeding
'Overrun' 'An increase in the time or cost compared to the plan. A reduced scope without a corresponding reduction in the time or cost would be considered an overrun.'
'Estimate Class B' 'An estimate based on completed preliminary design drawings. Upon acceptance
'Control Gate' 'A major project milestone at which the project sponsor has the opportunity at the end of one phase of exercising a ïgo/no-goÍ decision on the continuation of the project. into the succeeding phase. See also Executive Control Point.'
Projects v/s Operations Projects are temporary and unique while operations are ongoing and repetitive
fitness for use juran created.. does the product or service meet customer's need- is it fit for use?
Decision Tree Analysis A diagram that describes a decision under consideration and the implications of choosing one or another of the available alternatives. It incorporates probabilities or risks and the costs or rewards of each logical path of events and future decisions
Activity Duration Estimating Tools and Techniques? Tools and Techniques: (1)Expert Judgement, (2)Analogous Estimating, (3)Quantitatively Based Durations, (4)Reserve Time(contingency)
An advisor to a new project manager tells the project manager to create lessons learned at the end of a project. What does a lessons learned include?
A. Variances and their causes
B. Reports from the customer
C. Reports from management
D. All the plans us
ANS: A
Contracts may be written in any form that is understandable and enforceable, and often project personnel attempt to be "creative" in developing the document. Given a choice, it is best to ________ to meet the requirements of the project.
A. prep
Answer: C
. A project is being advertised to solicit bidders. The buyer has asked for two types of price first, if payment is made in total upon completion of the project; second, if payment is made 50 percent at the midpoint of completion and 50 percent upon total Answer: D
All of the following are needed to develop a project estimate EXCEPT?
A. Work breakdown structure
B. Network diagram
C. Risks
D. Change control procedure
ANS: D
During the course of your project, you notice that most of the changes occurring on the project come from the research department. What should the project manager do?
A. Assign a team member to work solely with the research department
B. Change your commu
ANS: D
The major disadvantages of a bar chart is that it:
a. Lacks time phasing
b. Cannot be related to calendar dates
c. Does not show activity interrelationships
d. Cannot be related to manpower planning
Answer: c
The computation of the duration of the network after all logic is completed and all time estimates are included in the schedule requires a forward and backward pass (computation). These two functions result in ________.
A. compressing any activities that
Answer: D
All of the following are important if the project manager is to effectively manage communications within the project team EXCEPT
A. Formalizing and controlling communication between team members
B. Promoting harmony and trust between team members
C. Ensur
Answer: A
The project charter for a project was approved for planning, and you have just been assigned as project manager. Realizing that planning is an ongoing effort throughout the project life-cycle, which core processes are you MOST likely to combine?
A. Scope
ANS: A
A project should be terminated for all of the following reasons except:
a. lack of team synergy necessary to achieve top quality.
b. the project no longer meets the company's objectives.
c. the resources are not available to complete project activities.
d
Answer: a
The BEST time to assign a project manager to a project is during:
A. execution.
B. closure.
C. initiation.
D. planning.
ANS: C
All of the following are part of administrative closure EXCEPT?
A. Collection of records
B. Analysis of project success and effectiveness
C. Coordinating the operation and maintenance phase of the project
D. Archiving project information
ANS: C
Define Progressive Elaboration Do not know all characteristics about a project when you begin a project
revisit and refine
product characterisist emerge over time
Preliminary Project Scope Statement Inputs Project Charter
Project Statement of Work
Ent. Env. Factors
Org. Proc. Assets
Quality Management Processes - Perform Quality Control Quality Control Measures
Validated Defect Repair
'Blanket Purchase Agreement' '(BPA) - A simplified method of filling anticipated repetitive needs for supplies or services by establishing charge accounts with qualified sources of supply.'
'Project Life Cycle' ' The four sequential major time periods through which any project passes
Define Project Integration Management One of the 9 project management knowledge areas: Focuses on creating the project charter, project scope statement, and project plan then monitoring and controlling the work once it is underway. Coordinates the activities and completeness of the other 8 knowledge areas.
Type of contract involving a fixed total price for a well defined product. Fixed-Price or Lump-Sum Contract
The process that may be used by an unsuccessful supplier to seek remedy for a non award of work is
A. Bid Protest
B. Stop Work Order
C. Back charge
D. Contract Dispute
Answer: A
You have a choice of accepting a fixed price contract for $115,000 with a
liquidated damages clause or $100,000 without the clause. There is a 60%
chance your cost will be $90,000 and a 40% chance your cost will be
$80,000. There is a 98% chance of mee
Answer: D
Which of the following is / are part of the criteria by which a company is evaluated for the Malcolm Baldrige award?
a. Business Results
b. Information analysis
c. Leadership and strategic planning.
d. All of the above.
Answer: d
Which are the best two charts to show trends in a process?
A. Pareto and Control
B. Control and Run
C. Histogram and Run
D. Gantt and Pert
E. Gantt and CPM
Answer: B
Which of the following is not part of scope planning?
A. Benefit/cost analysis
B. Identify alternatives
C. Product analysis
D. Inspection
ANS: D
What are the characteristics of a project? Time limited
Unique to orgnaization
Comprised of inter related activities
Has purpose and will yield product service or result
How does an organization's structure affect project management? Define the project objectives, determine the key tasks associated with each objective, establish the functional departments each task would fall inot within the parent organization, consider the individuals who will do the work and the customer who is bei
'Allowable Cost' 'A cost that meets the tests of: Reasonableness
Theory X and Y-Ouchi Theory X- dislike work and attempts to avoid it, Theory Y- wants it, likes it , needs it!
You take over a project that is in a lot of trouble. There are apparently problems with the team dynamics, scope, sponsors, and timeline. The project has a CPI of .75 and SPI of 1.2. The FIRST step you should take is to:
A. meet with the project sponsors.
ANS: B
Monitor & Control Project Work Looks at work performed and makes certain that the deliverables and the way that they are produced is in line with the plan.
Why do projects come about? (Needs and Demands; 7) Market Demand
Strategic Opp/Business Need
Customer request
Technological Advance
Legal Requirements
Ecological Impacts
Social Needs
What are the Outputs to Scope Definition (Planning Process) Project Scope Statement, Requested Changes, Project Scope Management Plan updates
Earned Value Formulas - Cumulative Cost Performance Index (CPIcum) The rate at which the project performance is meeting cost expectations from the beginning to a point in time. Used to forecast project costs at completion.
CPIcum=EVcum/ACcum
CPI=EV/AC
What are the Tools and Techniques to Activity Definition in Planning Decomposition, Templates, Rolling Wave Planning, Expert Judgement, Planning Component
What is the difference between product and project management? The goal of project product management is to manage a product life cycle from start to finish. Project Management -- is to satisfy the needs and expectations of a customer by using a distinct group of processes.
What is a key characteristic of project management? It requires a group of individuals who are dedicated to achieving the project goal
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