Complete List of Terms and Definitions for Energy Resources 2
|work||when something is moved|
|Nuclear||Energy released during fission.|
|Geothermal enrgy is considered a____________resource||renewable|
|Wind Energy||Energy produced by wind.|
|A new car battery||Potential Energy|
|Biomass Fuel||Disposed materials or renewable resources used to create energy or agricultural products|
The power created by heat.
|Geothermal Energy||Energy from within the Earth.|
|kerogen||Solid, waxy mixture of hydrocarbons found in oil shale rock. Sig: Heating the rock to high temperatures causes the kerogen to vaporize. Then, the vapor is condensed, purified, and then sent to a refinery to produce gasoline, heating oil, and other products.|
|lode||deposit formed by thick mineral veins|
|generator||a device that trasforms kinetic energy into electrical energy|
|Anthracite||form of coal with the highest percentage of carbon|
|Gasohol||adding the aolcohal to gasoline forms a mixture called|
|Petroleum||A resource that supplies us with gasoline, kerosene, plastics and wax as well as petrochemicals.|
|During any energy conversion, what form of energy is always generated?||thermal energy|
define: Initial cost plus lifetime operating costs of an economic good
sig: It includes purchase price, installation cost, operating costs, maintenance and upgrade costs, and remaining (residual or salvage) value at the end of ownership or its useful life
|undiscovered resources||potential supplies assumed to exist but not identified. sig: it is just a theory|
|fossil fuel||a nonrenewable resource that formed from the remains of living organisms that lived long ago.|
|peat||a brownish black material formed from the partial decomposition of plant remains|
|non-renewable resouces||a natrual resource that cannot be remade, regrown or regenerated on a scale comparative to its consumption.|
|Solar Power||The use of sunlight to generate electricity|
|Decomposing plant matter||when swamp plants die their decomposing remains build up|
|hydroelectric power||is energy from falling water or running water and it generates usable electricity.|
|Non-renewable resource||materials found in nature that CANNOT be renewed or replaced within a reasonable passage of time|
|Natural Gas||a fossil fuel in the gaseous state|
|kerogen (2)||A solid organic material which yields petroleum-type hydrocarbons on heating and distillation.|
When stressed parts of the earth fracture or shift (producing a fault) energy is released in a shock wave across the surface.
SIG: human activities, such as the creation of dams, nuclear testing, and deep well disposal have increased earthquake frequency.
|subsurface mining||The extraction of mineral and energy resources from deep underground deposits. sig: used when ore is too deep for surface mining|
|Hydrogen Fuel||Hydrogen gas or the chemical mixture of hydrogen and oxygen used to produce electricity.|
|Disadvantages of nuclear||
expensive to build nuclear power plant;
|potential energy||the energy that an object has because of the position, shape, or condition of the object|
|Nuclear Energy||Which of the following is NOT a renewable resource.|
|Area Strip Mining||
Used when the terrain is relatively flat. After the overburden is removed, a power shovel digs a cut to remove the mineral, then the cut is filled again with the overburden.
SIG: This type of mining leaves spoil banks (wavy, erodible hills of rubble)
|What is the ultimate source of energy that is responsible for most of the energy rsources on Earth?||the Sun.|
|nonrenewable resource||energy source that iis used up faster than it can be replaced|
|convergent plate boundary (2)||In plate tectonics, a convergent boundary also known as a destructive plate boundary (because of subduction), is an actively deforming region where two (or more) tectonic plates or fragments of lithosphere move toward one another and collide.|
|Identified Resources (2)||
Deposits of a mineral resource that have a known location, quantity, and quality- or are estimated through direct evidence.
EX: Most of the planets Oil reserves.
|Kinetic Energy||Objects with this kind of energy can do work|
|What is energy efficiency?||A measure of energy produced compared to energy consumed; the percentage of energy need to produce work.|
|mechanical energy||the amount of work an object can do because of the object's kinetic and potential energies|
|Trans fat||adds H atoms to the opposite sides of C=C bond (raises "bad" cholesterol level in blood)|
The time it takes to use a certain fraction, usually 80%, of the known or estimated supply of a nonrenewable resource at an assumed rate of use. Finding and extracting the remaining 20% usually costs more than it is worth.
Sig. Depletion time means the resource is non-renewable -- red flag -- should be a symbol to find a replenish-able source
|chemical energy||you eat a burger. what type of energy are you consuming.|
|How efficient are PV cells?||they could be 31% efficient, but reflectance and heat creation sap eff., so they're 15% eff.|
|Name three ways to increase the energy efficiency of a building.||Energy star appliances, compact florescent light bulbs, replacing old appliances|
|What unit measures both work and energy?||Joule which is named after James Prescott Joule.|
|How does doping enable the PV cell to work?||Valence electron imbalance (As has an extra and Ga has one less) increases conducivitiy less energy is needed to get electrons moving|
|petrochemical||chemical derived from petroleum|
|magma||melted rock inside the Earth|
|Energy||The capacity to do work|
|Hydroelectric Energy||Energy produced by falling water.|
|Biomass||Organic waste produces methane which is burned as a gas|
|A hammer hitting a nail||Kinetic Energy|
|Fossil Fuels||Combustible materials such as oil, coal, and natural gas that are composed of the remains of formerly living material|
|meltdown||dangerous condition in which fuel rods inside a nuclear melt|
|Conservation||Conserving energy to lessen the amount of resources used.|
|renewable resource||energy resource that is replenished continually|
define: Removing soil, subsoil, and other strata and then extracting a mineral deposit found fairly close to the earth's surface
sig: The mining process using equipment and explosives move the overburden laterally to the adjacent empty pit where the mineral has been extracted which hurt the areas around the mine
|Friction||A force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact|
|why must energy conversions occur?||to get work done|
|Hydropower||the use of kinetic energy in moving water such as rivers or tidal currents to generate electricity|
|Petroleum and natural gas are examples of_________||fossil fuels|
|solar collector/solar cell||
Solar cells: Devices that convert sunlight into electric energy
Solar collectors: panels that trap and collect sunlight to heat water or heat entire homes.
|oil reserves||oil deposits that can be extracted profitably at current prices using current technology|
|energy resource||a natural resource that can be converted by humans into other forms of energy in order to do useful work.|
|superinsulated house (3)||Superinsulation is an approach to building design, construction, and retrofitting that dramatically reduces heat loss (and gain) by using much higher levels of insulation and airtightness than normal. A superinsulated house is intended to reduce heating needs very significantly and may even be heated predominantly by intrinsic heat sources (waste heat generated by appliances and the body heat of the occupants) with very small amounts of backup heat.|
The downward movement of large rock masses not related to slope.
EX: When humans remove groundwater or oil, parts of overground formations (Houston, Texas) to subside. When magma withdraws underground, volcanic regions can collapse.
|solar||Energy from the sun is captured and used as energy.|
|Propane||Most of our source is seperated from natural gas in a refinery.|
|Advantages of Hydro power||renewable; free source; no pollution|
|solar energy||the energy received by Earth fromt the sun in the form of radiation.|
|Reactor vessel||the part of the nuclear reactor where nuclear fission occurs|
|Undiscovered Resources (2)||
Supplies of a resource that are believed to exist through geological knowledge and theory.
EX: Some coal supplies, geothermal supplies, some natural gas supplies.
|natural resource||any natural material that is used by humans such as water, petroleum, minerals, etc.|
|transform fault (3)||A geological fault (a form of strike-slip fault) found in mid-ocean ridges in which displacement undergoes a sudden change in direction.|
A type of surface mining in which machinery (bulldozers, power shovels, or stripping wheels) remove the overburden in strips.
SIG: Used mainly for coal and phosphate rock.
|High Level Waste||usually has high level of radio activity|
|electricity generation||when one type of energy is transformed into electrical energy|
|How would do you convert watts to kilowatts?||Divide by 1000|
|What's the difference b/w rechargeable and disposable batteries?||Rechargeable batteries are more structured so that they are able to reverse the process with energy from the charger; the postive material is oxidized and the negative material is reduced|
|Oil Sand (2)||
Also called tar sand. A mixture of clay, sand, water, and bitumen.
SIG: A way to get crude oil. However, deposits do not exist in U.S.
|Conventional Forms of Energy||Coal - plant material from ancient swamps & wetlands. Nuclear - controlled decay of 235U produces heat=stream. Geothermal - water brought in contact w/ heated rocks = steam|
|acid precipitation||is rain or snow that has a high acid content due to air pollutions|
|Law of Conservation of energy||the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed|
|What makes an amino acid an amino acid?||They share a common structural pattern: acarboxtlic acid (-COOH), an amine (-NH2), a hydrogen atom (-H), and a side chain that differs from one another (R) around a carbon (C) atom|
|How do we get energy from geothermal energy||magma heats the water in a power plant|
|radiant energy||light energy|
define: Prokaryotic, one-celled organisms
sig: Bacteria are vital in recycling nutrients, with many steps in nutrient cycles depending on these organisms, such as the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere and putrefaction
|electrical energy||energy of moving electrons|
|Define conductors and examples of||metals, glass|
|Cathode||An electron sink, where reduction takes place|
|Micro-power Systems (3)||
Using 'micro-turbine' technology, micro-power is a system of portable electric generation. It is currently in the research stage.
EX: Portable electronic devices that charge during movement.
|sound energy||energy caused by an objects vibations|
|Gemstone||a mineral, rock, or organic material that can be used as jewelry or an ornament when it is cut and polished|
|Fossil||This kind of fuel includes natural gas, petroleum, and coal|
When material (usually rock) is loosened and eroded. Can be chemical or mechanical.
EX: mechanical- large rock mass broken into smaller fragments by water collecting in the pores of rocks and expanding upon freezing. chemical- rock material is decomposed by oxygen, CO2, and moisture.
|biomass energy||renewable energy derived from burning organic materials such as wood and alcohol|
define: Rock produced when a preexisting rock is subjected to high temperatures (which may cause it to melt partially), high pressures, chemically active fluids, or a combination of these agents
examples: Gneiss, slate, marble, schist, and quartzite
|Light Energy||Energy produced by the vibrations of electrically charged particles|
|Minerals (3000 different kinds)||Nonrenewable because they take millions of years to form|
This is a solid fossil fuel formed from plant remains.
Decomposing plant matter --> Peat --> Coal
Process in which a desired metal is separated from the other elements in an ore mineral.
Sig. Separates rock into desired and waste parts
Sig. The amount of desired material determines the commercial value
|Nuclear Fission||The splitting of an atom's nucleus into two smaller nuclei and neutrons.|
|First Law of Thermodynamics||The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.|
|Renewable Energy||Any source of energy that can be continually produced and is inexhaustible given current conditions.|
|thermal energy||All of the kinetic energy due to random motion of particles that make up an object. (Faster the particles move and more # of particles --> the greater kinetic energy and object's temperature)|
|Photovolatic (PV) cell||create radiant energy (from the sun) directly into electrical energy|
|Disadvantages of Solar||sun not always out; inefficient; hard to store|
|depletion time (1)||Time indicating how long it would take the watershed or the groundwater system to dry out if surface runoff or groundwater replenishment (recharge) were stopped from an instant onward, and if outflow was maintained at the rate it had at that instant.|
|Tidal Energy||The current from a river or a sea passes through a set of tunnels wit turbines that turn a generator etc. Predictable, always there, but expensive and could destroy habitats|
|chemical energy, potential energy||The energy of a compound that changes as its atoms are rearranged. (Form of _____, because it depends on position and arrangement of atoms in a compound.)|
|Describe how coal forms and how carbon effects its burning ability|| <Classification based on the carbon content. 4Peat 50% C 4Lignite 70% C 4Bituminous 85% C Anthracite 95% C Anthracite forms by metamorphism in an orogenic belt.Higher-rank coal yields more energy when burned|
|Explain why countries should not be dependant on fossil fuels||Give at least 2 reasons, give details. Think: Takes millions of years to form, using it faster than its formed, U.S. has limited/low supplies, as supply decreases - prices increase|